Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8642 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2392 journals)            First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Showing 1201 - 1400 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Forensic Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Gandaki Medical College-Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Generic Medicines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Geographical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hand Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Head & Neck Physicians and Surgeons     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health & Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 61)
Journal of Health and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Economics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior     Open Access  
Journal of Health Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science and Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of health sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences / Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health Sciences and Surveillance System     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences Scholarship     Open Access  
Journal of Health Specialties     Open Access  
Journal of Health Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Healthcare Informatics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Helminthology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Herbs Spices & Medicinal Plants     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of HIV for Clinical and Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Hospital Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Human Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Human Rhythm     Open Access  
Journal of Human Transcriptome     Open Access  
Journal of Ideas in Health     Open Access  
Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inflammation Research     Open Access  
Journal of Injury and Violence Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Institute of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Insulin Resistance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Interactional Research in Communication Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of International Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Interventional Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Investigative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Islamabad Medical & Dental College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Karnali Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Kathmandu Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of King Abdulaziz University : Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Laryngology and Voice     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Limb Lengthening & Reconstruction     Open Access  
Journal of Lumbini Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Materials Science : Materials in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Maternal and Child Health     Open Access  
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Cases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Colleges of PLA     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Medical Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Ethics     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ideas     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Investigation and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Laboratory and Diagnosis     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Law and Ethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Medical Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medicinal Botany     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 201)
Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Medicine and the Person     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medicine in Scientific Research     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine in the Tropics     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine Research and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medicines Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Metabolomics & Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Movement Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Nanotheranostics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Natural Medicines     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nature and Science of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Journal of Nepalgunj Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Neurocritical Care     Open Access  
Journal of Neurodegenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Neurorestoratology     Open Access  
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Nobel Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Obesity and Bariatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Occupational Health     Open Access  
Journal of Occupational Therapy Education     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Ocular Biology, Diseases, and Informatics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Oral Health and Craniofacial Science     Open Access  
Journal of Orofacial Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, Hearing and Balance Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ovarian Research     Open Access  
Journal of Ozone Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Journal of Paramedical Sciences & Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Journal of Parkinsonism and Restless Legs Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parkinson’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Participatory Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Patan Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Pathogens     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Patient Experience     Open Access  
Journal of Patient Safety and Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Patient-Reported Outcomes     Open Access  
Journal of Periodontal Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physiobiochemical Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physiology-Paris     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pioneering Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Pregnancy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Prevention & Intervention Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health     Open Access  
Journal of Primary Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Prosthodontic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Prosthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Receptor, Ligand and Channel Research     Open Access  
Journal of Regenerative Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Scientific Innovation in Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Scientific Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Arthroplasty     Open Access  
Journal of Sleep Disorders : Treatment & Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of South American Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences : Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stem Cell Therapy and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stomal Therapy Australia     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Journal of Substance Use     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Surgical Academia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Surgical and Clinical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report     Open Access  
Journal of Systemic Therapies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of The Academy of Clinical Microbiologists     Open Access  
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the American College of Certified Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American College of Clinical Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Anatomical Society of India     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Anus, Rectum and Colon     Open Access  
Journal of The Arab Society for Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Australasian Society of Aerospace Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Ceylon College of Physicians     Open Access  
Journal of the Chinese Medical Association     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the College of Community Physicians of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of The Egyptian Public Health Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Georgia Public Health Association     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the Ghana Science Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)

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Similar Journals
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Journal of Helminthology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.553
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 2  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0022-149X - ISSN (Online) 1475-2697
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [387 journals]
  • Lyperosomum+Looss,+1899+(Digenea:+Dicrocoeliidae)+from+Melanerpes+aurifrons+(Wagler,+1829)+from+northern+Mexico&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&ález-García&rft.aufirst=M.T.&ález-García&,+L.+Andrade-Gómez,+M.+García-Varela&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000425">Morphological and molecular evidence reveals a new species of Lyperosomum
           Looss, 1899 (Digenea: Dicrocoeliidae) from Melanerpes aurifrons (Wagler,
           1829) from northern Mexico
    • Authors: M.T. González-García; M.P. Ortega-Olivares, L. Andrade-Gómez, M. García-Varela
      Abstract: A new species of the genus Lyperosomum Looss, 1899, from the intestine of the golden-fronted woodpecker (Melanerpes aurifrons) from northern Mexico is described. Lyperosomum cuauhxinqui sp. n. is morphologically distinguished from other congeneric species from the Americas by a higher oral/ventral sucker ratio and its body length and width. The sequences of domains D1–D3 of the large subunit (LSU) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) from the mitochondrial DNA of the new species were obtained and compared with available sequences from GenBank. The genetic divergence estimated between the new species and other congeneric species ranged from 2 to 6% and 13.4 to 17.3% for LSU and cox 1, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses based on the two (LSU and cox 1) molecular markers consistently showed that L. cuauhxinqui sp. n. was nested within the genus Lyperosomum, with strong bootstrap support (100%) and Bayesian posterior probabilities (1.0). In particular, the LSU tree indicated that the sequence of the new species is closely related to sequences from Zonorchis alveyi, Zonorchis delectans and Zonorchis sp. from Central America, suggesting that these sequences should be transferred to the genus Lyperosomum. The new species represents the first record from Mexico and the fifth species identified in the Americas. Our study also revealed that the taxonomy of the genus Lyperosomum should be re-examined by combining molecular, morphological and ecological characteristics.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000425
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Echinococcus+granulosus+in+livestock+of+Al-Madinah+(Saudi+Arabia)&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+A.H.+Nigm&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000395">Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus in livestock of
           Al-Madinah (Saudi Arabia)
    • Authors: N.M. AL-Mutairi; H.A. Taha, A.H. Nigm
      Abstract: Echinococcus granulosus is the causative agent of cystic echinococcosis, which has serious impacts on human and/or animal health, resulting in significant economic losses. Echinococcus granulosus comprises a number of intra-specific variants or strains at the genetic level. In Saudi Arabia, few studies were performed on genetic variations in Echinococcus species. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the phenotypic and genetic characterization of hydatid cysts harboured by sheep and camels in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah. Samples of hydatid cysts were collected from local sheep (n = 25) and camels (n = 8). The morphological criteria of protoscoleces were investigated. To investigate the molecular characterization, random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR), single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) were carried out. DNA was extracted from individual fertile cysts and subjected to RAPD-PCR analysis (using five arbitrary primers) and PCR amplification of cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) and 12S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (12S rRNA) genes. The PCR products were subjected to SSCP analysis for genetic discrimination in E. granulosus isolates. In addition, partially sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA cox1 genes was achieved for assessing the phylogenetic positions of collected isolates using some global published sequence data of cox1 genes. The rostellar hooks of camel and local sheep isolates show remarkable variability in their dimensions. Five distinct SSCP patterns were identified in the 12S rRNA gene, showing intraspecific variations in E. granulosus of camels and local sheep. Sequencing of (cox1) genes of both local sheep and camels exhibit high similarity with those of the same gene (E. granulosus sensu stricto) published in NCBI BLAST.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000395
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Relationship between the excretion of eggs of parasitic helminths in roe
           deer and local livestock density
    • Authors: H. Verheyden; C. Richomme, J. Sevila, J. Merlet, B. Lourtet, Y. Chaval, H. Hoste
      Abstract: Because of their continuing expansion, wildlife ruminant species that prosper in rural landscapes may be increasingly affected by and/or contribute to the circulation of certain generalist pathogens also infecting domestic ruminants, when they share common spaces or resources. In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that parasitism with gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) of wild roe deer inhabiting different rural landscapes is correlated with livestock density. We used faecal egg counts of GINs and spatial data of 74 GPS-collared roe deer, inhabiting various landscapes from closed forests to open fields, together with weekly records of livestock abundances on pasture. We tested whether the excretion of GIN eggs in roe deer was influenced by the density of livestock in their home range over the grazing season. Our results showed that all of the roe deer home ranges, except four, contained pastures occupied by livestock. Excretion of GIN eggs occurred in 77% of the roe deer. The excretion of GIN eggs in roe deer tended to increase with livestock density in their home range. This result suggests, but does not prove, a higher risk of ingesting GIN larvae originating from livestock dung. In the context of increasing overlap between roe deer and livestock ranges, the exchange of pathogens between both hosts is plausible, although species identity of the parasites present was not determined. Assessing which GIN species are shared between wild and domestic ruminants, and how this may affect the health of both hosts, is a central question for future research in the context of interspecific pathogen circulation.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000449
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • New data on life cycles for three species of Fellodistomidae (Digenea) in
           the White Sea
    • Authors: D. Krupenko; A. Uryadova, A. Gonchar, G. Kremnev, V. Krapivin
      Abstract: Few digeneans of the family Fellodistomidae are known from the Russian Arctic seas. The taxonomic status of these species, their life cycles and host range raised recurrent questions, some of which remain unanswered. To revise the species composition and life cycles of fellodistomids in the White Sea, we searched for them in several known and suspected hosts: wolffish, flatfishes (definitive), gastropods of the family Buccinidae (second intermediate) and protobranch bivalves (first intermediate). Species identification was based both on morphology and 28S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. We found Fellodistomum agnotum in the White Sea for the first time. Buccinum undatum was proved to be intermediate host of both F. agnotum and Fellodistomum fellis, and metacercariae of F. fellis were registered from two more buccinid species: Buccinum scalariforme and Neptunea despecta. We also found metacercariae of F. agnotum and F. fellis producing eggs in the second intermediate host. Two fellodistomids were found in protobranch bivalves: sporocysts and cercariae of Steringophorus furciger in Nuculana pernula, and sporocysts with large furcocercous cercariae in Ennucula tenuis. The latter were identified as F. agnotum by molecular analysis; thus, the entire life cycle of this species was reconstructed.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000383
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Combined use of chemical and biological compounds to control hookworm
    • Authors: J.A.C. Lima; C.M. Ferraz, M.R.d.A. Lima, H.L.A. Genier, F.E.d.F. Soares, D.B.L. Junior, S.A. Sobral, J.V. de Araújo, F.L. Tobias, V.L.R. Vilela, F.R. Braga
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined use of different chemical (albendazole, ivermectin, glycerine and Vaseline) and biological (Monacrosporium thaumasium) compounds in the control of Ancylostoma caninum. Infective larvae of A. caninum were obtained from coprocultures of positive faeces from naturally infected dogs. We used 1% ivermectin, 1% albendazole, 100% glycerine, 100% Vaseline and an isolate of the nematophagous fungus M. thaumasium (NF34), alone or in combinations. Next, an experimental test was set up with 16 groups in microtubes, with a 24-h interaction. The groups (G1 to G15) that contained any chemical or biological compound (NF34) and/or their combined use (chemical + biological) showed a difference in relation to the control group, except G5 – Vaseline 100% without combinations. It was concluded that, even on an experimental basis, the combined use of anthelmintic drugs with biological control was efficient; however, more studies must be carried out in order to elucidate the synergistic action between chemical and biological compounds to be used in the effective control of hookworms in the future.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000334
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • In+vitro+anthelmintic+activity+assessment+of+six+medicinal+plant+aqueous+extracts+against+donkey+strongyles&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&ătană,+S.M.+Andrei,+L.C.+Ștefănuț,+Ș.+Răileanu,+M.C.+Matei,+I.+Vlasiuc,+M.+Cernea&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000310">In vitro anthelmintic activity assessment of six medicinal plant aqueous
           extracts against donkey strongyles
    • Authors: V. Buza; L. Cătană, S.M. Andrei, L.C. Ștefănuț, Ș. Răileanu, M.C. Matei, I. Vlasiuc, M. Cernea
      Abstract: The lack of anthelmintic products licensed for donkeys and the rising number of small donkey milk farms in the countries of Western Europe and Italy have led to an increased interest in the study of reliable and safe plant-derived treatment alternatives. In this study, the aqueous extracts of Achillea millefolium L. (flowers), Artemisia absinthium L. (aerial parts), Centaurium erythraea Rafn. (flowers), Gentiana asclepiadea L. (rhizomes and roots), Inula helenium L. (rhizomes and roots) and Tanacetum vulgare L. (aerial parts), have been tested in vitro for their potential ovicidal and larvicidal activity against donkey nematodes. An egg-hatching assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA) were performed for the in vitro study, and median lethal concentration (LC-50) values for both EHA and LDA were calculated using probit analysis. All tested plant extracts showed strong anthelmintic activity against strongyle eggs and larvae at concentrations ranging between 125 and 1.95 mg/ml, except for C. erythraea, which exhibited very little or no effect at all at the tested concentrations. A strong ovicidal effect was observed in A. absinthium, with an LC-50 value of 0.486 mg/ml (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21–1.09). Gentiana asclepiadea showed high efficacy against strongyle larvae, with an LC-50 value of 0.041 mg/ml (95% CI 0.01–0.16). The most significant (P < 0.01) anthelmintic activity was exhibited by I. helenium, with an LC-50 value of 0.041 mg/ml (95% CI 0.01–0.16) for EHA and 0.41 mg/ml (95% CI 0.27–0.62) for LDA. The results proved the anthelmintic efficacy of the tested plant extracts, highlighting the need for further research into plant bioactive molecules both in vitro and in vivo.
