Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8447 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2307 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
4 open     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AboutOpen     Open Access  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access  
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Científica Estudiantil     Open Access  
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Herediana     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access  
Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)     Open Access  
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta Medica International     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acupuncture and Natural Medicine     Open Access  
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / Health Sciences Journal of Adıyaman University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Cell and Gene Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Clinical Radiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Advances in Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access  
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Skeletal Muscle Function Assessment     Open Access  
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Thoracic and Critical Care Medicine     Open Access  
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AJOB Empirical Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AJSP: Reviews & Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Al-Qadisiah Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ALERTA : Revista Científica del Instituto Nacional de Salud     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Althea Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Anatomica Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ankara Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası     Open Access  
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Clinical Hypertension     Open Access  
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Annals of Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives Medical Review Journal / Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi     Open Access  
Archives of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology     Open Access  
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access  
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASHA Leader     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.042
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 19  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-9686 - ISSN (Online) 0090-6964
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2570 journals]
  • Advances in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes for
           Use in Toxicity Testing
    • Abstract: Abstract Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be differentiated into multiple cell types in the body while maintaining proliferative capabilities. The generation of hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) from iPSCs has resulted in a new source for liver cells. Since healthy primary human hepatocytes and hepatic cells are difficult to obtain, HLCs are gaining attention. HLCs can be obtained from a continuous, stable source while maintaining their original donor genotype, which opens new avenues into patient-specific testing and therapeutics. Studies have utilized HLCs for toxicity testing to further understand their drug metabolizing capabilities. This review focuses on advances being made to achieve hepatic functions from HLCs, their current use in hepatotoxicity testing, and their potential for future liver-related toxicity evaluations.
      PubDate: 2020-03-01
       
  • Effect of Mold Geometry on Pore Size in Freeze-Cast Chitosan-Alginate
           Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering
    • Abstract: Abstract Freeze-casting is a popular method to produce biomaterial scaffolds with highly porous structures. The pore structure of freeze-cast biomaterial scaffolds is influenced by processing parameters but has mostly been controlled experimentally. A mathematical model integrating Computational Fluid Dynamics with Population Balance Model was developed to predict average pore size (APS) of 3D porous chitosan-alginate scaffolds and to assess the influence of the geometrical parameters of mold on scaffold pore structure. The model predicted the crystallization pattern and APS for scaffolds cast in different diameter molds and filled to different heights. The predictions demonstrated that the temperature gradient and solidification pattern affect ice crystal nucleation and growth, subsequently influencing APS homogeneity. The predicted APS compared favorably with APS measurements from a corresponding experimental dataset, validating the model. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the response of the APS to the three geometrical parameters of the mold: well radius; solution fill height; and spacing between wells. The pore size was most sensitive to the distance between the wells and least sensitive to solution height. This validated model demonstrates a method for optimizing the APS of freeze-cast biomaterial scaffolds that could be applied to other compositions or applications.
      PubDate: 2020-03-01
       
  • Encapsulation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in 3D Ovarian Cell Constructs
           Promotes Stable and Long-Term Hormone Secretion with Improved
           Physiological Outcomes in a Syngeneic Rat Model
    • Abstract: Abstract Loss of ovarian function (e.g., due to menopause) leads to profound physiological effects in women including changes in sexual function and osteoporosis. Hormone therapies are a known solution, but their use has significantly decreased due to concerns over cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. We recently reported a tissue-engineering strategy for cell hormone therapy (cHT) in which granulosa cells and theca cells are encapsulated to mimic native ovarian follicles. cHT improved physiological outcomes and safety compared to pharmacological hormone therapies in a rat ovariectomy model. However, cHT did not achieve estrogen levels as high as ovary-intact animals. In this report, we examined if hormone secretion from cHT constructs is impacted by incorporation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) since these cells contain regulatory factors such as aromatase necessary for estrogen production. Incorporation of BMSCs led to enhanced estrogen secretion in vitro. Moreover, cHT constructs with BMSCs achieved estrogen secretion levels significantly greater than constructs without BMSCs in ovariectomized rats from 70 to 90 days after implantation, while also regulating pituitary hormones. cHT constructs with BMSC ameliorated estrogen deficiency-induced uterine atrophy without hyperplasia. The results indicate that inclusion of BMSC in cHT strategies can improve performance.
      PubDate: 2020-03-01
       
