Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8529 journals)
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    - CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (332 journals)
    - CHIROPRACTIC, HOMEOPATHY, OSTEOPATHY (21 journals)
    - COMMUNICABLE DISEASES, EPIDEMIOLOGY (231 journals)
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    - INTERNAL MEDICINE (167 journals)
    - LABORATORY AND EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE (99 journals)
    - MEDICAL GENETICS (58 journals)
    - MEDICAL SCIENCES (2342 journals)
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    - SURGERY (401 journals)
    - UROLOGY, NEPHROLOGY AND ANDROLOGY (153 journals)

MEDICAL SCIENCES (2342 journals)            First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Showing 1201 - 1400 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Health Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science and Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of health sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences / Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Surveillance System     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences Scholarship     Open Access  
Journal of Health Specialties     Open Access  
Journal of Health Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Healthcare Informatics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Helminthology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Herbs Spices & Medicinal Plants     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of HIV for Clinical and Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Hospital Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Human Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Human Rhythm     Open Access  
Journal of Human Transcriptome     Open Access  
Journal of Ideas in Health     Open Access  
Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inflammation Research     Open Access  
Journal of Injury and Violence Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Institute of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Insulin Resistance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Interactional Research in Communication Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of International Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Interventional Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Investigative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Islamabad Medical & Dental College     Open Access  
Journal of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Karnali Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Kathmandu Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of King Abdulaziz University : Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Laryngology and Voice     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Limb Lengthening & Reconstruction     Open Access  
Journal of Lumbini Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Materials Science : Materials in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Maternal and Child Health     Open Access  
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Cases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Colleges of PLA     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Medical Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Ethics     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ideas     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Investigation and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Laboratory and Diagnosis     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Law and Ethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Medical Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medicinal Botany     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 197)
Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Medicine and the Person     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medicine in Scientific Research     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine in the Tropics     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine Research and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medicines Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Metabolomics & Systems Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Movement Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Natural Medicines     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nature and Science of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Journal of Nepalgunj Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Neurocritical Care     Open Access  
Journal of Neurodegenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Neurorestoratology     Open Access  
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Nobel Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Obesity and Bariatrics     Open Access  
Journal of Occupational Health     Open Access  
Journal of Occupational Therapy Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Ocular Biology, Diseases, and Informatics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Oral Health and Craniofacial Science     Open Access  
Journal of Orofacial Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, Hearing and Balance Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ovarian Research     Open Access  
Journal of Ozone Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Journal of Paramedical Sciences & Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Journal of Parkinsonism and Restless Legs Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parkinson’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease     Open Access  
Journal of Participatory Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Patan Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Pathogens     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Patient Experience     Open Access  
Journal of Patient Safety and Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Patient-Reported Outcomes     Open Access  
Journal of Periodontal Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physiobiochemical Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physiology-Paris     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pioneering Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Pregnancy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Prevention & Intervention Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health     Open Access  
Journal of Primary Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Prosthodontic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Prosthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Receptor, Ligand and Channel Research     Open Access  
Journal of Regenerative Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Scientific Innovation in Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Scientific Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Arthroplasty     Open Access  
Journal of Sleep Disorders : Treatment & Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of South American Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences : Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stem Cell Therapy and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stomal Therapy Australia     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Journal of Substance Use     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Surgical Academia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Surgical and Clinical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report     Open Access  
Journal of Systemic Therapies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of The Academy of Clinical Microbiologists     Open Access  
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the American College of Certified Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American College of Clinical Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Anatomical Society of India     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Anus, Rectum and Colon     Open Access  
Journal of The Arab Society for Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Australasian Society of Aerospace Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Ceylon College of Physicians     Open Access  
Journal of the Chinese Medical Association     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the College of Community Physicians of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of The Egyptian Public Health Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Ghana Science Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the Grodno State Medical University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of the International Society for Telemedicine and eHealth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the Learning Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of the Medical Library Association     Open Access   (Followers: 284)
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the National Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Ruhunu Clinical Society     Open Access  
Journal of the Scientific Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Siena Academy of Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound     Open Access  
Journal of Thyroid Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Materials Science : Materials in Medicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.647
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0957-4530 - ISSN (Online) 1573-4838
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Optimising micro-hydroxyapatite reinforced poly(lactide acid) electrospun
           scaffolds for bone tissue engineering
    • Abstract: HA-mineralised composite electrospun scaffolds have been introduced for bone regeneration due to their ability to mimic both morphological features and chemical composition of natural bone ECM. Micro-sized HA is generally avoided in electrospinning due to its reduced bioactivity compared to nano-sized HA due to the lower surface area. However, the high surface area of nanoparticles provides a very high surface energy, leading to agglomeration. Thus, the probability of nanoparticles clumping leading to premature mechanical failure is higher than for microparticles at higher filler content. In this study, two micron-sized hydroxyapatites were investigated for electrospinning with PLA at various contents, namely spray dried HA (HA1) and sintered HA (HA2) particles to examine the effect of polymer concentration, filler type and filler concentration on the morphology of the scaffolds, in addition to the mechanical properties and bioactivity. SEM results showed that fibre diameter and surface roughness of 15 and 20 wt% PLA fibres were significantly affected by incorporation of either HA. The apatite precipitation rates for HA1 and HA2-filled scaffolds immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) were similar, however, it was affected by the fibre diameter and the presence of HA particles on the fibre surface. Degradation rates of HA2-filled scaffolds in vitro over 14 days was lower than for HA1-filled scaffolds due to enhanced dispersion of HA2 within PLA matrix and reduced cavities in PLA/HA2 interface. Finally, increasing filler surface area led to enhanced thermal stability as it reduced thermal degradation of the polymer.
      PubDate: 2020-04-06
       