      PubDate: 2020-05-20T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000310
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Baltic cod endohelminths reflect recent ecological changes
    • Authors: A.C. Setyawan; H.M. Jensen, P.W. Kania, K. Buchmann
      Abstract: We suggest helminthological investigations of cod as a supplement to traditional biological and hydrographical methods for elucidation of ecological changes in the Baltic Sea. It is under discussion if oxygen deficit or seal abundance should explain the present critical situation of Baltic cod. A comparative investigation of endoparasitic helminths in Baltic cod (Gadus morhua), captured in the same marine habitat with an interval of 35 years (1983/2018) recorded 11 species of helminths comprising trematodes (Hemiurus luehei, Podocotyle atomon, Lepidapedon elongatum), nematodes (Contracaecum osculatum, Hysterothylacium aduncum, Capillaria gracilis, Cucullanus cirratus), cestodes (Bothriocephalus sp.) and acanthocephalans (Echinorhynchus gadi, Pomphorhynchus laevis, Corynosoma semerme). Significant prevalence and intensity increases were recorded for third-stage larvae of the nematode C. osculatum (liver location) and larvae of C. semerme (encapsulated in viscera). Both parasite species use grey seal as their final host, indicating the recent expansion of the Baltic seal population. A lower E. gadi intensity and an increased prevalence of L. elongatum of small cod (31–40 cm body length) suggest a lowered intake of amphipods (intermediate host) and elevated ingestion of polychaetes, respectively, but no significant changes were seen for other helminths.
      PubDate: 2020-05-15T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000176
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Parasaccocoelium+(Haploporidae)+and+new+genus+Pseudohaplosplanchnus+(Haplosplanchnidae)+from+mullet+fish+in+the+Far+East+of+Russia+and+Vietnam:+morphological+and+molecular+data&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+D.N.+Ha,+V.H.+Nguyen,+V.T.+Nguyen&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000371">New species of Parasaccocoelium (Haploporidae) and new genus
           Pseudohaplosplanchnus (Haplosplanchnidae) from mullet fish in the Far East
           of Russia and Vietnam: morphological and molecular data
    • Authors: D.M. Atopkin; V.V. Besprozvannykh, D.N. Ha, V.H. Nguyen, V.T. Nguyen
      Abstract: A description and the molecular characterization of two new species in the Haploporidae and Haplosplanchnidae families are provided herein. Parasaccocoelium armatum n. sp. was collected from the intestine of a Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, 1758 from the Primorsky region, Russia, and Pseudohaplosplanchnus catbaensis n. g. n. sp. was collected from Moolgarda seheli (Forsskål, 1775) in the coastal waters of Cat Ba Island, Vietnam. The morphological features of P. armatum n. sp. closely resemble those of Parasaccocoelium polyovum, but these species differ from one another by hermaphroditic sac and vitellaria area length and by maximal egg size. The main difference between P. armatum n. sp. and P. polyovum is the presence of an armed hermaphroditic duct in the new species. Molecular data support the case for inclusion of the studied trematodes in P. armatum n. sp. Worms P. catbaensis n. g. n. sp. from the mullet from Vietnam are morphologically close to Haplosplanchnus (Haplosplosplanchninae). The only difference between P. catbaensis n. g. n. sp. and species of Haplosplanchnus is the presence of few (1–7) large eggs, measuring 135–142 × 92–104 μm, versus numerous small eggs with a maximal size of 75 × 50 μm. Phylogenetic analysis showed that there is a contradiction between the morphological similarity of the worms and their position in the Haplosplanchnidae system, based on the genetic data. Results of this study indicate that P. catbaensis n. g. n. sp. is genetically distant from other representatives of Haplosplanchnus, despite their morphological similarity. According to the molecular data, P. catbaensis n. g. n. sp. is close to Hymenocotta mulli Manter, 1961 (Hymenocottinae). However, these species are considerably different to each other morphologically. Molecular data argue for the possibility of establishing a new subfamily for P. catbaensis n. g. n. sp. However, considering earlier studies of Haplosplanchnidae, we support the view that creating new subfamilies within this family is unreasonable because of the lack of molecular data for most haplosplanchnid species, which are necessary to resolve the problematic systematics and phylogeny of this family.
      PubDate: 2020-05-14T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000371
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Norops+fuscoauratus+(Squamata,+Dactyloidae)+in+highland+marshes+of+the+Brazilian+semi-arid&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+R.+Perez,+R.W.+Ávila&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000358">Helminths associated with Norops fuscoauratus (Squamata, Dactyloidae) in
           highland marshes of the Brazilian semi-arid
    • Authors: J.M. dos Santos Mesquita; S.S. de Oliveira, R. Perez, R.W. Ávila
      Abstract: Helminthological studies may contribute with valuable information on host biology and conservation. Herein, we provide new data on helminths infecting the lizard Norops fuscoauratus, testing one of the factors considered most important in parasitic ecology: host size. We analysed 25 specimens of N. fuscoauratus from three highland marshes in the Brazilian semi-arid. Eight taxa of helminths belonging to Nematoda, Trematoda and Acanthocephala were found. Physaloptera sp. showed the higher prevalence (40%), with a mean intensity of infection of 3.3 ± 1.46 (1–16) and mean abundance 1.32 ± 0.65 (0–16). Norops fuscoauratus represents four new host records for the helminths Cyrtosomum sp., Pharyngodon travassosi, Strongyloides sp. and Centrorhynchus sp. There is no relationship of host body size (P = 0.79) and mass (P = 0.50) with parasite richness. In addition, the present study contributes to the knowledge of the parasitic fauna of N. fuscoauratus and the Neotropical region.
      PubDate: 2020-05-11T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000358
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Effects of road salt on a free-living trematode infectious stage
    • Authors: D. Milotic; M. Milotic, J. Koprivnikar
      Abstract: Many temperate freshwater habitats are at risk for contamination by run-off associated with the application of road de-icing salts. Elevated salinity can have various detrimental effects on freshwater organisms, including greater susceptibility to infection by parasites and pathogens. However, to better understand the net effects of road salt exposure on host–parasite dynamics, it is necessary to consider the impacts on free-living parasite infectious stages, such as the motile aquatic cercariae of trematodes. Here, we examined the longevity and activity of cercariae from four different freshwater trematodes (Ribeiroia ondatrae, Echinostoma sp., Cephalogonimus sp. and an unidentified strigeid-type) that were exposed to road salt at five different environmentally relevant concentrations (160, 360, 560, 760 and 960 mg/ml of sodium chloride). Exposure to road salt had minimal detrimental effects, with cercariae activity and survival often greatest at intermediate concentrations. Only the cercariae of Cephalogonimus sp. showed reduced longevity at the highest salt concentration, with those of both R. ondatrae and the unidentified strigeid-type exhibiting diminished activity, indicating interspecific variation in response. Importantly, cercariae seem to be relatively unaffected by salt concentrations known to increase infection susceptibility in some of their hosts. More studies will be needed to examine this potential dichotomy in road salt effects between hosts and trematodes, including influences on parasite infectivity.
      PubDate: 2020-05-08T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000309
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Prosthenhystera+gattii+n.+sp.+(Digenea:+Callodistomidae),+a+gallbladder+parasite+of+Bryconamericus+ikaa+from+the+lower+Iguazú+River,+described+based+on+combined+molecular+and+morphological+evidence&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+Y.+Croci,+S.+Rodriguez+Gil,+S.S.+Curran,+W.+Ferrari,+J.R.+Casciotta,+S.R.+Martorelli&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000322">Prosthenhystera gattii n. sp. (Digenea: Callodistomidae), a gallbladder
           parasite of Bryconamericus ikaa from the lower Iguazú River, described
           based on combined molecular and morphological evidence
    • Authors: M.M. Montes; J. Barneche, Y. Croci, S. Rodriguez Gil, S.S. Curran, W. Ferrari, J.R. Casciotta, S.R. Martorelli
      Abstract: Adult forms of members of the Callodistomidae always parasitize the gallbladder of freshwater fishes and occur in Africa and America. This study provides a description of a new South American species belonging in Prosthenhystera from the gallbladder of a characid fish (Bryconamericus ikaa), and ribosomal gene sequences (28S rDNA and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) are used to demonstrate molecular differences between the new species and congeners as well as explore interrelationships among congeners. Additionally, the first cytological analysis is conducted for a member of the family to determine chromosome number and arrangement. Prosthenhystera gattii n. sp. most closely resembles Prosthenhystera caballeroi in morphology, but the vitellarium is more extensive reaching anterior to the caecal bifurcation in the new species and the uterus is confined to the hindbody in P. gattii n. sp., whereas it extends to the level of the pharynx in P. caballeroi. Also, the testes, cirrus sac, seminal receptacle and the ratio of body length to width are larger in P. gattii n. sp. Independent Bayesian inference analyses of 28S rDNA and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequence fragments produced phylograms that showed P. gattii n. sp. is more similar to Prosthenhystera obesa + Prosthenhystera oonastica than P. caballeroi + two unidentified species of Prosthenhystera, but with poor posterior probability support for the node in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2-based phylogram. Further, the genetic distance between P. oonastica and P. gattii n. sp. are the largest among Prosthenhystera spp. Cytological analysis revealed ten metacentric chromosomes, which is fewer than the 12–18 chromosomes present in species from the closely related Gorgoderidae.
