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  Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 7268 journals)
    - ALLERGOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY (198 journals)
    - ANAESTHESIOLOGY (104 journals)
    - CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (306 journals)
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    - HYPNOSIS (4 journals)
    - INTERNAL MEDICINE (134 journals)
    - LABORATORY AND EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE (87 journals)
    - MEDICAL GENETICS (59 journals)
    - MEDICAL SCIENCES (1810 journals)
    - NURSES AND NURSING (294 journals)
    - OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY (173 journals)
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    - RHEUMATOLOGY (63 journals)
    - SPORTS MEDICINE (68 journals)
    - SURGERY (353 journals)
    - UROLOGY, NEPHROLOGY AND ANDROLOGY (135 journals)

MEDICAL SCIENCES (1810 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access  
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access  
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access  
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Fundeni Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access  
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Journal Khulna     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Research Council Bulletin     Open Access  
Basal Ganglia     Hybrid Journal  
Basic Sciences of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BC Medical Journal     Free  
Benha Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bijblijven     Hybrid Journal  
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biologics in Therapy     Open Access  
Biology of Sex Differences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomarker Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  [SJR: 2.389]   [H-I: 189]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0077-8923 - ISSN (Online) 1749-6632
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1579 journals]
  • Osteocalcin and osteopontin influence bone morphology and mechanical
           properties
    • Authors: Stacyann Bailey; Gerard Karsenty, Caren Gundberg, Deepak Vashishth
      Abstract: Osteocalcin (OC) and osteopontin (OPN) are major non-collagenous proteins (NCPs) involved in bone matrix organization and deposition. In spite of this, it is currently unknown whether OC and OPN alter bone morphology and consequently affect bone fracture resistance. The goal of this study is to establish the role of OC and OPN in the determination of cortical bone size, shape, and mechanical properties. Our results show that Oc–/– and Opn–/– mice were no different from each other or wild type (WT) with respect to bone morphology (P> 0.1). Bones from mice lacking both NCPs (Oc–/–Opn–/–) were shorter, with thicker cortices and larger cortical areas, compared with the WT, Oc–/–, and Opn–/– groups (P < 0.05), suggesting a synergistic role for NCPs in the determination of bone morphology. Maximum bending load was significantly different among the groups (P = 0.024), while tissue mineral density and measures of stiffness and strength were not different (P> 0.1). We conclude that the removal of both OC and OPN from bone matrix induces morphological adaptation at the structural level to maintain bone strength.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T22:55:51.703568-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13470
       
  • Nutrient sensing in pancreatic islets: lessons from congenital
           hyperinsulinism and monogenic diabetes
    • Authors: Ming Lu; Changhong Li
      Abstract: Pancreatic beta cells sense changes in nutrients during the cycles of fasting and feeding and release insulin accordingly to maintain glucose homeostasis. Abnormal beta cell nutrient sensing resulting from gene mutations leads to hypoglycemia or diabetes. Glucokinase (GCK) plays a key role in beta cell glucose sensing. As one form of congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI), activating mutations of GCK result in a decreased threshold for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and hypoglycemia. In contrast, inactivating mutations of GCK result in diabetes, including a mild form (MODY2) and a severe form (permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM)). Mutations of beta cell ion channels involved in insulin secretion regulation also alter glucose sensing. Activating or inactivating mutations of ATP-dependent potassium (KATP) channel genes result in severe but completely opposite clinical phenotypes, including PNDM and CHI. Mutations of the other ion channels, including voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv7.1) and voltage-gated calcium channels, also lead to abnormal glucose sensing and CHI. Furthermore, amino acids can stimulate insulin secretion in a glucose-independent manner in some forms of CHI, including activating mutations of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene, HDAH deficiency, and inactivating mutations of KATP channel genes. These genetic defects have provided insight into a better understanding of the complicated nature of beta cell fuel-sensing mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T22:55:46.198406-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13448
       