  • Bioactive borate glass triggers phenotypic changes in adipose stem cells
    • Abstract: A bioactive borate glass, 13-93B3 (B3), has been used successfully in the clinic to treat chronic, nonhealing wounds without scarring. However, the mechanism by which B3 stimulates wound healing is poorly understood. Because adipose stem cells (ASCs) have been shown to have multiple roles in wound repair, we hypothesized that B3 triggers ASCs. In this study, we evaluate the effects of B3 on ASC survival, migration, differentiation, and protein secretion in vitro. In concentrations ≤10 mg/ml, B3 did not affect ASC viability under static conditions. B3 promoted the migration of ASCs but did not increase differentiation into bone or fat. B3 also decreased ASCs secretion of collagen I, PAI-1, MCP-1, DR6, DKK-1, angiogenin, IL-1, IGFBP-6, VEGF, and TIMP-2; increased expression of IL-1R and E-selectin; had a transient decrease in IL-6 secretion; and had a transient increase in bFGF secretion. Together, these results show that B3 alters the protein secretion of ASCs.
      PubDate: 2020-03-23
       
  • A comparative in vitro study of the effect of biospecific integrin
           recognition processes and substrate nanostructure on stem cell 3D spheroid
           formation
    • Abstract: The in vitro study of the properties of the human mesenchymal stem cells as well as their manipulation in culture for clinical purposes depends on the elimination of artefacts caused by the lack of their natural environment. It is now widely accepted that mesenchymal stem cells should be studied when they are organised as 3D spheroids rather than fibroblast-like colonies. Although this can be achieved with the use of some extracellular matrix proteins or by non-adherent conditions these suffer of significant limitations. The recent development of synthetic substrates resembling the physicochemical and biochemical properties of the adult stem cell niche has prompted questions about the role played by nanotopography and receptor-mediated adhesion. In the present paper, the influence of two types of substrates bearing the same nanostructure, but exposing either a non-specific or an integrin-specific binding motif was studied. Carboxybetaine-tethered hyperbranched poly(ɛ-lysine) dendrons showed that the hyperbranched structure was fundamental to induce spheroid formation, but these were forming more slowly, were of reduced size and less stable than those growing on substrates based on the same hyperbranched structures that had been functionalised at their uppermost branching generation by a laminin amino acid sequence, i.e. YIGSR. The study shows that both nanostructure and biorecognition need to be combined to achieve a substrate for stem cell spheroid formation as that observed in vivo in the adult stem cell niche.
      PubDate: 2020-03-23
       