  • Vitamin D 3 Release from Traditionally and Additively Manufactured
           Tricalcium Phosphate Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffolds
    • Abstract: Abstract Bone is a randomized, complex porous network which researchers have tried to mimic within bone tissue engineering scaffolds. The objective of this study was to understand the effects of random and controlled scaffold porosity on the release kinetics of vitamin D3 to determine if a designed porous structure was comparable in effectiveness on osteoblast proliferation to the randomized essence of natural bone. In this study, porous tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds were prepared by fugitive material removal method using naphthalene and 3D printing to model random and controlled porosity, respectively. Scaffold comparison was made based on open pore volume percentage of which naphthalene scaffolds had 45.8 ± 1.5% and 3D printed scaffolds had 48.9 ± 2.5%, Comparative analysis of traditional bioceramic processing to additive manufacturing is limited especially regarding drug release kinetics. Results showed the naphthalene scaffold surface area was only 0.3% that of 3D printed scaffolds due to the lower open pore interconnectivity. This increase in surface area produced higher release of drug and osteoblast proliferation in 3D printed scaffolds comparatively. By 11 days, osteoblast proliferation was enhanced by 64% from scaffolds manufactured using 3D printing compared to traditional processing. Understanding the effects of processing methods of TCP scaffolds on the release kinetics of vitamin D3 and the system effects on cells can aid in low load bearing applications for bone tissue engineering.
      PubDate: 2020-03-01
       
  • Development of a Colorectal Cancer 3D Micro-tumor Construct Platform From
           Cell Lines and Patient Tumor Biospecimens for Standard-of-Care and
           Experimental Drug Screening
    • Abstract: Abstract Colorectal cancer is subject to a high rate of mutations, with late stage tumors often containing many mutations. These tumors are difficult to treat, and even with the recently implemented methods of personalized medicine at modern hospitals aiming to narrow treatments, a gap still exists. Proper modeling of these tumors may help to recommend optimal treatments for individual patients, preferably utilizing a model that maintains proper signaling in respect to the derived parent tissue. In this study, we utilized an extracellular matrix-derived hydrogel to create a 3D micro-tumor construct platform capable of both supporting cells for long time durations and for high throughput drug screening. Experiments with cell lines demonstrated long-term viability with maintenance of cell proliferation. Furthermore, studies with several chemotherapeutics utilizing different mechanisms of action displayed differences in efficacy in comparing 3D and 2D cultures. Finally, patient colorectal tumor tissue was acquired and employed to reconstruct micro-tumor constructs, providing a system for the testing of novel chemotherapeutics against tumors in a patient-specific manner. Collectively, the results describe a system capable of high throughput testing while maintaining important characteristics of the parent tissue.
      PubDate: 2020-03-01
       
  • 3D Culture Facilitates VEGF-Stimulated Endothelial Differentiation of
           Adipose-Derived Stem Cells
    • Abstract: Abstract De novo vascularization of implantable tissue and whole organ constructs has been a significant challenge in the field of tissue engineering; the use of endothelial cell populations for this task is constrained by the cell population’s limited regeneration capacity and potential for loss of function. Thus, there is a need for a stem-cell population that may be induced into an endothelial cell phenotype reliably. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) are multipotent cells that can be readily isolated from donor fat and may have the potential to be readily induced into endothelial cells. The ability to stimulate endothelial differentiation of these cells has been limited in standard 2D culture. We hypothesized that 3D culture would yield better differentiation. To study the influence of cell density and culture conditions on the potential of ADSCs to differentiate into an endothelial-like state, we seeded these cells types within a 3D cell-adhesive, proteolytically degradable, peptide-modified poly(ethylene-glycol) (PEG) hydrogel. ADSCs were either cultured in basal media or pro-angiogenic media supplemented with 20 ng/mL of VEGF in 2D and then encapsulated at low or high densities within the PEG-based hydrogel. These encapsulated cells were maintained in either basal media or pro-angiogenic media. Cells were then isolated from the hydrogels and cultured in Matrigel to assess the potential for tubule formation. Our work shows that maintenance of ADSCs in a pro-angiogenic medium in 2D monoculture alone does not result in any CD31 expression. Furthermore, the level of CD31 expression was affected by the density of the cells encapsulated within the PEG-based hydrogel. Upon isolation of these cells, we found that these induced ADSCs were able to form tubules within Matrigel, indicative of endothelial function, while ADSCs cultured in basal medium could not. This finding points to the potential for this stem-cell population to serve as a safe and reliable source of endothelial cells for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine purposes.
      PubDate: 2020-03-01
       
