Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8690 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2415 journals)            First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Showing 1201 - 1400 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Family and Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Forensic Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Gandaki Medical College-Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Generic Medicines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Geographical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hand Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Head & Neck Physicians and Surgeons     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health & Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Journal of Health and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Economics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior     Open Access  
Journal of Health Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science and Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of health sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences / Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Health Sciences and Surveillance System     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences Scholarship     Open Access  
Journal of Health Specialties     Open Access  
Journal of Health Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Healthcare Informatics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Helminthology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Herbs Spices & Medicinal Plants     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of HIV for Clinical and Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Hospital Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Human Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Human Rhythm     Open Access  
Journal of Human Transcriptome     Open Access  
Journal of Ideas in Health     Open Access  
Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inflammation Research     Open Access  
Journal of Injury and Violence Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Institute of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Insulin Resistance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Interactional Research in Communication Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of International Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Interventional Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Investigative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Islamabad Medical & Dental College     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Karnali Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Kathmandu Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of King Abdulaziz University : Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Laryngology and Voice     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Limb Lengthening & Reconstruction     Open Access  
Journal of Lumbini Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Materials Science : Materials in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Maternal and Child Health     Open Access  
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Cases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Colleges of PLA     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Medical Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Ethics     Partially Free   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ideas     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Investigation and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Laboratory and Diagnosis     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Law and Ethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Medical Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medicinal Botany     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 209)
Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Medicine and the Person     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medicine in Scientific Research     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine in the Tropics     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine Research and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medicines Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Metabolomics & Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Movement Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Multidisciplinary Research in Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Nanotheranostics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Natural Medicines     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nature and Science of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Journal of Nepalgunj Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Neurocritical Care     Open Access  
Journal of Neurodegenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Neurorestoratology     Open Access  
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Nobel Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Obesity and Bariatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Occupational Health     Open Access  
Journal of Occupational Therapy Education     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Ocular Biology, Diseases, and Informatics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Oral Health and Craniofacial Science     Open Access  
Journal of Orofacial Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, Hearing and Balance Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ovarian Research     Open Access  