  • Bioprinting predifferentiated adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell
           spheroids with methacrylated gelatin ink for adipose tissue engineering
    • Abstract: The increasing number of mastectomies results in a greater demand for breast reconstruction characterized by simplicity and a low complication profile. Reconstructive surgeons are investigating tissue engineering (TE) strategies to overcome the current surgical drawbacks. 3D bioprinting is the rising technique for the fabrication of large tissue constructs which provides a potential solution for unmet clinical needs in breast reconstruction building on decades of experience in autologous fat grafting, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ASC) biology and TE. A scaffold was bioprinted using encapsulated ASC spheroids in methacrylated gelatin ink (GelMA). Uniform ASC spheroids with an ideal geometry and diameter for bioprinting were formed, using a high-throughput non-adhesive agarose microwell system. ASC spheroids in adipogenic differentiation medium (ADM) were evaluated through live/dead staining, histology (HE, Oil Red O), TEM and RT-qPCR. Viable spheroids were obtained for up to 14 days post-printing and showed multilocular microvacuoles and successful differentiation toward mature adipocytes shown by gene expression analysis. Moreover, spheroids were able to assemble at random in GelMA, creating a macrotissue. Combining the advantage of microtissues to self-assemble and the controlled organization by bioprinting technologies, these ASC spheroids can be useful as building blocks for the engineering of soft tissue implants.
      PubDate: 2020-03-23
       
  • Custom tissue engineered aneurysm models with varying neck size and height
           for early stage in vitro testing of flow diverters
    • Abstract: Endovascular techniques for treating cerebral aneurysms are rapidly advancing and require testing to optimize device configurations. The purpose of this work was to customize tissue-engineered aneurysm “blood vessel mimics” (aBVMs) for early stage in vitro assessment of vascular cell responses to flow diverters and other devices. Aneurysm scaffolds with varying neck size and height were created through solid modeling, mold fabrication, mandrel creation, and electrospinning. Scaffold dimensions and fiber morphology were characterized. aBVMs were created by depositing human smooth muscle and endothelial cells within scaffolds, and cultivating within perfusion bioreactors. These vessels were left untreated or used for flow diverter implantation. Cellular responses to flow diverters were evaluated at 3 days. Custom scaffolds were created with aneurysm neck diameters of 2.3, 3.5, and 5.5 mm and with aneurysm heights of 2, 5, and 8 mm. A set of scaffolds with varying neck size was used for aBVM creation, and dual-sodding of endothelial and smooth muscle cells resulted in consistent and confluent cellular linings. Flow diverters were successfully implanted in a subset of aBVMs, and initial cell coverage over devices was seen in the parent vessel at 3 days. Direct visualization of the device over the neck region was feasible, supporting the future use of these models for evaluating and comparing flow diverter healing. Tissue-engineered aneurysm models can be created with custom neck sizes and heights, and used to evaluate cellular responses to flow diverters and other endovascular devices.
      PubDate: 2020-03-14
       
  • Alginate films augmented with chlorhexidine hexametaphosphate particles
           provide sustained antimicrobial properties for application in wound care
    • Abstract: All chronic wounds are colonised by bacteria; for some, colonisation progresses to become infection. Alginate wound dressings are used for highly exuding chronic wounds as they are very absorbent, taking up large quantities of exudate while maintaining a moist wound bed to support healing. Some alginate dressings are doped with antimicrobials, most commonly silver, but evidence regarding the efficacy of these is largely inconclusive. This manuscript describes the development and in vitro assessment of alginate materials doped with chlorhexidine hexametaphosphate (CHX-HMP), a sparingly soluble salt which when exposed to aqueous environments provides sustained release of the common antiseptic chlorhexidine. Comparator materials were a commercial silver alginate dressing material and an alginate doped with chlorhexidine digluconate (CHXdg). CHX-HMP alginates provided a dose-dependent CHX release which was sustained for over 14 days, whereas CHXdg alginates released limited CHX and this ceased within 24 h. CHX-HMP and silver alginates were efficacious against 5 major wound pathogens (MRSA, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii) in a total viable count (TVC) and an agar diffusion zone of inhibition (ZOI) model. At baseline the silver alginate was more effective than the CHX-HMP alginate in the TVC assay but the CHX-HMP alginate was the more effective in the ZOI assay. After 7 days’ artificial aging the CHX-HMP alginate was more effective than the silver alginate for four of the five bacteria tested in both assays. These materials may ultimately find application in the development of wound dressings for chronic wounds that provide sustained antimicrobial protection.
      PubDate: 2020-03-11
       