  • ECM in Differentiation: A Review of Matrix Structure, Composition and
           Mechanical Properties
    • Abstract: Abstract Stem cell regenerative potential owing to the capacity to self-renew as well as differentiate into other cell types is a promising avenue in regenerative medicine. Stem cell niche not only provides physical scaffolding but also possess instructional capacity as it provides a milieu of biophysical and biochemical cues. Extracellular matrix (ECM) has been identified as a major dictator of stem cell lineage, thus understanding the structure of in vivo ECM pertaining to specific tissue differentiation will aid in devising in vitro strategies to improve the differentiation efficiency. In this review, we summarize details about the native architecture, composition and mechanical properties of in vivo ECM of the early embryonic stages and the later adult stages. Native ECM from adult tissues categorized on their origin from respective germ layers are discussed while engineering techniques employed to facilitate differentiation of stem cells into particular lineages are noted. Overall, we emphasize that in vitro strategies need to integrate tissue specific ECM biophysical cues for developing accurate artificial environments for optimizing stem cell differentiation.
      PubDate: 2020-03-01
       
  • Independent, Controllable Stretch-Perfusion Bioreactor Chambers to
           Functionalize Cell-Seeded Decellularized Tendons
    • Abstract: Abstract Tissue-engineered decellularized matrices can progress clinical replacement of full-thickness ruptures or tendon defects. This study develops and validates a custom-made automated bioreactor, called oscillating stretch-perfusion bioreactor (OSPB), consisting of multiple, independent culture chambers able to combine a bidirectional perfusion with a programmable, uniaxial strain to functionalize cell-seeded decellularized tendons. Decellularized tendon matrices were seeded on their surfaces and within the tendon fibers with mesenchymal stem cells. Then, they were subjected to a bidirectional perfusion and programmed stretching cycles of 15–30–60 min on–off two times per day for 7 days of culture. In vitro analyses showed viable cells, homogenously distributed on the surface of the constructs. More importantly, cell-seeded decellularized tendon grafts undergoing cyclic load in our bioreactor had a superior production and organization of newly formed collagen matrix compared to static cultured constructs. The coherency and local alignment of the new collagen deposition within the inner injected channels quantitatively supported histological findings. The designed OSPB could be considered a unique, cost-effective system able to involve multiple independently controlled chambers in terms of biological and mechanical protocols. This system allows parallel processing of several customized tendon constructs to be used as grafts to enhance the surgical repair of large tendon defects.
      PubDate: 2020-03-01
       
