Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8690 journals)
    - ANAESTHESIOLOGY (121 journals)
    - CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (338 journals)
    - DENTISTRY (294 journals)
    - ENDOCRINOLOGY (151 journals)
    - FORENSIC SCIENCES (42 journals)
    - HEMATOLOGY (158 journals)
    - HYPNOSIS (4 journals)
    - INTERNAL MEDICINE (178 journals)
    - MEDICAL GENETICS (58 journals)
    - MEDICAL SCIENCES (2415 journals)
    - NURSES AND NURSING (370 journals)
    - OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY (207 journals)
    - ONCOLOGY (386 journals)
    - OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (83 journals)
    - PATHOLOGY (100 journals)
    - PEDIATRICS (275 journals)
    - PSYCHIATRY AND NEUROLOGY (833 journals)
    - RESPIRATORY DISEASES (105 journals)
    - RHEUMATOLOGY (79 journals)
    - SPORTS MEDICINE (81 journals)
    - SURGERY (406 journals)

MEDICAL SCIENCES (2415 journals)            First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Showing 1201 - 1400 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Family and Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Forensic Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Gandaki Medical College-Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Generic Medicines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Geographical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hand Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Head & Neck Physicians and Surgeons     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health & Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Journal of Health and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Economics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior     Open Access  
Journal of Health Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science and Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of health sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences / Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Health Sciences and Surveillance System     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences Scholarship     Open Access  
Journal of Health Specialties     Open Access  
Journal of Health Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Healthcare Informatics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Helminthology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Herbs Spices & Medicinal Plants     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of HIV for Clinical and Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Hospital Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Human Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Human Rhythm     Open Access  
Journal of Human Transcriptome     Open Access  
Journal of Ideas in Health     Open Access  
Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inflammation Research     Open Access  
Journal of Injury and Violence Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Institute of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Insulin Resistance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Interactional Research in Communication Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of International Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Interventional Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Investigative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Islamabad Medical & Dental College     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Karnali Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Kathmandu Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of King Abdulaziz University : Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Laryngology and Voice     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Limb Lengthening & Reconstruction     Open Access  
Journal of Lumbini Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Materials Science : Materials in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Maternal and Child Health     Open Access  
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Cases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Colleges of PLA     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Medical Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Ethics     Partially Free   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ideas     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Investigation and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Laboratory and Diagnosis     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Law and Ethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Medical Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medicinal Botany     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208)
Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Medicine and the Person     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medicine in Scientific Research     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine in the Tropics     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine Research and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medicines Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Metabolomics & Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Movement Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Multidisciplinary Research in Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Nanotheranostics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Natural Medicines     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nature and Science of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Journal of Nepalgunj Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Neurocritical Care     Open Access  
Journal of Neurodegenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Neurorestoratology     Open Access  
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Nobel Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Obesity and Bariatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Occupational Health     Open Access  
Journal of Occupational Therapy Education     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Ocular Biology, Diseases, and Informatics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Oral Health and Craniofacial Science     Open Access  
Journal of Orofacial Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, Hearing and Balance Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ovarian Research     Open Access  
Journal of Ozone Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Journal of Paramedical Sciences & Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Journal of Parkinsonism and Restless Legs Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parkinson’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Participatory Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Patan Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Pathogens     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Patient Experience     Open Access  
Journal of Patient Safety and Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Patient-Reported Outcomes     Open Access  
Journal of Periodontal Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physiobiochemical Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physiology-Paris     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pioneering Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Pregnancy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Prevention & Intervention Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health     Open Access  
Journal of Primary Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Prosthodontic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Prosthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Receptor, Ligand and Channel Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Regenerative Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Scientific Innovation in Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Scientific Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Arthroplasty     Open Access  
Journal of Sleep Disorders : Treatment & Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of South American Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences : Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stem Cell Therapy and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stomal Therapy Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Journal of Substance Use     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Surgical Academia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Surgical and Clinical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report     Open Access  
Journal of Systemic Therapies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of The Academy of Clinical Microbiologists     Open Access  
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the American College of Certified Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American College of Clinical Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Anatomical Society of India     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Anus, Rectum and Colon     Open Access  
Journal of The Arab Society for Medical Research     Open Access  

  First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Helminthology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.553
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 2  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0022-149X - ISSN (Online) 1475-2697
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [387 journals]
  • Pleurogenoides+wayanadensis+Shinad+&+Prasadan,+2018+(Digenea:+Pleurogenidae)+from+the+Western+Ghats,+India&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+C.+Sherin,+K.+Arusha&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000772">Studies on the life cycle of Pleurogenoides wayanadensis Shinad &
           Prasadan, 2018 (Digenea: Pleurogenidae) from the Western Ghats, India
    • Authors: P.K. Prasadan; K. Shinad, C. Sherin, K. Arusha
      Abstract: The life cycle of Pleurogenoides wayanadensis Shinad & Prasadan, 2018, infecting the frogs Hoplobatrachus tigerinus and Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis, is elucidated in this study. All the life cycle stages from egg to egg-producing adults were elucidated under natural conditions and successfully established in the laboratory. The life cycle took about 58 to 65 days for completion. Miracidia were released by teasing the eggs with fine needles. Sporocysts were found in the freshwater snail, Bithynia (Digoniostoma) pulchella, collected from paddy fields at Payode, Western Ghats, Wayanad region, in the months of October and November 2019. Cercariae were of the virgulate xiphidiocercous type. Metacercariae were recovered from the eyes of the damselfly naiads of the species Ischnura sp. and Copera sp., and the thorax and abdomen of the dragonfly naiads, Orthetrum sp. The metacercariae showed progenetic development. The growth and development of the metacercariae in the naiads that were exposed to cercariae, and development of the trematode in frogs that were force-fed with encysted metacercariae, have been studied at regular intervals. The prepatent period is 14–19 days. The present life cycle study of a Pleurogenoides spp. forms the seventh report from the world, fourth report from India and the third from Kerala.
      PubDate: 2020-09-28T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000772
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Trichinella+spiralis:+inflammation+modulator&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+Xue+Bai,+Yang+Wang,+Jian+Li,+Chun+Wang,+Shicun+Li,+Mingyuan+Liu,+Xuelin+Wang&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000802">Trichinella spiralis: inflammation modulator
    • Authors: Jing Ding; Xiaolei Liu, Xue Bai, Yang Wang, Jian Li, Chun Wang, Shicun Li, Mingyuan Liu, Xuelin Wang
      Abstract: The hygiene hypothesis posits that the decreased incidence of parasitic infection in developed countries may underlie an increased prevalence of allergic and autoimmune diseases in these countries. As unique inflammation modulator of intracellular parasitism, Trichinella spiralis, or its excretory–secretory (ES) product, shows improved responses to allergies, autoimmune diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes, rheumatic arthritis and autoimmune encephalomyelitis by exerting immunomodulatory effects on both innate and adaptive immune cells in animal models. Research has shown that T. spiralis differs from other helminths in manipulation of the host immune response not only by well-known characteristics of its life cycle, but also by its inflammation modulation pathway. How the parasite achieves inflammation modulation has not been fully elucidated yet. This review will generalize the mechanism and focuses on ES immunomodulatory molecules of T. spiralis that may be important for developing new therapeutics for inflammatory disorders.
      PubDate: 2020-09-21T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000802
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • In+vitro+biological+control+of+bovine+parasitic+nematodes+by+Arthrobotrys+cladodes,+Duddingtonia+flagrans+and+Pochonia+chlamydosporia+under+different+temperature+conditions&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&Ítalo&Ítalo+Stoupa+Vieira&,+Artur+Kanadani+Campos,+Jackson+Victor+de+Araújo&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000796">In vitro biological control of bovine parasitic nematodes by Arthrobotrys
           cladodes, Duddingtonia flagrans and Pochonia chlamydosporia under
           different temperature conditions
    • Authors: Ítalo Stoupa Vieira; Isabela de Castro Oliveira, Artur Kanadani Campos, Jackson Victor de Araújo
      Abstract: Variations in temperature can affect the development of nematophagous fungi, especially when they are used in the biological control of parasitic nematodes in the pastures where cattle are reared. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of temperature on the performance of nematophagous fungi in the biological control of bovine parasitic nematodes. The mycelial growth, chlamydospore production and nematicidal activity of Duddingtonia flagrans, Arthrobotrys cladodes and Pochonia chlamydosporia were evaluated at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. The fungal strains achieved mycelial growth, chlamydospore production and nematicidal activity on parasitic nematodes under all temperature conditions tested. The fungi showed higher growth at intermediate temperatures (20, 25 and 30°C) than at the extremes of 15 and 35°C. At 25 and 30°C, D. flagrans realized 96.8 and 94.5% nematicidal activity on bovine parasitic nematodes, respectively. Arthrobotrys cladodes effected nematicidal activity of 85.3 and 83.5%, at 20 and 25°C, respectively. At 20 and 30°C, P. chlamydosporia achieved nematicidal activity of 81.3 and 87.4%, respectively. The maximum chlamydospore production was reached at 20, 25 and 30°C for D. flagrans, at 20 and 25°C for A. cladodes and P. chlamydosporia. The results of this study demonstrated that the tested fungal strains of D. flagrans, A. cladodes and P. chlamydosporia, when used in the biological control of bovine parasitic nematodes, were not limited by in vitro temperature variations. Therefore, the use of these strains of fungi as biological control agents of parasitic nematodes is promising.
      PubDate: 2020-09-21T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000796
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Human seroprevalence data indicate other factors than climatic conditions
           influencing dirofilariosis transmission in the Russian Federation
    • Authors: J. González-Miguel; L.V. Akhmadishina, M.N. Ruzina, K.K. Kyuregyan, M.I. Mikhailov, A.N. Lukashev
      Abstract: The species of the genus Dirofilaria are filarial parasites causing zoonotic infections in humans with an increasing incidence in temperate and tropical areas of the world. Due to its classification as a vector-borne disease, the most important factors influencing dirofilariosis transmission are those related to climate, such as temperature and humidity. However, other factors linked with human behaviour can influence the distribution of the parasite. Although the Russian Federation could be considered as a non-suitable area for Dirofilaria spp. transmission due to its climatic conditions, one third of the human cases of dirofilariosis have been declared in this country. Here, seroepidemiological data on human dirofilariosis for five different regions distributed throughout the Russian Federation (Rostov, Moscow, Ekaterinburg, Yakutia and Khabarovsk) were obtained. A total of 940 serum samples from totally random donors living in these areas were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of anti-Dirofilaria immitis immunoglobulin G antibodies. Similar seroprevalence data ranging from 3.41% in Yakutia to 6.95% in Khabarovsk, with no significant correlation with climatic data of yearly average temperature and rainfall from these regions were found. These results suggest that other factors probably related to human behaviour, and not only climatic conditions, might be facilitating the spread of human dirofilariosis in these areas.
      PubDate: 2020-09-21T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000760
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Pseudoterranova+decipiens+larva+in+a+Danish+patient+with+suspected+allergic+rhinitis&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+A.M.+Karami,+P.W.+Kania,+K.+Buchmann&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000681">Nasal localization of a Pseudoterranova decipiens larva in a Danish
           patient with suspected allergic rhinitis
    • Authors: A. Nordholm; J.A.L. Kurtzhals, A.M. Karami, P.W. Kania, K. Buchmann
      Abstract: Pseudoterranoviasis is a zoonotic disease caused by nematode larvae of species within the genus Pseudoterranova (seal worm, cod worm). Most infections are gastrointestinal, oesophageal or pharyngeal, but here we report a nasal infection. A 33-year-old patient suffering from rhinitis for 1.5 years recovered a worm larva from the nose. Diagnosis was performed by morphological and molecular characterization, showing the causative agent to be a third-stage larva of Pseudoterranova decipiens (sensu stricto). Various infection routes are discussed.
      PubDate: 2020-09-14T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000681
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Leuciscus+leuciscus+in+Ireland:+a+helminth+community+survey+and+systematic+review&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+S.M.+Matthews,+E.+Costantini,+C.V.+Holland&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000759">Evidence for enemy release in invasive common dace Leuciscus leuciscus in
           Ireland: a helminth community survey and systematic review
    • Authors: P.A. Tierney; J.M. Caffrey, S.M. Matthews, E. Costantini, C.V. Holland
      Abstract: Invasive species lose parasites in the process of invasion and tend to be less parasitized than conspecifics in the native range and sympatric native species in the invasive range (enemy release). We evaluated enemy release in an invasive freshwater fish in Ireland, common dace Leuciscus leuciscus, using helminth parasite community surveys at the core and front of the invasive range of common dace. Furthermore, we undertook a systematic literature review of helminth infection in common dace across its native range in Great Britain and Europe and invasive range in Ireland. The helminth parasite community survey revealed that invasive common dace were infected with fewer helminth species at the invasion front than at the core. Four helminth taxa – Acanthocephala, Monogenea, Digenea and Nematoda – were present in dace at the invasion core compared to only a single helminth species (Pomphorhynchus tereticollis) at the front. The systematic review revealed that invasive common dace in Ireland hosted fewer species of helminths than common dace in the native range. We report a total of three helminth species in common dace in Ireland compared to 24 in Great Britain and 84 in Continental Europe. Our results support the hypotheses that invasive populations are less parasitized than native populations and that more recently established populations host fewer parasites. However, we demonstrate that invasive species may continue to experience release from parasites long after initial invasion.
      PubDate: 2020-09-14T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000759
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • A survey of entomopathogenic nematodes and their symbiotic bacteria in
           agricultural areas of northern Thailand
    • Authors: J. Ardpairin; P. Muangpat, S. Sonpom, A. Dumidae, C. Subkrasae, S. Tandhavanant, A. Thanwisai, A. Vitta
      Abstract: Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) Steinernema and Heterorhabditis and their symbiotic bacteria, Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus, have been successfully used for the control of insect pests. The objectives of this study were to survey the EPNs and symbiotic bacteria in the agricultural areas of the Phitsanulok province, Thailand, and to study the association between the soil parameters and presence of EPNs. We collected 200 soil samples from 40 soil sites in agricultural areas (field crops, horticulture crops and forest). The prevalence of EPNs was 8.0% (16/200). Fifteen of the EPN isolates were molecularly identified (based on 28S ribosomal DNA and internal transcribed spacer regions) as Steinernema siamkayai. Seven isolates of Xenorhabdus stockiae were identified using recombinase A sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the Steinernema and Xenorhabdus isolates were closely related to S. siamkayai (Indian strain) and X. stockiae (Thai strain), respectively. Significantly more EPNs were recovered from loam than from clay. Although the association between soil parameters (pH, temperature and moisture) and the presence of EPNs was not statistically significant, the elevation levels of the soil sites with and without EPNs were found to be different. Moreover, statistical comparisons between the agricultural areas revealed no significant differences. Therefore, we concluded that S. siamkayai is associated with X. stockiae in agricultural areas and that there is no association between the soil parameters of agricultural areas and presence of EPNs, except for soil texture and the elevation. Steinernema siamkayai may be applied as a biocontrol agent in agricultural areas.
      PubDate: 2020-09-14T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000735
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • In+vitro+nematicidal+activity+of+two+ferrocenyl+chalcones+against+larvae+of+Haemonchus+contortus+(L3)+and+Nacobbus+aberrans+(J2)&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&ázquez-Bravo&rft.aufirst=J.&ázquez-Bravo&,+G.S.+Castañeda-Ramírez,+I.+De+los+Santos-Pérez,+R.E.+Arroyo-Carmona,+S.+Bernès,+U.+Hernández-Pareja,+O.+Gómez-Rodríguez,+G.H.+Rosas-Saito&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X2000070X">In vitro nematicidal activity of two ferrocenyl chalcones against larvae
           of Haemonchus contortus (L3) and Nacobbus aberrans (J2)
    • Authors: J. Vázquez-Bravo; L. Aguilar-Marcelino, G.S. Castañeda-Ramírez, I. De los Santos-Pérez, R.E. Arroyo-Carmona, S. Bernès, U. Hernández-Pareja, O. Gómez-Rodríguez, G.H. Rosas-Saito
      Abstract: The main goal of this work was to evaluate the in vitro biological activity of two ferrocenyl chalcones (FcC-1 and FcC-2) against Haemonchus contortus (third-stage larvae (L3)) and Nacobbus aberrans (second-stage juveniles (J2)). Both compounds were synthesized and characterized by usual spectroscopic methods and their molecular structures were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffractometry. Nematode strains were examined in terms of percentage mortality of H. contortus (L3) by the action of FcC-1, which showed an effectivity of 100% at a concentration of 342 μM in 24 h, with EC50 = 20.33 μM and EC90 = 162.76 μM, whereas FcC-2 had an effectivity of 72% at a concentration of 342 μM in 24 h, with EC50 = 167.39 μM and EC90 = 316.21 μM. The effect of FcC-1 against nematode phytoparasite N. aberrans showed a better percentage of 95% at a concentration of 342 μM, with EC50 = 7.18 μM and EC90 = 79.25 μM, whereas the effect of FcC-2 was 87% at 342 μM, with EC50 = 168 μM and EC90 = 319.56 μM at 36 h. After treatment, the scanning electron micrographs revealed deformities in the dorsal flank and posterior part close to the tail of H. contortus L3. They showed moderate in vitro nematicidal activity against H. contortus L3 and N. aberrans J2.
      PubDate: 2020-09-11T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X2000070X
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Fasciola+hepatica+infection+in+cattle+and+the+use+of+simulation+models+for+endemic+areas&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+I.C.+Pritsch,+V.P.+Garbin,+A.M.+Pereira,+A.+Gavião,+A.L.+Gabriel,+R.S.+de+Sousa,+J.G.A.+Viana&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X2000067X">Fasciola hepatica infection in cattle and the use of simulation models for
           endemic areas
    • Authors: M.B. Molento; L.H. Dutra, I.C. Pritsch, V.P. Garbin, A.M. Pereira, A. Gavião, A.L. Gabriel, R.S. de Sousa, J.G.A. Viana
      Abstract: Fasciolosis is a food-borne disease that causes great distress to a range of hosts, including humans. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the liver damage and carcass weight of cattle naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil, and to (2) determine the distribution of adult flukes in 12,236 cattle liver from RS. The data from these experiments were used to calculate the overall economic loss due to F. hepatica infection. Eighteen adult Polled Hereford cows were divided into a triclabendazole (TbG) and a F. hepatica-positive group (FhG). For Experiment 1, a generalized linear mixed model revealed a statistical difference in carcass weight (49.8 kg) between TbG and FhG. The Monte Carlo analysis also revealed that the animals’ weight differences were due to the disease. For Experiment 2, the prevalence of infected livers was above 16% (1904/12,236), mostly (20.1%) from the south-west region of RS. The Susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) epidemic model revealed the evolution of the infection using a high infectivity and low recovery rate. Other distinctive scenarios that occur in RS were also established with different rates of infectivity. The economic assessment showed a potential loss of US$45 million to the beef cattle industry of RS, with an overall State cost of US$90.3 million. These novel findings reveal the importance of fasciolosis infection, which can cause a significant health condition and poor animal welfare.