  • Adolescent pregnancy and nutrition: a subgroup analysis from the
           Mamachiponde study in Malawi
    • Authors: Alyssa Friebert; Meghan Callaghan-Gillespie, Peggy C. Papathakis, Mark J. Manary
      Abstract: Young age at childbearing (≤19 years) is common and associated with poor birth outcomes. A trial among Malawian pregnant women with moderate malnutrition was used to determine outcomes of young adolescents (≤18 years), older adolescents (18–20 years), and adults (>20 years). Women received one of three supplementary foods that provided ∼900 kcal/day and 33–36 g protein/day and returned every 2 weeks. Newborn/maternal measurements were taken at delivery and after 6 and 12 weeks. Upon enrollment, adolescents had greater body mass index than adults (19.9 ± 1.3 versus 19.5 ± 1.4 kg/m2, P < 0.001). Young adolescents received more rations of food and enrolled and delivered with a lower fundal height than adults (21.7 ± 5.2 versus 23.0 ± 5.6, P = 0.00 enrollment; 30.2 ± 3.1 versus 31.0 ± 2.8, P < 0.001 delivery). Among newborns, length for age was lowest in young adolescents, greater in older adolescents, and greatest in adults (Z-scores –1.7 ± 1.2, –1.4 ± 1.2, and –1.1 ± 1.1, respectively; P < 0.001). These differences persisted in length for age at 6 and 12 weeks of age for infants. Adolescents enrolled earlier in pregnancy and appeared more nutritionally adequate than adults; adolescent outcomes were inferior to those of adults, suggesting that they were subject to more physiologic stressors and/or different nutritional needs.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T22:55:30.528897-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13465
       
  • Disordered eating and obesity: associations between binge-eating disorder,
           night-eating syndrome, and weight-related comorbidities
    • Authors: Courtney McCuen-Wurst; Madelyn Ruggieri, Kelly C. Allison
      Abstract: Binge-eating disorder (BED) and night-eating syndrome (NES) are two forms of disordered eating associated with overweight and obesity. While these disorders also occur in nonobese persons, they seem to be associated with weight gain over time and higher risk of diabetes and other metabolic dysfunction. BED and NES are also associated with higher risk of psychopathology, including mood, anxiety, and sleep problems, than those of similar weight status without disordered eating. Treatments are available, including cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy, lisdexamfetamine, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for BED; and CBT, SSRIs, progressive muscle relaxation, and bright light therapy for NES.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T10:56:29.777838-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13467
       
  • Complexity of intravenous iron nanoparticle formulations: implications for
           bioequivalence evaluation
    • Authors: Amy Barton Pai
      Abstract: Intravenous iron formulations are a class of complex drugs that are commonly used to treat a wide variety of disease states associated with iron deficiency and anemia. Venofer® (iron–sucrose) is one of the most frequently used formulations, with more than 90% of dialysis patients in the United States receiving this formulation. Emerging data from global markets outside the United States, where many iron–sucrose similars or copies are available, have shown that these formulations may have safety and efficacy profiles that differ from the reference listed drug. This may be attributable to uncharacterized differences in physicochemical characteristics and/or differences in labile iron release. As bioequivalence evaluation guidance evolves, clinicians should be educated on these potential clinical issues before a switch to the generic formulation is made in the clinical setting.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13T03:05:28.666509-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13461
       
  • Postaxial limb hypoplasia (PALH): the classification, clinical features,
           and related developmental biology
    • Authors: Zeng Zhang; Dan Yi, Rong Xie, John L. Hamilton, Qing-Lin Kang, Di Chen
      Abstract: Postaxial limb hypoplasia (PALH) is a group of nonhereditary diseases with congenital lower limb deficiency affecting the fibular ray, including fibular hemimelia, proximal femoral focal deficiency, and tarsal coalition. The etiology and the developmental biology of the anomaly are still not fully understood. Here, we review the previous classification systems, present the clinical features, and discuss the developmental biology of PALH.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T02:30:35.993047-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13440
       
  • Host–microbiota interplay in mediating immune disorders
    • Authors: Krysta M. Felix; Shekha Tahsin, Hsin-Jung Joyce Wu
      Abstract: To maintain health, the immune system must maintain a delicate balance between eliminating invading pathogens and avoiding immune disorders such as autoimmunity and allergies. The gut microbiota provide essential health benefits to the host, particularly by regulating immune homeostasis. Dysbiosis, an alteration and imbalance of the gut microbiota, is associated with the development of several autoimmune diseases in both mice and humans. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding how certain factors, such as age and gender, affect the gut microbiota, which in turn can influence the development of autoimmune diseases. The age factor in microbiota-dependent immune disorders indicates a window of opportunity for future diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. We also discuss unique commensal bacteria with strong immunomodulatory activity. Finally, we provide an overview of the potential molecular mechanisms whereby gut microbiota induce autoimmunity, as well as the evidence that gut microbiota trigger extraintestinal diseases by inducing the migration of gut-derived immune cells. Elucidating the interaction of gut microbiota and the host immune system will help us understand the pathogenesis of immune disorders, and provide us with new foundations to develop novel immuno- or microbe-targeted therapies.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T07:00:42.101307-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13508
       