Journal of Ozone Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Journal of Paramedical Sciences & Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Journal of Parkinsonism and Restless Legs Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parkinson’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Participatory Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Patan Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Pathogens     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Patient Experience     Open Access  
Journal of Patient Safety and Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Patient-Reported Outcomes     Open Access  
Journal of Periodontal Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physiobiochemical Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physiology-Paris     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pioneering Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Pregnancy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Prevention & Intervention Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health     Open Access  
Journal of Primary Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Prosthodontic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Prosthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Receptor, Ligand and Channel Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Regenerative Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Scientific Innovation in Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Scientific Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Arthroplasty     Open Access  
Journal of Sleep Disorders : Treatment & Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of South American Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences : Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stem Cell Therapy and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stomal Therapy Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Journal of Substance Use     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Surgical Academia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Surgical and Clinical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report     Open Access  
Journal of Systemic Therapies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of The Academy of Clinical Microbiologists     Open Access  
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the American College of Certified Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American College of Clinical Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Anatomical Society of India     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Anus, Rectum and Colon     Open Access  
Journal of The Arab Society for Medical Research     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Geographical Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.759
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 1  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1861-9568 - ISSN (Online) 1009-637X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Spatial relationship of high-speed transportation construction and
           land-use efficiency and its mechanism: Case study of Shandong Peninsula
           urban agglomeration
    • Abstract: Abstract Land-use efficiency is low for the urban agglomeration of China. High-speed transportation construction has been an important factor driving land use change. It is critically important to explore the spatial relationship between the high-speed transportation superiority degree and land-use efficiency. We built a model to evaluate the benefits of convenient high-speed transportation using the relative density of highways and the distance from high-speed rail stations and airports as a metric. We used 42 counties of the Shandong Peninsula urban agglomeration as an example. Land-use efficiency was calculated by a DEA model with capital, labor, economic benefits and environmental benefits as input and output factors. We examined the spatial relationships between high-speed transport superiority degree and land-use efficiency and obtained the following results. First, there are significant spatial differences in the relationships between the high-speed transportation superiority degree and land-use efficiency. Taking the two major cities of Jinan and Qingdao as the hubs, the core surrounding counties show significant spatial relationship between land-use efficiency and the high-speed transportation superiority degree. Spatial correlation declines as the distance from the hubs increases. Land-use efficiency is less than high-speed transportation convenience in areas along the transportation trunks that are distant from the hub cities. Correlation is low in areas that are away from both hub cities and transportation trunk routes. Second, high-speed transportation has a positive relationship with land-use efficiency due to the mechanism of element agglomeration exogenous growth. Third, high-speed transportation facilitates the flow of goods, services and technologies between core cities and peripheral cities as space spillover (the hub effect). This alters the spatial pattern of regional land-use efficiency. Finally, the short-board effect caused by decreased high-speed transport construction can be balanced by highway construction and the proper node layouts of high-speed rail stations and airports, resulting in a well-balanced spatial pattern of land-use efficiency.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Changes in air temperature over China in response to the recent global
           warming hiatus