      PubDate: 2020-09-10T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X2000067X
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Steinernema+cholashanense+(Nguyen)+on+larval+and+pupal+stages+of+potato+tuber+moth,+Phthorimaea+operculella+(Zeller)&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+V.+Rangasamy,+K.L.+Divya,+S.+Tadigiri,+G.+Chawla,+A.+Bairwa,+E.P.+Venkatasalam&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000723">Biocontrol potential of Steinernema cholashanense (Nguyen) on larval and
           pupal stages of potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller)
    • Authors: P.H. Mhatre; J. Patil, V. Rangasamy, K.L. Divya, S. Tadigiri, G. Chawla, A. Bairwa, E.P. Venkatasalam
      Abstract: The potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), is a serious pest of potato and other commercial crops belonging to the Solanaceae family. In recent years, it has become an emerging problem in potato-growing regions of the Nilgiri hills of southern India. It is responsible for the reduced quality and quantity of marketable potatoes. In this regard, the development of an eco-friendly control method for the management of the potato tuber moth is urgently required. Therefore, in the present study, the virulence of Steinernema cholashanense CPRSUS01 originally isolated from the potato rhizosphere was tested on fourth-instar larvae and pupae of P. operculella. Steinernema cholashanense caused the greatest mortality in the fourth-instar larval stage (100%) than the pupae (30%). In addition to this, penetration and reproduction of this nematode was also studied in fourth-instar larvae of P. operculella and this is the first report of penetration and reproduction of any entomopathogenic nematode species on potato tuber moth larvae. The reproduction capacity of S. cholashanense on P. operculella is higher (702 infective juveniles mg−1 body weight). Our results indicated that S. cholashanense has good potential as an alternative tool for the management of P. operculella. But before including S. cholashanense in the integrated pest management program of P. operculella, its efficacy should be tested under field conditions.
      PubDate: 2020-09-10T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000723
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Responses of monogenean species to variations in abiotic parameters in
    • Authors: L.D. Cavalcanti; E.J. Gouveia, F.C. Leal, C.S.M. Figueiró, S.S. Rojas, M.R. Russo
      Abstract: Fish farming is becoming an increasingly popular agricultural activity, and water quality in these environments is a major concern. Fish parasites, such as monogeneans, respond to changes in abiotic conditions, either with an increase or decrease in population. This study aimed to identify gill monogeneans and analyse their relationships with abiotic factors during the ontogenetic development of Nile tilapia over the fish culture cycle in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Fish were sampled monthly for eight months, and a total of 200 fish were collected. The physical and chemical water parameters were measured and correlated with the abundance of each monogenean species. Over the fish culture cycle, the physical and chemical parameters fluctuated, and the water quality decreased. The parasites found included Cichlidogyrus tilapiae, Cichlidogyrus thurstonae, Cichlidogyrus sclerosus, Cichlidogyrus halli and Scutogyrus longicornis. The abundances of all species showed significant differences during ontogenetic development (body size) and C. tilapiae, C. sclerosus, C. thurstonae and S. longicornis were correlated with changes in abiotic conditions. However, C. halli was not significantly correlated with any of the evaluated physical or chemical parameters. Understanding how different monogenean species respond to changes in the physical and chemical parameters of water during a production cycle can prevent peaks in abundance and subsequent sanitary problems.
      PubDate: 2020-09-10T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000711
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Fasciola+hepatica-infected+mules&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+M.D.+Bargues,+P.F.+Cuervo,+P.+Artigas,+L.+Logarzo,+G.+Cortiñas,+D.E.J.+Ibaceta,+A.+Lopez+Garrido,+E.+Bisutti,+S.+Mas-Coma&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000693">Equines as reservoirs of human fascioliasis: transmission capacity,
           epidemiology and pathogenicity in Fasciola hepatica-infected mules
    • Authors: R. Mera y Sierra; G. Neira, M.D. Bargues, P.F. Cuervo, P. Artigas, L. Logarzo, G. Cortiñas, D.E.J. Ibaceta, A. Lopez Garrido, E. Bisutti, S. Mas-Coma
      Abstract: Fascioliasis is a zoonotic disease caused by liver flukes transmitted by freshwater lymnaeid snails. Donkey and horse reservoir roles have been highlighted in human endemic areas. Liver fluke infection in mules has received very limited research. Their role in disease transmission, epidemiological importance and Fasciola hepatica pathogenicity are studied for the first time. Prevalence was 39.5% in 81 mules from Aconcagua, and 24.4% in 127 from Uspallata, in high-altitude areas of Mendoza province, Argentina. A mean amount of 101,242 eggs/mule/day is estimated. Lymnaeids from Uspallata proved to belong to ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) markers ITS-1 and ITS-2 combined haplotype 3C of Galba truncatula. These lymnaeids were experimentally susceptible to infection by egg miracidia from mules. Infectivity, number of cercariae/snail and shedding period fit the enhanced F. hepatica/G. truncatula transmission pattern at very high altitude. This indicates that the mule is able to maintain the F. hepatica cycle independently. Individual burdens of 20 and 97 flukes were found. Mule infection susceptibility is intermediate between donkey and horse, although closer to the latter. Anatomo-pathology and histopathology indicate that massive infection may cause mule death. Haematological value decreases of red blood cells, haemoglobin, leucocytes and lymphocytes indicate anaemia and strong immunosuppression. Strongly increased biochemical marker values indicate liver function alterations. The mule probably played a role in the past exchanges with Chile and Bolivia through Mendoza province. Evidence suggests that mules could contribute to the spread of both F. hepatica and G. truncatula to human fascioliasis-endemic areas in these countries.
      PubDate: 2020-09-10T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000693
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Meloidogyne+enterolobii+infection+of+Guava+seedlings&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&á&rft.aufirst=C.S.B.&á&">Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi decrease Meloidogyne enterolobii infection of
           Guava seedlings
    • Authors: C.S.B. de Sá; M.A.S. Campos
      Abstract: Guava (Psidium guajava L.) production is prominent in the irrigated fruit growing area of Brazil. However, the parasite Meloidogyne enterolobii (a phytonematode) has caused a decrease in guava production. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are known to be beneficial to plants; however, their ability to protect plants against nematodes such as M. enterolobii remains poorly known. This study aimed to monitor M. enterolobii infection in guava seedlings inoculated with three AMF species. After AMF inoculation, the seedlings were grown in sterile soil for 60 days before inoculation with 2000 M. enterolobii eggs. Plant growth parameters, mycorrhizal colonization and the number of Meloidogyne in the roots were determined over time (30 and 60 days after Meloidogyne inoculation). The AMF enhanced guava seedling growth, and reduced the amount of Meloidogyne in the roots at 30 and 60 days after nematode inoculation, indicating that these AMF species could serve as biocontrol agents of M. enterolobii in guava cultivation.
      PubDate: 2020-08-27T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000668
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Contracaecum+(Nematoda:+Anisakidae)+found+parasitizing+Nannopterum+brasilianus+(Suliformes:+Phalacrocoracidae)+and+Hoplias+argentinensis+(Characiformes:+Erythrinidae)+in+South+America:+morphological+and+molecular+characterization+of+larval+and+adult+stages&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+V.+Salinas,+R.O.+Simões,+J.L.+Luque&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000644">A new species of Contracaecum (Nematoda: Anisakidae) found parasitizing
           Nannopterum brasilianus (Suliformes: Phalacrocoracidae) and Hoplias
           argentinensis (Characiformes: Erythrinidae) in South America:
           morphological and molecular characterization of larval and adult stages
    • Authors: C.J. Sardella; M. Mancini, V. Salinas, R.O. Simões, J.L. Luque
      Abstract: Nematode species of the genus Contracaecum Railliet & Henry, 1912 have been reported around the world in many species of fish-eating birds and seals. Here, Contracaecum jorgei n. sp. is morphologically described using light and scanning electron microscopy for adults and fourth-stage larvae (L4) found in the bird Nannopterum brasilianus and third-stage larvae (L3) found in the freshwater fish Hoplias argentinensis, both from the province of Córdoba, Argentina. Additionally, sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit II were obtained from these specimens and molecular phylogenetic analysis was used to determine its relationships within the genus. The present species is distinguished from other species by the number and disposition of cephalic papillae; shape and size of the interlabia; length of the spicules; and number and arrangement of papillae in the posterior end of the male. Furthermore, in the molecular analyses, sequences obtained from adult L4 and L3 specimens of C. jorgei n. sp. were similar and grouped, forming an independent lineage, thus confirming it as a distinct species. Thus, morphological characteristics associated with molecular data support the proposal of a new species.
      PubDate: 2020-08-27T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000644
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • DNA sequencing demonstrates the importance of jellyfish in life cycles of
           lepocreadiid trematodes
    • Authors: J.G. Browne; K.A. Pitt, T.H. Cribb
      Abstract: Sequence data were combined with morphological analyses to identify two lepocreadiid trematode species from jellyfishes and fishes. Three species of jellyfish were captured within Port Phillip Bay, Australia, and three species of fish that feed on jellyfish were obtained from Moreton Bay (Queensland) and Port Phillip Bay and Portland (Victoria). The digeneans were distributed throughout most parts of the jellyfish. Opechona cf. kahawai Bray & Cribb, 2003 parasitized the scyphozoan jellyfish Aequorea eurodina and the scombrid fish Scomber australasicus. Cephalolepidapedon warehou Bray & Cribb, 2003 parasitized the scyphozoans Pseudorhiza haeckeli and Cyanea annaskala, and the centrolophid fishes Seriolella brama and Seriolella punctata. Intensities ranged from four to 96 in the jellyfish, and one to 30 in the fish. For both trematode species, internal transcribed spacer 2 of ribosomal DNA sequences from mature adults in the fishes matched those from metacercariae from the jellyfish. This is the first record of larval stages of C. warehou and O. cf. kahawai, and the first use of DNA sequencing to identify digenean trematode metacercariae from jellyfish. Three new host records are reported for C. warehou and two for O. cf. kahawai.
      PubDate: 2020-08-24T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000632
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Haemonchus+contortus+infection+as+a+strategy+to+induce+protective+immune+response+to+natural+infection+in+Pelibuey+lambs&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&ález-Garduño,+G.+Torres-Hernández,+C.+Becerril-Pérez,+O.+Hernández-Mendo,+E.+Ramírez-Bribiesca,+M.E.+López-Arellano,+J.+Vargas-Magaña,+E.+Hernández-Rueda&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000656">Artificial Haemonchus contortus infection as a strategy to induce
           protective immune response to natural infection in Pelibuey lambs
    • Authors: A. Cruz-Tamayo; R. González-Garduño, G. Torres-Hernández, C. Becerril-Pérez, O. Hernández-Mendo, E. Ramírez-Bribiesca, M.E. López-Arellano, J. Vargas-Magaña, E. Hernández-Rueda
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the reduction in nematode faecal egg count (FEC) in Pelibuey lambs segregated as resistant (RES), susceptible (SUS) and intermediate (INT) to gastrointestinal nematodes. Twenty-nine weaned Pelibuey lambs, aged five months old, free of nematode infection, were used. Nine lambs were RES, six were SUS and 14 were INT lambs. The study consisted of two phases: in Phase 1 the lambs were infected experimentally with Haemonchus contortus. In Phase 2, the lambs were naturally infected by grazing. Faecal and blood samples were taken every week. The packed cell volume and total protein were quantified. The FEC value (FECmax) per lamb was recorded together with a natural reduction in FEC in the two phases. The data were analysed with a model of measures repeated over time. During Phase 1, the RES lambs showed the lowest FEC (1061 ± 1053) compared to the other groups (INT: 2385 ± 1794 eggs per gram of faeces (EPG); and SUS: 3958 ± 3037 EPG). However, in Phase 2 no significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the groups of lambs (RES: 275 ± 498 EPG; SUS: 504 ± 1036 EPG; and INT: 603 ± 1061 EPG). At the end of Phase 1, the FEC of RES lambs was naturally reduced by 75.5% in respect to FECmax (p < 0.05), and at the end of Phase 2 the reduction in FEC was 90% in respect to FECmax (p > 0.05); the same behaviour was observed in RES and SUS lambs. It is concluded that the artificial infection in the lambs induced a more rapid immune response in RES than SUS lambs, and all lambs developed high acquired resistance by continuous infection.
      PubDate: 2020-08-20T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000656
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Taenia+solium+taeniasis/cysticercosis+in+three+Venezuelan+rural+communities&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+C.M.+Aguilar,+E.+Ferrer,+Y.+Alviarez,+C.+Méndez,+C.+Medina-Freites,+R.M.E.+Parkhouse&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000619">Seroepidemiological evidence for Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in
           three Venezuelan rural communities
    • Authors: M.M. Cortez A; G. Rojas, C.M. Aguilar, E. Ferrer, Y. Alviarez, C. Méndez, C. Medina-Freites, R.M.E. Parkhouse
      Abstract: Taenia solium is the most common parasite infection of the brain, causing neurocysticercosis and typically found in rural communities with free-ranging pigs. Identification of transmission in rural areas is essential for its control. Risk factors and transmission of the parasite were evaluated in three rural Venezuelan communities (Valle del Rio and Potrero Largo, Cojedes state; and Palmarito, Portuguesa state) by a questionnaire (112 households) and coprological (492 samples) and serological (433 human and 230 porcine sera) analysis, respectively. Typical risk factors were found in all three communities: free-foraging pig husbandry, deficient sanitary conditions, high open defecation and ignorance of the parasite life cycle. Coprological examinations revealed a high level of soil-transmitted parasites. Importantly, two T. solium adult worm carriers were identified in each of the three communities. Anti-metacestode antibodies and the HP10 secreted metacestode glycoprotein were detected at significant levels in human and porcine sera in Valle del Rio, Potrero Largo and Palmarito. In conclusion, these communities may be considered to be endemic for taeniasis/cysticercosis, and the instigation of an appropriate control programme is recommended.
      PubDate: 2020-08-11T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000619
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Endoparasitic diversity from the Southern Ocean: is it really low in
           Antarctic fish'
    • Authors: G. Muñoz; F.D. Cartes
      Abstract: The biodiversity and composition of endoparasites in fish obtained from the Antarctic and subantarctic zones are compared in this study. Several fish were collected in the summer from Antarctica (King George Island) and the Southern Pacific coast (Strait of Magellan and Almirante Montt Gulf). This database was complemented with published information on fish endoparasite communities from both zones, with specimens of fish sample size n ≥ 15. Thus, 31 fish species were analysed in this study, which altogether had 79 parasite species. Diversity indices were calculated for the parasite community of each fish species. Then they were compared between the Antarctic and subantarctic zones. Parasite species composition and host specificity (as the number of fish species used by a parasite species) were also analysed and compared between zones. The diversity indices and the abundance of parasites were significantly higher in the Antarctic than the subantarctic fish. Few parasite species (7.6%) were shared between fish from both zones, showing significant differences in parasite composition. Antarctic parasites were less host-specific than subantarctic parasites, which allowed the coexistence of several parasite species in the fish. The high parasite abundance in Antarctic fish could trigger sympatric speciation in certain parasitic lineages or the exploitation of new resources, resulting in more parasite species than those in subantarctic environments. The high abundance of Antarctic parasites implies different methods and rates of transmission than those of subantarctic parasites. In addition, more alternative fish hosts were used by the Antarctic than subantarctic parasites. This altogether indicates that host–parasite interaction dynamics significantly differ between the Antarctic and subantarctic systems.
      PubDate: 2020-08-11T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000590
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Evaluation of anthelmintic drugs against egg development of rumen flukes
           recovered from cattle raised in the humid tropics of Mexico
    • Authors: R. González-Garduño; D.O. Ortiz-Pérez, L. Alegría-Jiménez, O.M. Torres-Chable, A.A. Cruz-Tamayo, C.V. Zaragoza-Vera
      Abstract: Paramphistomosis is a parasitic disease endemic in ruminants nearly worldwide. In the present study, an in vitro screening of the main anthelmintics used in Mexico was carried out to determine the mean lethal dose for rumen fluke eggs from cattle in a humid, warm region. Rumen flukes were obtained from cattle slaughtered in the states of Tabasco and Chiapas in Mexico. Eggs were collected using a 37-μm sieve and quantified. Then, an in vitro incubation study was performed: 100 eggs were placed into the wells of polystyrene microtiter plates. Anthelmintic products were tested on the eggs at concentrations ranging from 0.0015 to 3.0 mg/ml for rafoxanide, 0.0025 to 10.20 mg/ml for nitroxinil and 0.0015 to 3 mg/ml for closantel to determine the median lethal dose (LD50) and maximum lethal dose (LD99). A control group (water) was included in each plate. Three different species of rumen flukes (Calicophoron brothriophoron, Calicophoron clavula and Paramphistomum cervi) belonging to five isolates were identified. Nitroxinil had the highest efficacy against rumen fluke eggs, with an LD50 of 0.11 to 65 μg/ml, whereas rafoxanide showed the lowest efficacy with an LD50 ranging from 500 to 1713 μg/ml. Closantel showed high variability in the LD50 among the different analysed isolates (17 to 122 μg/ml). The evaluated flukicidal drugs presented differential efficacy against the development of rumen fluke eggs. The efficacy of the drugs will vary depending on the geographical area of origin of the animals.