  • A unique subphenotype of myasthenia gravis
    • Authors: Jeannine M. Heckmann; Melissa Nel
      Abstract: While extraocular muscles (EOMs) are affected early in generalized myasthenia gravis (MG), and their treatment responsiveness is similar to nonocular muscles, we have identified an ophthalmoplegic (OP) subphenotype that remains resistant to treatment. This subphenotype of ophthalmoplegic MG (OP-MG) most commonly affects acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive cases with juvenile-onset MG and African genetic ancestry. However, a few OP-MG cases have been found with MuSK antibodies and triple-seronegative MG. In a proportion of OP-MG cases, the EOM treatment resistance manifests from treatment initiation, while in others the EOMs may initially respond until a critical trigger, such as treatment interruption or crisis. The management of OP-MG is an unmet need. Managing the visual disability may require a surgical or nonsurgical solution. The ideal case selection for surgery and the timing of surgery should be carefully considered. The pathogenesis of OP-MG remains unknown. A genetic study, using extended whole-exome sequencing and an “extreme” phenotype sample of OP-MG versus control MG cases differing only by their EOM responsivity to therapy, discovered several potentially functional OP-MG risk variants. These variants implicate myogenesis and gangliosphingolipid biosynthesis pathways at the EOM endplates in OP-MG.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T04:01:12.97326-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13471
       
  • Strategies to retain properties of bone marrow–derived mesenchymal
           stem cells ex vivo
    • Authors: Yaxian Zhou; Tsung-Lin Tsai, Wan-Ju Li
      Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been extensively used for cell therapies and tissue engineering. The current MSC strategy requires a large quantity of cells for such applications, which can be achieved through cell expansion in culture. In the body, stem cell fate is largely determined by their microenvironment, known as the niche. The complex and dynamic stem cell niche provides physical, mechanical, and chemical cues to collaboratively regulate cell activities. It remains a great challenge to maintain the properties of MSCs in culture. Constructing a microenvironment as an engineered stem cell niche in culture to maintain MSC phenotypes, properties, and functions is a viable strategy to address the issue. Here, we review the current understanding of MSC behavior in the bone marrow niche, describe different strategies to engineer an in vitro microenvironment for maintaining MSC properties and functions, and discuss previous findings on environmental factors critical to the modulation of MSC activities in engineered microenvironments.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T04:01:07.45875-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13451
       
  • Evolutionary ecology of telomeres: a review
    • Authors: Mats Olsson; Erik Wapstra, Christopher R. Friesen
      Abstract: Telomere-induced selection could take place if telomere-associated disease risk shortens reproductive life span and differently reduces relative fitness among individuals. Some of these diseases first appear before reproductive senescence and could thus influence ongoing selection. We ask whether we can estimate the components of the breeder's equation for telomeres, in which the response to selection (R, by definition “evolution”) is the product of ongoing selection (S) and heritability (h2). However, telomere inheritance is a conundrum: in quantitative genetics, traits can usually be allocated to categories with relatively high or low heritability, depending on their association with relative fitness. Telomere traits, however, show wide variation in heritability from zero to one, across taxa, gender, ethnicity, age, and disease status. In spite of this, there is divergence in telomere length among populations, supporting past and ongoing telomere evolution. Rates of telomere attrition and elongation vary among taxa with some, but not complete, taxonomic coherence. For example, telomerase is commonly referred to as “restricted to the germ line in mammals,” but inbred mice and beavers have telomerase upregulation in somatic tissue, as do many ectotherms. These observations provoke a simplistic understanding of telomere evolutionary biology—clearly much is yet to be discovered.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T04:00:58.125129-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13443
       
  • Homeostatic synaptic plasticity at the neuromuscular junction in
           myasthenia gravis
    • Authors: Xueyong Wang; Mark M. Rich
      Abstract: A number of studies in the past 20 years have shown that perturbation of activity of the nervous system leads to compensatory changes in synaptic strength that serve to return network activity to its original level. This response has been termed homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Despite the intense interest in homeostatic synaptic plasticity, little attention has been paid to its role in the prototypic synaptic disease, myasthenia gravis. In this review, we discuss mechanisms that have been shown to mediate homeostatic synaptic plasticity at the mammalian neuromuscular junction. A subset of these mechanisms have been shown to occur in myasthenia gravis. The homeostatic changes occurring in myasthenia gravis appear to involve the presynaptic nerve terminal and may even involve changes in the excitability of motor neurons within the spinal cord. The finding of presynaptic homeostatic synaptic plasticity in myasthenia gravis leads us to propose that changes in the motor unit in myasthenia gravis may be more widespread than previously appreciated.
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T11:50:22.429901-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13472
       