    • Abstract: Abstract The 1998–2012 global warming hiatus has aroused great public interest over the past several years. Based on the air temperature measurements from 622 meteorological stations in China, the temperature response to the global warming hiatus was analyzed at national and regional scales. We found that air temperature changed −0.221°C/10a during 1998–2012, which was lower than the long-term trend for 1960–1998 by 0.427°C/10a. Therefore, the warming hiatus in China was more pronounced than the global mean. Winter played a dominant role in the nationwide warming hiatus, contributing 74.13%, while summer contributed the least among the four seasons. Furthermore, the warming hiatus was spatial heterogeneous across different climate conditions in China. Comparing the three geographic zones, the monsoon region of eastern China, arid region of northwestern China, and high frigid region of the Tibetan Plateau, there was significant cooling in eastern and northwestern China. In eastern China, which contributed 53.79%, the trend magnitudes were 0.896°C/10a in winter and 0.134°C/10a in summer. In the Tibetan Plateau, air temperature increased by 0.204°C/10a, indicating a lack of a significant warming hiatus. More broadly, the warming hiatus in China may have been associated with the negative phase of PDO and reduction in sunspot numbers and total solar radiation. Finally, although a warming hiatus occurred in China from 1998 to 2012, air temperature rapidly increased after 2012 and will likely to continuously warm in the next few years.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Topographical relief characteristics and its impact on population and
           economy: A case study of the mountainous area in western Henan, China
    • Abstract: Abstract Topographical relief is a key factor that limits population distribution and economic development in mountainous areas. The limitation is especially apparent in the mountain- plain transition zone. Taking the transition zone between the Qinling Mountains and the North China Plain (i.e. the mountainous area in western Henan Province) as an example and based on the 200-m resolution DEM data, we used the mean change-point analysis to determine the optimal statistical unit for topographical relief, and thereafter extracted the relief degree. Taking the 1:100,000 land use data, township population and county-level industrial data, population and economic spatial models were constructed, and 200-m resolution grid population and economic density maps were generated. Afterwards, statistical analysis was carried out to quantitatively reveal the impact of topographical relief on population and economy. In addition, the impacts of other topographical factors were discussed. The results showed the following. (1) The relief degree in western Henan is generally low, where 58.6% of the regional topography does not exceed half the height of a reference mountain (relative elevation ⩽250 m). Spatially, the relief degree is high in the west while low in the east, and high in the middle while low in the north and south. There is a positive correlation between relief degree and elevation, and a much stronger correlation between relief degree and slope. (2) The linear fitting degree between the population and economic validation data and the corresponding simulation data are 0.943 and 0.909, respectively, indicating that the spatialized results can reflect the actual population and economic distribution. (3) The impact of topographical relief on population and economy was stronger than that of other topographical factors. The relief degree showed a good logarithmic fit relationship with population density (0.911) and economic density (0.874). Specifically, 88.65% of the population lives in areas where the topographical relief is ⩽0.5 and 88.03% of the gross regional product was from areas where the relief is ⩽0.3. Compared with the population distribution, the economic development showed an obvious agglomeration trend towards low relief areas.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Spatiotemporal features of farmland scaling and the mechanisms that
           underlie these changes within the Three Gorges Reservoir Area
    • Abstract: Abstract Discussions regarding the functional transformation of agricultural utilization and the mechanisms that underlie these changes within the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) reflect variations in the relationship between people and their environment in China’s central and westerns part, an area of mountains and reservoirs. A clear understanding of these changes also provides the scientific basis for the development of multi-functional agriculture in typical mountainous areas. Five counties were selected for analysis in this study from the hinterland of the TGRA; we analyzed changes in farmland scaling and corresponding underlying mechanisms by defining the concepts of “Scaling Farmland” (SF) and by using the software packages ArcGIS10.2, SPSS, and Geographical Detectors. The results of this analysis show that sources of increased SF have mainly comprised cultivated and shrub land. Indeed, with the exception of some alpine off-season vegetables, SF growth has mainly occurred in low altitude areas and in places where the slope is less than 30°. We also show that spatial changes in various SF types have also been substantially different, but in all cases are closely related to road and township administrative centers. Natural factors at the patch level, including elevation and slope, have contributed significantly to SF, while at the township level, underlying socioeconomic and humanistic factors have tended to include road traffic and agricultural population density. In contrast, at the regional level, underlying driving forces within each have tended to be more significant than overall study area scale. We show that while changes in, and the development of, SF have been driven by numerous factors, agricultural policies have always been amongst the most important. The results clearly elucidate general land use transformation patterns within the mountain regions of western China.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • The mechanism of farmland marginalization in Chinese mountainous areas:
           Evidence from cost and return changes