  • Cell-laden alginate dialdehyde–gelatin hydrogels formed in 3D
           printed sacrificial gel
    • Abstract: Alginate dialdehyde–gelatin (ADA–GEL) hydrogels have been reported to be suitable matrices for cell encapsulation. In general, application of ADA–GEL as bioink has been limited to planar structures due to its low viscosity. In this work, ring shaped constructs of ADA–GEL hydrogel were fabricated by casting the hydrogel into sacrificial molds which were 3D printed from 9% methylcellulose and 5% gelatin. Dissolution of the supporting structure was observed during the 1st week of sample incubation. In addition, the effect of different crosslinkers (Ba2+ and Ca2+) on the physicochemical properties of ADA–GEL and on the behavior of encapsulated MG-63 cells was investigated. It was found that Ba2+ crosslinked network had more than twice higher storage modulus, and mass decrease to 70% during incubation compared to 42% in case of hydrogels crosslinked with Ca2+. In addition, faster increase in cell viability during incubation and earlier cell network formation were observed after Ba2+ crosslinking. No negative effects on cell activity due to the use of sacrificial materials were observed. The approach presented here could be further developed for cell-laden ADA–GEL bioink printing into complex 3D structures.
      PubDate: 2020-03-09
       
  • Peptide mass mapping in bioapatites isolated from animal bones
    • Abstract: Bioapatite ceramics produced from biogenic sources provide highly attractive materials for the preparation of artificial replacements since such materials are not only more easily accepted by living organisms, but bioapatite isolated from biowaste such as xenogeneous bones also provides a low-cost material. Nevertheless, the presence of organic compounds in the bioapatite may lead to a deterioration in its quality and may trigger an undesirable immune response. Therefore, procedures which ensure the elimination of organic compounds through bioapatite isolation are being subjected to intense investigation and the presence of remaining organic impurities is being determined through the application of various methods. Since current conclusions concerning the conditions suitable for the elimination of organic compounds remain ambiguous, we used the mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach in order to determine the presence of proteins or peptides in bioapatite samples treated under the most frequently employed conditions, i.e., the alkaline hydrothermal process and calcination at 500 °C. Since we also investigated the presence of proteins or peptides in treated bioapatite particles of differing sizes, we discovered that both calcination and the size of the bioapatite particles constitute the main factors influencing the presence of proteins or peptides in bioapatite. In fact, while intact proteins were detected even in calcinated bioapatite consisting of particles >250 µm, no proteins were detected in the same material consisting of particles <40 µm. Therefore, we recommend the use of powdered bioapatite for the preparation of artificial replacements since it is more effectively purified than apatite in the form of blocks. In addition, we observed that while alkaline hydrothermal treatment leads to the non-specific cleavage of proteins, it does not ensure the full degradation thereof.
      PubDate: 2020-03-09
       
  • Correction to: The use of clays for chlorhexidine controlled release as a
           new perspective for longer durability of dentin adhesion
    • Abstract: An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
      PubDate: 2020-03-05
       
  • Effect of nanoscale bioactive glass with radial spherical particles on
           osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells
    • Abstract: To validate the feasibility of two types of bioactive glass that contains spherical and radical spherical nano-sized particles in promoting bone repair, we hypothesize that radical spherical nano-sized particles have higher bone repair effectiveness than spherical one due to the physicochemical properties. We rigorously compared the physicochemical properties and bioactivities of these two types of bioactive glass. Specifically, we measured the size, surface morphology, concentration of ionic-dissolution products, bioactivity, and biological effects of two groups of bioactive glass on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) and evaluate their effect on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs in vitro. We observed that spherical nano-bioactive glass (SNBG) was spherical with smooth boundary, while the radial spherical nano-bioactive glass (RSNBG) had radial pore on the surface of particle boundary. When the two materials were immersed in simulated body fluid for 24 h, RSNBG produced more and denser hydroxyapatite carbonate than SNBG. The concentration of Ca and Si ions in RSNBG 24 h extract is higher than that of SNBG, while the concentration of P ions is lower. Proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, intracellular Ca ion concentrations defined as the number of mineralized nodules produced, and the expression of osteogenic genes were significantly higher in rBMSCs co-cultured with 50 µg/mL RSNBG than SNBG. Overall, these results validated our hypothesis that RSNBG can provide better benefit than SNBG for inducing proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in rBMSCs, in turn suggested the feasibility of this RSNBG in further studies and utilization toward the ends of improved bone repair effectiveness.
      PubDate: 2020-03-05
       