      PubDate: 2020-05-08T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000322
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Lithoglyphus+naticoides,+in+European+freshwaters&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&čiūtė&rft.aufirst=R.&čiūtė&čiūtė,+V.+Stunžėnas&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X2000036X">Exploring species diversity of lissorchiid trematodes (Digenea:
           Lissorchiidae) associated with the gravel snail, Lithoglyphus naticoides,
           in European freshwaters
    • Authors: R. Petkevičiūtė; G. Stanevičiūtė, V. Stunžėnas
      Abstract: Comparative analysis using complete ITS2 and partial 28S rDNA sequence data revealed that cercariaeum developing in rediae in Lithoglyphus naticoides represent two different lissorchiid species. One morphotype of cercariaeum is conspecific with adult Palaeorchis incognitus from European roach, Rutilus rutilus. The other cercariaeum is attributable to the genus Asymphylodora, but the species identity is not yet determined. We also generate the first rDNA sequences for Asymphylodora progenetica based on new collections from Bithynia tentaculata from Lithuania. Phylogenetic analyses of the newly generated sequences, together with information for other lissorchiids available on GenBank, showed that all representatives of Lissorchiidae form a strongly supported clade. Three monophyletic lineages, Asymphylodora, Palaeorchis and Lissorchis, were recognized at the generic level. Karyological analysis of the chromosome set of larval P. incognitus revealed a diploid number of 2n = 20. Its karyotype with subtelocentric chromosomes prevailing can be regarded as comparatively ‘primitive’, which is consistent with the basal position of P. incognitus in the 28S tree relative to the representatives of the genus Asymphylodora. The present study adds significant new information for establishing species-specific markers for the confident characterization of different developmental stages of lissorchiid species and clarification of their life cycles.
      PubDate: 2020-05-08T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X2000036X
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Hypseleotris+spp.)+from+Eastern+Australia&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+T.+Scholz,+P.J.+Unmack&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000280">High diversity of metazoan parasites in carp gudgeons (Eleotridae:
           Hypseleotris spp.) from Eastern Australia
    • Authors: E.C. Rochat; I. Blasco-Costa, T. Scholz, P.J. Unmack
      Abstract: Knowledge of the parasite fauna of Australian freshwater fish is fragmentary and incomplete. An understanding of fish hosts and their associated parasites is vital for the successful management of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we surveyed the parasite fauna of carp gudgeons (Hypseleotris spp.), a complex of species of Australian freshwater fishes, using morphology and molecular data for the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes. We examined 137 individuals of three different taxa in the carp gudgeon species complex and found 16 parasitic taxa of the Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda and Arthropoda (five adults and 11 larvae). Eleven parasites are reported for the first time from the carp gudgeons (Pseudodactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., Clinostomum sp., Paradilepis patriciae, P. cf. kempi, two unidentified species of Paradilepis, Dendrouterina sp., Parvitaenia sp., two lineages of Cyclophyllidea gen. sp., Procamallanus sp., larvae of a spirurine nematode and Lernaea sp.), in addition to Apatemon cf. hypseleotris Negm-Eldin & Davies, 2001 and the invasive tapeworm Schyzocotyle acheilognathi (Yamaguti, 1934), which were previously reported from these fish hosts. Parasite species richness was double in Lake's and Midgley's carp gudgeons relative to western carp gudgeon. These findings highlight the key role of carp gudgeons as intermediate hosts for multiple parasites with complex life cycles using native birds as definitive hosts and the usefulness of DNA data for the identification of parasite larvae.
      PubDate: 2020-05-05T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000280
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Clinostomum+metacercariae+from+Argentina+with+morphological+and+DNA+barcode+identification&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+Y.+Croci,+M.+Waldbillig,+W.+Ferrari,+E.+Topa,+S.R.+Martorelli&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000292">Pathology associated with three new Clinostomum metacercariae from
           Argentina with morphological and DNA barcode identification
    • Authors: M.M. Montes; S.E. Plaul, Y. Croci, M. Waldbillig, W. Ferrari, E. Topa, S.R. Martorelli
      Abstract: In the Laboratory of Parasites of Fishes, Crustaceans and Mollusks (CEPAVE), we undertook a parasitological study on three species of fish from the Espinal and Esteros del Iberá ecoregions of Argentina. Clinostomid metacercariae were found parasitizing Characidium rachovii, Crenicichla vittata and Gymnogeophagus balzanii. In this study, we analysed the damage that these parasites inflict on their hosts through the evaluation of histological sections. In addition, Clinostomum metacercariae were identified using morphological characters and DNA barcoding. In the pathological analysis, we observed that muscle tissue was the most affected. The inflammatory response showed vascular congestion areas and infiltration of numerous inflammatory cells, mainly lymphocytes. The molecular and morphological approach supports the presence of three new lineages of clinostomid metacercariae in Argentina. This could lead to the discovery of a high number of lineages or species of Clinostomum from South America.
      PubDate: 2020-05-04T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000292
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Thada+Thorne,+1941+and+Tenunemellus+Siddiqi,+1986+(Nematoda:+Tylenchidae)+from+Iran&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+R.+Ghaderi,+A.+Karegar&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000279">Morphological and molecular data of two species of the rare genera Thada
           Thorne, 1941 and Tenunemellus Siddiqi, 1986 (Nematoda: Tylenchidae) from
    • Authors: M. Hosseinvand; A. Eskandari, R. Ghaderi, A. Karegar
      Abstract: Thada populus n. sp. was found in the rhizosphere of Populus euphratica in the city of Dezful, south-western Iran. The new species is characterized by its 365–453 μm body length, cuticle with transverse annuli 0.9–1.2 μm wide, lateral fields with four lines, lip region low with one or two annuli, 7.0–8.5 μm wide at base, longitudinal or slightly sigmoid amphidial slit, delicate stylet 8.4–9.8 μm long with posteriorly directed knobs, dorsal pharyngeal gland opening at 1.0–1.5 μm posterior to the stylet knobs, non-muscular and valve-less median bulb, pyriform and offset basal bulb, almost oval spermatheca, posterior position of vulva (V = 75–79%) without lateral membrane, short post-vulval uterine sac and conical tail with finely to broadly rounded terminus. Morphological differences of the new species with those of the type species, Thada striata, are discussed. Molecular phylogenetic studies of the new species using partial sequences of small subunit ribosomal DNA revealed that the new species formed a clade with Malenchus spp., Filenchus facultativus, F. fungivorus and Filenchus sp. in Bayesian inference. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies were also performed on Tenunemellus indicus, the second recovered species, the latter analysis using partial sequences of large subunit ribosomal DNA. In the inferred Bayesian tree, T. indicus formed a clade with Labrys fuzhouensis, Lelenchus leptosoma from the Netherlands, Malenchus spp. and Filenchus discrepans.
      PubDate: 2020-05-04T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000279
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Proteocephalus+ambloplitis+(Leidy,+1887)+(Proteocephalidae)+in+Europe&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&á,+L.+Carassou,+M.+Ondračková&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000267">First record of the American cestode Proteocephalus ambloplitis (Leidy,
           1887) (Proteocephalidae) in Europe
    • Authors: Y. Kvach; M. Seifertová, L. Carassou, M. Ondračková
      Abstract: Here, we report the first record of pleroceroids of the Nearctic tapeworm Proteocephalus ambloplitis (Leidy, 1887) in European fresh waters. The plerocercoids were found encapsulated in the internal organs of the invasive pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758) in a pond in Bègles Plage, Bordeaux, France. This parasite species was not observed in L. gibbosus collected from two nearby localities, Bordeaux Lac and a pond in the Parc de Fontaudin. Species identification was confirmed using molecular data and morphological characteristics.
      PubDate: 2020-04-14T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000267
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Echinococcus+multilocularis+infections+in+red+foxes&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+H.+Kouguchi,+K.+Uraguchi&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000255">Simple modification to improve reliability of copro-DNA examinations for
           diagnosing Echinococcus multilocularis infections in red foxes
    • Authors: T. Irie; T. Ito, H. Kouguchi, K. Uraguchi
      Abstract: Epidemiological studies of Echinococcus multilocularis infections in definitive hosts require a reliable and economic diagnostic method. In this study, the current copro-DNA examination technique was modified by increasing the faecal amounts tested and adding a step to neutralize the faeces before DNA extraction. Reliability of the modified method was evaluated using rectal faecal samples from red foxes and comparing them with intestinal worms detected using the sedimentation and counting technique (SCT) following necropsy. The modified copro-DNA examination method demonstrated 93.9% sensitivity (138/147) on the SCT. Its detectability increased depending on the worm burden, and the sensitivity was 100% in cases harbouring over 1000 worms. From 111 SCT-negative cases, six (5.4%) were copro-DNA-positive, and all were confirmed as E. multilocularis via sequencing analysis. Five of the remaining 105 SCT-negative cases (4.8%) retained polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors in the extracted solution, suggesting that approximately 5% of the red fox faeces retained these inhibitors after treatment with the present copro-DNA extraction method. Although further evaluation is needed for faeces deposited in the wild, the present copro-DNA examination technique will help monitor the E. multilocularis prevalence in definitive hosts. When used for detailed evaluations of endemicity (e.g. changes in infection pressure or spread in non-endemic areas), the absence of PCR inhibitors should be confirmed, and multiple trials on faecal subsamples are recommended.