      PubDate: 2020-08-10T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000607
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Haddadus+binotatus'&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+F.H.+Yamada,+L.A.+dos+Anjos,+L.A.F.+da+Silva,+R.J.+da+Silva&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000620">Can differences between continental and insular habitats influence the
           parasites communities associated with the endemic frog Haddadus
    • Authors: A. Aguiar; D.H. Morais, F.H. Yamada, L.A. dos Anjos, L.A.F. da Silva, R.J. da Silva
      Abstract: Habitats characterized by geographic isolation such as islands have been studied using different organisms as models for understanding the dynamic and insular patterns of biodiversity. Determinants of parasite richness in insular host populations have been conducted mainly with mammals and birds, showing that parasite richness decreases in insular areas. In the present study, we predicted that the type of environment (insular or continental) can influence the richness, diversity and abundance of parasites associated with the endemic frog Haddadus binotatus (Spix, 1824). We sampled frogs in two insular and two mainland fragments to survey their helminth parasites. The total richness was composed of 15 taxa of Nematoda and two of Acanthocephala, and the community composition of the two islands had more similarities between them than the two mainland localities. The insular effect was positive for richness and abundance of helminths, and no significant effect was observed on helminth diversity – even the mean diversity presented high numbers for the islands. We presumed that insular hosts could have lost some parasites in the colonization process when these continental islands were separated from the mainland, approximately 11,000 years ago. However, the high richness and abundance on islands can be explained by an epidemiological argument, which considers high population density due to insularity and other features of the host as factors that increase parasite transmission success among individuals.
      PubDate: 2020-08-10T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000620
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • New records of helminth parasites of nine species of waterfowl in Mexico,
           and a checklist of the helminth fauna of Anatidae occurring in Mexican
    • Authors: P. Padilla-Aguilar; E. Romero-Callejas, D. Osorio-Sarabia, G. Pérez–Ponce de León, Y. Alcalá-Canto
      Abstract: Wild and domestic populations of waterfowl garner economic benefits, as they are hunted for human consumption or as a recreational activity. Waterfowl migrate to their wintering grounds in Mexican wetlands where habitat conditions are more favourable. In this study, we present a list of helminth species sampled from the gastrointestinal tract of 59 wild birds belonging to the family Anatidae in three localities of Mexico, and a checklist of the helminth parasite fauna of the members of the family in the whole country, built from literature records. After helminthological examination, 25 taxa were identified: eight trematodes; four cestodes; 12 nematodes; and one acanthocephalan. Obtained records dated from 1943 to 2019. Our literature search yielded 563 records corresponding to 95 parasite taxa: 38 trematodes, 24 cestodes, 23 nematodes and ten acanthocephalans. In Mexico, 17 anatid species have been studied for helminths. Records correspond to 55 locations from 20 Mexican states. An insight gained from the collated literature and recent records was that trematodes represent the most diverse parasite group in anatids in Mexico. We briefly discuss that the information about helminths parasitizing waterfowl will be useful for understanding the effect of habitat loss and pollution of wetlands where migratory birds spend the breeding season, for addressing ecological programs aimed to guarantee the health and conservation of North American migratory birds or the effect of bird migration in the composition of the helminth parasite communities, and for freshwater biologists interested in the understanding of freshwater ecosystem health.
      PubDate: 2020-08-07T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000577
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Effects of geographical and climatic factors on cystic echinococcosis in
           south-western Iran
    • Authors: A. Jamshidi; A. Haniloo, A. Fazaeli, M.A. Ghatee
      Abstract: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is caused by the larval form of Echinococcus granulosus that can cause serious health and economic problems in the endemic foci. CE is globally distributed in various climatic conditions from circumpolar to tropical latitudes. Iran is an important endemic area with a spectrum of weather conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of geo-climatic factors on the distribution of livestock CE in south-western Iran (SWI) in 2016 to 2018. Data of livestock CE were retrieved from veterinary organizations of four provinces of SWI. The geo-climatic factors, including mean annual temperature (MAT), minimum MAT (MinMAT), maximum MAT (MaxMAT), mean annual rainfall (MAR), elevation, mean annual evaporation (MAE), sunny hours, wind speed, mean annual humidity (MAH), slope, frost days and land cover, were analysed using geographical information systems (GIS) approaches. The statistical analysis showed that MAR, frost days, elevation, slope and semi-condensed forest land cover were positively and MAE, MAT, MaxMAT, MinMAT and salt and salinity land cover were negatively correlated with CE occurrence. MAE was shown to be a predictive factor in the stepwise linear logistic regression model. In short, the current GIS-based study found that areas with lower evaporation were the main CE risk zones, though those with lower temperature and higher rainfall, altitude and slope, especially where covered with or in close proximity of semi-condensed forest, should be prioritized for consideration by health professionals and veterinarians for conducting control programmes in SWI.
      PubDate: 2020-07-24T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000553
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Dicrocoelium+dendriticum+species+isolated+from+sheep+of+north-west+Himalayan+region&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+S.A.+Dar,+B.A.+Ganai&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000565">Molecular characterization and immunodiagnostics of Dicrocoelium
           dendriticum species isolated from sheep of north-west Himalayan region
    • Authors: J.S. Dar; U. Shabir, S.A. Dar, B.A. Ganai
      Abstract: Despite its extensive presence among grazing ruminants, dicrocoeliosis, also known as ‘small liver fluke’ disease, is poorly known and often underestimated by researchers and practitioners in many countries. The accurate identification and prepatent diagnosis of Dicrocoelium dendriticum infection is an essential prerequisite for its prevention and control. In the present study, the morphologically identified specimens isolated from the bile ducts of sheep (Ovis aries) were validated through molecular data. The sequence analysis of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of our isolates showed a high degree of similarity with D. dendriticum using the BLAST function of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). The phylogenetic analysis of our isolates showed a close relationship with previously described D. dendriticum isolates from different countries. The antigenic profiles of somatic and excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens of D. dendriticum were revealed by sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE) and immunoblotting using sera from sheep naturally infected with D. dendriticum. By SDS–PAGE, 16 distinct bands were revealed from crude somatic fraction. Immunoblotting analysis of these proteins with positive sera exhibited six seroreactive bands ranging from 27 to 130 kDa. Among these, the 84 and 130 kDa bands were quite specific, with high diagnostic specificity and sensitivity. The E/S fraction comprised nine distinct bands, as revealed by SDS–PAGE analysis. Immunoblotting analysis of these proteins with positive sera exhibited five antigenic bands ranging from 27 to 130 kDa. Among these, the 130 kDa band was found to be quite specific, with high diagnostic specificity and sensitivity. The present study concludes that the protein bands of 84 and 130 kDa in somatic fraction and 130 kDa in E/S fraction can be used for the immunodiagnostic purpose for this economically important parasite, which may also encourage further studies regarding their vaccine potential.
      PubDate: 2020-07-20T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000565
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Ascaris+lumbricoides+and+Ascaris+suum+vary+in+their+larval+burden+in+a+mouse+model–+CORRIGENDUM&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+J.+Beresford,+C.V.+Holland&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000346">Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum vary in their larval burden in a
           mouse model– CORRIGENDUM
    • Authors: G. Deslyper; O.A. Sowemimo, J. Beresford, C.V. Holland
      PubDate: 2020-07-15T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000346
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Creptotrema+(Digenea:+Allocreadiidae)+using+an+integrative+taxonomy+approach:+the+case+of+Creptotrema+agonostomi+in+Middle+American+mountain+mullets&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&ón&rft.aufirst=G.&érez-Ponce+de+León&,+M.+García-Varela,+B.+Mendoza-Garfias,+D.I.+Hernández-Mena,+C.D.+Pinacho-Pinacho,+A.+Choudhury&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X2000053X">Disentangling the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the
           freshwater fish trematode genus Creptotrema (Digenea: Allocreadiidae)
           using an integrative taxonomy approach: the case of Creptotrema agonostomi
           in Middle American mountain mullets
    • Authors: G. Pérez-Ponce de León; A.L. Sereno-Uribe, M. García-Varela, B. Mendoza-Garfias, D.I. Hernández-Mena, C.D. Pinacho-Pinacho, A. Choudhury
      Abstract: Species of the allocreadiid genus Creptotrema are parasites of freshwater fishes in the Americas. Species in the genus possess one pair of muscular oral lobes on the oral sucker. Currently, the genus contains eight species, six distributed in South America, one in Middle America and one in North America. Genetic data are only available for the North American species, Creptotrema funduli, a parasite of fundulids originally described from Oneida Lake, New York State. In this study, we obtained 28S ribosomal DNA sequences of trematodes morphologically similar to Creptotrema agonostomi from the mountain mullet, Dajaus monticola, across a wide geographical range in Middle America. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that (1) the genus Creptotrema, as currently conceived, is not monophyletic; (2) the allocreadiids in mountain mullets should be re-allocated in the genus Pseudoparacreptotrema; and (3) the allocreadiid trematodes from D. monticola across Middle America represent four morphologically similar species, three of which can be distinguished genetically. These three new species are described herein using an integrative taxonomy approach. We contend that accurate estimates of species diversity and phylogenetic relationships among allocreadiids, and most likely other species of trematodes, necessarily require an integrative taxonomy approach that should consider at least DNA sequences and scanning electron microscopy.
      PubDate: 2020-07-15T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X2000053X
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Therapeutic efficacy of a newly synthesized benzimidazole compound BTP-OH
           against murine schistosomiasis mansoni
    • Authors: A. Taman; B. Mansour, M.Y. Youssef, S.M. Alhusseiny
      Abstract: Because of the increasingly emerging praziquantel resistance, there is a crucial need to develop new anti-schistosomal agents. This work was conducted to assess the therapeutic efficacy of a new benzimidazole compound (BTP-OH) in mice experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni. A total of 40 Swiss albino female mice were divided into an infected untreated group and three infected treated groups (using praziquantel and BTP-OH). The compound activity was evaluated through parasitological, histopathological and scanning electron microscopy studies. Praziquantel and BTP-OH at both doses significantly reduced male (75%, 42.67% and 61.08%, respectively), female (71.45%, 48.94% and 68.13%, respectively) and total worm burden (75.21%, 42.42% and 62.28%, respectively), as well as tissue egg load in the liver (71.22%, 42.12% and 66.04%, respectively). In oogram, praziquantel significantly increased the percentage of dead eggs (65.89%), while BTP-OH significantly reduced the percentage of immature eggs (30.43% and 19.64%). BTP-OH significantly diminished granuloma count (33.87% and 44.77%) and diameter (39.23% and 49.40%), and caused ultrastructural changes in the tegument of adult schistosomes. This study provides evidence for the schistosomicidal efficacy of BTP-OH. However, future studies are needed to elucidate the full mechanisms of action and effects of BTP-OH on other human schistosomes.
      PubDate: 2020-07-15T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000541
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Updated checklist of helminths found in terrestrial mammals of Argentine
    • Authors: M.H. Fugassa
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the state of knowledge about the helminthology of wild mammals in Argentine Patagonia and its link with the conservation of parasite species and biodiversity. To this end, the information included in the previously reported checklist of the helminths found in terrestrial wild mammals of Argentine Patagonia was completed and updated. The methodology used for the search was the same as that previously used, with slight modifications. Eighty-two species of mammals currently inhabit the region, and an additional six species are considered to have become extinct before the 20th century. The reports used to complete and update the information correspond to research done since 2015 to date. Considering the number of records analysed in the previously reported checklist and those of the current update, a total of 1918 helminthological reports for current Patagonian mammals and 2141 on mammal species that inhabited Patagonia before the 20th century were accounted for. It is important to point out that 41% of the 82 species of wild mammals currently inhabiting Patagonia have not been studied helminthologically; 38% of these without helminthological records are either threatened or do not have categorization, and 79% of mammals without helminthological studies have some degree of endemism. Therefore, in order to evaluate conservation priorities, the information about the parasitic richness in Patagonian wild mammals should be substantially increased, especially in those endangered or endemic.
      PubDate: 2020-07-08T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000462
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Angiostrongylus+costaricensis&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&ú,+M.M.+Costa,+R.+Rodriguez,+M.I.B.+Vieira&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000516">Abdominal angiostrongyliasis: pathologic findings in Swiss mice infected
           with different doses of Angiostrongylus costaricensis
    • Authors: C.C. Hermes; E. Benvegnú, M.M. Costa, R. Rodriguez, M.I.B. Vieira
      Abstract: Abdominal angiostrongyliasis is caused by Angiostrongylus costaricensis, the definitive and intermediate hosts of which are wild rodents and terrestrial molluscs, respectively. Humans are accidental hosts and can be infected by ingesting the third-stage (infective) larvae (L3). It remains unclear whether the number of L3 inoculated is related to lesion severity. Our aim was to analyse histopathological alterations in Swiss mice infected with different doses of A. costaricensis. Thirty-two mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8/group): uninfected, control mice; mice infected with a low dose (five L3); mice infected with an intermediate dose (15 L3); and mice infected with a high dose (30 L3). The frequency of intestinal thrombi, splenitis, eggs/larvae, hepatic infarction and acute pancreatitis differed among the groups, the last being considered a significant finding. We conclude that different infective doses alter the histopathological aspects of the infection in Swiss mice, those aspects being more pronounced at medium and high doses, with no effect on the development of the disease. This experimental model shows that the parasite life cycle can be maintained in Swiss mice through the inoculation of a low dose (five L3).
      PubDate: 2020-07-07T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000516
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Echinococcus+multilocularis,+in+grey+wolves+and+dogs+in+Slovakia:+epidemiology+and+genetic+analysis&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&šová&rft.aufirst=J.&šová&á,+V.+Šnábel,+N.+Guimarães,+J.+Štofík,+P.+Urban,+S.+Cavallero,+M.+Miterpáková&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000528">The fox tapeworm, Echinococcus multilocularis, in grey wolves and dogs in
           Slovakia: epidemiology and genetic analysis
    • Authors: J. Jarošová; D. Antolová, V. Šnábel, N. Guimarães, J. Štofík, P. Urban, S. Cavallero, M. Miterpáková
      Abstract: Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of human alveolar echinococcosis, is an important emerging parasite in the northern hemisphere. In epidemiological studies, the highest attention is being paid to foxes as the main reservoir hosts responsible for geographic expansion from multiple focal populations and the invasion of urban habitats, but little information is available on the parasite distribution in other carnivores. Hence, the study was designed to obtain updated information about the occurrence and genetic diversity of E. multilocularis in grey wolves and dogs in Slovakia. Faecal samples of wolves were collected from three locations under a certain level of environmental protection in the central and eastern parts of the country, and the presence of the parasite DNA was detected in 35.7% of 112 samples, with the highest rate (51.2%) recorded in the Poloniny National Park in north-eastern Slovakia. Among 110 faecal dog samples, E. multilocularis was detected in three faeces from segregated Roma settlements in the eastern part of the country, which accounted for an overall positivity of 2.7%. Sequence analysis of two mitochondrial genes, 12S rRNA and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1, revealed four haplotypes in 13 isolates from wolves and dogs originating from four sites in eastern and central Slovakia, with all samples bearing a European-type pattern of E. multilocularis. The more than one-third positivity rate of E. multilocularis in wolf faecal samples dispersed over a large part of the country has corroborated the extensive circulation of the parasite in wildlife and confirmed the need to improve intervention control strategies.
      PubDate: 2020-07-06T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000528
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Biological drivers of individual-based anuran–parasite networks under
           contrasting environmental conditions
    • Authors: K.M. Campião; W. Dáttilo
      Abstract: Understanding the mechanisms driving host–parasite interactions has important ecological and epidemiological implications. Traditionally, most studies dealing with host–parasite interaction networks have focused on species relationship patterns, and intra-population variation in such networks has been widely overlooked. In this study, we tested whether the composition of parasite communities of five anuran species (Leptodactylus chaquensis, Leptodactylus fuscus, Leptodactylus podicipinus, Pseudis paradoxa and Pithecopus azureus) vary across a pasture pond and a natural reserve site in south-eastern Pantanal, Brazil. We analysed the structure of individual-based networks of these five anuran species, assessed the species roles in the networks and the contribution of host species and body size to interaction strength in the networks, and tested if network ecological attributes varied between the two sites. We observed a total of 17 parasite morphospecies in 151 individual anurans and found that the abundance of parasite species tends to vary, with host species being the main filter driving parasite community structure. The composition of core parasite species remained similar between study sites, and network structure (i.e. parasite richness, interaction diversity, specialization, nestedness and modularity) did not change between pasture and natural reserve. Individual traits of hosts influenced network descriptors since larger hosts presented greater interaction strength independent of the study site. In short, we found that the occurrence of highly connected parasite taxa in both the pasture and the reserve sites may have promoted similarity in network structures, and host body size was the best predictor of associations with parasites in both study sites.
      PubDate: 2020-06-24T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000504
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Opisthorchis+viverrini+cercariae:+a+climate+change+concern&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+T.+Sathavornmanee,+V.+Thitapakorn&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000498">The effects of temperature and salinity on the longevity of Opisthorchis
           viverrini cercariae: a climate change concern
    • Authors: S. Prasopdee; J. Kulsantiwong, T. Sathavornmanee, V. Thitapakorn
      Abstract: Research on the effects of environmental factors influenced by climate change on parasite transmissibility is an area garnering recent attention worldwide. However, there is still a lack of studies on the life cycle of Opisthorchis viverrini, a carcinogenic trematode found in countries of the Lower Mekong subregion of Lao PDR, Cambodia, Myanmar, Vietnam and Thailand. To evaluate the influences of environmental factors water temperature and salinity on the transmissibility of the liver fluke O. viverrini through cercarial stage, longevity of O. viverrini cercaria was examined at different experimental temperatures (22°C, 30°C and 38°C) and salinities (2.5 parts per thousand (PPT), 3.75 PPT and 5 PPT). The results reveal that different temperatures have statistically significant effects on cercarial longevity. The cercariae exhibited a thermostability zone ranging between 22°C and 30°C. Cercarial longevity was significantly shortened when water temperatures reached 38°C. Salinity also plays a key role in cercarial longevity, with cercarial survival significantly shorter at a salinity of 3.75 PPT than at 2.5 PPT and 5 PPT. A combined analysis of salinity and temperature revealed unique trends in cercarial longevity. At all experimental salinities, cercarial longevity was lowest when incubated in 38°C, but statistically significant from cercarial longevity at temperatures of 22°C and 30°C, and salinities of 2.5 PPT and 5 PPT. The results suggest that higher temperatures negatively impact parasite longevity. This reflects that O. viverrini transmission patterns may be impacted by changes in water temperature and salinity resulting from climate change.