  • Birth weight and prepubertal body size predict menarcheal age in India,
           Peru, and Vietnam
    • Authors: Elisabetta Aurino; Whitney Schott, Mary E. Penny, Jere R. Behrman
      Abstract: Evidence on the associations of birth weight and prepubertal nutritional status with menarcheal age for low- and middle-income countries is limited. We investigated these relationships using the Young Lives younger cohort for 2001 Indian, Peruvian, and Vietnamese girls born in 2001–2002. Girls were followed at approximately ages 1, 5, 8, and 12 years. Weibull survival models estimated hazards of earlier menarche on the basis of birth weight Z-scores (BWZ), and age-8 BMI-for-age Z-scores (BMIZ) and height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ). Estimates controlled for potential individual-, mother-, and household-level confounders and for changes in anthropometry between 1 and 8 years. In adjusted models, BWZ predicted later age at menarche (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83–0.97). Conversely, HAZ (HR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.5–1.83) and BMIZ at 8 years (HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18–1.38) predicted earlier menarche. Changes in HAZ and BMIZ between 1 and 8 years were not associated with earlier menarche. Associations were consistent across countries, though with variation in estimated magnitudes. Maternal height and age were associated with later menarche. This evidence points to consistently robust and opposite associations of birth weight versus prepubertal attained height and body mass index with menarcheal age in three diverse settings with regard to nutrition, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.
      PubDate: 2017-09-28T01:50:24.257943-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13445
       
  • WHO standards for biotherapeutics, including biosimilars: an example of
           the evaluation of complex biological products
    • Authors: Ivana Knezevic; Elwyn Griffiths
      Abstract: The most advanced regulatory processes for complex biological products have been put in place in many countries to provide appropriate regulatory oversight of biotherapeutic products in general, and similar biotherapeutics in particular. This process is still ongoing and requires regular updates to national regulatory requirements in line with scientific developments and up-to-date standards. For this purpose, strong knowledge of and expertise in evaluating biotherapeutics in general and similar biotherapeutic products, also called biosimilars, in particular is essential. Here, we discuss the World Health Organization's international standard-setting role in the regulatory evaluation of recombinant DNA–derived biotherapeutic products, including biosimilars, and provide examples that may serve as models for moving forward with nonbiological complex medicinal products. A number of scientific challenges and regulatory considerations imposed by the advent of biosimilars are described, together with the lessons learned, to stimulate future discussions on this topic. In addition, the experiences of facilitating the implementation of guiding principles for evaluation of similar biotherapeutic products into regulatory and manufacturers’ practices in various countries over the past 10 years are briefly explained, with the aim of promoting further developments and regulatory convergence of complex biological and nonbiological products.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14T01:56:29.806087-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13434
       
  • Mechanical signals protect stem cell lineage selection, preserving the
           bone and muscle phenotypes in obesity
    • Authors: Danielle M. Frechette; Divya Krishnamoorthy, Tee Pamon, M. Ete Chan, Vihitaben Patel, Clinton T. Rubin
      Abstract: The incidence of obesity is rapidly rising, increasing morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Associated comorbidities include type 2 diabetes, heart disease, fatty liver disease, and cancer. The impact of excess fat on musculoskeletal health is still unclear, although it is associated with increased fracture risk and a decline in muscular function. The complexity of obesity makes understanding the etiology of bone and muscle abnormalities difficult. Exercise is an effective and commonly prescribed nonpharmacological treatment option, but it can be difficult or unsafe for the frail, elderly, and morbidly obese. Exercise alternatives, such as low-intensity vibration (LIV), have potential for improving musculoskeletal health, particularly in conditions with excess fat. LIV has been shown to influence bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation toward higher-order tissues (i.e., bone) and away from fat. While the exact mechanisms are not fully understood, recent studies utilizing LIV both at the bench and in the clinic have demonstrated some efficacy. Here, we discuss the current literature investigating the effects of obesity on bone, muscle, and bone marrow and how exercise and LIV can be used as effective treatments for combating the negative effects in the presence of excess fat.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T01:10:25.426424-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13442
       
  • Endoluminal weight loss and metabolic therapies: current and future
           techniques
    • Authors: Christine Hill; Mouen A. Khashab, Anthony N. Kalloo, Vivek Kumbhari
      Abstract: Obesity is a public health epidemic associated with a number of comorbidities, most notably type 2 diabetes and hypertension, as well as elevated all-cause mortality. The treatment for obesity and its associated comorbidities has most recently expanded into the field of bariatric endoscopy. This field bridges a gap between lifestyle counseling with or without pharmaceutical treatment and the most effective treatment of obesity, bariatric surgery. Because of its minimally invasive nature, bariatric endoscopic therapy has the potential to appeal to the large sector of the obese population that resists surgery, as well as those early in the onset of obesity. To date, five endoscopic devices have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of obesity, and many more are in development, undergoing clinical trials, or being used around the world. Here, we present the current state of the field, highlight recent developments, and describe the clinical outcomes of these minimally invasive procedures in terms of weight loss, improvement in metabolic profile, and reduction in comorbidities.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T05:25:38.629325-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13441
       