      PubDate: 2020-04-14T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000255
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Helicometrina+nimia&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+C.+Lagrue&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000218">Missing link: California rock crabs serve as intermediate hosts for the
           parasite Helicometrina nimia
    • Authors: K.M. Shanebeck; B. Presswell, C. Lagrue
      Abstract: Parasites can have strong effects on invertebrate host behaviour, fecundity and survival in marine ecosystems. However, parasites are often poorly documented and still rarely integrated into marine ecological modelling; comprehensive surveys of infection in marine invertebrates are sporadic at best. For example, rock crabs are an important part of Californian coastal ecosystems, both as regulators of mussel populations and non-native species, and as prey items for predators like sea otters, but their parasite communities and potential effects on crab population dynamics are seldom studied or understood. Here, we present the first report of infection by the trematode Helicometrina nimia in the economically and ecologically important red rock crab (Cancer productus) and Pacific rock crab (Romaleon antennarium). As intermediate hosts, they are a missing link for infection by H. nimia in Californian fish that was unreported until now. Based on these findings, we advocate for further research into parasite diversity and their potential effects on ecologically and commercially important species.
      PubDate: 2020-04-13T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000218
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Cost of interspecific competition between trematode colonies
    • Authors: K.N. Mouritsen; C.K. Elkjær
      Abstract: In a range of trematode species, specific members of the parthenitae colony infecting the molluscan first intermediate host appear specialized for defence against co-infecting species. The evolution of such division of labour requires that co-infection entails fitness costs. Yet, this premise has very rarely been tested in species showing division of labour. Using Himasthla elongata (Himasthlidae) and Renicola roscovita (Renicolidae) infecting periwinkles Littorina littorea as study system, we show that the size of emerged cercariae is markedly reduced in both parasite species when competing over host resources. Cercarial longevity, on the other hand, is negatively influenced by competition only in R. roscovita. Season, which may impact the nutritional state of the host, also affects cercarial size, but only in H. elongata. Hence, our study underlines that cercarial quality is, indeed, compromised by competition, not only in the inferior R. roscovita (no division of labour) but also in the competitively superior H. elongata (division of labour).
      PubDate: 2020-04-02T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000243
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Trichinella+spiralis&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+M.A.+Hasby+Saad,+N.A.+Soliman,+S.E.+Mwafy&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000206">Resveratrol reduces oxidative damage and inflammation in mice infected
           with Trichinella spiralis
    • Authors: D.I. Elgendy; A.A. Othman, M.A. Hasby Saad, N.A. Soliman, S.E. Mwafy
      Abstract: Trichinellosis is a serious food-borne zoonotic infection of cosmopolitan distribution. Currently, treatment for trichinellosis is far from ideal. Given the important role of oxidative stress and immune-mediated inflammation in the pathogenesis of trichinellosis, this study was designed to evaluate the possible protective effects of resveratrol (RSV) during the intestinal and muscular phases of Trichinella spiralis infection in mice. The oral administration of RSV at a dose of 20 mg/kg once daily for two weeks resulted in significant reductions in both adult and larval counts; significant improvements in the redox status of the small intestine and muscles; a significant reduction in interleukin 4, pentraxin 3 and vascular endothelial growth factor expression; and the mitigation of intestinal and muscular inflammation. In conclusion, this study identifies RSV as a promising agent for the treatment of experimental trichinellosis, and more studies in experimental animals and humans are worth consideration.
      PubDate: 2020-04-02T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000206
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Porocephalus+spp.+(Pentastomida)+in+Neotropical+wild+mammals&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+M.T.+Lopez-Urbina,+A.E.+Gonzalez,+P.+Mayor&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000231">Visceral infection by Porocephalus spp. (Pentastomida) in Neotropical wild
    • Authors: L.A. Gomez-Puerta; L. Baselly, M.T. Lopez-Urbina, A.E. Gonzalez, P. Mayor
      Abstract: Larval stages of pentastomids were collected from different organs of small mammals from the Peruvian Amazon. These parasitized mammals included: a western Amazonian oryzomys (Hylaeamys perenensis), an elegant oryzomys (Euryoryzomys nitidus), a lowland paca (Cuniculus paca), two kinkajous (Potos flavus), two silvery woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii) and a brown-mantled tamarin (Leontocebus fuscicollis). Pentastomids were found in the mesentery and parenchyma of the liver and lungs of these animals. All pentastomids were morphologically identified as nymphs of Porocephalus spp. Only the nymphs collected from select animals (the western Amazonian oryzomys, the elegant oryzomys and the brown-mantled tamarin) were analysed molecularly. Molecular analysis was performed amplifying the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene from select nymphs collected from the western Amazonian oryzomys, the elegant oryzomys and the brown-mantled tamarin. The nucleotide sequences exhibited 95.8–97.7% similarity between them. Also, these sequences showed an identity of 95.8–97.9% to Porocephalus crotali (GenBank accession numbers MG559647–MG559655). Molecular analysis indicated the presence of at least two Porocephalus species. These findings represent the first record of Porocephalus in these mammals, thus adding new intermediate hosts for this pentastomid genus. This work represents the first molecular data of Porocephalus in a Neotropical climate.
      PubDate: 2020-04-02T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000231
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Trichuris+trichiura,+in+faecal+samples&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+M.P.+Njoroge,+J.+Kinyua,+F.A.+Osuna,+B.M.+Kimeu,+P.W.+Okanya,+E.L.+Agola&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X2000022X">Development and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification
           (LAMP) diagnostic test for detection of whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, in
           faecal samples
    • Authors: M.G. Ngari; I.N. Mwangi, M.P. Njoroge, J. Kinyua, F.A. Osuna, B.M. Kimeu, P.W. Okanya, E.L. Agola
      Abstract: Whipworm infection or trichuriasis caused by Trichuris trichiura is of major public health concern in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly among pre-school and school-going children. It is among the neglected tropical diseases targeted for elimination through mass drug administration (MDA). One of the outcomes of MDA is a rapid decline in levels of infection intensity, making it difficult to monitor effectiveness of control measures using the conventional Kato–Katz procedure, which relies on the microscopic detection of parasite ova in faecal samples. In the present study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) test was developed for the detection of T. trichiura infection in faecal samples. LAMP technology offers greater sensitivity and specificity than the microscopy-based tests. A set of four specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 region of the ribosomal DNA were designed using Primer Explorer software. DNA was extracted from faecal samples using the alkaline lysis method (HotSHOT) and the LAMP reaction performed at 63°C for 1 h. The amplicons were visualized by both gel electrophoresis and with the naked eye following staining with SYBR green dye. Sensitivity and specificity tests were determined using the standard Kato–Katz diagnostic procedure as a reference test. The developed LAMP assay reliably detected T. trichiura DNA in faecal samples, with a specificity and sensitivity of 88% and 77%, respectively. No cross-reactivity was observed with several common helminth parasites. The developed LAMP assay is an appropriate diagnostic method for the detection of T. trichiura DNA in human faecal samples due to its simplicity, low cost, high sensitivity and specificity.
      PubDate: 2020-04-02T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X2000022X
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Moniliformis+necromysi+sp.+n.+(Archiacanthocephala)+from+the+wild+rodent+Necromys+lasiurus+(Cricetidae:+Sigmondontinae)+in+Brazil&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+R.+Gentile,+R.V.+Vilela,+A.+Maldonado&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000188">Morphological and genetic description of Moniliformis necromysi sp. n.
           (Archiacanthocephala) from the wild rodent Necromys lasiurus (Cricetidae:
           Sigmondontinae) in Brazil
    • Authors: A.P.N. Gomes; N.A. Costa, R. Gentile, R.V. Vilela, A. Maldonado
      Abstract: A new species of Moniliformis Travassos, 1915 (Acanthocephala: Moniliformidae) is described from the hairy-tailed bolo mouse, Necromys lasiurus Lund, 1840 (Cricetidae: Sigmondontinae), captured in the Brazilian Cerrado, in Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The specimens were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. Molecular phylogenies were inferred from partial nuclear large subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences and partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. The new species is distinguished from other moniliformid species by the number of rows and number of hooks per row, size of the proboscis, size of the eggs, host species and geographical distribution. Molecular phylogenies and genetic distances analyses demonstrated that Moniliformis necromysi sp. n. forms a well-supported monophyletic group with sequences of other species of Moniliformis and is distinguished from them, which agrees with the morphological characteristics, allocating the new species to this genus and to the family Moniliformidae Van Cleave, 1924. This is the first moniliformid acanthocephalan described from a wild rodent in Brazil.
      PubDate: 2020-03-19T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000188
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Heleobia+parchappii+(Mollusca:+Cochliopidae)+inhabiting+four+human-impacted+streams&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+J.A.+Etchegoin&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X2000019X">Spatio-temporal variations in larval digenean assemblages of Heleobia
           parchappii (Mollusca: Cochliopidae) inhabiting four human-impacted streams
    • Authors: M. Parietti; M.J. Merlo, J.A. Etchegoin
      Abstract: In the last years, a growing number of studies have focused on the search for biological indicators of human impact in freshwater environments. Given their susceptibility to different types of impact, larval digeneans have been considered as useful tools for the study of temporal variations in parasite communities. However, few studies have been carried out in lotic environments. For that reason, the spatio-temporal variations of the larval digenean assemblages parasitizing the gastropod Heleobia parchappii were analysed in four human-impacted streams, located on the coast of Argentina. In total, 4800 specimens of H. parchappii were collected seasonally, and 12 digenean species belonging to eight families were registered. Three of the streams showed similar species presence but, during spring and summer, the streams located within the city presented lower species presence than the streams located in the urban periphery. By contrast, the spatial prevalence values evidenced a higher variation between the environments. Streams located in the urban periphery showed higher prevalence values throughout the year, compared to those calculated for streams located within the city. The spatio-temporal variations of larval digenean assemblages parasitizing H. parchappii seem to be mainly influenced by the diversity and vagility of definitive hosts, the types of digenean life cycles and habitat characteristics. However, environmental disturbances derived from anthropogenic activities are highlighted as the probable main factors that may affect the composition and dynamic of these parasite assemblages.