      PubDate: 2020-06-23T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000498
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Pseudocorynosoma+constrictum+(Acanthocephala:+Polymorphidae)+in+the+ileum+of+blue-winged+teal&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&ñas&rft.aufirst=C.&ñas&ánchez-Nava&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000486">Histopathology of lesions caused by Pseudocorynosoma constrictum
           (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) in the ileum of blue-winged teal
    • Authors: C. Caballero-Viñas; P. Sánchez-Nava
      Abstract: Pseudocorynosoma constrictum (Van Cleave, 1918) is a polymorphid acanthocephalan that attaches to the digestive tract of waterfowl to complete its life cycle, causing severe histological damage to its definitive avian hosts. In the present study, we present a histopathological analysis of the lesions that P. constrictum induced in the layers of the ileum of the blue-winged teal Anas discors. The results revealed that worms insert the attachment structures into the inner gut muscular layer, which causes substantial swelling, haemorrhaging and necrosis in the tissue near the parasite's proboscis. We also observed that the number of parasites attached to the tissue can obstruct the intestinal lumen; in the most serious case, we observed more than 30 parasites penetrating completely the walls of the bird intestine.
      PubDate: 2020-06-23T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000486
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Aporcella+Andrássy,+2002+(Dorylaimida,+Aporcelaimidae)+from+Iran,+with+a+note+on+its+phylogeny&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+N.+Vazifeh,+R.+Peña-Santiago&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000413">Study of two species, one new and one known, of the genus Aporcella
           Andrássy, 2002 (Dorylaimida, Aporcelaimidae) from Iran, with a note on
           its phylogeny
    • Authors: A. Naghavi; G. Niknam, N. Vazifeh, R. Peña-Santiago
      Abstract: Two species of the genus Aporcella, one new and one previously known, collected from cultivated fields in Iran are studied. Description, morphometrics, illustrations (both line and microphotographs) and D2–D3 sequences are provided for Aporcella talebii sp. n., which is characterized by its 1.66–2.02-mm-long body, lip region offset by constriction and 15–17 μm broad, odontostyle 14–17.5 μm long, neck 412–484 μm long, pharyngeal expansion occupying 46–50% of total neck length, uterus simple and 1.6–2.0 times the corresponding body diameter long, V = 52–59, tail conical (40–50 μm, c = 37–47, c′ = 1.1–1.4) with a weak but perceptible dorsal concavity at the end and male absent. Morphometrics, microphotographs and D2–D3 sequences of Aporcella simplex are also presented, this being its first Asian record. Molecular analyses confirm the monophyly of the genus, its close relationship with other taxa lacking pars refringens vaginae and the polyphyly of Aporcelaimidae.
      PubDate: 2020-06-19T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000413
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Creptotrematina+(Trematoda:+Allocreadiidae)+from+characid+fishes+of+Brazil:+morphological+and+molecular+data&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&érez-Ponce+de+León,+A.+de+Almeida+Camargo,+M.I.+Müller,+R.J.+da+Silva,+R.+Kozlowiski+de+Azevedo,+V.D.+Abdallah&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000474">A new species of Creptotrematina (Trematoda: Allocreadiidae) from characid
           fishes of Brazil: morphological and molecular data
    • Authors: K.G. Alves Dias; G. Pérez-Ponce de León, A. de Almeida Camargo, M.I. Müller, R.J. da Silva, R. Kozlowiski de Azevedo, V.D. Abdallah
      Abstract: A new species of Creptotrematina Yamaguti, 1954 was collected from characid fishes, Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819) and Astyanax lacustris Lucerna & Soares, 2016 from the Batalha River in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The new species most closely resembles Creptotrematina aguirrepequenoi, but differs by the elongated shape of vitelline follicles, the extension of these follicles in the posterior end of body and the fact that they are not confluent. The morphological differences were confirmed through molecular data. Three specimens were sequenced, and molecular analyses were based on the internal transcribed spacers 2 and D1–D3 domains of the 28S ribosomal RNA gene. The obtained topologies showed the new species as a sister taxon of C. aguirrepequenoi, a species originally described from Astyanax mexicanus in Mexico, and later found in Astyanax aeneus in Costa Rica. Isolates of the new species are reciprocally monophyletic, and genetic distance values are similar to those observed in other species pairs within Allocreadiidae. These findings corroborate that the genus Creptotrematina is mostly a parasite of characids, and widely extended across the Americas, with representative species occurring between Argentina and northern Mexico.
      PubDate: 2020-06-16T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000474
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Wolbachia+surface+protein+have+a+pro-+or+anti-angiogenic+effect'&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&ón,+E.+Carretón,+C.+Ollauri-Ibáñez,+M.+Pericacho,+A.+Rodríguez-Barbero,+F.+Simón&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000450">Angiogenesis in cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis: does the Wolbachia surface
           protein have a pro- or anti-angiogenic effect'
    • Authors: T. Zueva; R. Morchón, E. Carretón, C. Ollauri-Ibáñez, M. Pericacho, A. Rodríguez-Barbero, F. Simón
      Abstract: Cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis caused by Dirofilaria immitis produces inflammation, blood vessel obstruction and hypoxia, which are required conditions for the beginning of the process of neovascularization. Since D. immitis harbours intracellular symbiotic Wolbachia bacterium, the global understanding of the angiogenic process requires the analysis of the effect of the parasite molecules, but also that of Wolbachia. Canine primary lung microvascular endothelial cells were treated with the recombinant Wolbachia surface protein (rWSP) and the expression of angiogenic factors like Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A), sFlt, membrane Endoglin (mEndoglin) and soluble Endoglin (sEndoglin), as well as the in vitro formation of pseudocapillaries, were measured. The analyses showed a significant increase in the expression of pro-angiogenic VEGF-A and anti-angiogenic sEndoglin, together with a significant decrease in both pro-angiogenic mEndoglin and pseudocapillary formation, compared to untreated controls. Due to the complexity of the angiogenic process and its relationship with other physiological processes like inflammation and fibrinolysis, these results might suggest that rWSP participate in various mechanisms related to each other and its effects might depend either on the balance between them or on the moment of their occurrence.
      PubDate: 2020-06-10T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000450
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Centrorhynchus+globocaudatus+(Acanthocephala)+cement+apparatus+and+function+of+cement+gland+secretion&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+J.A.+DePasquale,+F.+Pironi&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000437">Ultrastructure of male Centrorhynchus globocaudatus (Acanthocephala)
           cement apparatus and function of cement gland secretion
    • Authors: B. Sayyaf Dezfuli; S. Rubini, J.A. DePasquale, F. Pironi
      Abstract: Cement glands are one of the most conspicuous and distinctive elements of taxonomic interest in male Acanthocephala. Cement glands vary in shape, number and arrangement in different classes of the taxon. The glands and their products have a fundamental role in the reproductive process. Light and electron microscopy were used to investigate the ultrastructure of the cement apparatus, which includes both cement glands and the cement reservoir, in mature males of Centrorhynchus globocaudatus (Zeder, 1800). Centrorhynchus globocaudatus is an enteric parasite of birds of prey, including Falco tinnunculus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Buteo buteo (Linnaeus, 1758) from the province of Ferrara (northern Italy). The four elongated cement glands of C. globocaudatus are situated posterior to the testes. Sections through the cement glands show each gland is surrounded by a fibrous envelope with an approximate thickness of 0.6 μm. Beneath this envelope is an outer cytoplasmic layer thickness ranging from 22 to 26 μm, which contains a number of nuclei with diameters variable from 20 to 22 μm. The cytoplasmic layer is filled with prominent free ribosomes and many mitochondria with lamellar cristae. Secretory granules, measuring from 1 to 1.3 μm in diameter, are formed within the cytoplasmic layer. The cytoplasmic layer surrounds the luminal area for storage of the cement material in each gland. Cement gland ducts arise from the gland and extend towards a common cement reservoir in close contact with the seminal vesicle and Saefftigen's pouch. Microtubules, large secretory granules and rest of undefined organelles were also observed within the cement reservoir.
      PubDate: 2020-06-09T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000437
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Lyperosomum+Looss,+1899+(Digenea:+Dicrocoeliidae)+from+Melanerpes+aurifrons+(Wagler,+1829)+from+northern+Mexico&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&ález-García&rft.aufirst=M.T.&ález-García&,+L.+Andrade-Gómez,+M.+García-Varela&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000425">Morphological and molecular evidence reveals a new species of Lyperosomum
           Looss, 1899 (Digenea: Dicrocoeliidae) from Melanerpes aurifrons (Wagler,
           1829) from northern Mexico
    • Authors: M.T. González-García; M.P. Ortega-Olivares, L. Andrade-Gómez, M. García-Varela
      Abstract: A new species of the genus Lyperosomum Looss, 1899, from the intestine of the golden-fronted woodpecker (Melanerpes aurifrons) from northern Mexico is described. Lyperosomum cuauhxinqui sp. n. is morphologically distinguished from other congeneric species from the Americas by a higher oral/ventral sucker ratio and its body length and width. The sequences of domains D1–D3 of the large subunit (LSU) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) from the mitochondrial DNA of the new species were obtained and compared with available sequences from GenBank. The genetic divergence estimated between the new species and other congeneric species ranged from 2 to 6% and 13.4 to 17.3% for LSU and cox 1, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses based on the two (LSU and cox 1) molecular markers consistently showed that L. cuauhxinqui sp. n. was nested within the genus Lyperosomum, with strong bootstrap support (100%) and Bayesian posterior probabilities (1.0). In particular, the LSU tree indicated that the sequence of the new species is closely related to sequences from Zonorchis alveyi, Zonorchis delectans and Zonorchis sp. from Central America, suggesting that these sequences should be transferred to the genus Lyperosomum. The new species represents the first record from Mexico and the fifth species identified in the Americas. Our study also revealed that the taxonomy of the genus Lyperosomum should be re-examined by combining molecular, morphological and ecological characteristics.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000425
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Echinococcus+granulosus+in+livestock+of+Al-Madinah+(Saudi+Arabia)&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+A.H.+Nigm&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000395">Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus in livestock of
           Al-Madinah (Saudi Arabia)
    • Authors: N.M. AL-Mutairi; H.A. Taha, A.H. Nigm
      Abstract: Echinococcus granulosus is the causative agent of cystic echinococcosis, which has serious impacts on human and/or animal health, resulting in significant economic losses. Echinococcus granulosus comprises a number of intra-specific variants or strains at the genetic level. In Saudi Arabia, few studies were performed on genetic variations in Echinococcus species. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the phenotypic and genetic characterization of hydatid cysts harboured by sheep and camels in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah. Samples of hydatid cysts were collected from local sheep (n = 25) and camels (n = 8). The morphological criteria of protoscoleces were investigated. To investigate the molecular characterization, random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR), single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) were carried out. DNA was extracted from individual fertile cysts and subjected to RAPD-PCR analysis (using five arbitrary primers) and PCR amplification of cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) and 12S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (12S rRNA) genes. The PCR products were subjected to SSCP analysis for genetic discrimination in E. granulosus isolates. In addition, partially sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA cox1 genes was achieved for assessing the phylogenetic positions of collected isolates using some global published sequence data of cox1 genes. The rostellar hooks of camel and local sheep isolates show remarkable variability in their dimensions. Five distinct SSCP patterns were identified in the 12S rRNA gene, showing intraspecific variations in E. granulosus of camels and local sheep. Sequencing of (cox1) genes of both local sheep and camels exhibit high similarity with those of the same gene (E. granulosus sensu stricto) published in NCBI BLAST.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000395
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Relationship between the excretion of eggs of parasitic helminths in roe
           deer and local livestock density
    • Authors: H. Verheyden; C. Richomme, J. Sevila, J. Merlet, B. Lourtet, Y. Chaval, H. Hoste
      Abstract: Because of their continuing expansion, wildlife ruminant species that prosper in rural landscapes may be increasingly affected by and/or contribute to the circulation of certain generalist pathogens also infecting domestic ruminants, when they share common spaces or resources. In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that parasitism with gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) of wild roe deer inhabiting different rural landscapes is correlated with livestock density. We used faecal egg counts of GINs and spatial data of 74 GPS-collared roe deer, inhabiting various landscapes from closed forests to open fields, together with weekly records of livestock abundances on pasture. We tested whether the excretion of GIN eggs in roe deer was influenced by the density of livestock in their home range over the grazing season. Our results showed that all of the roe deer home ranges, except four, contained pastures occupied by livestock. Excretion of GIN eggs occurred in 77% of the roe deer. The excretion of GIN eggs in roe deer tended to increase with livestock density in their home range. This result suggests, but does not prove, a higher risk of ingesting GIN larvae originating from livestock dung. In the context of increasing overlap between roe deer and livestock ranges, the exchange of pathogens between both hosts is plausible, although species identity of the parasites present was not determined. Assessing which GIN species are shared between wild and domestic ruminants, and how this may affect the health of both hosts, is a central question for future research in the context of interspecific pathogen circulation.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000449
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • New data on life cycles for three species of Fellodistomidae (Digenea) in
           the White Sea
    • Authors: D. Krupenko; A. Uryadova, A. Gonchar, G. Kremnev, V. Krapivin
      Abstract: Few digeneans of the family Fellodistomidae are known from the Russian Arctic seas. The taxonomic status of these species, their life cycles and host range raised recurrent questions, some of which remain unanswered. To revise the species composition and life cycles of fellodistomids in the White Sea, we searched for them in several known and suspected hosts: wolffish, flatfishes (definitive), gastropods of the family Buccinidae (second intermediate) and protobranch bivalves (first intermediate). Species identification was based both on morphology and 28S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. We found Fellodistomum agnotum in the White Sea for the first time. Buccinum undatum was proved to be intermediate host of both F. agnotum and Fellodistomum fellis, and metacercariae of F. fellis were registered from two more buccinid species: Buccinum scalariforme and Neptunea despecta. We also found metacercariae of F. agnotum and F. fellis producing eggs in the second intermediate host. Two fellodistomids were found in protobranch bivalves: sporocysts and cercariae of Steringophorus furciger in Nuculana pernula, and sporocysts with large furcocercous cercariae in Ennucula tenuis. The latter were identified as F. agnotum by molecular analysis; thus, the entire life cycle of this species was reconstructed.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000383
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Combined use of chemical and biological compounds to control hookworm
    • Authors: J.A.C. Lima; C.M. Ferraz, M.R.d.A. Lima, H.L.A. Genier, F.E.d.F. Soares, D.B.L. Junior, S.A. Sobral, J.V. de Araújo, F.L. Tobias, V.L.R. Vilela, F.R. Braga
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined use of different chemical (albendazole, ivermectin, glycerine and Vaseline) and biological (Monacrosporium thaumasium) compounds in the control of Ancylostoma caninum. Infective larvae of A. caninum were obtained from coprocultures of positive faeces from naturally infected dogs. We used 1% ivermectin, 1% albendazole, 100% glycerine, 100% Vaseline and an isolate of the nematophagous fungus M. thaumasium (NF34), alone or in combinations. Next, an experimental test was set up with 16 groups in microtubes, with a 24-h interaction. The groups (G1 to G15) that contained any chemical or biological compound (NF34) and/or their combined use (chemical + biological) showed a difference in relation to the control group, except G5 – Vaseline 100% without combinations. It was concluded that, even on an experimental basis, the combined use of anthelmintic drugs with biological control was efficient; however, more studies must be carried out in order to elucidate the synergistic action between chemical and biological compounds to be used in the effective control of hookworms in the future.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000334
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • In+vitro+anthelmintic+activity+assessment+of+six+medicinal+plant+aqueous+extracts+against+donkey+strongyles&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&ătană,+S.M.+Andrei,+L.C.+Ștefănuț,+Ș.+Răileanu,+M.C.+Matei,+I.+Vlasiuc,+M.+Cernea&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000310">In vitro anthelmintic activity assessment of six medicinal plant aqueous
           extracts against donkey strongyles
    • Authors: V. Buza; L. Cătană, S.M. Andrei, L.C. Ștefănuț, Ș. Răileanu, M.C. Matei, I. Vlasiuc, M. Cernea
      Abstract: The lack of anthelmintic products licensed for donkeys and the rising number of small donkey milk farms in the countries of Western Europe and Italy have led to an increased interest in the study of reliable and safe plant-derived treatment alternatives. In this study, the aqueous extracts of Achillea millefolium L. (flowers), Artemisia absinthium L. (aerial parts), Centaurium erythraea Rafn. (flowers), Gentiana asclepiadea L. (rhizomes and roots), Inula helenium L. (rhizomes and roots) and Tanacetum vulgare L. (aerial parts), have been tested in vitro for their potential ovicidal and larvicidal activity against donkey nematodes. An egg-hatching assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA) were performed for the in vitro study, and median lethal concentration (LC-50) values for both EHA and LDA were calculated using probit analysis. All tested plant extracts showed strong anthelmintic activity against strongyle eggs and larvae at concentrations ranging between 125 and 1.95 mg/ml, except for C. erythraea, which exhibited very little or no effect at all at the tested concentrations. A strong ovicidal effect was observed in A. absinthium, with an LC-50 value of 0.486 mg/ml (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21–1.09). Gentiana asclepiadea showed high efficacy against strongyle larvae, with an LC-50 value of 0.041 mg/ml (95% CI 0.01–0.16). The most significant (P < 0.01) anthelmintic activity was exhibited by I. helenium, with an LC-50 value of 0.041 mg/ml (95% CI 0.01–0.16) for EHA and 0.41 mg/ml (95% CI 0.27–0.62) for LDA. The results proved the anthelmintic efficacy of the tested plant extracts, highlighting the need for further research into plant bioactive molecules both in vitro and in vivo.