  • Mechanisms of weight loss and improved metabolism following bariatric
           surgery
    • Authors: Christopher M. Mulla; Roeland J.W. Middelbeek, Mary-Elizabeth Patti
      Abstract: Bariatric surgery is increasingly recognized as one of the most effective interventions to help patients achieve significant and sustained weight loss, as well as improved metabolic and overall health. Unfortunately, the cellular and physiological mechanisms by which bariatric surgery achieves weight loss have not been fully elucidated, yet are critical to understanding the central role of the intestinal tract in whole-body metabolism and to developing novel strategies for the treatment of obesity. In this review, we provide an overview of potential mechanisms contributing to weight loss, including effects on regulation of energy balance and both central and peripheral nervous system regulation of appetite and metabolism. Moreover, we highlight the importance of the gastrointestinal tract, including alterations in bile acid physiology, secretion of intestinally derived hormones, and the microbiome, as a potent mediator of improved metabolism in postbariatric patients.
      PubDate: 2017-09-03T23:26:21.948511-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13409
       
  • Insulin regulation of gluconeogenesis
    • Authors: Maximilian Hatting; Clint D.J. Tavares, Kfir Sharabi, Amy K. Rines, Pere Puigserver
      Abstract: The coordinated regulation between cellular glucose uptake and endogenous glucose production is indispensable for the maintenance of constant blood glucose concentrations. The liver contributes significantly to this process by altering the levels of hepatic glucose release, through controlling the processes of de novo glucose production (gluconeogenesis) and glycogen breakdown (glycogenolysis). Various nutritional and hormonal stimuli signal to alter hepatic gluconeogenic flux, and suppression of this metabolic pathway during the postprandial state can, to a significant extent, be attributed to insulin. Here, we review some of the molecular mechanisms through which insulin modulates hepatic gluconeogenesis, thus controlling glucose production by the liver to ultimately maintain normoglycemia. Various signaling pathways governed by insulin converge at the level of transcriptional regulation of the key hepatic gluconeogenic genes PCK1 and G6PC, highlighting this as one of the focal mechanisms through which gluconeogenesis is modulated. In individuals with compromised insulin signaling, such as insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes, insulin fails to suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis, even in the fed state; hence, an insight into these insulin-moderated pathways is critical for therapeutic purposes.
      PubDate: 2017-09-03T23:25:25.423126-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13435
       
  • Questioning the unconscious
    • Authors: Sonu Shamdasani
      Abstract: In this piece, I outline a brief history of the development of concepts of the unconscious and then suggest ways of bringing understanding to various sides of the discussion.
      PubDate: 2017-08-22T22:11:36.325115-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13452
       
  • Mechanobiology of limb musculoskeletal development
    • Authors: Varun Arvind; Alice H. Huang
      Abstract: While there has been considerable progress in identifying molecular regulators of musculoskeletal development, the role of physical forces in regulating induction, differentiation, and patterning events is less well understood. Here, we highlight recent findings in this area, focusing primarily on model systems that test the mechanical regulation of skeletal and tendon development in the limb. We also discuss a few of the key signaling pathways and mechanisms that have been implicated in mechanotransduction and highlight current gaps in knowledge and opportunities for further research in the field.
      PubDate: 2017-08-22T22:11:32.56046-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13427
       
  • Dreamless: the silent epidemic of REM sleep loss
    • Authors: Rubin Naiman
      Abstract: We are at least as dream deprived as we are sleep deprived. Many of the health concerns attributed to sleep loss result from a silent epidemic of REM sleep deprivation. REM/dream loss is an unrecognized public health hazard that silently wreaks havoc with our lives, contributing to illness, depression, and an erosion of consciousness. This paper compiles data about the causes and extent of REM/dream loss associated with commonly used medications, endemic substance use disorders, rampant sleep disorders, and behavioral and lifestyle factors. It examines the consequences of REM/dream loss and concludes with recommendations for restoring healthy REM/dreaming.
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T12:40:36.779458-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13447
       