    • Abstract: Abstract Farmland marginalization has become the main trend of land-use change in the mountainous areas of China. Using annual survey data of major agricultural production costs and earnings at national and provincial levels in China, this study aims to analyze the reasons and mechanism behind farmland marginalization in mountainous areas. We find that farmers on plains are able to reduce their per mu labor input effectively through intensive use of agricultural machinery, which has minimized the impact of the increase in labor price. However, it is extremely challenging for farmers in mountainous areas to use the same method owing to the rough terrain. Thus, per laborer farming area in these areas has increased relatively slowly, causing a widening gap in agricultural labor productivity between the two regions. With the rapid rise in labor costs since 2003, the marginalization of cultivated land in mountainous areas is evident. In 2013, the net profit of agricultural production in mountainous China fell below zero. Since 2000, the land-use and land-cover change in these areas was characterized by the reduction of farmland area, reforestation, and the enhancement of the NDVI value. The high correlation between the NDVI change rate and the ratio of change in farmland (r = –0.70) and forest (r = 0.91) in mountainous areas at provincial level further attests to the trend of farmland marginalization there. Finally, we summarize the mechanism of such marginalization against the backdrop of the rapid increase in the opportunity cost of farming and the rapid fall of agricultural labor forces in mountainous areas. This study contributes to a deep understanding of the development process of farmland marginalization and abandonment as well as forest transition in Chinese mountainous areas.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Rural vitalization in China: A perspective of land consolidation
    • Abstract: Abstract The core objective of rural vitalization is to systemically establish a coupling pattern of various rural development elements including population, land and industry. As one of the prerequisites, land resources is required to be optimally allocated via land consolidation. Consequently, land consolidation contributes greatly to population agglomeration, industrial development and resources support under the context of combating rural decline. Based on the key elements affecting rural development, this paper elaborates the connotation of rural vitalization and land consolidation in the new era as well as their relationships. Furthermore, the paper analyzes the alternative paths for achieving rural vitalization via land consolidation, and discusses the future directions of land consolidation and rural vitalization. The conclusions are drawn as follows: (1) To cope with the loss and decline of the intrinsic elements in rural areas, rural vitalization is a development strategy aimed at realizing economic, political, cultural and ecological rejuvenation in rural area by reshaping socio-economic morphology and spatial pattern in rural territory. (2) From the perspective of rural vitalization, land consolidation is endowed with new connotation, which should not only target at activating the key elements of rural development, but also place emphasis on coordinating material space and spirit core as well as integrating the restructuring of the physical space and the rural governance system. (3) Land consolidation should be compatible with regional natural conditions and the current stage of socio-economic development. According to the principle of regional planning and classification strategy, the appropriate models and paths should be adopted to promote the benign interactions of population, land and industry based on engineering techniques and ecological means. (4) Under the background of national strategy of rural vitalization, it is necessary to reshape the value orientation of land consolidation based on a scientific understanding of urban-rural relations and rural territorial functions, coordinate land consolidation planning and rural vitalization planning under the unified spatial planning system, and explore the new model combining land consolidation and multifunctional agriculture.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Assessing the oscillation of channel geometry and meander migration
           cardinality of Bhagirathi River, West Bengal, India
    • Abstract: Abstract Lateral migration of the Bhagirathi River temporally creates unavoidable geomorphic hazards in West Bengal, India. The Bhagirathi River flows SW for ~67.30 km between the confluence point of Ajay and Jalangi rivers in East Burdwan and Nadia districts of West Bengal. The course of Bhagirathi is notably migration prone and cultivates problematic changes along its course over time. In the study, we have looked into its migration tendency and unpredictability for past 238 years and then predicted the lateral shifting of river centerline using temporal satellite imageries — Landsat-5 (TM) of 1987 (8, December), 1995 (28, January), 2005 (7, January) and LISS-IV satellite imagery (2017, 5 January);SOI Toposheet — 1968–1969 (79A/2, 79A/3, 79A/6 and 79A/7) and Rennell’s map of 1779. Other highlights are the quest of fluvial features, oxbow lakes, mid-channel bars, channel migration rate, meander geometry, channel sinuosity in different parts of river course and the parts that experience intensive bank erosion. The entire river course has been subdivided into three segments; viz. reaches A, B and C. Investigation displays that degree of sinuosity decreases from its anterior course (1968) to the existing course (2017). Reach-specific outputs display that reach B is highly sinuous (SI value 1.94 in 2017) and SI increases temporarily, whereas for reaches A and C it decreases with time. The rate of migration is higher in reach B than that in reaches C and A. The study displays a notably decreasing trend of migration in comparison with its previous lateral migration and shows that the migration nature over time is intensively inconsistent and unpredictable except very few portions of the river course. The nature of deposition within the river channel shows an unstable behavior during the entire period of the study. Meander geometry depicts a rapid change of river course innate to meander bends and shows a higher rate of migration by meander loop cut-off rather than lateral migration that reflects the inconsistency, erosion vulnerability and unpredictable nature of migration. The present work offers a valuable source to comprehend channel changes in Bhagirathi River and serve as an efficacious base for river-bank migration and erosion hazard planning and management.