      PubDate: 2020-03-10T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X2000019X
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Description and phylogenetic analyses of ribosomal transcription units
           from species of Fasciolidae (Platyhelminthes: Digenea)
    • Authors: T.H. Le; K.L.T. Pham, H.T.T. Doan, T.K. Xuyen Le, K.T. Nguyen, S.P. Lawton
      Abstract: Many members of Fasciolidae are common trematodes in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, elephants, pigs, with some capable of infecting humans also. In this study, the complete or near-complete sequences of ribosomal transcription unit (rTU or rDNA), each of Fasciola hepatica (Australia), Fascioloides jacksoni (Sri Lanka), Fasciolopsis buski (Vietnam) and three isolates of F. gigantica (Vietnam), were obtained and characterized. The full length of rDNA for each F. hepatica, ‘hybrid’ Fasciola sp., Fas. jacksoni and Fa. Buski, was 7657 bp, 7966 bp, 7781 bp and 8361 bp, with the complete intergenic spacer region (IGS) (862 bp, 1170 bp, 987 bp and 561 bp), respectively. The rDNA of two ‘pure’ F. gigantica isolates from Vietnam was 6794 bp with unsequenced IGS. For 28S rRNA genes the Fasciola spp. are equal, 1958 bp for 18S, 160 bp for 5.8S, 3863 bp and 454 bp for ITS1 but ITS2 differ by one nucleotide (Thymine) (359 or 360 bp). The ITS1 of the sensu lato Fa. buski has some distinguishable features, 286 bp for ITS2, 3862 bp for 28S and four repeat units of 356–361 bp each found in ITS1. The 28S rDNA analysis showed the lowest level of divergence (0–0.57%) between F. hepatica and F. gigantica and higher (2.23–2.62%) and highest (6–6.42%) for Fas. jacksoni and Fasciolopsis, respectively. The tree of 43 strains/species clearly produced a well-supported phylogeny, where 18 fasciolids consistently grouped, forming a discrete Fasciolidae clade, distinct from Philophthalmidae, Echinostomatidae and Echinochasmidae in Echinostomatoidea. Fascioloides jacksoni is outside Fasciola spp.: basal with Fas. magna, as previously demonstrated.
      PubDate: 2020-03-06T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000164
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Fasciola+hepatica&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+M.+Bandehpour,+M.M.+Ranjbar,+S.+Rouhani,+A.+Javadi+Mamaghani,+S.J.S.+Tabaei&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000140">Design and expression of polytopic construct of cathepsin-L1, SAP-2 and
           FhTP16.5 proteins of Fasciola hepatica
    • Authors: S. Aghamolaei; B. Kazemi, M. Bandehpour, M.M. Ranjbar, S. Rouhani, A. Javadi Mamaghani, S.J.S. Tabaei
      Abstract: The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique can play an important role in the early detection of fascioliasis. However, they have some diagnostic limitations, including cross-reaction with other helminths. It seems that the combination of recombinant parasite proteins as antigen can reduce these problems. Hence, the present study was aimed to design and confirm the antigenic recombinant multi-epitope (rMEP) construct of three protein epitopes (linear and conformational B-cell epitopes) of the parasite using immunoinformatic tools. For this purpose, the tertiary structures of Fasciola hepatica cathepsin-L1, saposin-like protein 2 and 16.5-kDa tegument-associated protein were predicted using the I-TASSER server. Validation of the modelled structures was performed by Ramachandran plots. The antigenic epitopes of the proteins were achieved by analysing the features of the IEDB server. The synthesized gene was cloned into the pET-22b (+) expression vector and transformed into the Escherichia coli BL21. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to verify and analyse the expression of the rMEP protein. Western blotting was utilized to confirm rMEP protein immunogenicity in two forms, one using an anti-His tag antibody and the other with human pooled sera samples (fascioliasis, non-fascioliasis and negative control sera). Our results demonstrated that the rMEP designed for the three proteins of F. hepatica was highly antigenic, and immune-detection techniques confirmed the antigen specificity. In conclusion, the presented antigenic multi-epitope may be very helpful to develop serodiagnostic kits such as indirect ELISA to evaluate the proper diagnosis of fascioliasis in humans and ruminants.
      PubDate: 2020-03-04T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000140
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • In+vitro+nematocidal+activity+of+commercial+fatty+acids+and+β-sitosterol+against+Haemonchus+contortus&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&ía&rft.aufirst=J.A.&ía&ánchez,+M.+González-Cortazar,+E.+von+Son-de+Fernex,+R.+González-Garduño,+Pedro+Mendoza-de+Gives,+A.+Zamilpa,+L.+Aguilar-Marcelino&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000152">In vitro nematocidal activity of commercial fatty acids and β-sitosterol
           against Haemonchus contortus
    • Authors: J.A. Pineda-Alegría; J.E. Sánchez, M. González-Cortazar, E. von Son-de Fernex, R. González-Garduño, Pedro Mendoza-de Gives, A. Zamilpa, L. Aguilar-Marcelino
      Abstract: Haemonchus contortus is a haematophagous gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) that causes severe anaemia and even death in small ruminants, negatively impacting the economic viability of farms. Traditionally, this parasite has been controlled with chemical compounds; however, inadequate use of these types of products has favoured the emergence of anthelmintic resistance. Therefore, it is necessary to search for alternatives for GIN control. Previous studies have reported the anthelmintic activity of edible mushroom extracts against H. contortus. A recent study reported that a fraction constituted of different fatty acids and β-sitosterol isolated from the basidiomata of the edible mushroom Pleurotus djamor ECS-123 has ovicidal and larvicidal activity against H. contortus. Thus, this study aimed to assess the anthelmintic activity of the pure molecules: pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, β-sitosterol, stearic acid and linoleic acid. For this purpose, an egg-hatching inhibition test was carried out in which the compounds were evaluated individually and in combination at a final concentration of 20 mg mL−1. Furthermore, larval mortality was assessed using a combination of the five commercial compounds previously mentioned at different concentrations (1.25–20 mg mL−1). Palmitic acid and stearic acid, in some combinations, inhibited H. contortus egg hatching by 100%. On the other hand, in the larval mortality test, the combination of the five compounds showed dose-dependent behaviour, and 100% mortality was obtained 24 h post-incubation. Pure molecules and their combinations have anthelmintic-like activity against the eggs and larvae of H. contortus.
      PubDate: 2020-03-04T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000152
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Pseudocarcharias+kamoharai+(Lamniformes:+Pseudocarchariidae),+prompt+expansion+of+Scyphyophyllidum+and+formal+synonymization+of+seven+phyllobothriidean+genera+–+at+last!&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+C.+Hayes,+T.R.+Ruhnke&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000036">Insights from new cestodes of the crocodile shark, Pseudocarcharias
           kamoharai (Lamniformes: Pseudocarchariidae), prompt expansion of
           Scyphyophyllidum and formal synonymization of seven phyllobothriidean
           genera – at last!
    • Authors: J.N. Caira; K. Jensen, C. Hayes, T.R. Ruhnke
      Abstract: Three new cestode species are described from the crocodile shark (Pseudocarcharias kamoharai) in Ecuador. All three were examined with light and scanning electron microscopy. The unique combination of morphological features in one of the new species prompted formal investigation of the non-monophyly of Paraorygmatobothrium relative to the morphologically similar genera Doliobothrium, Guidus, Marsupiobothrium, Nandocestus, Orectolobicestus, Ruhnkecestus and Scyphophyllidium. Sequence data generated for part of the 28S rDNA gene were subjected to maximum likelihood (ML) analysis. The resulting tree led to the synonymization of six of these seven genera with Scyphophyllidium, and transfer of their species to the latter genus. With the new species, the number of described members of Scyphophyllidium is now 45. The diagnosis of Scyphophyllidium is revised to accommodate these species. In addition, to expedite future descriptions, eight categories of Scyphophyllidium species are circumscribed, based largely on bothridial features. Scyphophyllidium timvickiorum n. sp. is a category 1 species. Beyond being the smallest category 1 species, it bears, rather than lacks, apical suckers and lacks, rather than bears, strobilar scutes. The two other new species are members of Clistobothrium. Clistobothrium amyae n. sp. differs from its congeners in bothridial shape, elongate cephalic peduncle and tiny size. Clistobothrium gabywalterorum n. sp. differs from the two of its congeners that also possess foliose bothridia in overall size and testis number. Despite their substantial morphological differences, the ML tree indicates they are sister taxa. Both are unique among their congeners in possessing cephalic peduncle spinitriches. The diagnosis of Clistobothrium is revised accordingly.
      PubDate: 2020-03-02T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000036
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Nephridiacanthus+major+(Acanthocephala:+Oligacanthorhynchidae)+collected+from+hedgehogs+in+Iran&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+R.A.+Heckmann,+M.+Zarean&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000073">New perspectives on Nephridiacanthus major (Acanthocephala:
           Oligacanthorhynchidae) collected from hedgehogs in Iran
    • Authors: O.M. Amin; M. Sharifdini, R.A. Heckmann, M. Zarean
      Abstract: We describe morphological features not previously reported for this old acanthocephalan Nephridiacanthus major (Bremser, 1811 in Westrumb, 1821) Golvan, 1962 first described over 200 years ago. Our specimens were collected from long-eared hedgehog Hemiechinus auritus (Gmelin, 1770) (Erinaceidae) in Iran. We compare the morphometrics of our material with others previously reported from the same host in Iran, Russia, central Asia and Europe. Our specimens had markedly smaller proboscides, proboscis hooks and lemnisci than those reported from Russia and central Asia, but comparable measurements of other structures with specimens previously described from other collections. We document our new observations with scanning electron microscopy features not previously demonstrable by other observers and provide a chemical analysis of proboscis hooks using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis for the first time. The molecular profile of this acanthocephalan, based on 18S rDNA and cox1 genes, was generated for the first time. The phylogenetic analysis showed that N. major is placed in a clade of the family Oligacanthorhynchidae, well separated from the families Moniliformidae and Gigantorhynchidae.
      PubDate: 2020-03-02T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000073
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Piper+retrofractum+Vahl+on+morphology+and+ultrastructure+of+Strongyloides+stercoralis+third-stage+infective+larvae&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+D.+Champakaew,+A.+Jitpakdi,+P.+Tippawangkosol,+A.+Junkum,+U.+Chaithong,+A.+Wannasan,+T.+Yasanya,+P.+Somboon,+B.+Pitasawat&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000048">Nematocidal effect of Piper retrofractum Vahl on morphology and
           ultrastructure of Strongyloides stercoralis third-stage infective larvae
    • Authors: D. Riyong; C. Sangkhantree, D. Champakaew, A. Jitpakdi, P. Tippawangkosol, A. Junkum, U. Chaithong, A. Wannasan, T. Yasanya, P. Somboon, B. Pitasawat
      Abstract: In a previous research work aimed at discovering natural helminthicides as alternatives to conventional synthetic drugs, Piper retrofractum fruit hexane extract (PHE) has been shown to possess promising nematocidal activity against the third-stage infective larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the chemical composition and the impact of PHE on symptom and structural alterations of S. stercoralis. Chemical analysis of PHE by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry demonstrated 26 different compounds, constituting 100% of the total composition. The main components were 4-acetylphenyl (4-benzoylphenoxy) acetate (14.86%) and octyl methoxycinnamate (12.72%). Nematocidal bioassays revealed promising potential of PHE against S. stercoralis larvae, with an LC50 value of 0.059 mg/ml, while the reference drug ivermectin exerted higher efficacy, with an LC50 value of 0.020 µg/ml. Behavioural observations under light microscopy revealed that PHE-treated S. stercoralis larvae moved slowly, became paralysed and eventually died during 24 h of incubation. The dead larvae appeared under light microscope as straight worms with unknown vacuoles of different sizes inside their internal bodies. Morphological alterations of the PHE-treated S. stercoralis larvae, such as straight bodies with swollen cuticle, faded transverse annulations and faded longitudinal striations, as well as shallow and smooth lateral longitudinal grooves, were seen clearly under scanning electron microscopy. Ultrastructural changes in the treated larvae, such as protruded lateral longitudinal grooves, loose muscle with vacuolation, dissociation between the hypodermis and cuticle and marked intracellular disorganization with vacuolation, were detected under transmission electron microscopy. The results of this study provide evidence that PHE is toxic against S. stercoralis and also a potential new alternative for anti-Strongyloides chemotherapy.