  • Looking beyond the intervertebral disc: the need for behavioral assays in
           models of discogenic pain
    • Authors: Grace E. Mosley; Thomas W. Evashwick-Rogler, Alon Lai, James C. Iatridis
      Abstract: Orthopedic research into chronic discogenic back pain has commonly focused on aging- and degeneration-related changes in intervertebral disc structure, biomechanics, and biology. However, the primary spine-related reason for physician office visits is pain. The ambiguous nature of the human condition of discogenic low back pain motivates the use of animal models to better understand the pathophysiology. Discogenic back pain models must consider both emergent behavioral changes following pain induction and changes in the nervous system that mediate such behavior. Looking beyond the intervertebral disc, we describe the different ways to classify pain in human patients and animal models. We describe several behavioral assays that can be used in rodent models to augment disc degeneration measurements and characterize different types of pain. We review rodent models of discogenic pain that employed behavioral pain assays and highlight a need to better integrate neuroscience and orthopedic science methods to extend current understanding of the complex and multifactorial pathophysiology of discogenic back pain.
      PubDate: 2017-08-10T16:50:32.853484-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13429
       
  • Recent developments in understanding the role of the gut microbiota in
           brain health and disease
    • Authors: Eoin Sherwin; Timothy G. Dinan, John F. Cryan
      Abstract: There is a growing appreciation of the role of the gut microbiota in all aspects of health and disease, including brain health. Indeed, roles for the bacterial commensals in various psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as depression, autism, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease, are emerging. Microbiota dysregulation has been documented in all of these conditions or in animal models thereof. Moreover, depletion or modulation of the gut microbiota can affect the severity of the central pathology or behavioral deficits observed in a variety of brain disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying such effects are only slowly being unraveled. Additionally, recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggest that targeting the microbiota through prebiotic, probiotic, or dietary interventions may be an effective “psychobiotic” strategy for treating symptoms in mood, neurodevelopmental disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02T17:26:36.916386-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13416
       
  • Deciphering adipose tissue heterogeneity
    • Authors: Matthew D. Lynes; Yu-Hua Tseng
      Abstract: Obesity is an excess accumulation of adipose tissue mass, and, together with its sequelae, in particular type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome, obesity presents a major health crisis. Although obesity is simply caused by increased adipose mass, the heterogeneity of adipose tissue in humans means that the response to increased energy balance is highly complex. Individual subjects with similar phenotypes may respond very differently to the same treatments; therefore, obesity may benefit from a personalized precision medicine approach. The variability in the development of obesity is indeed driven by differences in sex, genetics, and environment, but also by the various types of adipose tissue as well as the different cell types that compose it. By describing the distinct cell populations that reside in different fat depots, we can interpret the complex effect of these various players in the maintenance of whole-body energy homeostasis. To further understand adipose tissue, adipogenic differentiation and the transcriptional program of lipid accumulation must be investigated. As the cell- and depot-specific functions are described, they can be placed in the context of energy excess to understand how the heterogeneity of adipose tissue shapes individual metabolic status and condition.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01T16:26:02.143338-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13398
       
  • What is “the unconscious,” and where is it located in the brain' A
           neuropsychoanalytic perspective
    • Authors: Mark Solms
      Abstract: This is a brief overview of my “neuropsychoanalytic” perspective on the unconscious. It should make clear how much psychoanalysis has to gain from incorporating the findings of neuroscientific disciplines studying the same part of nature—the workings of the human mind. I hope it makes equally clear what useful new perspectives can be cast on current issues in cognitive neuroscience, if they, in turn, incorporate the findings of psychoanalysis.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31T11:55:36.345134-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13437
       
  • How to select a nanosimilar
    • Authors: Alain Astier; Amy Barton Pai, Marco Bissig, Daan J.A. Crommelin, Beat Flühmann, Jean-Daniel Hecq, Josefien Knoeff, Hans-Peter Lipp, Alberto Morell-Baladrón, Stefan Mühlebach
      Abstract: Nanomedicines in the class of nonbiological complex drugs (NBCDs) are becoming increasingly available. Up to 23 nanomedicines have been approved, and approximately 50 are in clinical development. Meanwhile, the first nanosimilars have entered the market through the generic approval pathway, but clinical differences have been observed. Many healthcare professionals may be unaware of this issue and must be informed of these clinically relevant variances. This article provides a tool for rational decision making for the inclusion of nanomedicines into the hospital formulary, including defined criteria for evaluation of substitutability or interchangeability. The tool was generated by conducting a roundtable with an international panel of experts and follows the same thought process that was developed and published earlier for the selection of biologicals/biosimilars. In addition to the existing criteria for biosimilars, a set of seven criteria was identified that specifically apply to nanosimilars. These include (1) particle size and size distribution, (2) particle surface characteristics, (3) fraction of uncaptured bioactive moiety, (4) stability on storage, (5) bioactive moiety uptake and (6) distribution, and (7) stability for ready-to-use preparation. Pharmacists should utilize their pharmaceutical expertise to use the appropriate criteria to evaluate the comparability of the drug to decide on interchangeability or substitutability.
      PubDate: 2017-07-17T13:45:32.683436-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13382
       