  • Hair keratin promotes wound healing in rats with combined radiation-wound
           injury
    • Abstract: Keratins derived from human hair have been suggested to be particularly effective in general surgical wound healing. However, the healing of a combined radiation-wound injury is a multifaceted regenerative process. Here, hydrogels fabricated with human hair keratins were used to test the wound healing effects on rats suffering from combined radiation-wound injuries. Briefly, the keratin extracts were verified by dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and amino acid analysis, and the keratin hydrogels were then characterized by morphological observation, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis and rheology analyses. The results of the cell viability assay indicated that the keratin hydrogels could enhance cell growth after radiation exposure. Furthermore, keratin hydrogels could accelerate wound repair and improve the survival rate in vivo. The results demonstrate that keratin hydrogels possess a strong ability to accelerate the repair of a combined radiation-wound injury, which opens up new tissue regeneration applications for keratins.
      PubDate: 2020-03-03
       
  • Scaffolds and coatings for bone regeneration
    • Abstract: Bone tissue has an astonishing self-healing capacity yet only for non-critical size defects (<6 mm) and clinical intervention is needed for critical-size defects and beyond that along with non-union bone fractures and bone defects larger than critical size represent a major healthcare problem. Autografts are, still, being used as preferred to treat large bone defects. Mostly, due to the presence of living differentiated and progenitor cells, its osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties that allow osteogenesis, vascularization, and provide structural support. Bone tissue engineering strategies have been proposed to overcome the limited supply of grafts. Complete and successful bone regeneration can be influenced by several factors namely: the age of the patient, health, gender and is expected that the ideal scaffold for bone regeneration combines factors such as bioactivity and osteoinductivity. The commercially available products have as their main function the replacement of bone. Moreover, scaffolds still present limitations including poor osteointegration and limited vascularization. The introduction of pores in scaffolds are being used to promote the osteointegration as it allows cell and vessel infiltration. Moreover, combinations with growth factors or coatings have been explored as they can improve the osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties of the scaffold. This review focuses on the bone defects treatments and on the research of scaffolds for bone regeneration. Moreover, it summarizes the latest progress in the development of coatings used in bone tissue engineering. Despite the interesting advances which include the development of hybrid scaffolds, there are still important challenges that need to be addressed in order to fasten translation of scaffolds into the clinical scenario. Finally, we must reflect on the main challenges for bone tissue regeneration. There is a need to achieve a proper mechanical properties to bear the load of movements; have a scaffolds with a structure that fit the bone anatomy.
      PubDate: 2020-03-02
       
  • In vitro cell delivery by gelatin microspheres prepared in water-in-oil
           emulsion
    • Abstract: The regeneration of injured or damaged tissues by cell delivery approaches requires the fabrication of cell carriers (e.g., microspheres, MS) that allow for cell delivery to limit cells spreading from the injection site. Ideal MS for cell delivery should allow for cells adhesion and proliferation on the MS before the injection, while they should allow for viable cells release after the injection to promote the damaged tissue regeneration. We optimized a water-in-oil emulsion method to obtain gelatin MS crosslinked by methylenebisacrylamide (MBA). The method we propose allowed obtaining spherical, chemically crosslinked MS characterized by a percentage crosslinking degree of 74.5 ± 2.1%. The chemically crosslinked gelatin MS are characterized by a diameter of 70.9 ± 17.2 μm in the dry state and, at swelling plateau in culture medium at 37 °C, by a diameter of 169.3 ± 41.3 μm. The MS show dimensional stability up to 28 days, after which they undergo complete degradation. Moreover, during their degradation, MS release gelatin that can improve the engraftment of cells in the injured site. The produced MS did not induce any cytotoxic effect in vitro and they supported viable L929 fibroblasts adhesion and proliferation. The MS released viable cells able to colonize and proliferate on the tissue culture plastic, used as release substrate, potentially proving their ability in supporting a simplified in vitro wound healing process, thus representing an optimal tool for cell delivery applications.
      PubDate: 2020-02-14
       