      PubDate: 2020-05-20T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000310
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Baltic cod endohelminths reflect recent ecological changes
    • Authors: A.C. Setyawan; H.M. Jensen, P.W. Kania, K. Buchmann
      Abstract: We suggest helminthological investigations of cod as a supplement to traditional biological and hydrographical methods for elucidation of ecological changes in the Baltic Sea. It is under discussion if oxygen deficit or seal abundance should explain the present critical situation of Baltic cod. A comparative investigation of endoparasitic helminths in Baltic cod (Gadus morhua), captured in the same marine habitat with an interval of 35 years (1983/2018) recorded 11 species of helminths comprising trematodes (Hemiurus luehei, Podocotyle atomon, Lepidapedon elongatum), nematodes (Contracaecum osculatum, Hysterothylacium aduncum, Capillaria gracilis, Cucullanus cirratus), cestodes (Bothriocephalus sp.) and acanthocephalans (Echinorhynchus gadi, Pomphorhynchus laevis, Corynosoma semerme). Significant prevalence and intensity increases were recorded for third-stage larvae of the nematode C. osculatum (liver location) and larvae of C. semerme (encapsulated in viscera). Both parasite species use grey seal as their final host, indicating the recent expansion of the Baltic seal population. A lower E. gadi intensity and an increased prevalence of L. elongatum of small cod (31–40 cm body length) suggest a lowered intake of amphipods (intermediate host) and elevated ingestion of polychaetes, respectively, but no significant changes were seen for other helminths.
      PubDate: 2020-05-15T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000176
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Parasaccocoelium+(Haploporidae)+and+new+genus+Pseudohaplosplanchnus+(Haplosplanchnidae)+from+mullet+fish+in+the+Far+East+of+Russia+and+Vietnam:+morphological+and+molecular+data&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+D.N.+Ha,+V.H.+Nguyen,+V.T.+Nguyen&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000371">New species of Parasaccocoelium (Haploporidae) and new genus
           Pseudohaplosplanchnus (Haplosplanchnidae) from mullet fish in the Far East
           of Russia and Vietnam: morphological and molecular data
    • Authors: D.M. Atopkin; V.V. Besprozvannykh, D.N. Ha, V.H. Nguyen, V.T. Nguyen
      Abstract: A description and the molecular characterization of two new species in the Haploporidae and Haplosplanchnidae families are provided herein. Parasaccocoelium armatum n. sp. was collected from the intestine of a Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, 1758 from the Primorsky region, Russia, and Pseudohaplosplanchnus catbaensis n. g. n. sp. was collected from Moolgarda seheli (Forsskål, 1775) in the coastal waters of Cat Ba Island, Vietnam. The morphological features of P. armatum n. sp. closely resemble those of Parasaccocoelium polyovum, but these species differ from one another by hermaphroditic sac and vitellaria area length and by maximal egg size. The main difference between P. armatum n. sp. and P. polyovum is the presence of an armed hermaphroditic duct in the new species. Molecular data support the case for inclusion of the studied trematodes in P. armatum n. sp. Worms P. catbaensis n. g. n. sp. from the mullet from Vietnam are morphologically close to Haplosplanchnus (Haplosplosplanchninae). The only difference between P. catbaensis n. g. n. sp. and species of Haplosplanchnus is the presence of few (1–7) large eggs, measuring 135–142 × 92–104 μm, versus numerous small eggs with a maximal size of 75 × 50 μm. Phylogenetic analysis showed that there is a contradiction between the morphological similarity of the worms and their position in the Haplosplanchnidae system, based on the genetic data. Results of this study indicate that P. catbaensis n. g. n. sp. is genetically distant from other representatives of Haplosplanchnus, despite their morphological similarity. According to the molecular data, P. catbaensis n. g. n. sp. is close to Hymenocotta mulli Manter, 1961 (Hymenocottinae). However, these species are considerably different to each other morphologically. Molecular data argue for the possibility of establishing a new subfamily for P. catbaensis n. g. n. sp. However, considering earlier studies of Haplosplanchnidae, we support the view that creating new subfamilies within this family is unreasonable because of the lack of molecular data for most haplosplanchnid species, which are necessary to resolve the problematic systematics and phylogeny of this family.
      PubDate: 2020-05-14T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000371
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Norops+fuscoauratus+(Squamata,+Dactyloidae)+in+highland+marshes+of+the+Brazilian+semi-arid&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+R.+Perez,+R.W.+Ávila&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000358">Helminths associated with Norops fuscoauratus (Squamata, Dactyloidae) in
           highland marshes of the Brazilian semi-arid
    • Authors: J.M. dos Santos Mesquita; S.S. de Oliveira, R. Perez, R.W. Ávila
      Abstract: Helminthological studies may contribute with valuable information on host biology and conservation. Herein, we provide new data on helminths infecting the lizard Norops fuscoauratus, testing one of the factors considered most important in parasitic ecology: host size. We analysed 25 specimens of N. fuscoauratus from three highland marshes in the Brazilian semi-arid. Eight taxa of helminths belonging to Nematoda, Trematoda and Acanthocephala were found. Physaloptera sp. showed the higher prevalence (40%), with a mean intensity of infection of 3.3 ± 1.46 (1–16) and mean abundance 1.32 ± 0.65 (0–16). Norops fuscoauratus represents four new host records for the helminths Cyrtosomum sp., Pharyngodon travassosi, Strongyloides sp. and Centrorhynchus sp. There is no relationship of host body size (P = 0.79) and mass (P = 0.50) with parasite richness. In addition, the present study contributes to the knowledge of the parasitic fauna of N. fuscoauratus and the Neotropical region.
      PubDate: 2020-05-11T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000358
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Effects of road salt on a free-living trematode infectious stage
    • Authors: D. Milotic; M. Milotic, J. Koprivnikar
      Abstract: Many temperate freshwater habitats are at risk for contamination by run-off associated with the application of road de-icing salts. Elevated salinity can have various detrimental effects on freshwater organisms, including greater susceptibility to infection by parasites and pathogens. However, to better understand the net effects of road salt exposure on host–parasite dynamics, it is necessary to consider the impacts on free-living parasite infectious stages, such as the motile aquatic cercariae of trematodes. Here, we examined the longevity and activity of cercariae from four different freshwater trematodes (Ribeiroia ondatrae, Echinostoma sp., Cephalogonimus sp. and an unidentified strigeid-type) that were exposed to road salt at five different environmentally relevant concentrations (160, 360, 560, 760 and 960 mg/ml of sodium chloride). Exposure to road salt had minimal detrimental effects, with cercariae activity and survival often greatest at intermediate concentrations. Only the cercariae of Cephalogonimus sp. showed reduced longevity at the highest salt concentration, with those of both R. ondatrae and the unidentified strigeid-type exhibiting diminished activity, indicating interspecific variation in response. Importantly, cercariae seem to be relatively unaffected by salt concentrations known to increase infection susceptibility in some of their hosts. More studies will be needed to examine this potential dichotomy in road salt effects between hosts and trematodes, including influences on parasite infectivity.
      PubDate: 2020-05-08T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000309
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Prosthenhystera+gattii+n.+sp.+(Digenea:+Callodistomidae),+a+gallbladder+parasite+of+Bryconamericus+ikaa+from+the+lower+Iguazú+River,+described+based+on+combined+molecular+and+morphological+evidence&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+Y.+Croci,+S.+Rodriguez+Gil,+S.S.+Curran,+W.+Ferrari,+J.R.+Casciotta,+S.R.+Martorelli&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000322">Prosthenhystera gattii n. sp. (Digenea: Callodistomidae), a gallbladder
           parasite of Bryconamericus ikaa from the lower Iguazú River, described
           based on combined molecular and morphological evidence
    • Authors: M.M. Montes; J. Barneche, Y. Croci, S. Rodriguez Gil, S.S. Curran, W. Ferrari, J.R. Casciotta, S.R. Martorelli
      Abstract: Adult forms of members of the Callodistomidae always parasitize the gallbladder of freshwater fishes and occur in Africa and America. This study provides a description of a new South American species belonging in Prosthenhystera from the gallbladder of a characid fish (Bryconamericus ikaa), and ribosomal gene sequences (28S rDNA and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) are used to demonstrate molecular differences between the new species and congeners as well as explore interrelationships among congeners. Additionally, the first cytological analysis is conducted for a member of the family to determine chromosome number and arrangement. Prosthenhystera gattii n. sp. most closely resembles Prosthenhystera caballeroi in morphology, but the vitellarium is more extensive reaching anterior to the caecal bifurcation in the new species and the uterus is confined to the hindbody in P. gattii n. sp., whereas it extends to the level of the pharynx in P. caballeroi. Also, the testes, cirrus sac, seminal receptacle and the ratio of body length to width are larger in P. gattii n. sp. Independent Bayesian inference analyses of 28S rDNA and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequence fragments produced phylograms that showed P. gattii n. sp. is more similar to Prosthenhystera obesa + Prosthenhystera oonastica than P. caballeroi + two unidentified species of Prosthenhystera, but with poor posterior probability support for the node in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2-based phylogram. Further, the genetic distance between P. oonastica and P. gattii n. sp. are the largest among Prosthenhystera spp. Cytological analysis revealed ten metacentric chromosomes, which is fewer than the 12–18 chromosomes present in species from the closely related Gorgoderidae.
      PubDate: 2020-05-08T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000322
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Lithoglyphus+naticoides,+in+European+freshwaters&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&čiūtė&rft.aufirst=R.&čiūtė&čiūtė,+V.+Stunžėnas&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X2000036X">Exploring species diversity of lissorchiid trematodes (Digenea:
           Lissorchiidae) associated with the gravel snail, Lithoglyphus naticoides,
           in European freshwaters
    • Authors: R. Petkevičiūtė; G. Stanevičiūtė, V. Stunžėnas
      Abstract: Comparative analysis using complete ITS2 and partial 28S rDNA sequence data revealed that cercariaeum developing in rediae in Lithoglyphus naticoides represent two different lissorchiid species. One morphotype of cercariaeum is conspecific with adult Palaeorchis incognitus from European roach, Rutilus rutilus. The other cercariaeum is attributable to the genus Asymphylodora, but the species identity is not yet determined. We also generate the first rDNA sequences for Asymphylodora progenetica based on new collections from Bithynia tentaculata from Lithuania. Phylogenetic analyses of the newly generated sequences, together with information for other lissorchiids available on GenBank, showed that all representatives of Lissorchiidae form a strongly supported clade. Three monophyletic lineages, Asymphylodora, Palaeorchis and Lissorchis, were recognized at the generic level. Karyological analysis of the chromosome set of larval P. incognitus revealed a diploid number of 2n = 20. Its karyotype with subtelocentric chromosomes prevailing can be regarded as comparatively ‘primitive’, which is consistent with the basal position of P. incognitus in the 28S tree relative to the representatives of the genus Asymphylodora. The present study adds significant new information for establishing species-specific markers for the confident characterization of different developmental stages of lissorchiid species and clarification of their life cycles.
      PubDate: 2020-05-08T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X2000036X
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Hypseleotris+spp.)+from+Eastern+Australia&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+T.+Scholz,+P.J.+Unmack&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000280">High diversity of metazoan parasites in carp gudgeons (Eleotridae:
           Hypseleotris spp.) from Eastern Australia
    • Authors: E.C. Rochat; I. Blasco-Costa, T. Scholz, P.J. Unmack
      Abstract: Knowledge of the parasite fauna of Australian freshwater fish is fragmentary and incomplete. An understanding of fish hosts and their associated parasites is vital for the successful management of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we surveyed the parasite fauna of carp gudgeons (Hypseleotris spp.), a complex of species of Australian freshwater fishes, using morphology and molecular data for the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes. We examined 137 individuals of three different taxa in the carp gudgeon species complex and found 16 parasitic taxa of the Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda and Arthropoda (five adults and 11 larvae). Eleven parasites are reported for the first time from the carp gudgeons (Pseudodactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., Clinostomum sp., Paradilepis patriciae, P. cf. kempi, two unidentified species of Paradilepis, Dendrouterina sp., Parvitaenia sp., two lineages of Cyclophyllidea gen. sp., Procamallanus sp., larvae of a spirurine nematode and Lernaea sp.), in addition to Apatemon cf. hypseleotris Negm-Eldin & Davies, 2001 and the invasive tapeworm Schyzocotyle acheilognathi (Yamaguti, 1934), which were previously reported from these fish hosts. Parasite species richness was double in Lake's and Midgley's carp gudgeons relative to western carp gudgeon. These findings highlight the key role of carp gudgeons as intermediate hosts for multiple parasites with complex life cycles using native birds as definitive hosts and the usefulness of DNA data for the identification of parasite larvae.
      PubDate: 2020-05-05T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000280
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Clinostomum+metacercariae+from+Argentina+with+morphological+and+DNA+barcode+identification&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+Y.+Croci,+M.+Waldbillig,+W.+Ferrari,+E.+Topa,+S.R.+Martorelli&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000292">Pathology associated with three new Clinostomum metacercariae from
           Argentina with morphological and DNA barcode identification
    • Authors: M.M. Montes; S.E. Plaul, Y. Croci, M. Waldbillig, W. Ferrari, E. Topa, S.R. Martorelli
      Abstract: In the Laboratory of Parasites of Fishes, Crustaceans and Mollusks (CEPAVE), we undertook a parasitological study on three species of fish from the Espinal and Esteros del Iberá ecoregions of Argentina. Clinostomid metacercariae were found parasitizing Characidium rachovii, Crenicichla vittata and Gymnogeophagus balzanii. In this study, we analysed the damage that these parasites inflict on their hosts through the evaluation of histological sections. In addition, Clinostomum metacercariae were identified using morphological characters and DNA barcoding. In the pathological analysis, we observed that muscle tissue was the most affected. The inflammatory response showed vascular congestion areas and infiltration of numerous inflammatory cells, mainly lymphocytes. The molecular and morphological approach supports the presence of three new lineages of clinostomid metacercariae in Argentina. This could lead to the discovery of a high number of lineages or species of Clinostomum from South America.
      PubDate: 2020-05-04T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000292
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Thada+Thorne,+1941+and+Tenunemellus+Siddiqi,+1986+(Nematoda:+Tylenchidae)+from+Iran&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+R.+Ghaderi,+A.+Karegar&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000279">Morphological and molecular data of two species of the rare genera Thada
           Thorne, 1941 and Tenunemellus Siddiqi, 1986 (Nematoda: Tylenchidae) from
    • Authors: M. Hosseinvand; A. Eskandari, R. Ghaderi, A. Karegar
      Abstract: Thada populus n. sp. was found in the rhizosphere of Populus euphratica in the city of Dezful, south-western Iran. The new species is characterized by its 365–453 μm body length, cuticle with transverse annuli 0.9–1.2 μm wide, lateral fields with four lines, lip region low with one or two annuli, 7.0–8.5 μm wide at base, longitudinal or slightly sigmoid amphidial slit, delicate stylet 8.4–9.8 μm long with posteriorly directed knobs, dorsal pharyngeal gland opening at 1.0–1.5 μm posterior to the stylet knobs, non-muscular and valve-less median bulb, pyriform and offset basal bulb, almost oval spermatheca, posterior position of vulva (V = 75–79%) without lateral membrane, short post-vulval uterine sac and conical tail with finely to broadly rounded terminus. Morphological differences of the new species with those of the type species, Thada striata, are discussed. Molecular phylogenetic studies of the new species using partial sequences of small subunit ribosomal DNA revealed that the new species formed a clade with Malenchus spp., Filenchus facultativus, F. fungivorus and Filenchus sp. in Bayesian inference. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies were also performed on Tenunemellus indicus, the second recovered species, the latter analysis using partial sequences of large subunit ribosomal DNA. In the inferred Bayesian tree, T. indicus formed a clade with Labrys fuzhouensis, Lelenchus leptosoma from the Netherlands, Malenchus spp. and Filenchus discrepans.
      PubDate: 2020-05-04T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000279
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Proteocephalus+ambloplitis+(Leidy,+1887)+(Proteocephalidae)+in+Europe&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&á,+L.+Carassou,+M.+Ondračková&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000267">First record of the American cestode Proteocephalus ambloplitis (Leidy,
           1887) (Proteocephalidae) in Europe
    • Authors: Y. Kvach; M. Seifertová, L. Carassou, M. Ondračková
      Abstract: Here, we report the first record of pleroceroids of the Nearctic tapeworm Proteocephalus ambloplitis (Leidy, 1887) in European fresh waters. The plerocercoids were found encapsulated in the internal organs of the invasive pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758) in a pond in Bègles Plage, Bordeaux, France. This parasite species was not observed in L. gibbosus collected from two nearby localities, Bordeaux Lac and a pond in the Parc de Fontaudin. Species identification was confirmed using molecular data and morphological characteristics.
      PubDate: 2020-04-14T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000267
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Echinococcus+multilocularis+infections+in+red+foxes&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+H.+Kouguchi,+K.+Uraguchi&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000255">Simple modification to improve reliability of copro-DNA examinations for
           diagnosing Echinococcus multilocularis infections in red foxes
    • Authors: T. Irie; T. Ito, H. Kouguchi, K. Uraguchi
      Abstract: Epidemiological studies of Echinococcus multilocularis infections in definitive hosts require a reliable and economic diagnostic method. In this study, the current copro-DNA examination technique was modified by increasing the faecal amounts tested and adding a step to neutralize the faeces before DNA extraction. Reliability of the modified method was evaluated using rectal faecal samples from red foxes and comparing them with intestinal worms detected using the sedimentation and counting technique (SCT) following necropsy. The modified copro-DNA examination method demonstrated 93.9% sensitivity (138/147) on the SCT. Its detectability increased depending on the worm burden, and the sensitivity was 100% in cases harbouring over 1000 worms. From 111 SCT-negative cases, six (5.4%) were copro-DNA-positive, and all were confirmed as E. multilocularis via sequencing analysis. Five of the remaining 105 SCT-negative cases (4.8%) retained polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors in the extracted solution, suggesting that approximately 5% of the red fox faeces retained these inhibitors after treatment with the present copro-DNA extraction method. Although further evaluation is needed for faeces deposited in the wild, the present copro-DNA examination technique will help monitor the E. multilocularis prevalence in definitive hosts. When used for detailed evaluations of endemicity (e.g. changes in infection pressure or spread in non-endemic areas), the absence of PCR inhibitors should be confirmed, and multiple trials on faecal subsamples are recommended.