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • The Belt and Road: Geographical pattern and regional risks
    • Abstract: Abstract Building the Belt and Road is initiatives of China to promote win-win international cooperation in the new era, aiming at green, health, intellect and peace and the joint development with people of the countries along the route. Systematic analysis on environmental characteristics, evolutionary tendency and future risks are certainly the scientific fundamentals of sustainable development for the Belt and Road construction. Applied remote sensing monitoring, statistical analysis, this paper investigates the regional characteristics of climate, topography, soil, hydrology, vegetation cover and terrestrial ecosystems production, as well as socio-economic conditions. Based on the regional characteristics, the Belt and Road is divided into 9 sub-regions: Central and Eastern Europe sub-region with cold and humid climate, Mongolia and Russia sub-region with cold and arid climate, Central and West Asia arid sub-region, Southeast Asia sub-region with warm and humid climate, Pakistan arid sub-region, Bangladesh-India-Myanmar sub-region with warm and humid climate, Eastern China monsoon sub-region, Northwest China arid sub-region and Tibetan Plateau sub-region. Combining modeling simulation with scenario projections, natural disaster assessment methodology is used to assess the risk of extreme events including heat waves, droughts and floods in the coming 30 years (2021–2050). Results show that, on the basis of the regional framework, the western Eurasia would be a warming trend; both sides of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in high temperature and heat waves risk; Central and Eastern Europe sub-region with cold and humid climate in high drought risk; Bangladesh-India-Myanmar sub-region with warm and humid climate as well as Eastern China in high risk of flooding.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Extraction and analysis of abandoned farmland: A case study of Qingyun and
           Wudi counties in Shandong Province
    • Abstract: Abstract Rapid urbanization and continuous loss of rural labor force has resulted in abandonment of large areas of farmland in some regions of China. Remote sensing technology can indirectly help detect abandoned farmland size and quantity, which is of great significance for farmland protection and food security. This study took Qingyun and Wudi counties in Shandong Province as a study area and used CART decision tree classification to compile land use maps of 1990–2017 based on Landsat and HJ-1A data. We developed rules to identify abandoned farmland, and explored its spatial distribution, duration, and reclamation. CART accuracy exceeded 85% from 1990–2017. The maximum abandoned farmland area was 5503.86 ha during 1992–2017, with the maximum rate being 5.37%. Farmland abandonment rate was the highest during 1996–1998, and abandonment trend decreased year by year after 2006. Maximum abandonment duration was 15 years (1992–2017), mostly within 4 years and only a few exceeded 10 years. From 1993–2017, the maximum reclaimed abandoned farmland was 2022.3 ha, and the minimum ~20 ha. The maximum reclamation rate was 67.44%m, with annual average rate being 31.83%. This study will help analyze farmland abandonment driving forces in the study area and also provide references to identify abandoned farmland in other areas.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Spatiotemporal differentiation of changes in maize phenology in China from
           1981 to 2010
    • Abstract: Abstract Spatio-temporal changes in the differentiation characteristics of eight consecutive phenological periods and their corresponding lengths were quantitatively analyzed based on long-term phenological observation data from 114 agro-meteorological stations in four maize growing zones in China. Results showed that average air temperature and growing degree- days (GDD) during maize growing seasons showed an increasing trend from 1981 to 2010, while precipitation and sunshine duration showed a decreasing trend. Maize phenology has significantly changed under climate change: spring maize phenology was mainly advanced, especially in northwest and southwest maize zones, while summer and spring-summer maize phenology was delayed. The delay trend observed for summer maize in the northwest maize zone was more pronounced than in the Huang-Huai spring-summer maize zone. Variations in maize phenology changed the corresponding growth stages length: the vegetative growth period (days from sowing date to tasseling date) was generally shortened in spring, summer, and spring-summer maize, although to different degrees, while the reproductive growth period (days from tasseling date to mature date) showed an extension trend. The entire growth period (days from sowing date to mature date) of spring maize was extended, but the entire growth periods of summer and spring-summer maize were shortened.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Developing a comprehensive evaluation method for Interconnected River