  • Long lasting mucoadhesive membrane based on alginate and chitosan for
           intravaginal drug delivery
    • Abstract: The intravaginal route of administration can be exploited to treat local diseases and for systemic delivery. In this work, we developed an alginate/chitosan membrane sufficiently stable in a simulated vaginal fluid and able to dissolve over time at a very slow and linear rate. The membrane demonstrated good mechanical properties both in its swollen and dry form. As a study case, we evaluated the viability of this potential drug delivery system for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis, a common disease affecting women in their reproductive age. Metronidazole was effectively included in the alginate/chitosan membrane and its bactericide effect was demonstrated against Staphylococcus aureus and Gardnerella vaginalis, simultaneously showing good biocompatibility with a cervix epithelial cell line. Since this alginate/chitosan membrane is stable in a simulated vaginal environment, is easy to fabricate and can be used for the controlled release of a model drug, it represents a promising drug delivery system for local intravaginal applications.
      PubDate: 2020-02-14
       
  • In vivo safety assessment of a bio-inspired bone adhesive
    • Abstract: A new class of materials, bone adhesives, could revolutionise the treatment of highly fragmented fractures. We present the first biological safety investigation of a bio-inspired bone adhesive. The formulation was based upon a modified calcium phosphate cement that included the amino acid phosphoserine. This material has recently been described as substantially stronger than other bioresorbable calcium phosphate cements. Four adhesive groups with the active substance (phosphoserine) and two control groups without phosphoserine were selected for in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility testing. The test groups were subject for cell viability assay and subcutaneous implantation in rats that was followed by gene expression analysis and histology assessment after 6 and 12 weeks. All adhesive groups supported the same rate of cell proliferation compared to the α-TCP control and had viability between 45–64% when compared to cell control. There was no evidence of an increased immune response or ectopic bone formation in vivo. To conclude, this bio-inspired bone adhesive has been proven to be safe, in the present study, without any harmful effects on the surrounding soft tissue.
      PubDate: 2020-02-08
       
  • Size matters—in vitro behaviour of human fibroblasts on textured
           silicone surfaces with different pore sizes
    • Abstract: Capsular contracture remains a challenge in plastic surgery and represents one of the most common postoperative complications following alloplastic breast reconstruction. The impact of the surface structure of silicone implants on the foreign body reaction and the behaviour of connective tissue-producing cells has already been discussed. The aim of this study was to investigate different pore sizes of silicone surfaces and their influence on human fibroblasts in an in vitro model. Four different textures (no, fine, medium and coarse texture) produced with the salt-loss technique, have been assessed in an in vitro model. Human fibroblasts were seeded onto silicone sheets and evaluated after 1, 4 and 7 days microscopically, with viability assay and gene expression analysis. Comparing the growth behaviour and adhesion of the fibroblasts on the four different textures, a dense cell layer, good adhesion and bridge-building ability of the cells could be observed for the fine and medium texture. Cell number and viability of the cells were increasing during the time course of experiments on every texture. TGFß1 was lowest expressed on the fine and medium texture indicating a trend for decreased fibrotic activity. For silicone surfaces produced with the salt-loss technique, we were able to show an antifibrotic effect of smaller sized pores. These findings underline the hypothesis of a key role of the implant surface and the pore size and pore structure in preventing capsular contracture.
      PubDate: 2020-02-03
       
  • β-cyclodextrin coating: improving biocompatibility of magnetic
           nanocomposites for biomedical applications
    • Abstract: The role Beta-cyclodextrin (βCD) on improving biocompatibility on healthy cellular and animal models was studied upon a formulation obtained from the development of a simple coating procedure. The obtained nanosystems were thoroughly characterized by FTIR, TGA, atomic absorption spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential, TEM/HR-TEM and magnetic properties. βCD might interact with the magnetic core through hosting OA. It is feasible that the nanocomposite is formed by nanoparticles of MG@OA dispersed in a βCD matrix. The evaluation of βCD role on biocompatibility was performed on two healthy models. To this end, in vivo studies were carried out on Caenorhabditis elegans. Locomotion and progeny were evaluated after exposure animals to MG, MG@OA, and MG@OA-βCD (10 to 500 µg/mL). The influence of βCD on cytotoxicity was explored in vitro on healthy rat aortic endothelial cells, avoiding alteration in the results derived from the use of transformed cell lines. Biological studies demonstrated that βCD attaching improves MG biocompatibility.
      PubDate: 2020-01-30
       