      PubDate: 2020-02-27T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000048
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Spirometra+erinaceieuropaei+spargana+in+snakes+in+Hunan+Province,+China&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+Y.+Huang,+W.C.+Li,+Y.S.+Liu,+L.C.+Yang&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000139">Prevalence and molecular characterization of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei
           spargana in snakes in Hunan Province, China
    • Authors: W. Liu; L. Tan, Y. Huang, W.C. Li, Y.S. Liu, L.C. Yang
      Abstract: Sparganosis is an important foodborne parasitic zoonosis; however, few reports on the prevalence of snake-infecting plerocercoids from Hunan province in China are available. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of spargana infection in wild snakes from this region in 2018, and identified an astonishing prevalence rate of 91.7% (344/375). Spargana parasites were found in 99.1% of Zaocys dhumnades, 94.1% of Elaphe carinata and 86.7% of Elaphe taeniura. Parasites exhibited various distributions: 50% were located in muscular tissue, 32.1% in subcutaneous tissue and 17.9% in the coelomic cavity. To identify the specific status of spargana collected from wild snakes, partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequences were amplified, sequenced and analysed. Sequence variations for cox1 among all the examined plerocercoids ranged between 0.0 and 2.9%, with 21 variable sites identified (4.71%, 21/446). Phylogenetic analyses identified that all plerocercoids isolated from Hunan province were Spirometra erinaceieuropaei. This is the first report of S. erinaceieuropaei infection in snakes in Hunan province. The risks and harms of sparganosis should be publicized, and illegal wildlife trade should be controlled.
      PubDate: 2020-02-27T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000139
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Anisakis+spp.+in+cetaceans+from+the+north-east+Atlantic&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+A.+Hernandez-Gonzalez,+R.V.+Pool,+P.+Covelo,+P.+Sánchez-Hermosin,+A.+López,+C.+Saavedra,+N.+Fraija-Fernández,+M.+Fernández,+F.J.+Aznar&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000115">Recent increase of ulcerative lesions caused by Anisakis spp. in cetaceans
           from the north-east Atlantic
    • Authors: C. Pons-Bordas; A. Hazenberg, A. Hernandez-Gonzalez, R.V. Pool, P. Covelo, P. Sánchez-Hermosin, A. López, C. Saavedra, N. Fraija-Fernández, M. Fernández, F.J. Aznar
      Abstract: Species of Anisakis typically infect the stomach of cetaceans worldwide, often causing ulcerative lesions that may compromise the host's health. These nematodes also cause anisakiasis or allergic reactions in humans. To assess the risks of this emerging zoonosis, data on long-term changes in Anisakis infections in cetaceans are necessary. Here, we compare the prevalence and severity of ulcerative lesions caused by Anisakis spp. in five cetacean species stranded along the north-west Spanish coast in 2017–2018 with published data from 1991–1996. Open ulcers were found in 32/43 short-beaked common dolphins, Delphinus delphis; 3/5 striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba; 1/7 bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus; and 1/3 harbour porpoises, Phocoena phocoena meridionalis; a single individual of long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas, was found uninfected. In common dolphins, the mean abundance of open ulcers per host was 1.1 (95% confidence interval: 0.8–1.3), with a maximum diameter (mean ± standard deviation) of 25.4 ± 16.9 mm. Stomachs with scars or extensive fibrosis putatively associated with Anisakis were detected in 14 and five animals, respectively. A molecular analysis based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase II gene using 18 worms from three cetacean species revealed single or mixed infections of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto and Anisakis pegreffii. Compared with the period 1991–1996, we found a strong increase of prevalence, abundance and extension of ulcerative lesions in most cetacean species. Anisakis populations could have increased in the study area over the last decades, although we cannot rule out that a higher environmental stress has also boosted the pathological effects of these parasites.
      PubDate: 2020-02-26T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000115
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Ascaris+lumbricoides+and+Ascaris+suum+vary+in+their+larval+burden+in+a+mouse+model&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+J.+Beresford,+C.V.+Holland&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000127">Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum vary in their larval burden in a
           mouse model
    • Authors: G. Deslyper; O.A. Sowemimo, J. Beresford, C.V. Holland
      Abstract: Ascariasis is a neglected tropical disease, caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, affecting 800 million people worldwide. Studies focused on the early stage of parasite infection, occurring in the gut, liver and lungs, require the use of a mouse model. In these models, the porcine ascarid, Ascaris suum, is often used. The results obtained from these studies are then used to draw conclusions about A. lumbricoides infections in humans. In the present study, we sought to compare larval migration of A. suum and A. lumbricoides in mouse models. We used a previously developed mouse model of ascariasis, which consists of two mouse strains, where one mouse strain – C57BL/6J – is a model for relative susceptibility and the other – CBA/Ca – for relative resistance. Mice of both strains were infected with either A. suum or A. lumbricoides. The larval burden was assessed in two key organs, the liver and lungs, starting at 6 h post infection (p.i.) and ending on day 8 p.i. Additionally, we measured the larval size of each species (μm) at days 6, 7 and 8 p.i. in the lungs. We found that larval burden in the liver is significantly higher for A. lumbricoides than for A. suum. However, the inverse is true in the lungs. Additionally, our results showed a reduced larval size for A. lumbricoides compared to A. suum.
      PubDate: 2020-02-26T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000127
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Himasthla+elongata+(Trematoda,+Himasthlidae)+cercariae+with+deviant+photoreaction&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+Egor+Lebedev,+Edokiia+Potolytsina,+Nickolay+Galaktionov,+Ivan+Levakin&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000103">Reduced infectivity in Himasthla elongata (Trematoda, Himasthlidae)
           cercariae with deviant photoreaction
    • Authors: Anna Solovyeva; Kirill Nikolaev, Egor Lebedev, Edokiia Potolytsina, Nickolay Galaktionov, Ivan Levakin
      Abstract: Digenean larvae of hermaphroditic generation – cercariae – are known to be polymorphic at genetic and behavioural levels. Cercariae arise as a result of parthenogenetic reproduction of intramolluscan stages, and represent a clone if a snail was infected with a single miracidium. Here we investigated cercarial clones of Himasthla elongata – namely, the infectivity of cercariae with normal (negative) and deviant (positive) photoreaction. In our study, most H. elongata clones showed intraclonal variance in their response to light. The proportion of photopositive cercariae ranged between 0.2% and 60% in different H. elongata clones. Photopositive larvae demonstrated significantly reduced rates of encystment in Mytilus edulis haemolymph in vitro and in young mussels. We discuss the possible mechanisms behind intraclonal variations, such as non-specific genomic rearrangements.
      PubDate: 2020-02-26T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000103
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Trinigyrus+spp.+(Monogenea:+Dactylogyridae)+from+Brazilian+catfishes:+new+species,+molecular+data+and+new+morphological+contributions+to+the+genus&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+A.C.+Zago,+M.I.+Müller,+R.J.+da+Silva&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000097">Trinigyrus spp. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) from Brazilian catfishes: new
           species, molecular data and new morphological contributions to the genus
    • Authors: L. Franceschini; A.A. Acosta, A.C. Zago, M.I. Müller, R.J. da Silva
      Abstract: This study describes two new species, Trinigyrus anthus n. sp. and Trinigyrus carvalhoi n. sp., from gills of Hypostomus spp. from the Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. Trinigyrus peregrinus is redescribed based on examination of its holotype, paratypes and new material of specimens parasitizing Pterygoplichthys ambrosettii, also from the Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. New morphological features were included in the diagnosis of the genus, such as the presence of a sclerotized border on the anchor base, and a weakly sclerotized fringe on the base of the male copulatory organ (MCO). Trinigyrus anthus n. sp. differs from other congeners by the shape of the MCO, presenting an enlarged base with sclerotized fringes resembling flower petals. Trinigyrus carvalhoi n. sp. and T. peregrinus are similar but can be differentiated from each other mainly by the sclerotization of the vagina (absent in the new species), and the morphology of the MCO (C-shaped versus one counterclockwise circle, respectively). For the first time, gene sequences of Trinigyrus spp. from Brazil were obtained (partial ribosomal 28S and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (mtCOI)). The genetic divergences among the new species and T. peregrinus varied from 2 to 3% (6‒18 pb) based on sequences of 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), and 6–7% (83‒92 pb) using mtCOI. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial 28S rDNA revealed that Trinigyrus, Heteropriapulus and Unilatus formed a monophyletic and well-supported clade of monogeneans from Neotropical freshwater loricariids, suggesting a closer relationship among these dactylogyrids and their hosts.
      PubDate: 2020-02-20T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000097
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Assessment of anthelmintic efficacy against cattle gastrointestinal
           nematodes in western France and southern Italy
    • Authors: C. Chartier; N. Ravinet, A. Bosco, E. Dufourd, M. Gadanho, A. Chauvin, J. Charlier, M.P. Maurelli, G. Cringoli, L. Rinaldi
      Abstract: Our objective was to measure the efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) and benzimidazoles (BZ, i.e. fenbendazole and albendazole) in 15 cattle farms in western France and southern Italy. A total of 11 groups were treated with IVM and 11 with BZ. Efficacy was assessed by calculating the percentage of faecal egg count reduction (%FECR) using the pre- and post-treatment arithmetic means. Anthelmintic resistance was considered to be present when the %FECR was
      PubDate: 2020-02-10T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000085
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Effect of a newly synthesized quinoline-based compound (PPQ-8) on murine
           schistosomiasis mansoni
    • Authors: A. Taman; S.M. Alhusseiny, N.E. Saleh, M.Y. Youssef, B. Mansour, M. Massoud, S.N. El-Beshbishi
      Abstract: Schistosomiasis represents a public health problem and praziquantel is the only drug used for treatment of all forms of the disease. Thus, the development of new anti-schistosomal agents is of utmost importance to increase the effectiveness, reduce side effects and delay the emergence of resistance. The present study was conducted to report the therapeutic efficacy of PPQ-8, a new synthetic quinoline-based compound against Schistosoma mansoni. Mice were treated with PPQ-8 at day 49 post infection using two treatment regimens (20 and 40 mg/kg). Significant reductions were recorded in hepatic (62.9% and 83.6%) and intestinal tissue egg load (57.4% and 73.5%), granuloma count (75.4% and 89.1%) and diameter (26.2% and 47.3%), in response to the drug regimens, respectively. In addition, both treatment regimens induced significant decrease in liver (23.3% and 32.8%) and spleen (37.5% and 45.3%) indices. Also, there were significant reductions in mature ova, total worm and female count, which were more prominent with the higher dose. The reduction in the level of nitric oxide in the liver by both therapeutic regimens to 22.5% and 47.2% indicates the anti-oxidant activity of PPQ-8. Bright field microscopic examination of worms recovered from infected and PPQ-8-treated mice showed nearly empty intestinal caeca with no observable changes in the tegument. Our findings hold promise for the development of a novel anti-schistosomal drug using PPQ-8, but further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to elucidate the possible mechanism/s of action and to study the effect of PPQ-8 on other human schistosomes.