           System Network assessment: A case study in Tangxun Lake group
    • Abstract: Abstract The Interconnected River System Network (IRSN) plays a crucial role in water resource allocation, water ecological restoration and water quality improvement. It has become a key part of the urban lake management. An evaluation methodology system for IRSN project can provide important guidance for the selection of different water diversion schemes. However, few if any comprehensive evaluation systems have been developed to evaluate the hydrodynamics and water quality of connected lakes. This study developed a comprehensive evaluation system based on multi-indexes including aspects of water hydrodynamics, water quality and socioeconomics. A two-dimensional (2-D) mathematical hydrodynamics and water quality model was built, using NH3-N, TN and TP as water quality index. The IRSN project in Tangxun Lake group was used as a testbed here, and five water diversion schemes were simulated and evaluated. Results showed that the IRSN project can improve the water fluidity and the water quality obviously after a short time of water diversion, while the improvement rates decreased gradually as the water diversion went on. Among these five schemes, Scheme V showed the most noticeable improvement in hydrodynamics and water quality, and brought the most economic benefits. This comprehensive evaluation method can provide useful reference for the implementation of other similar IRSN projects.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • The impact of global cropland changes on terrestrial ecosystem services
           value, 1992–2015
    • Abstract: Abstract From 1992 to 2015, ecological environment has been threatened by the changes of cropland around the world. In order to evaluate the impact of cropland changes on ecosystem, we calculated the response of terrestrial ecosystem service values (TESVs) variation to cropland conversion based on land-use data from European Space Agency (ESA). The results showed that cropland changes were responsible for an absolute loss of $166.82 billion, equivalent to 1.17% of global TESVs in 1992. Among the different regions, the impact of cropland changes on TESVs was significant in South America and Africa but not obvious in Oceania, Asia and Europe. Cropland expansion from tropical forest was the main reason for decreases in TESVs globally, especially in South America, Africa and Asia. The effect of wetland converted to cropland was notable in North America and Europe while grassland converted to cropland played an important role in Oceania, Africa and Asia. In Europe, the force of urban expansion cannot be ignored as well. The conversion of cropland to tropical or temperate forest partly compensated for the loss of TESVs globally, especially in Asia.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Comprehensive evaluation of regional resources and environmental carrying
           capacity using a PS-DR-DP theoretical model
    • Abstract: Abstract The concepts of regional resources and environmental carrying capacity are important aspects of both academic inquiry and government policy. Although notable results have been achieved in terms of evaluating both these variables, most researchers have utilized a traditional analytical method that incorporates the “pressure-state-response” model. A new approach is proposed in this study for the comprehensive evaluation of regional resources and environmental carrying capacity; applying a “pressure-support”, “destructiveness- resilience”, and “degradation-promotion” (“PS-DR-DP”) hexagon interaction theoretical model, we divided carrying capacity into these three pairs of interactive forces which correspond with resource supporting ability, environmental capacity, and risk-disaster resisting ability, respectively. Negative carrying capacity load in this context was defined to include pressure, destructiveness, and degradation, while support, resilience, and promotion comprised positive attributes. The status of regional carrying capacity was then determined via the ratio between positive and negative contribution values, expressed in terms of changes in both hexagonal shape and area that result from interactive forces. In order to test our “PS-DR-DP” theory-based model, we carried out a further empirical study on Beijing over the period between 2010 and 2015. Analytical results also revealed that the city is now close to attaining a perfect state for both resources and environmental carrying capacity; the latter state in Beijing increased from 1.0143 to 1.1411 between 2010 and 2015, an improved carrying capacity despite the fact that population increased by two million. The average contribution value also reached 0.7025 in 2015, indicating that the city approached an optimal loading threshold at this time but still had space for additional carrying capacity. The findings of our analysis provide theoretical support to enable the city of Beijing to control population levels below 23 million by 2020.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Simulating runoff generation and its spatial correlation with
           environmental factors in Sancha River Basin: The southern source of the
           Wujiang River