      PubDate: 2020-04-14T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000255
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Helicometrina+nimia&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+C.+Lagrue&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000218">Missing link: California rock crabs serve as intermediate hosts for the
           parasite Helicometrina nimia
    • Authors: K.M. Shanebeck; B. Presswell, C. Lagrue
      Abstract: Parasites can have strong effects on invertebrate host behaviour, fecundity and survival in marine ecosystems. However, parasites are often poorly documented and still rarely integrated into marine ecological modelling; comprehensive surveys of infection in marine invertebrates are sporadic at best. For example, rock crabs are an important part of Californian coastal ecosystems, both as regulators of mussel populations and non-native species, and as prey items for predators like sea otters, but their parasite communities and potential effects on crab population dynamics are seldom studied or understood. Here, we present the first report of infection by the trematode Helicometrina nimia in the economically and ecologically important red rock crab (Cancer productus) and Pacific rock crab (Romaleon antennarium). As intermediate hosts, they are a missing link for infection by H. nimia in Californian fish that was unreported until now. Based on these findings, we advocate for further research into parasite diversity and their potential effects on ecologically and commercially important species.
      PubDate: 2020-04-13T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000218
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Cost of interspecific competition between trematode colonies
    • Authors: K.N. Mouritsen; C.K. Elkjær
      Abstract: In a range of trematode species, specific members of the parthenitae colony infecting the molluscan first intermediate host appear specialized for defence against co-infecting species. The evolution of such division of labour requires that co-infection entails fitness costs. Yet, this premise has very rarely been tested in species showing division of labour. Using Himasthla elongata (Himasthlidae) and Renicola roscovita (Renicolidae) infecting periwinkles Littorina littorea as study system, we show that the size of emerged cercariae is markedly reduced in both parasite species when competing over host resources. Cercarial longevity, on the other hand, is negatively influenced by competition only in R. roscovita. Season, which may impact the nutritional state of the host, also affects cercarial size, but only in H. elongata. Hence, our study underlines that cercarial quality is, indeed, compromised by competition, not only in the inferior R. roscovita (no division of labour) but also in the competitively superior H. elongata (division of labour).
      PubDate: 2020-04-02T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000243
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Trichinella+spiralis&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+M.A.+Hasby+Saad,+N.A.+Soliman,+S.E.+Mwafy&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000206">Resveratrol reduces oxidative damage and inflammation in mice infected
           with Trichinella spiralis
    • Authors: D.I. Elgendy; A.A. Othman, M.A. Hasby Saad, N.A. Soliman, S.E. Mwafy
      Abstract: Trichinellosis is a serious food-borne zoonotic infection of cosmopolitan distribution. Currently, treatment for trichinellosis is far from ideal. Given the important role of oxidative stress and immune-mediated inflammation in the pathogenesis of trichinellosis, this study was designed to evaluate the possible protective effects of resveratrol (RSV) during the intestinal and muscular phases of Trichinella spiralis infection in mice. The oral administration of RSV at a dose of 20 mg/kg once daily for two weeks resulted in significant reductions in both adult and larval counts; significant improvements in the redox status of the small intestine and muscles; a significant reduction in interleukin 4, pentraxin 3 and vascular endothelial growth factor expression; and the mitigation of intestinal and muscular inflammation. In conclusion, this study identifies RSV as a promising agent for the treatment of experimental trichinellosis, and more studies in experimental animals and humans are worth consideration.
      PubDate: 2020-04-02T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000206
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Porocephalus+spp.+(Pentastomida)+in+Neotropical+wild+mammals&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+M.T.+Lopez-Urbina,+A.E.+Gonzalez,+P.+Mayor&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000231">Visceral infection by Porocephalus spp. (Pentastomida) in Neotropical wild
    • Authors: L.A. Gomez-Puerta; L. Baselly, M.T. Lopez-Urbina, A.E. Gonzalez, P. Mayor
      Abstract: Larval stages of pentastomids were collected from different organs of small mammals from the Peruvian Amazon. These parasitized mammals included: a western Amazonian oryzomys (Hylaeamys perenensis), an elegant oryzomys (Euryoryzomys nitidus), a lowland paca (Cuniculus paca), two kinkajous (Potos flavus), two silvery woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii) and a brown-mantled tamarin (Leontocebus fuscicollis). Pentastomids were found in the mesentery and parenchyma of the liver and lungs of these animals. All pentastomids were morphologically identified as nymphs of Porocephalus spp. Only the nymphs collected from select animals (the western Amazonian oryzomys, the elegant oryzomys and the brown-mantled tamarin) were analysed molecularly. Molecular analysis was performed amplifying the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene from select nymphs collected from the western Amazonian oryzomys, the elegant oryzomys and the brown-mantled tamarin. The nucleotide sequences exhibited 95.8–97.7% similarity between them. Also, these sequences showed an identity of 95.8–97.9% to Porocephalus crotali (GenBank accession numbers MG559647–MG559655). Molecular analysis indicated the presence of at least two Porocephalus species. These findings represent the first record of Porocephalus in these mammals, thus adding new intermediate hosts for this pentastomid genus. This work represents the first molecular data of Porocephalus in a Neotropical climate.
      PubDate: 2020-04-02T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000231
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Trichuris+trichiura,+in+faecal+samples&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+M.P.+Njoroge,+J.+Kinyua,+F.A.+Osuna,+B.M.+Kimeu,+P.W.+Okanya,+E.L.+Agola&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X2000022X">Development and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification
           (LAMP) diagnostic test for detection of whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, in
           faecal samples
    • Authors: M.G. Ngari; I.N. Mwangi, M.P. Njoroge, J. Kinyua, F.A. Osuna, B.M. Kimeu, P.W. Okanya, E.L. Agola
      Abstract: Whipworm infection or trichuriasis caused by Trichuris trichiura is of major public health concern in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly among pre-school and school-going children. It is among the neglected tropical diseases targeted for elimination through mass drug administration (MDA). One of the outcomes of MDA is a rapid decline in levels of infection intensity, making it difficult to monitor effectiveness of control measures using the conventional Kato–Katz procedure, which relies on the microscopic detection of parasite ova in faecal samples. In the present study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) test was developed for the detection of T. trichiura infection in faecal samples. LAMP technology offers greater sensitivity and specificity than the microscopy-based tests. A set of four specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 region of the ribosomal DNA were designed using Primer Explorer software. DNA was extracted from faecal samples using the alkaline lysis method (HotSHOT) and the LAMP reaction performed at 63°C for 1 h. The amplicons were visualized by both gel electrophoresis and with the naked eye following staining with SYBR green dye. Sensitivity and specificity tests were determined using the standard Kato–Katz diagnostic procedure as a reference test. The developed LAMP assay reliably detected T. trichiura DNA in faecal samples, with a specificity and sensitivity of 88% and 77%, respectively. No cross-reactivity was observed with several common helminth parasites. The developed LAMP assay is an appropriate diagnostic method for the detection of T. trichiura DNA in human faecal samples due to its simplicity, low cost, high sensitivity and specificity.
      PubDate: 2020-04-02T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X2000022X
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Moniliformis+necromysi+sp.+n.+(Archiacanthocephala)+from+the+wild+rodent+Necromys+lasiurus+(Cricetidae:+Sigmondontinae)+in+Brazil&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+R.+Gentile,+R.V.+Vilela,+A.+Maldonado&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000188">Morphological and genetic description of Moniliformis necromysi sp. n.
           (Archiacanthocephala) from the wild rodent Necromys lasiurus (Cricetidae:
           Sigmondontinae) in Brazil
    • Authors: A.P.N. Gomes; N.A. Costa, R. Gentile, R.V. Vilela, A. Maldonado
      Abstract: A new species of Moniliformis Travassos, 1915 (Acanthocephala: Moniliformidae) is described from the hairy-tailed bolo mouse, Necromys lasiurus Lund, 1840 (Cricetidae: Sigmondontinae), captured in the Brazilian Cerrado, in Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The specimens were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. Molecular phylogenies were inferred from partial nuclear large subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences and partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. The new species is distinguished from other moniliformid species by the number of rows and number of hooks per row, size of the proboscis, size of the eggs, host species and geographical distribution. Molecular phylogenies and genetic distances analyses demonstrated that Moniliformis necromysi sp. n. forms a well-supported monophyletic group with sequences of other species of Moniliformis and is distinguished from them, which agrees with the morphological characteristics, allocating the new species to this genus and to the family Moniliformidae Van Cleave, 1924. This is the first moniliformid acanthocephalan described from a wild rodent in Brazil.
      PubDate: 2020-03-19T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000188
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Heleobia+parchappii+(Mollusca:+Cochliopidae)+inhabiting+four+human-impacted+streams&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+J.A.+Etchegoin&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X2000019X">Spatio-temporal variations in larval digenean assemblages of Heleobia
           parchappii (Mollusca: Cochliopidae) inhabiting four human-impacted streams
    • Authors: M. Parietti; M.J. Merlo, J.A. Etchegoin
      Abstract: In the last years, a growing number of studies have focused on the search for biological indicators of human impact in freshwater environments. Given their susceptibility to different types of impact, larval digeneans have been considered as useful tools for the study of temporal variations in parasite communities. However, few studies have been carried out in lotic environments. For that reason, the spatio-temporal variations of the larval digenean assemblages parasitizing the gastropod Heleobia parchappii were analysed in four human-impacted streams, located on the coast of Argentina. In total, 4800 specimens of H. parchappii were collected seasonally, and 12 digenean species belonging to eight families were registered. Three of the streams showed similar species presence but, during spring and summer, the streams located within the city presented lower species presence than the streams located in the urban periphery. By contrast, the spatial prevalence values evidenced a higher variation between the environments. Streams located in the urban periphery showed higher prevalence values throughout the year, compared to those calculated for streams located within the city. The spatio-temporal variations of larval digenean assemblages parasitizing H. parchappii seem to be mainly influenced by the diversity and vagility of definitive hosts, the types of digenean life cycles and habitat characteristics. However, environmental disturbances derived from anthropogenic activities are highlighted as the probable main factors that may affect the composition and dynamic of these parasite assemblages.
      PubDate: 2020-03-10T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X2000019X
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Description and phylogenetic analyses of ribosomal transcription units
           from species of Fasciolidae (Platyhelminthes: Digenea)
    • Authors: T.H. Le; K.L.T. Pham, H.T.T. Doan, T.K. Xuyen Le, K.T. Nguyen, S.P. Lawton
      Abstract: Many members of Fasciolidae are common trematodes in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, elephants, pigs, with some capable of infecting humans also. In this study, the complete or near-complete sequences of ribosomal transcription unit (rTU or rDNA), each of Fasciola hepatica (Australia), Fascioloides jacksoni (Sri Lanka), Fasciolopsis buski (Vietnam) and three isolates of F. gigantica (Vietnam), were obtained and characterized. The full length of rDNA for each F. hepatica, ‘hybrid’ Fasciola sp., Fas. jacksoni and Fa. Buski, was 7657 bp, 7966 bp, 7781 bp and 8361 bp, with the complete intergenic spacer region (IGS) (862 bp, 1170 bp, 987 bp and 561 bp), respectively. The rDNA of two ‘pure’ F. gigantica isolates from Vietnam was 6794 bp with unsequenced IGS. For 28S rRNA genes the Fasciola spp. are equal, 1958 bp for 18S, 160 bp for 5.8S, 3863 bp and 454 bp for ITS1 but ITS2 differ by one nucleotide (Thymine) (359 or 360 bp). The ITS1 of the sensu lato Fa. buski has some distinguishable features, 286 bp for ITS2, 3862 bp for 28S and four repeat units of 356–361 bp each found in ITS1. The 28S rDNA analysis showed the lowest level of divergence (0–0.57%) between F. hepatica and F. gigantica and higher (2.23–2.62%) and highest (6–6.42%) for Fas. jacksoni and Fasciolopsis, respectively. The tree of 43 strains/species clearly produced a well-supported phylogeny, where 18 fasciolids consistently grouped, forming a discrete Fasciolidae clade, distinct from Philophthalmidae, Echinostomatidae and Echinochasmidae in Echinostomatoidea. Fascioloides jacksoni is outside Fasciola spp.: basal with Fas. magna, as previously demonstrated.
      PubDate: 2020-03-06T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000164
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Fasciola+hepatica&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+M.+Bandehpour,+M.M.+Ranjbar,+S.+Rouhani,+A.+Javadi+Mamaghani,+S.J.S.+Tabaei&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000140">Design and expression of polytopic construct of cathepsin-L1, SAP-2 and
           FhTP16.5 proteins of Fasciola hepatica
    • Authors: S. Aghamolaei; B. Kazemi, M. Bandehpour, M.M. Ranjbar, S. Rouhani, A. Javadi Mamaghani, S.J.S. Tabaei
      Abstract: The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique can play an important role in the early detection of fascioliasis. However, they have some diagnostic limitations, including cross-reaction with other helminths. It seems that the combination of recombinant parasite proteins as antigen can reduce these problems. Hence, the present study was aimed to design and confirm the antigenic recombinant multi-epitope (rMEP) construct of three protein epitopes (linear and conformational B-cell epitopes) of the parasite using immunoinformatic tools. For this purpose, the tertiary structures of Fasciola hepatica cathepsin-L1, saposin-like protein 2 and 16.5-kDa tegument-associated protein were predicted using the I-TASSER server. Validation of the modelled structures was performed by Ramachandran plots. The antigenic epitopes of the proteins were achieved by analysing the features of the IEDB server. The synthesized gene was cloned into the pET-22b (+) expression vector and transformed into the Escherichia coli BL21. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to verify and analyse the expression of the rMEP protein. Western blotting was utilized to confirm rMEP protein immunogenicity in two forms, one using an anti-His tag antibody and the other with human pooled sera samples (fascioliasis, non-fascioliasis and negative control sera). Our results demonstrated that the rMEP designed for the three proteins of F. hepatica was highly antigenic, and immune-detection techniques confirmed the antigen specificity. In conclusion, the presented antigenic multi-epitope may be very helpful to develop serodiagnostic kits such as indirect ELISA to evaluate the proper diagnosis of fascioliasis in humans and ruminants.
      PubDate: 2020-03-04T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000140
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • In+vitro+nematocidal+activity+of+commercial+fatty+acids+and+β-sitosterol+against+Haemonchus+contortus&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&ía&rft.aufirst=J.A.&ía&ánchez,+M.+González-Cortazar,+E.+von+Son-de+Fernex,+R.+González-Garduño,+Pedro+Mendoza-de+Gives,+A.+Zamilpa,+L.+Aguilar-Marcelino&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000152">In vitro nematocidal activity of commercial fatty acids and β-sitosterol
           against Haemonchus contortus
    • Authors: J.A. Pineda-Alegría; J.E. Sánchez, M. González-Cortazar, E. von Son-de Fernex, R. González-Garduño, Pedro Mendoza-de Gives, A. Zamilpa, L. Aguilar-Marcelino
      Abstract: Haemonchus contortus is a haematophagous gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) that causes severe anaemia and even death in small ruminants, negatively impacting the economic viability of farms. Traditionally, this parasite has been controlled with chemical compounds; however, inadequate use of these types of products has favoured the emergence of anthelmintic resistance. Therefore, it is necessary to search for alternatives for GIN control. Previous studies have reported the anthelmintic activity of edible mushroom extracts against H. contortus. A recent study reported that a fraction constituted of different fatty acids and β-sitosterol isolated from the basidiomata of the edible mushroom Pleurotus djamor ECS-123 has ovicidal and larvicidal activity against H. contortus. Thus, this study aimed to assess the anthelmintic activity of the pure molecules: pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, β-sitosterol, stearic acid and linoleic acid. For this purpose, an egg-hatching inhibition test was carried out in which the compounds were evaluated individually and in combination at a final concentration of 20 mg mL−1. Furthermore, larval mortality was assessed using a combination of the five commercial compounds previously mentioned at different concentrations (1.25–20 mg mL−1). Palmitic acid and stearic acid, in some combinations, inhibited H. contortus egg hatching by 100%. On the other hand, in the larval mortality test, the combination of the five compounds showed dose-dependent behaviour, and 100% mortality was obtained 24 h post-incubation. Pure molecules and their combinations have anthelmintic-like activity against the eggs and larvae of H. contortus.
      PubDate: 2020-03-04T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000152
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Pseudocarcharias+kamoharai+(Lamniformes:+Pseudocarchariidae),+prompt+expansion+of+Scyphyophyllidum+and+formal+synonymization+of+seven+phyllobothriidean+genera+–+at+last!&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+C.+Hayes,+T.R.+Ruhnke&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000036">Insights from new cestodes of the crocodile shark, Pseudocarcharias
           kamoharai (Lamniformes: Pseudocarchariidae), prompt expansion of
           Scyphyophyllidum and formal synonymization of seven phyllobothriidean
           genera – at last!
    • Authors: J.N. Caira; K. Jensen, C. Hayes, T.R. Ruhnke
      Abstract: Three new cestode species are described from the crocodile shark (Pseudocarcharias kamoharai) in Ecuador. All three were examined with light and scanning electron microscopy. The unique combination of morphological features in one of the new species prompted formal investigation of the non-monophyly of Paraorygmatobothrium relative to the morphologically similar genera Doliobothrium, Guidus, Marsupiobothrium, Nandocestus, Orectolobicestus, Ruhnkecestus and Scyphophyllidium. Sequence data generated for part of the 28S rDNA gene were subjected to maximum likelihood (ML) analysis. The resulting tree led to the synonymization of six of these seven genera with Scyphophyllidium, and transfer of their species to the latter genus. With the new species, the number of described members of Scyphophyllidium is now 45. The diagnosis of Scyphophyllidium is revised to accommodate these species. In addition, to expedite future descriptions, eight categories of Scyphophyllidium species are circumscribed, based largely on bothridial features. Scyphophyllidium timvickiorum n. sp. is a category 1 species. Beyond being the smallest category 1 species, it bears, rather than lacks, apical suckers and lacks, rather than bears, strobilar scutes. The two other new species are members of Clistobothrium. Clistobothrium amyae n. sp. differs from its congeners in bothridial shape, elongate cephalic peduncle and tiny size. Clistobothrium gabywalterorum n. sp. differs from the two of its congeners that also possess foliose bothridia in overall size and testis number. Despite their substantial morphological differences, the ML tree indicates they are sister taxa. Both are unique among their congeners in possessing cephalic peduncle spinitriches. The diagnosis of Clistobothrium is revised accordingly.