      PubDate: 2020-02-07T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X2000005X
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Geographic and ontogenetic variations in parasite communities of
           intertidal fish species from the south-eastern Pacific coast
    • Authors: N.V. Leiva; G. Muñoz, M.T. González
      Abstract: Parasite composition can be affected by physiological and ecological changes during host ontogeny. Intertidal fish do not travel long distances and live in the same area throughout their lifetimes, meaning that parasite communities can differ across geographic ranges. The objective of this study was to analyse the parasite communities of three fish species (Hypsoblennius sordidus, Helcogrammoides cunninghami and Scartichthys viridis) collected from the Chilean coast. The composition of parasite species was compared among host ontogenetic stages (larvae, juveniles and mature fish) and geographic areas. A total of 184 larval, 252 juveniles and 217 mature individuals were collected in the northern area (c. 24°S), and 186 larval, 192 juveniles and 112 mature individuals from the central area (c. 33°S). Ectoparasites were most prevalent in fish from the central area, whereas endoparasites were most prevalent in the northern area. The parasite species richness varied significantly between geographical areas for H. sordidus and H. cunninghami, but the parasite composition varied significantly between geographical areas for all fish species analysed. Therefore, the geographical area was the most important factor determining the parasite composition of intertidal fish species. The absence of endoparasites in fish larvae and the increased infestation in juvenile and mature fish may be explained by the shift in habitat from the water column to intertidal pools where prey abundance and availability are higher. On the other hand, hydrographic barriers affecting prey distributions may also offer an explanation as to the differences in parasite composition.
      PubDate: 2020-02-07T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000061
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Bithynia+tentaculata+in+Central+Europe&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+N.J.+Smit,+C.+Selbach,+B.+Sures&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X19001093">High parasite diversity in a neglected host: larval trematodes of Bithynia
           tentaculata in Central Europe
    • Authors: J. Schwelm; O. Kudlai, N.J. Smit, C. Selbach, B. Sures
      Abstract: Bithynids snails are a widespread group of molluscs in European freshwater systems. However, not much information is available on trematode communities from molluscs of this family. Here, we investigate the trematode diversity of Bithynia tentaculata, based on molecular and morphological data. A total of 682 snails from the rivers Lippe and Rhine in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, and 121 B. tentaculata from Curonian Lagoon, Lithuania were screened for infections with digeneans. In total, B. tentaculata showed a trematode prevalence of 12.9% and 14%, respectively. The phylogenetic analyses based on 55 novel sequences for 36 isolates demonstrated a high diversity of digeneans. Analyses of the molecular and morphological data revealed a species-rich trematode fauna, comprising 20 species, belonging to ten families. Interestingly, the larval trematode community of B. tentaculata shows little overlap with the well-studied trematode fauna of lymnaeids and planorbids, and some of the detected species (Echinochasmus beleocephalus and E. coaxatus) constitute first records for B. tentaculata in Central Europe. Our study revealed an abundant, diverse and distinct trematode fauna in B. tentaculata, which highlights the need for further research on this so far understudied host–parasite system. Therefore, we might currently be underestimating the ecological roles of several parasite communities of non-pulmonate snail host families in European fresh waters.
      PubDate: 2020-01-27T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X19001093
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Using lizards to evaluate the influence of average abundance on the
           variance of endoparasites in semiarid areas: dispersion and assemblage
    • Authors: J.A. Araujo Filho; A.A.M. Teixeira, D.A. Teles, S.M. Rocha, W.O. Almeida, D.O. Mesquita, A.C.F. Lacerda
      Abstract: The distribution of parasites within host populations and communities, and the mechanisms responsible for these patterns, are poorly understood aspects of wildlife parasitology. Here, we evaluate the influence of the average abundance of endoparasite variance, using endoparasites of lizards from the Caatinga domain (semiarid region), north-eastern Brazil. We hypothesized that, due to the high number of generalist endoparasite species, they may occur randomly throughout host populations in an aggregate pattern. In addition, we evaluated the degree to which sample variance is influenced by the average abundance of endoparasite species, patterns of co-occurrence and dominance among endoparasite species and similarities between abundance and the richness of endoparasite infracommunities in several host species. Between September 2015 and February 2016, 2141 lizards (1233 infected) from 16 species were collected from six Caatinga areas. In total, 25,687 endoparasites were collected, which belonged to 13 species including nematodes, pentastomids, cestodes, trematodes and acanthocephalans. Parasite–host associations documented here included 39 newly identified interactions. Endoparasites occurred in a typical aggregate pattern of distribution within their hosts; there was no measurable preference related to the acquisition of hosts by endoparasites. Despite the new records, endoparasites found were commonly associated with lizards in Caatinga environments, which may reflect fauna composed of generalist endoparasite species.
      PubDate: 2020-01-22T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X19001147
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Eurytrema+coelomaticum:+updated+morphology+of+adult+worms+using+advanced+microscopy+experiments&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+J.G.R.+Souza,+R.H.+Neves,+D.C.+Gomes,+J.R.+Machado-Silva&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X19001135">Eurytrema coelomaticum: updated morphology of adult worms using advanced
           microscopy experiments
    • Authors: K.G. Leite; E.J. Lopes-Torres, J.G.R. Souza, R.H. Neves, D.C. Gomes, J.R. Machado-Silva
      Abstract: Eurytrema coelomaticum is a digenean flatworm of ruminants that is the causative agent of eurytrematosis, a disease of veterinary health concern. Although modern techniques of morphological analysis have provided new insights about the morphology and anatomy of parasitic helminths, most studies on E. coelomaticum adults are based on conventional light microscopy. In the present study, a combined approach using brightfield, fluorescence, confocal and scanning electron microscopies (SEMs), together with the cryofracture technique, have updated morphological data on E. coelomaticum recovered from cattle in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Light microscopy confirmed the presence of several structures present in the current description, such as suckers, pharynx, oesophagus, intestinal bifurcation and the cirrus-sac. Fluorescence stereomicroscopy revealed for the first time the cubic crystal protein inclusions in the forebody, which were further detailed by confocal and SEMs. Confocal microscopy provided detailed information of the muscular architecture associated with the attachment structures (suckers), digestive system (pharynx and oesophagus), egg-forming complex (ovary, Mehlis’ gland and Laurer's canal) and male reproductive system, which are similar to those found in other digenean flukes. SEM images of cryofractured parasites showed mucus and developing eggs within uterine loops. It was demonstrated that the combination of advanced tools generated complementary information, confirming the importance of experimental morphology in parasitology. Therefore, the knowledge of the adult structural organization of E. coelomaticum was improved and this work has contributed to propose new morphological criteria to evaluate the effects of antiparasitic drugs on flukes of medical and veterinary importance.
      PubDate: 2020-01-22T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X19001135
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • S-transferase+from+adult+Ancylostoma+ceylanicum&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+A.M.I.+Abuzeid,+Y.+Huang,+Y.Q.+Liu,+X.X.+Yan,+Q.+Zhao,+X.+Li,+J.M.+Liu,+G.Q.+Li&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X20000012">Molecular characterization and tissue localization of glutathione
           S-transferase from adult Ancylostoma ceylanicum
    • Authors: J.X. Hang; L. He, A.M.I. Abuzeid, Y. Huang, Y.Q. Liu, X.X. Yan, Q. Zhao, X. Li, J.M. Liu, G.Q. Li
      Abstract: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a detoxifying enzyme family that is essential for parasite blood-feeding and survival, and represent potential targets for hookworm vaccine development. Multiple GST-encoding complementary DNAs (cDNAs) have been cloned from Ancylostoma caninum and Necator americanus, but there are no reports about the cloning of this enzyme from Ancylostoma ceylanicum, the animal-derived zoonotic hookworm. To study the molecular nature and tissue localization of GST of A. ceylanicum (Ace-GST), we designed primers based on the GST gene sequence of A. ceylanicum in GenBank, amplified the Ace-GST cDNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and analysed its homology and genetic evolution relationship. The amplified product was cloned into the pET-32a vector and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) for expression. To prepare anti-GST polyclonal antibodies, the recombinant protein was purified and used to immunize Kunming mice. The level of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody in the serum of immunized mice was detected by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the Ace-GST localization in adult worm was determined using the immunofluorescence method. The results showed that the full-length cDNA encoding Ace-GST was 468 bp, which had the highest homology with Ac-GST-1 (60.1%) and clustered into one branch (v-class) with Ac-GST-1 and Na-GST-1 in a phylogenetic tree. Mice immunized with recombinant Ace-GST showed specific IgG antibody response. Immunolocalization revealed that natural Ace-GST is mainly located in the epidermis, muscle and intestine of the adult. These results may lay a foundation for further studies on the biological function of Ace-GST.
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X20000012
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Pseudoacanthocephalus+(Acanthocephala:+Echinorhynchidae)+from+the+guttural+toad,+Sclerophrys+gutturalis+(Bufonidae),+introduced+into+Mauritius,+with+comments+on+the+implications+of+the+introductions+of+toads+and+their+parasites+into+the+UK&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+J.W.+Wilkinson,+E.+Harris&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X19001044">A new species of Pseudoacanthocephalus (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae)
           from the guttural toad, Sclerophrys gutturalis (Bufonidae), introduced
           into Mauritius, with comments on the implications of the introductions of
           toads and their parasites into the UK
    • Authors: L.R. Smales; S.J.R. Allain, J.W. Wilkinson, E. Harris
      Abstract: Pseudoacanthocephalus goodmani n. sp. is described from faecal pellets collected from Sclerophrys gutturalis (Power, 1927), the guttural toad. The species is characterized by a suite of characters, including a proboscis armature of 14–18 longitudinal rows of 4–6 hooks with simple roots, lemnisci longer than the proboscis receptacle, equatorial testes, a cluster of elongated cement glands and eggs without polar prolongations of the middle membrane 72.6–85.8 long. The toad had been accidentally translocated from Mauritius to the UK in a tourist's luggage and survived a washing machine cycle. The guttural toad was introduced into Mauritius from South Africa in 1922 and the cane toad, Rhinella marina (Linneaus, 1758), from South America, between 1936 and 1938. It seems most likely, therefore, that P. goodmani was introduced, with the guttural toad, from South Africa. The cane toad is host to the similar species, Pseudoacanthocephalus lutzi, from the Americas, but P. lutzi has not been recorded from places where the cane toad has been introduced elsewhere. Clearly, the guttural toad is a hardy and adaptable species, although it seems unlikely that it could become established in Northern Europe. Nevertheless, any accidental translocation of hosts poses the potential risk of introducing unwanted pathogens into the environment and should be guarded against.