  • Mesenchymal stem cells and their immunosuppressive role in transplantation
           tolerance
    • Authors: Pamina Contreras-Kallens; Claudia Terraza, Karina Oyarce, Tania Gajardo, Mauricio Campos-Mora, María Teresa Barroilhet, Carla Álvarez, Ricardo Fuentes, Fernando Figueroa, Maroun Khoury, Karina Pino-Lagos
      Abstract: Since they were first described, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to have important effector mechanisms and the potential for use in cell therapy. A great deal of research has been focused on unveiling how MSCs contribute to anti-inflammatory responses, including describing several cell populations involved and identifying soluble and other effector molecules. In this review, we discuss some of the contemporary evidence for use of MSCs in the field of immune tolerance, with a special emphasis on transplantation. Although considerable effort has been devoted to understanding the biological function of MSCs, additional resources are required to clarify the mechanisms of their induction of immune tolerance, which will undoubtedly lead to improved clinical outcomes for MSC-based therapies.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12T12:55:29.241734-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13364
       
  • The deeper self: an expanded view of consciousness
    • Authors: Steve Paulson; Siri Hustvedt, Mark Solms, Sonu Shamdasani
      Abstract: As science continues to explore the mysteries of the unconscious, two critical questions remain. First, can unconscious impulses, desires, and feelings be willfully raised to the level of the conscious self', and, if so, would the unveiling of unconscious mechanisms lead to genuine self-knowledge or empowerment' Second, can we methodically tap into the unconscious to gear ourselves along more creative lines' If the unconscious is a source of intuitive and creative inspiration, how might a more expansive understanding of consciousness help us to flourish' How can we harness the intuitive parts of ourselves to think “outside the box,” transcending the limitations of preconceived categories' And along those same lines, how would an expanded view of the unconscious frame our spiritual experiences or offer spiritual nourishment' Writer Siri Hustvedt, historian of psychology Sonu Shamdasani, and neuropsychologist Mark Solms will tackle everything from noetic experiences and the role of intuition to the phenomenon of peak experience and Jung's “collective unconscious.”
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T14:55:45.305497-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13403
       
  • Dreams and creative problem-solving
    • Authors: Deirdre Barrett
      Abstract: Dreams have produced art, music, novels, films, mathematical proofs, designs for architecture, telescopes, and computers. Dreaming is essentially our brain thinking in another neurophysiologic state—and therefore it is likely to solve some problems on which our waking minds have become stuck. This neurophysiologic state is characterized by high activity in brain areas associated with imagery, so problems requiring vivid visualization are also more likely to get help from dreaming. This article reviews great historical dreams and modern laboratory research to suggest how dreams can aid creativity and problem-solving.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T14:55:33.099165-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13412
       
  • Delving within: the new science of the unconscious
    • Authors: Steve Paulson; Heather A. Berlin, Efrat Ginot, George Makari
      Abstract: What exactly is the relationship between conscious awareness and the unconscious mind' How, for example, does the brain classify and sort its different functions into conscious or unconscious processes' How has the history of human conceptualizations about the unconscious influenced current theories' Steve Paulson, executive producer of To the Best of Our Knowledge, moderated a discussion among neuroscientist Heather Berlin, psychologist Efrat Ginot, and psychiatrist George Makari to shed light on the history of the mind and the latest insights into the still emerging science of the unconscious.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20T15:20:21.868869-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13390
       
  • The future of dream science
    • Authors: Kelly Bulkeley
      Abstract: This article describes the future prospects of scientific dream research. Three frontiers of investigation hold special promise: neuroscientific studies of the brain–mind system's activities during sleep (such as during lucid dreaming); systematic analyses of large collections of dream reports from diverse populations of people; and psychotherapeutic explorations of the multiple dimensions of personal and collective meaning woven into the dream experiences of each individual. Several helpful books on the science of sleep and dreaming are mentioned for further study.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T10:55:22.158986-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13415
       