      PubDate: 2020-03-02T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000036
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Nephridiacanthus+major+(Acanthocephala:+Oligacanthorhynchidae)+collected+from+hedgehogs+in+Iran&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+R.A.+Heckmann,+M.+Zarean&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000073">New perspectives on Nephridiacanthus major (Acanthocephala:
           Oligacanthorhynchidae) collected from hedgehogs in Iran
    • Authors: O.M. Amin; M. Sharifdini, R.A. Heckmann, M. Zarean
      Abstract: We describe morphological features not previously reported for this old acanthocephalan Nephridiacanthus major (Bremser, 1811 in Westrumb, 1821) Golvan, 1962 first described over 200 years ago. Our specimens were collected from long-eared hedgehog Hemiechinus auritus (Gmelin, 1770) (Erinaceidae) in Iran. We compare the morphometrics of our material with others previously reported from the same host in Iran, Russia, central Asia and Europe. Our specimens had markedly smaller proboscides, proboscis hooks and lemnisci than those reported from Russia and central Asia, but comparable measurements of other structures with specimens previously described from other collections. We document our new observations with scanning electron microscopy features not previously demonstrable by other observers and provide a chemical analysis of proboscis hooks using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis for the first time. The molecular profile of this acanthocephalan, based on 18S rDNA and cox1 genes, was generated for the first time. The phylogenetic analysis showed that N. major is placed in a clade of the family Oligacanthorhynchidae, well separated from the families Moniliformidae and Gigantorhynchidae.
      PubDate: 2020-03-02T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000073
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Piper+retrofractum+Vahl+on+morphology+and+ultrastructure+of+Strongyloides+stercoralis+third-stage+infective+larvae&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+D.+Champakaew,+A.+Jitpakdi,+P.+Tippawangkosol,+A.+Junkum,+U.+Chaithong,+A.+Wannasan,+T.+Yasanya,+P.+Somboon,+B.+Pitasawat&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000048">Nematocidal effect of Piper retrofractum Vahl on morphology and
           ultrastructure of Strongyloides stercoralis third-stage infective larvae
    • Authors: D. Riyong; C. Sangkhantree, D. Champakaew, A. Jitpakdi, P. Tippawangkosol, A. Junkum, U. Chaithong, A. Wannasan, T. Yasanya, P. Somboon, B. Pitasawat
      Abstract: In a previous research work aimed at discovering natural helminthicides as alternatives to conventional synthetic drugs, Piper retrofractum fruit hexane extract (PHE) has been shown to possess promising nematocidal activity against the third-stage infective larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the chemical composition and the impact of PHE on symptom and structural alterations of S. stercoralis. Chemical analysis of PHE by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry demonstrated 26 different compounds, constituting 100% of the total composition. The main components were 4-acetylphenyl (4-benzoylphenoxy) acetate (14.86%) and octyl methoxycinnamate (12.72%). Nematocidal bioassays revealed promising potential of PHE against S. stercoralis larvae, with an LC50 value of 0.059 mg/ml, while the reference drug ivermectin exerted higher efficacy, with an LC50 value of 0.020 µg/ml. Behavioural observations under light microscopy revealed that PHE-treated S. stercoralis larvae moved slowly, became paralysed and eventually died during 24 h of incubation. The dead larvae appeared under light microscope as straight worms with unknown vacuoles of different sizes inside their internal bodies. Morphological alterations of the PHE-treated S. stercoralis larvae, such as straight bodies with swollen cuticle, faded transverse annulations and faded longitudinal striations, as well as shallow and smooth lateral longitudinal grooves, were seen clearly under scanning electron microscopy. Ultrastructural changes in the treated larvae, such as protruded lateral longitudinal grooves, loose muscle with vacuolation, dissociation between the hypodermis and cuticle and marked intracellular disorganization with vacuolation, were detected under transmission electron microscopy. The results of this study provide evidence that PHE is toxic against S. stercoralis and also a potential new alternative for anti-Strongyloides chemotherapy.
      PubDate: 2020-02-27T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000048
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Spirometra+erinaceieuropaei+spargana+in+snakes+in+Hunan+Province,+China&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+Y.+Huang,+W.C.+Li,+Y.S.+Liu,+L.C.+Yang&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000139">Prevalence and molecular characterization of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei
           spargana in snakes in Hunan Province, China
    • Authors: W. Liu; L. Tan, Y. Huang, W.C. Li, Y.S. Liu, L.C. Yang
      Abstract: Sparganosis is an important foodborne parasitic zoonosis; however, few reports on the prevalence of snake-infecting plerocercoids from Hunan province in China are available. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of spargana infection in wild snakes from this region in 2018, and identified an astonishing prevalence rate of 91.7% (344/375). Spargana parasites were found in 99.1% of Zaocys dhumnades, 94.1% of Elaphe carinata and 86.7% of Elaphe taeniura. Parasites exhibited various distributions: 50% were located in muscular tissue, 32.1% in subcutaneous tissue and 17.9% in the coelomic cavity. To identify the specific status of spargana collected from wild snakes, partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequences were amplified, sequenced and analysed. Sequence variations for cox1 among all the examined plerocercoids ranged between 0.0 and 2.9%, with 21 variable sites identified (4.71%, 21/446). Phylogenetic analyses identified that all plerocercoids isolated from Hunan province were Spirometra erinaceieuropaei. This is the first report of S. erinaceieuropaei infection in snakes in Hunan province. The risks and harms of sparganosis should be publicized, and illegal wildlife trade should be controlled.
      PubDate: 2020-02-27T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000139
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Anisakis+spp.+in+cetaceans+from+the+north-east+Atlantic&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+A.+Hernandez-Gonzalez,+R.V.+Pool,+P.+Covelo,+P.+Sánchez-Hermosin,+A.+López,+C.+Saavedra,+N.+Fraija-Fernández,+M.+Fernández,+F.J.+Aznar&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000115">Recent increase of ulcerative lesions caused by Anisakis spp. in cetaceans
           from the north-east Atlantic
    • Authors: C. Pons-Bordas; A. Hazenberg, A. Hernandez-Gonzalez, R.V. Pool, P. Covelo, P. Sánchez-Hermosin, A. López, C. Saavedra, N. Fraija-Fernández, M. Fernández, F.J. Aznar
      Abstract: Species of Anisakis typically infect the stomach of cetaceans worldwide, often causing ulcerative lesions that may compromise the host's health. These nematodes also cause anisakiasis or allergic reactions in humans. To assess the risks of this emerging zoonosis, data on long-term changes in Anisakis infections in cetaceans are necessary. Here, we compare the prevalence and severity of ulcerative lesions caused by Anisakis spp. in five cetacean species stranded along the north-west Spanish coast in 2017–2018 with published data from 1991–1996. Open ulcers were found in 32/43 short-beaked common dolphins, Delphinus delphis; 3/5 striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba; 1/7 bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus; and 1/3 harbour porpoises, Phocoena phocoena meridionalis; a single individual of long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas, was found uninfected. In common dolphins, the mean abundance of open ulcers per host was 1.1 (95% confidence interval: 0.8–1.3), with a maximum diameter (mean ± standard deviation) of 25.4 ± 16.9 mm. Stomachs with scars or extensive fibrosis putatively associated with Anisakis were detected in 14 and five animals, respectively. A molecular analysis based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase II gene using 18 worms from three cetacean species revealed single or mixed infections of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto and Anisakis pegreffii. Compared with the period 1991–1996, we found a strong increase of prevalence, abundance and extension of ulcerative lesions in most cetacean species. Anisakis populations could have increased in the study area over the last decades, although we cannot rule out that a higher environmental stress has also boosted the pathological effects of these parasites.
      PubDate: 2020-02-26T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000115
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Ascaris+lumbricoides+and+Ascaris+suum+vary+in+their+larval+burden+in+a+mouse+model&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+J.+Beresford,+C.V.+Holland&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000127">Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum vary in their larval burden in a
           mouse model
    • Authors: G. Deslyper; O.A. Sowemimo, J. Beresford, C.V. Holland
      Abstract: Ascariasis is a neglected tropical disease, caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, affecting 800 million people worldwide. Studies focused on the early stage of parasite infection, occurring in the gut, liver and lungs, require the use of a mouse model. In these models, the porcine ascarid, Ascaris suum, is often used. The results obtained from these studies are then used to draw conclusions about A. lumbricoides infections in humans. In the present study, we sought to compare larval migration of A. suum and A. lumbricoides in mouse models. We used a previously developed mouse model of ascariasis, which consists of two mouse strains, where one mouse strain – C57BL/6J – is a model for relative susceptibility and the other – CBA/Ca – for relative resistance. Mice of both strains were infected with either A. suum or A. lumbricoides. The larval burden was assessed in two key organs, the liver and lungs, starting at 6 h post infection (p.i.) and ending on day 8 p.i. Additionally, we measured the larval size of each species (μm) at days 6, 7 and 8 p.i. in the lungs. We found that larval burden in the liver is significantly higher for A. lumbricoides than for A. suum. However, the inverse is true in the lungs. Additionally, our results showed a reduced larval size for A. lumbricoides compared to A. suum.
      PubDate: 2020-02-26T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000127
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Himasthla+elongata+(Trematoda,+Himasthlidae)+cercariae+with+deviant+photoreaction&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+Egor+Lebedev,+Edokiia+Potolytsina,+Nickolay+Galaktionov,+Ivan+Levakin&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000103">Reduced infectivity in Himasthla elongata (Trematoda, Himasthlidae)
           cercariae with deviant photoreaction
    • Authors: Anna Solovyeva; Kirill Nikolaev, Egor Lebedev, Edokiia Potolytsina, Nickolay Galaktionov, Ivan Levakin
      Abstract: Digenean larvae of hermaphroditic generation – cercariae – are known to be polymorphic at genetic and behavioural levels. Cercariae arise as a result of parthenogenetic reproduction of intramolluscan stages, and represent a clone if a snail was infected with a single miracidium. Here we investigated cercarial clones of Himasthla elongata – namely, the infectivity of cercariae with normal (negative) and deviant (positive) photoreaction. In our study, most H. elongata clones showed intraclonal variance in their response to light. The proportion of photopositive cercariae ranged between 0.2% and 60% in different H. elongata clones. Photopositive larvae demonstrated significantly reduced rates of encystment in Mytilus edulis haemolymph in vitro and in young mussels. We discuss the possible mechanisms behind intraclonal variations, such as non-specific genomic rearrangements.
      PubDate: 2020-02-26T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000103
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Trinigyrus+spp.+(Monogenea:+Dactylogyridae)+from+Brazilian+catfishes:+new+species,+molecular+data+and+new+morphological+contributions+to+the+genus&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+A.C.+Zago,+M.I.+Müller,+R.J.+da+Silva&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000097">Trinigyrus spp. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) from Brazilian catfishes: new
           species, molecular data and new morphological contributions to the genus
    • Authors: L. Franceschini; A.A. Acosta, A.C. Zago, M.I. Müller, R.J. da Silva
      Abstract: This study describes two new species, Trinigyrus anthus n. sp. and Trinigyrus carvalhoi n. sp., from gills of Hypostomus spp. from the Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. Trinigyrus peregrinus is redescribed based on examination of its holotype, paratypes and new material of specimens parasitizing Pterygoplichthys ambrosettii, also from the Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. New morphological features were included in the diagnosis of the genus, such as the presence of a sclerotized border on the anchor base, and a weakly sclerotized fringe on the base of the male copulatory organ (MCO). Trinigyrus anthus n. sp. differs from other congeners by the shape of the MCO, presenting an enlarged base with sclerotized fringes resembling flower petals. Trinigyrus carvalhoi n. sp. and T. peregrinus are similar but can be differentiated from each other mainly by the sclerotization of the vagina (absent in the new species), and the morphology of the MCO (C-shaped versus one counterclockwise circle, respectively). For the first time, gene sequences of Trinigyrus spp. from Brazil were obtained (partial ribosomal 28S and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (mtCOI)). The genetic divergences among the new species and T. peregrinus varied from 2 to 3% (6‒18 pb) based on sequences of 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), and 6–7% (83‒92 pb) using mtCOI. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial 28S rDNA revealed that Trinigyrus, Heteropriapulus and Unilatus formed a monophyletic and well-supported clade of monogeneans from Neotropical freshwater loricariids, suggesting a closer relationship among these dactylogyrids and their hosts.
      PubDate: 2020-02-20T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000097
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Assessment of anthelmintic efficacy against cattle gastrointestinal
           nematodes in western France and southern Italy
    • Authors: C. Chartier; N. Ravinet, A. Bosco, E. Dufourd, M. Gadanho, A. Chauvin, J. Charlier, M.P. Maurelli, G. Cringoli, L. Rinaldi
      Abstract: Our objective was to measure the efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) and benzimidazoles (BZ, i.e. fenbendazole and albendazole) in 15 cattle farms in western France and southern Italy. A total of 11 groups were treated with IVM and 11 with BZ. Efficacy was assessed by calculating the percentage of faecal egg count reduction (%FECR) using the pre- and post-treatment arithmetic means. Anthelmintic resistance was considered to be present when the %FECR was
      PubDate: 2020-02-10T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000085
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Effect of a newly synthesized quinoline-based compound (PPQ-8) on murine
           schistosomiasis mansoni
    • Authors: A. Taman; S.M. Alhusseiny, N.E. Saleh, M.Y. Youssef, B. Mansour, M. Massoud, S.N. El-Beshbishi
      Abstract: Schistosomiasis represents a public health problem and praziquantel is the only drug used for treatment of all forms of the disease. Thus, the development of new anti-schistosomal agents is of utmost importance to increase the effectiveness, reduce side effects and delay the emergence of resistance. The present study was conducted to report the therapeutic efficacy of PPQ-8, a new synthetic quinoline-based compound against Schistosoma mansoni. Mice were treated with PPQ-8 at day 49 post infection using two treatment regimens (20 and 40 mg/kg). Significant reductions were recorded in hepatic (62.9% and 83.6%) and intestinal tissue egg load (57.4% and 73.5%), granuloma count (75.4% and 89.1%) and diameter (26.2% and 47.3%), in response to the drug regimens, respectively. In addition, both treatment regimens induced significant decrease in liver (23.3% and 32.8%) and spleen (37.5% and 45.3%) indices. Also, there were significant reductions in mature ova, total worm and female count, which were more prominent with the higher dose. The reduction in the level of nitric oxide in the liver by both therapeutic regimens to 22.5% and 47.2% indicates the anti-oxidant activity of PPQ-8. Bright field microscopic examination of worms recovered from infected and PPQ-8-treated mice showed nearly empty intestinal caeca with no observable changes in the tegument. Our findings hold promise for the development of a novel anti-schistosomal drug using PPQ-8, but further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to elucidate the possible mechanism/s of action and to study the effect of PPQ-8 on other human schistosomes.
      PubDate: 2020-02-07T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X2000005X
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Geographic and ontogenetic variations in parasite communities of
           intertidal fish species from the south-eastern Pacific coast
    • Authors: N.V. Leiva; G. Muñoz, M.T. González
      Abstract: Parasite composition can be affected by physiological and ecological changes during host ontogeny. Intertidal fish do not travel long distances and live in the same area throughout their lifetimes, meaning that parasite communities can differ across geographic ranges. The objective of this study was to analyse the parasite communities of three fish species (Hypsoblennius sordidus, Helcogrammoides cunninghami and Scartichthys viridis) collected from the Chilean coast. The composition of parasite species was compared among host ontogenetic stages (larvae, juveniles and mature fish) and geographic areas. A total of 184 larval, 252 juveniles and 217 mature individuals were collected in the northern area (c. 24°S), and 186 larval, 192 juveniles and 112 mature individuals from the central area (c. 33°S). Ectoparasites were most prevalent in fish from the central area, whereas endoparasites were most prevalent in the northern area. The parasite species richness varied significantly between geographical areas for H. sordidus and H. cunninghami, but the parasite composition varied significantly between geographical areas for all fish species analysed. Therefore, the geographical area was the most important factor determining the parasite composition of intertidal fish species. The absence of endoparasites in fish larvae and the increased infestation in juvenile and mature fish may be explained by the shift in habitat from the water column to intertidal pools where prey abundance and availability are higher. On the other hand, hydrographic barriers affecting prey distributions may also offer an explanation as to the differences in parasite composition.
      PubDate: 2020-02-07T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000061
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Bithynia+tentaculata+in+Central+Europe&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+N.J.+Smit,+C.+Selbach,+B.+Sures&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X19001093">High parasite diversity in a neglected host: larval trematodes of Bithynia
           tentaculata in Central Europe
    • Authors: J. Schwelm; O. Kudlai, N.J. Smit, C. Selbach, B. Sures
      Abstract: Bithynids snails are a widespread group of molluscs in European freshwater systems. However, not much information is available on trematode communities from molluscs of this family. Here, we investigate the trematode diversity of Bithynia tentaculata, based on molecular and morphological data. A total of 682 snails from the rivers Lippe and Rhine in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, and 121 B. tentaculata from Curonian Lagoon, Lithuania were screened for infections with digeneans. In total, B. tentaculata showed a trematode prevalence of 12.9% and 14%, respectively. The phylogenetic analyses based on 55 novel sequences for 36 isolates demonstrated a high diversity of digeneans. Analyses of the molecular and morphological data revealed a species-rich trematode fauna, comprising 20 species, belonging to ten families. Interestingly, the larval trematode community of B. tentaculata shows little overlap with the well-studied trematode fauna of lymnaeids and planorbids, and some of the detected species (Echinochasmus beleocephalus and E. coaxatus) constitute first records for B. tentaculata in Central Europe. Our study revealed an abundant, diverse and distinct trematode fauna in B. tentaculata, which highlights the need for further research on this so far understudied host–parasite system. Therefore, we might currently be underestimating the ecological roles of several parasite communities of non-pulmonate snail host families in European fresh waters.