    • Abstract: Abstract Runoff generation is an important part of water retention service, and also plays an important role on soil and water retention. Under the background of the ecosystem degradation, which was caused by the vulnerable karst ecosystem combined with human activity, it is necessary to understand the spatial pattern and impact factors of runoff generation in the karst region. The typical karst peak-cluster depression basin was selected as the study area. And the calibrated and verified Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was the main techniques to simulate the runoff generation in the typical karst basin. Further, the spatial variability of total/surface/groundwater runoff was analyzed along with the methods of gradient analysis and local regression. Results indicated that the law of spatial difference was obvious, and the total runoff coefficients were 70.0%. The groundwater runoff was rich, about 2–3 times the surface runoff. Terrain is a significant factor contributing to macroscopic control effect on the runoff service, where the total and groundwater runoff increased significantly with the rising elevation and slope. The distribution characteristics of vegetation have great effects on surface runoff. There were spatial differences between the forest land in the upstream and orchard land in the downstream, in turn the surface runoff presented a turning point due to the influence of vegetation. Moreover, the results of spatial overlay analysis showed that the highest value of total and groundwater runoff was distributed in the forest land. It is not only owing to the stronger soil water retention capacity of forest ecosystem, and geologic feature of rapid infiltration in this region, but also reflected the combining effects on the land cover types and topographical features. Overall, this study will promote the development and innovation of ecosystem services fields in the karst region, and further provide a theoretical foundation for ecosystem restoration and reconstruction.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • A review of fully coupled atmosphere-hydrology simulations
    • Abstract: Abstract The terrestrial hydrological process is an essential but weak link in global/regional climate models. In this paper, the development status, research hotspots and trends in coupled atmosphere-hydrology simulations are identified through a bibliometric analysis, and the challenges and opportunities in this field are reviewed and summarized. Most climate models adopt the one-dimensional (vertical) land surface parameterization, which does not include a detailed description of basin-scale hydrological processes, particularly the effects of human activities on the underlying surfaces. To understand the interaction mechanism between hydrological processes and climate change, a large number of studies focused on the climate feedback effects of hydrological processes at different spatio-temporal scales, mainly through the coupling of hydrological and climate models. The improvement of the parameterization of hydrological process and the development of large-scale hydrological model in land surface process model lay a foundation for terrestrial hydrological-climate coupling simulation, based on which, the study of terrestrial hydrological-climate coupling is evolving from the traditional unidirectional coupling research to the two-way coupling study of “climate-hydrology” feedback. However, studies of fully coupled atmosphere-hydrology simulations (also called atmosphere- hydrology two-way coupling) are far from mature. The main challenges associated with these studies are: improving the potential mismatch in hydrological models and climate models; improving the stability of coupled systems; developing an effective scale conversion scheme; perfecting the parameterization scheme; evaluating parameter uncertainties; developing effective methodology for model parameter transplanting; and improving the applicability of models and high/super-resolution simulation. Solving these problems and improving simulation accuracy are directions for future hydro-climate coupling simulation research.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Cosmogenic nuclide burial dating of Liuwan Paleolithic site in the Luonan
           Basin, Central China
    • Abstract: Abstract The Luonan Basin is a key region of early human settlement in Central China with more than 300 discovered Paleolithic sites. Artifact layer 1 of the Liuwan site was dated to approximately 0.6 million years (Ma) based on correlation with the well-dated loess–paleosol sequence of the central Chinese Loess Plateau. This study reassessed the age of the Liuwan artifact layer via an absolute dating method, namely, 26Al/10Be burial dating. We determined the burial age of artifact layer 1, which was most likely at least 0.60 ± 0.12 Ma (1ơ), using three simple burial ages. The new burial age confirmed the previous estimated age and provided a considerably accurate age range. Therefore, we suggest the use of the 26Al/10Be burial dating method in thin loess-covered Paleolithic sites around the Qinling Mountain Range is helpful to understand the early human behavior.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Relative soil moisture in China’s farmland
    • Abstract: Abstract Based on the data of relative soil moisture in 653 agricultural meteorological stations during the period of 1993‒2013 in China, the characteristics and regularity of spatial and temporal variation of relative soil moisture in China’s farmland were analyzed and discussed using geostatistical methods. The results showed that the relative soil moisture of China’s farmland has shown a fluctuant increasing trend since 1993. The relative soil moisture of China’s farmland is more than 60% in general, its distribution area has been expanded northward and westward with the summer monsoon since mid-April and began to shrink eastward and southward in late October. The value of relative soil moisture increases with the increase of soil depth. On an interannual scale, the relative soil moisture of farmland increased fastest in summer and autumn, and its variation range decreased with the increase of soil depth. The relative soil moisture was positively correlated with precipitation, and negatively correlated with potential evaporation and temperature. The correlation between relative soil moisture and various meteorological factors weakened as soil depth increased. The meteorological factors have a great influence on relative soil moisture of dry land in spring, summer and autumn and they also have a greater impact on relative soil moisture of paddy fields in winter.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Estimating spatial pattern of hyporheic water exchange in slack water pool