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X19001044
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Holostephanus+(Trematoda:+Digenea:+Cyathocotylidae)+metacercariae+in+common+carp+(Cyprinus+carpio+Linnaeus,+1758)+muscle:+zoonotic+potential+and+sensitivity+to+physico-chemical+treatments&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&ándor&rft.aufirst=D.&ándor&öngy,+K.+Nyeste,+I.+Czeglédi,+C.+Székely,+K.+Buchmann,+G.+Cech&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X1900110X">Digenean Holostephanus (Trematoda: Digenea: Cyathocotylidae) metacercariae
           in common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) muscle: zoonotic potential
           and sensitivity to physico-chemical treatments
    • Authors: D. Sándor; M. Gyöngy, K. Nyeste, I. Czeglédi, C. Székely, K. Buchmann, G. Cech
      Abstract: Metacercariae of various species within the genus Holostephanus Szidat, 1936 (Trematoda: Digenea: Cyathocotylidae) occur in muscles of both farmed and wild fish, including common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758). The life cycle includes a snail as first intermediate host, fish as second intermediate host and birds or mammals as final hosts. We studied the zoonotic potential and the viability of Holostephanus metacercariae from common carp following exposure to various physical and chemical treatments. Muscle tissue samples of common carp specimens from a fish farm in the north-eastern part of Hungary were examined and metacercariae recovered. The zoonotic potential was evaluated experimentally by using small mammals as models (albino mice, n = 2; and Syrian hamsters, n = 4) infected per os with Holostephanus cysts. Parallelly, Metagonimus metacercariae were used as positive controls. We could not confirm the zoonotic potential of Holostephanus metacercariae as they did not survive in the mammalian intestine whereas Metagonimus metacercariae developed to the adult stage. We assessed the viability of metacercariae isolated from common carp specimens during exposure to different physical treatments (temperatures of −18°C, +20°C, +40°C and +60°C) and chemical agents (5% and 10% acetic acid and 10% sodium chloride (NaCl)). Metacercariae lost viability by freezing at −18°C (2 h), heating at 60°C (20 min), incubation in 5% and 10% acetic acid (5 min) and 10% NaCl (2 h). These methods served as models to investigate the effectiveness of food preparation techniques (such as cold and hot smoking, freezing, salting and pickling) on the survival of metacercariae.
      PubDate: 2020-01-17T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X1900110X
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Teladorsagia+circumcincta+following+exposure+to+zinc+oxide+nanoparticles&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+S.+Asri-Rezaei&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X19001068">Assessment of oxidative/nitrosative stress biomarkers and DNA damage in
           Teladorsagia circumcincta following exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles
    • Authors: Z. Baghbani; B. Esmaeilnejad, S. Asri-Rezaei
      Abstract: Drug resistance to helminth parasites is one of the most serious problems to threaten the livestock industry. The problem also poses a major threat to public health. Therefore, novel and safe agents should urgently be investigated to control parasitic infections. The current study was conducted to evaluate the possible antiparasitic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) on one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal nematodes, Teladorsagia circumcincta. The worms were incubated with various concentrations of ZnO-NPs: 1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 ppm for 24 hours. Mobility and mortality of the parasites were recorded at four-hour intervals. At the endpoint, several biomarkers of oxidative/nitrosative stress, including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase, as well as lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, total antioxidant status, nitric oxide contents and DNA damage, were measured in the homogenized samples. ZnO-NPs showed significant anthelminthic effects, depending on time and concentration. Furthermore, the nanoparticle induced severe oxidative/nitrosative stress and DNA damage. ZnO-NPs could be considered as a novel and potent anthelminthic agent.
      PubDate: 2020-01-14T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X19001068
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Hymenolepis+diminuta,+in+its+intermediate+host,+the+confused+flour+beetle+Tribolium+confusum&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+T.+Dubiel&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X19001123">Comparison of the effects of multiple variables on the levels of infection
           of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, in its intermediate host, the
           confused flour beetle Tribolium confusum
    • Authors: A. Yezerski; Y. Luyten, T. Dubiel
      Abstract: The interaction of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, with its intermediate beetle host, Tribolium confusum, is a well-studied model system. However, there is so much variation in the methods and designs of the studies that it is difficult to draw comparisons. This study simultaneously compared several aspects of the infection protocol including beetle age, sex, density and mating status; parasite egg condition, infection environment humidity and the times for the three steps of infection: starvation, feeding and post-feeding development. Although statistically limited by low prevalence and intensity levels, we were able to detect the relative effects of the variables. The effects of these variables on prevalence (percent infection) and intensity (mean number of cysticercoids) do not necessarily correlate with each other. Egg condition, reduced starvation times, higher beetle density and longer development times reduced prevalence. However, differences in intensity were only detected with older beetles. When coupled with survivorship data, our study found that our current infection protocol is optimal for infection success. However, the results suggest extending the study to other intermediate hosts and the inclusion of additional variables.
      PubDate: 2020-01-14T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X19001123
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Osphranter+robustus+(Gould)+(Marsupialia:+Macropodidae)+from+Australia&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&">Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of the common wallaroo or euro,
           Osphranter robustus (Gould) (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) from Australia
    • Authors: I. Beveridge
      Abstract: The gastrointestinal helminth parasites of 170 common wallaroos or euros, Osphranter robustus (Gould), collected from all mainland states in which the species occurs as well as the Northern Territory, are presented, including previously published data. A total of 65 species of helminths were encountered, including four species of anoplocephalid cestodes found in the bile ducts and small intestine, and 61 species of strongylid nematodes, all but two of which occurring in the stomach, and with the remainder occurring in the terminal ileum, caecum and colon. Among the mainland subspecies of O. robustus, 52 species of helminths were encountered in O. r. robustus, compared with 30 species in O. r. woodwardi and 35 species in O. r. erubescens. Of the parasite species encountered, only 17 were specific to O. robustus, the remaining being shared with sympatric host species. Host-specific species or species occurring in O. robustus at a high prevalence can be classified as follows: widely distributed; restricted to northern Australia; restricted to the northern wallaroo, O. r. woodwardi; found only in the euro, O. r. erubescens; found essentially along the eastern coast of Australia, primarily in O. r. robustus; and species with highly limited regional distributions. The data currently available suggest that the acquisition of a significant number of parasites is due to co-grazing with other macropodids, while subspeciation in wallaroos as well as climatic variables may have influenced the diversification of the parasite fauna.
      PubDate: 2020-01-13T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X19001032
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Aelurostrongylus+abstrusus+(Railliet,+1898)+larvae&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+G.+Gaglio,+J.M.+Abbate,+S.+Giannetto,+E.+Brianti&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X19001056">Effect of different temperatures on survival and development of
           Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898) larvae
    • Authors: E. Napoli; F. Arfuso, G. Gaglio, J.M. Abbate, S. Giannetto, E. Brianti
      Abstract: Aim of the study was to get in-depth information on Aelurostrongylus abstrusus first-stage larvae (L1s) survival at different temperatures and to assess the capability of these larvae to develop into the third infective stage (L3s). Faeces of a naturally infected cat were split into two aliquots: the first was divided in subsamples assigned to four groups (F1–F4); from the second aliquot, L1s were extracted by Baermann technique, suspended in water and divided into four groups (W1–W4). Groups were stored at different temperatures (F1/W1 −20 ± 1°C; F2/W2 +4 ± 1°C; F3/W3 +14 ± 1°C; and F4/W4 +28 ± 1°C) and L1s vitality assessed every seven days. The capability of L1s stored in water to develop into L3s in snails was evaluated at the beginning and every 21 days. The L1s of W2 and F2 groups remained viable for a longer period (231 and 56 days, respectively) compared to those of other groups. The capability of L1s to moult into L3s in snails showed a decreasing trend; the group W2's L1s maintained the capability to moult into L3s for the longest time (day 189) compared to the other groups. The time of survival of A. abstrusus L1s is influenced by temperature. However, the species seems to be more resistant to temperature variations than other feline lungworms, and this may explain its wider distribution across Europe.
      PubDate: 2020-01-09T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X19001056
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
  • Gadus+morhua)+liver+infected+with+Contracaecum+osculatum&rft.title=Journal+of+Helminthology&rft.issn=0022-149X&,+K.+Syahputra,+S.+Zuo,+K.+Buchmann&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0022149X19001111">Local immune depression in Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) liver infected with
           Contracaecum osculatum
    • Authors: H. Marnis; P.W. Kania, K. Syahputra, S. Zuo, K. Buchmann
      Abstract: Third-stage larvae of the anisakid nematode Contracaecum osculatum infecting cod (Gadus morhua) liver elicit a host immune response involving both innate and adaptive factors, but the reactions differ between liver and spleen. Inflammatory reactions occur in both liver and spleen, but a series of immune effector genes are downregulated in liver infected with nematodes whereas these genes in spleen from the same fish are upregulated. A series of novel primer and probe sets targeting cod immune responses were developed and applied in a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction set-up to measure the expression of immune-relevant genes in liver and spleen of infected and uninfected cod. In infected liver, 12 of 23 genes were regulated. Genes encoding cytokines associated with inflammatory reactions (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8) were significantly upregulated, whereas genes encoding effector molecules, assisting the elimination of pathogens, C-reactive protein (CRP)-PII, hepcidin, lysozyme G1, lysozyme G2, C3 and IgDm, were significantly downregulated. The number of downregulated genes increased with the parasite burden. In spleen, 14 of 23 immune genes showed significant regulation and nine of these were upregulated, including genes encoding CRPI, CRPII, C3, hepcidin and transferrin. The general gene expression level was higher in spleen compared to liver, and although inflammation was induced in nematode-infected liver, the effector molecule genes were depressed, which suggests a worm-induced immune suppression locally in the liver.
      PubDate: 2020-01-07T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X19001111
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2020)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
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