      PubDate: 2020-01-27T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X19001093
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Using lizards to evaluate the influence of average abundance on the
           variance of endoparasites in semiarid areas: dispersion and assemblage
    • Authors: J.A. Araujo Filho; A.A.M. Teixeira, D.A. Teles, S.M. Rocha, W.O. Almeida, D.O. Mesquita, A.C.F. Lacerda
      Abstract: The distribution of parasites within host populations and communities, and the mechanisms responsible for these patterns, are poorly understood aspects of wildlife parasitology. Here, we evaluate the influence of the average abundance of endoparasite variance, using endoparasites of lizards from the Caatinga domain (semiarid region), north-eastern Brazil. We hypothesized that, due to the high number of generalist endoparasite species, they may occur randomly throughout host populations in an aggregate pattern. In addition, we evaluated the degree to which sample variance is influenced by the average abundance of endoparasite species, patterns of co-occurrence and dominance among endoparasite species and similarities between abundance and the richness of endoparasite infracommunities in several host species. Between September 2015 and February 2016, 2141 lizards (1233 infected) from 16 species were collected from six Caatinga areas. In total, 25,687 endoparasites were collected, which belonged to 13 species including nematodes, pentastomids, cestodes, trematodes and acanthocephalans. Parasite–host associations documented here included 39 newly identified interactions. Endoparasites occurred in a typical aggregate pattern of distribution within their hosts; there was no measurable preference related to the acquisition of hosts by endoparasites. Despite the new records, endoparasites found were commonly associated with lizards in Caatinga environments, which may reflect fauna composed of generalist endoparasite species.
      PubDate: 2020-01-22T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X19001147
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Eurytrema+coelomaticum:+updated+morphology+of+adult+worms+using+advanced+microscopy+experiments&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+J.G.R.+Souza,+R.H.+Neves,+D.C.+Gomes,+J.R.+Machado-Silva&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X19001135">Eurytrema coelomaticum: updated morphology of adult worms using advanced
           microscopy experiments
    • Authors: K.G. Leite; E.J. Lopes-Torres, J.G.R. Souza, R.H. Neves, D.C. Gomes, J.R. Machado-Silva
      Abstract: Eurytrema coelomaticum is a digenean flatworm of ruminants that is the causative agent of eurytrematosis, a disease of veterinary health concern. Although modern techniques of morphological analysis have provided new insights about the morphology and anatomy of parasitic helminths, most studies on E. coelomaticum adults are based on conventional light microscopy. In the present study, a combined approach using brightfield, fluorescence, confocal and scanning electron microscopies (SEMs), together with the cryofracture technique, have updated morphological data on E. coelomaticum recovered from cattle in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Light microscopy confirmed the presence of several structures present in the current description, such as suckers, pharynx, oesophagus, intestinal bifurcation and the cirrus-sac. Fluorescence stereomicroscopy revealed for the first time the cubic crystal protein inclusions in the forebody, which were further detailed by confocal and SEMs. Confocal microscopy provided detailed information of the muscular architecture associated with the attachment structures (suckers), digestive system (pharynx and oesophagus), egg-forming complex (ovary, Mehlis’ gland and Laurer's canal) and male reproductive system, which are similar to those found in other digenean flukes. SEM images of cryofractured parasites showed mucus and developing eggs within uterine loops. It was demonstrated that the combination of advanced tools generated complementary information, confirming the importance of experimental morphology in parasitology. Therefore, the knowledge of the adult structural organization of E. coelomaticum was improved and this work has contributed to propose new morphological criteria to evaluate the effects of antiparasitic drugs on flukes of medical and veterinary importance.
      PubDate: 2020-01-22T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X19001135
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • S-transferase+from+adult+Ancylostoma+ceylanicum&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+A.M.I.+Abuzeid,+Y.+Huang,+Y.Q.+Liu,+X.X.+Yan,+Q.+Zhao,+X.+Li,+J.M.+Liu,+G.Q.+Li&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000012">Molecular characterization and tissue localization of glutathione
           S-transferase from adult Ancylostoma ceylanicum
    • Authors: J.X. Hang; L. He, A.M.I. Abuzeid, Y. Huang, Y.Q. Liu, X.X. Yan, Q. Zhao, X. Li, J.M. Liu, G.Q. Li
      Abstract: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a detoxifying enzyme family that is essential for parasite blood-feeding and survival, and represent potential targets for hookworm vaccine development. Multiple GST-encoding complementary DNAs (cDNAs) have been cloned from Ancylostoma caninum and Necator americanus, but there are no reports about the cloning of this enzyme from Ancylostoma ceylanicum, the animal-derived zoonotic hookworm. To study the molecular nature and tissue localization of GST of A. ceylanicum (Ace-GST), we designed primers based on the GST gene sequence of A. ceylanicum in GenBank, amplified the Ace-GST cDNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and analysed its homology and genetic evolution relationship. The amplified product was cloned into the pET-32a vector and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) for expression. To prepare anti-GST polyclonal antibodies, the recombinant protein was purified and used to immunize Kunming mice. The level of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody in the serum of immunized mice was detected by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the Ace-GST localization in adult worm was determined using the immunofluorescence method. The results showed that the full-length cDNA encoding Ace-GST was 468 bp, which had the highest homology with Ac-GST-1 (60.1%) and clustered into one branch (v-class) with Ac-GST-1 and Na-GST-1 in a phylogenetic tree. Mice immunized with recombinant Ace-GST showed specific IgG antibody response. Immunolocalization revealed that natural Ace-GST is mainly located in the epidermis, muscle and intestine of the adult. These results may lay a foundation for further studies on the biological function of Ace-GST.
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000012
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Pseudoacanthocephalus+(Acanthocephala:+Echinorhynchidae)+from+the+guttural+toad,+Sclerophrys+gutturalis+(Bufonidae),+introduced+into+Mauritius,+with+comments+on+the+implications+of+the+introductions+of+toads+and+their+parasites+into+the+UK&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+J.W.+Wilkinson,+E.+Harris&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X19001044">A new species of Pseudoacanthocephalus (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae)
           from the guttural toad, Sclerophrys gutturalis (Bufonidae), introduced
           into Mauritius, with comments on the implications of the introductions of
           toads and their parasites into the UK
    • Authors: L.R. Smales; S.J.R. Allain, J.W. Wilkinson, E. Harris
      Abstract: Pseudoacanthocephalus goodmani n. sp. is described from faecal pellets collected from Sclerophrys gutturalis (Power, 1927), the guttural toad. The species is characterized by a suite of characters, including a proboscis armature of 14–18 longitudinal rows of 4–6 hooks with simple roots, lemnisci longer than the proboscis receptacle, equatorial testes, a cluster of elongated cement glands and eggs without polar prolongations of the middle membrane 72.6–85.8 long. The toad had been accidentally translocated from Mauritius to the UK in a tourist's luggage and survived a washing machine cycle. The guttural toad was introduced into Mauritius from South Africa in 1922 and the cane toad, Rhinella marina (Linneaus, 1758), from South America, between 1936 and 1938. It seems most likely, therefore, that P. goodmani was introduced, with the guttural toad, from South Africa. The cane toad is host to the similar species, Pseudoacanthocephalus lutzi, from the Americas, but P. lutzi has not been recorded from places where the cane toad has been introduced elsewhere. Clearly, the guttural toad is a hardy and adaptable species, although it seems unlikely that it could become established in Northern Europe. Nevertheless, any accidental translocation of hosts poses the potential risk of introducing unwanted pathogens into the environment and should be guarded against.
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X19001044
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Holostephanus+(Trematoda:+Digenea:+Cyathocotylidae)+metacercariae+in+common+carp+(Cyprinus+carpio+Linnaeus,+1758)+muscle:+zoonotic+potential+and+sensitivity+to+physico-chemical+treatments&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&ándor&rft.aufirst=D.&ándor&öngy,+K.+Nyeste,+I.+Czeglédi,+C.+Székely,+K.+Buchmann,+G.+Cech&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X1900110X">Digenean Holostephanus (Trematoda: Digenea: Cyathocotylidae) metacercariae
           in common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) muscle: zoonotic potential
           and sensitivity to physico-chemical treatments
    • Authors: D. Sándor; M. Gyöngy, K. Nyeste, I. Czeglédi, C. Székely, K. Buchmann, G. Cech
      Abstract: Metacercariae of various species within the genus Holostephanus Szidat, 1936 (Trematoda: Digenea: Cyathocotylidae) occur in muscles of both farmed and wild fish, including common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758). The life cycle includes a snail as first intermediate host, fish as second intermediate host and birds or mammals as final hosts. We studied the zoonotic potential and the viability of Holostephanus metacercariae from common carp following exposure to various physical and chemical treatments. Muscle tissue samples of common carp specimens from a fish farm in the north-eastern part of Hungary were examined and metacercariae recovered. The zoonotic potential was evaluated experimentally by using small mammals as models (albino mice, n = 2; and Syrian hamsters, n = 4) infected per os with Holostephanus cysts. Parallelly, Metagonimus metacercariae were used as positive controls. We could not confirm the zoonotic potential of Holostephanus metacercariae as they did not survive in the mammalian intestine whereas Metagonimus metacercariae developed to the adult stage. We assessed the viability of metacercariae isolated from common carp specimens during exposure to different physical treatments (temperatures of −18°C, +20°C, +40°C and +60°C) and chemical agents (5% and 10% acetic acid and 10% sodium chloride (NaCl)). Metacercariae lost viability by freezing at −18°C (2 h), heating at 60°C (20 min), incubation in 5% and 10% acetic acid (5 min) and 10% NaCl (2 h). These methods served as models to investigate the effectiveness of food preparation techniques (such as cold and hot smoking, freezing, salting and pickling) on the survival of metacercariae.
      PubDate: 2020-01-17T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X1900110X
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Teladorsagia+circumcincta+following+exposure+to+zinc+oxide+nanoparticles&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+S.+Asri-Rezaei&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X19001068">Assessment of oxidative/nitrosative stress biomarkers and DNA damage in
           Teladorsagia circumcincta following exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles
    • Authors: Z. Baghbani; B. Esmaeilnejad, S. Asri-Rezaei
      Abstract: Drug resistance to helminth parasites is one of the most serious problems to threaten the livestock industry. The problem also poses a major threat to public health. Therefore, novel and safe agents should urgently be investigated to control parasitic infections. The current study was conducted to evaluate the possible antiparasitic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) on one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal nematodes, Teladorsagia circumcincta. The worms were incubated with various concentrations of ZnO-NPs: 1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 ppm for 24 hours. Mobility and mortality of the parasites were recorded at four-hour intervals. At the endpoint, several biomarkers of oxidative/nitrosative stress, including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase, as well as lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, total antioxidant status, nitric oxide contents and DNA damage, were measured in the homogenized samples. ZnO-NPs showed significant anthelminthic effects, depending on time and concentration. Furthermore, the nanoparticle induced severe oxidative/nitrosative stress and DNA damage. ZnO-NPs could be considered as a novel and potent anthelminthic agent.
      PubDate: 2020-01-14T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X19001068
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Hymenolepis+diminuta,+in+its+intermediate+host,+the+confused+flour+beetle+Tribolium+confusum&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+T.+Dubiel&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X19001123">Comparison of the effects of multiple variables on the levels of infection
           of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, in its intermediate host, the
           confused flour beetle Tribolium confusum
    • Authors: A. Yezerski; Y. Luyten, T. Dubiel
      Abstract: The interaction of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, with its intermediate beetle host, Tribolium confusum, is a well-studied model system. However, there is so much variation in the methods and designs of the studies that it is difficult to draw comparisons. This study simultaneously compared several aspects of the infection protocol including beetle age, sex, density and mating status; parasite egg condition, infection environment humidity and the times for the three steps of infection: starvation, feeding and post-feeding development. Although statistically limited by low prevalence and intensity levels, we were able to detect the relative effects of the variables. The effects of these variables on prevalence (percent infection) and intensity (mean number of cysticercoids) do not necessarily correlate with each other. Egg condition, reduced starvation times, higher beetle density and longer development times reduced prevalence. However, differences in intensity were only detected with older beetles. When coupled with survivorship data, our study found that our current infection protocol is optimal for infection success. However, the results suggest extending the study to other intermediate hosts and the inclusion of additional variables.
      PubDate: 2020-01-14T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X19001123
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Osphranter+robustus+(Gould)+(Marsupialia:+Macropodidae)+from+Australia&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&">Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of the common wallaroo or euro,
           Osphranter robustus (Gould) (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) from Australia
    • Authors: I. Beveridge
      Abstract: The gastrointestinal helminth parasites of 170 common wallaroos or euros, Osphranter robustus (Gould), collected from all mainland states in which the species occurs as well as the Northern Territory, are presented, including previously published data. A total of 65 species of helminths were encountered, including four species of anoplocephalid cestodes found in the bile ducts and small intestine, and 61 species of strongylid nematodes, all but two of which occurring in the stomach, and with the remainder occurring in the terminal ileum, caecum and colon. Among the mainland subspecies of O. robustus, 52 species of helminths were encountered in O. r. robustus, compared with 30 species in O. r. woodwardi and 35 species in O. r. erubescens. Of the parasite species encountered, only 17 were specific to O. robustus, the remaining being shared with sympatric host species. Host-specific species or species occurring in O. robustus at a high prevalence can be classified as follows: widely distributed; restricted to northern Australia; restricted to the northern wallaroo, O. r. woodwardi; found only in the euro, O. r. erubescens; found essentially along the eastern coast of Australia, primarily in O. r. robustus; and species with highly limited regional distributions. The data currently available suggest that the acquisition of a significant number of parasites is due to co-grazing with other macropodids, while subspeciation in wallaroos as well as climatic variables may have influenced the diversification of the parasite fauna.
      PubDate: 2020-01-13T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X19001032
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Aelurostrongylus+abstrusus+(Railliet,+1898)+larvae&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+G.+Gaglio,+J.M.+Abbate,+S.+Giannetto,+E.+Brianti&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X19001056">Effect of different temperatures on survival and development of
           Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898) larvae
    • Authors: E. Napoli; F. Arfuso, G. Gaglio, J.M. Abbate, S. Giannetto, E. Brianti
      Abstract: Aim of the study was to get in-depth information on Aelurostrongylus abstrusus first-stage larvae (L1s) survival at different temperatures and to assess the capability of these larvae to develop into the third infective stage (L3s). Faeces of a naturally infected cat were split into two aliquots: the first was divided in subsamples assigned to four groups (F1–F4); from the second aliquot, L1s were extracted by Baermann technique, suspended in water and divided into four groups (W1–W4). Groups were stored at different temperatures (F1/W1 −20 ± 1°C; F2/W2 +4 ± 1°C; F3/W3 +14 ± 1°C; and F4/W4 +28 ± 1°C) and L1s vitality assessed every seven days. The capability of L1s stored in water to develop into L3s in snails was evaluated at the beginning and every 21 days. The L1s of W2 and F2 groups remained viable for a longer period (231 and 56 days, respectively) compared to those of other groups. The capability of L1s to moult into L3s in snails showed a decreasing trend; the group W2's L1s maintained the capability to moult into L3s for the longest time (day 189) compared to the other groups. The time of survival of A. abstrusus L1s is influenced by temperature. However, the species seems to be more resistant to temperature variations than other feline lungworms, and this may explain its wider distribution across Europe.
      PubDate: 2020-01-09T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X19001056
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Gadus+morhua)+liver+infected+with+Contracaecum+osculatum&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+K.+Syahputra,+S.+Zuo,+K.+Buchmann&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X19001111">Local immune depression in Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) liver infected with
           Contracaecum osculatum
    • Authors: H. Marnis; P.W. Kania, K. Syahputra, S. Zuo, K. Buchmann
      Abstract: Third-stage larvae of the anisakid nematode Contracaecum osculatum infecting cod (Gadus morhua) liver elicit a host immune response involving both innate and adaptive factors, but the reactions differ between liver and spleen. Inflammatory reactions occur in both liver and spleen, but a series of immune effector genes are downregulated in liver infected with nematodes whereas these genes in spleen from the same fish are upregulated. A series of novel primer and probe sets targeting cod immune responses were developed and applied in a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction set-up to measure the expression of immune-relevant genes in liver and spleen of infected and uninfected cod. In infected liver, 12 of 23 genes were regulated. Genes encoding cytokines associated with inflammatory reactions (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8) were significantly upregulated, whereas genes encoding effector molecules, assisting the elimination of pathogens, C-reactive protein (CRP)-PII, hepcidin, lysozyme G1, lysozyme G2, C3 and IgDm, were significantly downregulated. The number of downregulated genes increased with the parasite burden. In spleen, 14 of 23 immune genes showed significant regulation and nine of these were upregulated, including genes encoding CRPI, CRPII, C3, hepcidin and transferrin. The general gene expression level was higher in spleen compared to liver, and although inflammation was induced in nematode-infected liver, the effector molecule genes were depressed, which suggests a worm-induced immune suppression locally in the liver.
      PubDate: 2020-01-07T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X19001111
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Onchocerca+ochengi+in+cattle+and+human+sera&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+J.V.+Dikti,+S.+van+Hoorn,+K.+Manchang,+N.+Brattig,+E.+Liebau&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X15000796">Immune recognition of excretory and secretory products of the filarial
           nematode Onchocerca ochengi in cattle and human sera
    • Authors: B. Djafsia; D. Ndjonka, J.V. Dikti, S. van Hoorn, K. Manchang, N. Brattig, E. Liebau
      Abstract: Excretory–secretory (ES) products of nematodes and other helminths are the first molecules to interact with cell surfaces and soluble proteins within the host. In the present study, ES products of the filarial nematode Onchocerca ochengi were investigated as a model for Onchocerca volvulus, the causative agent of river blindness. These products were collected from adult and larval stages in vitro over a period of 7 days, to compare their immunological recognition in cattle and human sera, infected with species of Onchocerca. From the 156 sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) ES products or extracts, protein bands showed different patterns between female and male products. A comparison of antibody recognition of the different ES products by sera from infected cattle and humans, when analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), revealed a relatively higher reactivity of the female somatic extract to human and cattle sera compared to ES products of both genders. Nevertheless, similar reactivity of the O. ochengi male and female ES products to human and cattle sera was noticed. As a result, the interaction of ES products with the surface of the host and immune system often led to host responses, including the generation of antibodies. The O. ochengi ES products are therefore good sources of potential immunogenic proteins. The identification of these ES products is in progress, with the aim of developing vaccine candidates against human onchocerciasis.
      PubDate: 2015-09-11T01:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X15000796
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2015)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

Your IP address:
Home (Search)
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-