    • Abstract: Abstract Hyporheic zone (HZ) influences hydraulic and biogeochemical processes in and alongside streams, therefore, investigating the controlling geographic factors is beneficial for understanding the hydrological processes in HZ. Slack water pool (SWP) is an essential micro-topographic structure that has an impact on surface water and groundwater interactions in the HZ during and after high flows. However, only a few studies investigate HZ surface water and groundwater exchange in the SWP. This study used the thermal method to estimate the HZ water exchange in the SWP in a segment of the Weihe River in China during the winter season. The findings show that on the flow-direction parallel to the stream, river recharge dominates the HZ water exchange, while on the opposing flow-direction bank groundwater discharge dominates the water exchange. The water exchange in the opposing flow-direction bank is about 1.6 times of that in the flow-direction bank. The HZ water exchange is not only controlled by flow velocity but also the location and shape of the SWP. Great water exchange amount corresponds to the shape with more deformation. The maximum water exchange within the SWP is close to the river bank where the edge is relatively high. This study provides some guidelines for water resources management during flooding events.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Cultural evolution and spatial-temporal distribution of archaeological
           sites from 9.5–2.3 ka BP in the Yan-Liao region, China
    • Abstract: Abstract With basic information from 8353 archaeological sites, this study describes a holistic spatial-temporal distribution pattern of archaeological sites of the prehistoric culture sequence from 9.5 ka BP (ka BP = thousands of years before 0 BP, where “0 BP” is defined as the year AD 1950) to 2.3 ka BP in the region that extends from the Yanshan Mountains to the Liaohe River Plain (i.e., the Yan-Liao region) in northern China. Based on spatial statistics analysis–including the spatial density of the sites and Geographic Information System nearest- neighbour analysis, combined with a review of environmental and climatic data–this paper analyses cultural evolution, the spatial-temporal features of the archaeological sites and human activities against the backdrop of climatic and environmental changes in this region. The results reveal that prehistoric cultural evolution in the Yan-Liao region is extensively influenced by climatic and environmental changes. The Xinglongwa, Zhaobaogou and Fuhe cultures, which primarily developed during a habitable period from 8.5 ka BP to 6.0 ka BP with strong summer monsoons, have similar maximum density values, spatial patterns and subsistence strategies dominated by hunting-gathering. Significant changes occurred in the Hongshan and Lower Xiajiadian cultures, with a significant increase in numbers and densities of sites and a slump in average nearest-neighbour ratio when the environment began to deteriorate starting in 6.0 ka BP. Additionally, with the onset of a weak summer monsoon and the predominance of primitive agriculture, sites of these two cultures present a different type of concentric circle-shaped pattern in space. As the environment continuously deteriorated with increasing aridity and the spread of steppe, more sites were distributed towards the south, and primitive agriculture was replaced by livestock husbandry in the Upper Xiajiadian culture. The most densely populated areas of the studied cultures are centralized within a limited area. The Laohahe River and Jiaolaihe River basins formed the core area in which most archaeological sites were distributed during the strong summer monsoon period and the first few thousand years of the weak summer monsoon period.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Evolutionary dynamics of the main-stem longitudinal profiles of ten
           kongdui basins within Inner Mongolia, China
    • Abstract: Abstract The longitudinal profiles of main streams of ten kongdui basins within Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of China were characterized in this study by analyzing a series of quantitative indexes that are relevant to tectonic activity and river action, and by establishing a series of multiple regression models. The results reveal that all longitudinal profiles are concave in shape, with a range of concavity between 1.1 and 3.1, increasing from west to east. Data also show that the concavity of the profiles is significantly negatively correlated with profile length, altitude difference, average altitude, drainage area and sediment load of the basins. Analysis reveals that kongdui basins have suffered from moderate-to-weak tectonic activity over time, again characterized by a west-to-east weakening trend. Stream power also varies along the main channels of the ten kongdui basins; average values in each case fall between 0.8 W/m and 8.4 W/m, generally higher within the middle reaches. This decreasing trend in stream power within the lower reaches of kongdui basins might provide one key explanation for sedimentation there. Data also show that the average stream power in western and central basins tends to be higher than that in eastern examples, even though both the highest and the lowest values are seen within two middle ones. This analysis shows that the longitudinal profile concavity values are mainly controlled by tectonic activity and that the effect of river action is insignificant.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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