  • Dreaming: a gateway to the unconscious'
    • Authors: Steve Paulson; Deirdre Barrett, Kelly Bulkeley, Rubin Naiman
      Abstract: Where do our dreams originate from, and what do they tell us' Is there a universal set of symbols that are common to all dreams, regardless of a person's ethnicity or culture' What does dreaming reveal about the unconscious' Why do some dreams remain etched in our memories, whereas others are almost instantly forgotten' Some scientists have adopted the position that dreams are little more than noise in the brain, without any substantive purpose or function. Yet, such a stance seemingly runs counter to the experience of many people who reflect upon and even analyze their dreams, often in search of clues to their daily lives or insights into their deeper selves. Similarly, in virtually all wisdom traditions, dreams are invoked as an important source of revelation or prophecy. Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, moderated a discussion that included psychologist Deirdre Barrett, dream researcher Kelly Bulkeley, and psychologist and sleep/dream medicine specialist Rubin Naiman; they examined dreams from a variety of perspectives to answer these questions.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T16:25:22.870131-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13389
       
  • The enacted unconscious: a neuropsychological model of unconscious
           processes
    • Authors: Efrat Ginot
      Abstract: Integrating neuropsychology with psychoanalytic thinking and experience, this paper offers a new view of the unconscious that veers away from more traditional conceptualizations. Rather, it emphasizes the ever-present influence of ongoing unconscious processes on much of our behaviors and mental states. Importantly, this new understanding is based on the functional unity of the brain/mind.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T16:25:20.493298-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13404
       
  • Genomics of antibiotic-resistance prediction in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    • Authors: Julie Jeukens; Luca Freschi, Irena Kukavica-Ibrulj, Jean-Guillaume Emond-Rheault, Nicholas P. Tucker, Roger C. Levesque
      Abstract: Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide health issue spreading quickly among human and animal pathogens, as well as environmental bacteria. Misuse of antibiotics has an impact on the selection of resistant bacteria, thus contributing to an increase in the occurrence of resistant genotypes that emerge via spontaneous mutation or are acquired by horizontal gene transfer. There is a specific and urgent need not only to detect antimicrobial resistance but also to predict antibiotic resistance in silico. We now have the capability to sequence hundreds of bacterial genomes per week, including assembly and annotation. Novel and forthcoming bioinformatics tools can predict the resistome and the mobilome with a level of sophistication not previously possible. Coupled with bacterial strain collections and databases containing strain metadata, prediction of antibiotic resistance and the potential for virulence are moving rapidly toward a novel approach in molecular epidemiology. Here, we present a model system in antibiotic-resistance prediction, along with its promises and limitations. As it is commonly multidrug resistant, Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes infections that are often difficult to eradicate. We review novel approaches for genotype prediction of antibiotic resistance. We discuss the generation of microbial sequence data for real-time patient management and the prediction of antimicrobial resistance.
      PubDate: 2017-06-02T08:00:46.444097-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13358
       
  • Equivalence of complex drug products: advances in and challenges for
           current regulatory frameworks
    • Authors: Leonie Hussaarts; Stefan Mühlebach, Vinod P. Shah, Scott McNeil, Gerrit Borchard, Beat Flühmann, Vera Weinstein, Sesha Neervannan, Elwyn Griffiths, Wenlei Jiang, Elena Wolff-Holz, Daan J.A. Crommelin, Jon S.B. Vlieger
      Abstract: Biotechnology and nanotechnology provide a growing number of innovator-driven complex drug products and their copy versions. Biologics exemplify one category of complex drugs, but there are also nonbiological complex drug products, including many nanomedicines, such as iron–carbohydrate complexes, drug-carrying liposomes or emulsions, and glatiramoids. In this white paper, which stems from a 1-day conference at the New York Academy of Sciences, we discuss regulatory frameworks in use worldwide (e.g., the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the European Medicines Agency, the World Health Organization) to approve these complex drug products and their follow-on versions. One of the key questions remains how to assess equivalence of these complex products. We identify a number of points for which consensus was found among the stakeholders who were present: scientists from innovator and generic/follow-on companies, academia, and regulatory bodies from different parts of the world. A number of topics requiring follow-up were identified: (1) assessment of critical attributes to establish equivalence for follow-on versions, (2) the need to publish scientific findings in the public domain to further progress in the field, (3) the necessity to develop worldwide consensus regarding nomenclature and labeling of these complex products, and (4) regulatory actions when substandard complex drug products are identified.
      PubDate: 2017-04-26T12:10:34.962138-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13347
       
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 1 - 3
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T01:56:13.029297-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13250
       
  • Unlocking the Unconscious: Exploring the Undiscovered Self
    • Authors: Richard Rass
      Pages: 5 - 7
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T01:56:13.475626-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13526
       
  • Unlocking the Unconscious: Exploring the Undiscovered Self
    • Authors: Steve Paulson
      Pages: 8 - 11
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T01:56:13.752045-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13506
       
 
 
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