  • Injectable porcine bone demineralized and digested extracellular
           matrix—PEGDA hydrogel blend for bone regeneration
    • Abstract: Extracellular matrix (ECM) has a major role in the structural support and cellular processes of organs and tissues. Proteins extracted from the ECM have been used to fabricate different scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. The aims of the present study were to extract, characterize and fabricate a new class of hydrogel with proteins isolated from pig bone ECM and combine them with a synthetic polymer so it could be used to promote bone regeneration. Porcine bone demineralized and digested extracellular matrix (pddECM) containing collagen type I was produced, optimized and sterilized with high pressurized CO2 method. The pddECM was further blended with 20% w/v polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) to create an injectable semi interpenetrating polymer network (SIPN) scaffold with enhanced physicochemical properties. The blend tackled the shortfall of natural polymers, such as lack of structural stability and fast degradation, preserving its structure in more than 90% after 30 days of incubation; thus, increasing the material endurance in a simulated physiological environment. The manufactured injectable hydrogel showed high cytocompatibility with hOb and SaOs-2 cells, promoting osteogenic proliferation within 21 days of culture. The hydrogel had a high compression modulus of 520 kPa, low swelling (5.3 mg/mg) and millimetric volume expansion (19.5%), all of which are favorable characteristics for bone regeneration applications.
      PubDate: 2020-01-27
       
  • Micro-computed tomography high resolution evaluation of dimensional and
           morphological changes of 3 root-end filling materials in simulated
           physiological conditions
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate volumetric and morphological stability of 3 root-end filling materials in addition to porosity and interface voids, using micro-computed tomography (µCT) in high resolution and a highly accurate approach for image analysis. Following root-end resection and apical preparation, two-rooted maxillary premolars were divided into three groups, according to the filling materials: White MTA Angelus, Biodentine, and IRM. Samples were scanned by µCT at 5 µm after the setting time and at time intervals of 7 and 30 days after immersion in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Volumetric and morphological changes besides material porosity and interface voids were evaluated by comparing initial values and those obtained after immersion. Data were analyzed statistically, using ANOVA and t-tests (α = 0.05). All materials showed volumetric stability. Regarding the morphological changes, Biodentine had a significant thickness reduction after storage in PBS when compared with MTA. Biodentine also showed an increase in porosity, as well as in percentage and thickness of voids after 30 days of immersion. In conclusion, µCT in high resolution and an accurate image analysis approach may be used to evaluate morphological changes of endodontic materials. Although Biodentine showed suitable adaptability and lower values of porosity than MTA, after PBS immersion there was a dimensional reduction of this material, besides an increase in porosity and interface voids.
      PubDate: 2020-01-21
       
  • Preparation, structural, microstructural, mechanical and cytotoxic
           characterization of as-cast Ti-25Ta-Zr alloys
    • Abstract: Titanium alloys have been widely used as biomaterials, especially for orthopedic prostheses and dental implants, but these materials have Young's modulus almost three times greater than human cortical bones. Because of this, new alloys are being produced for the propose of decreasing Young's modulus to achieve a more balanced mechanical compatibility with the bone. In this paper, it is reported the development of Ti-25Ta alloys as a base material, in which was introduced zirconium, with concentration varying between 0 and 40 wt%, with the aim of biomedical applications. The alloys were prepared in an arc-melting furnace. The microstructural analysis was performed by x-ray diffraction as well as optical and scanning electron microscopy. Selected mechanical properties were analyzed by microhardness and Young’s modulus measurements, and cytotoxicity analysis by indirect test. X-ray measurements revealed the presence of α″ phase in the alloy without zirconium; α″ + β phases for alloys with 10, 20, and 30 wt% of zirconium, and β phase only for the alloy with 40 wt% of zirconium. These results were corroborated by the microscopy results. The hardness of the alloy was higher than that of cp-Ti due to the actions of zirconium and tantalum as hardening agents. The Young’s modulus decreases with high levels of zirconium due to the stabilization of the β phase. The cytotoxicity test showed that the extracts of studied alloys are not cytotoxic for osteoblast cells in short periods of culture.
      PubDate: 2020-01-21
       
 
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