  • Embryonic Mesenchymal Multipotent Cell Differentiation on Electrospun
           Biodegradable Poly(ester amide) Scaffolds for Model Vascular Tissue
           Fabrication
    • Abstract: Abstract Vascular differentiation of stem cells and matrix component production on electrospun tubular scaffolds is desirable to engineer blood vessels. The mouse embryonic multipotent mesenchymal progenitor cell line (10T1/2) provides an excellent tool for tissue engineering since it shares similar differentiation characteristics with mesenchymal stem cells. Although 10T1/2 cells have been widely studied in the context of skeletal tissue engineering, their differentiation to smooth muscle lineage is less known. In this study, we fabricated tubular electrospun poly(ester amide) (PEA) fibers from l-phenylalanine-derived biodegradable biomaterials and investigated cell-scaffold interactions as well as their differentiation into vascular smooth muscle cell and subsequent elastin expression. PEA scaffolds fabricated under different collector speeds did not have an impact on the fiber directionality/orientation. 10T1/2 cytocompatibility and proliferation studies showed that PEA fibres were not cytotoxic and were able to support proliferation for 14 days. Furthermore, cells were observed infiltrating the fibrous scaffolds despite the small pore sizes (~ 5 µm). Vascular differentiation studies of 10T1/2 cells using qPCR, Western blot, and immunostaining showed a TGFβ1-induced upregulation of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC)-specific markers smooth muscle alpha-actin (SM-α–actin) and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC). Differentiated 10T1/2 cells produced both elastin and fibrillin-1 suggesting the potential of fibrous PEA scaffolds to fabricate model vascular tissues.
      PubDate: 2020-03-01
       
  • Inhibition of the Prostaglandin EP-1 Receptor in Periosteum Progenitor
           Cells Enhances Osteoblast Differentiation and Fracture Repair
    • Abstract: Abstract Fracture healing is a complex and integrated process that involves mesenchymal progenitor cell (MPC) recruitment, proliferation and differentiation that eventually results in bone regeneration. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an important regulator of bone metabolism and has an anabolic effect on fracture healing. Prior work from our laboratory showed EP1−/− mice have enhanced fracture healing, stronger cortical bones, higher trabecular bone volume and increased in vivo bone formation. We also showed that bone marrow MSCs from EP1−/− mice exhibit increased osteoblastic differentiation in vitro. In this study we investigate the changes in the periosteal derived MPCs (PDMPCs), which are crucial for fracture repair, upon EP1 deletion. EP1−/− PDMPCs exhibit increased numbers of total (CFU-F) and osteoblastic colonies (CFU-O) as well as enhanced osteoblastic and chondrogenic differentiation. Moreover, we tested the possible therapeutic application of a specific EP1 receptor antagonist to accelerate fracture repair. Our findings showed that EP1 antagonist administration to wild type mice in the early stages of repair similarly resulted in enhanced CFU-F, CFU-O, and osteoblast differentiation in PDMPCs and resulted in enhanced fracture callus formation at 10 days post fracture and increased bone volume and improved biomechanical healing of femur fractures at 21 days post fracture.
      PubDate: 2020-03-01
       
  • In Vivo Characterization of Poly(ethylene glycol) Hydrogels with
           Thio-β Esters
    • Abstract: Abstract Resorbable hydrogels have numerous potential applications in tissue engineering and drug delivery due to their highly tunable properties and soft tissue-like mechanical properties. The incorporation of esters into the backbone of poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels has been used to develop libraries of hydrogels with tunable degradation rates. However, these synthetic strategies used to increase degradation rate often result in undesired changes in the hydrogel physical properties such as matrix modulus or swelling. In an effort to decouple degradation rate from other hydrogel properties, we inserted thio-β esters into the poly(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate backbone to introduce labile bonds without changing macromer molecular weight. This allowed the number of hydrolytically labile thio-β esters to be controlled through changing the ratios of this modified macromer to the original macromer without affecting network properties. The retention of hydrogel properties at different macromer ratios was confirmed by measuring gel fraction, swelling ratio, and compressive modulus. The tunable degradation profiles were characterized both in vitro and in vivo. Following confirmation of cytocompatibility after exposure to the hydrogel degradation products, the in vivo host response was evaluated in comparison to medical grade silicone. Collectively, this work demonstrates the utility and tunability of these hydrolytically degradable hydrogels for a wide variety of tissue engineering applications.
      PubDate: 2020-03-01
       
  • Evaluation of an Engineered Hybrid Matrix for Bone Regeneration via
           Endochondral Ossification
    • Abstract: Abstract Despite its regenerative ability, long and segmental bone defect repair remains a significant orthopedic challenge. Conventional tissue engineering efforts induce bone formation through intramembranous ossification (IO) which limits vascular formation and leads to poor bone regeneration. To overcome this challenge, a novel hybrid matrix comprised of a load-bearing polymer template and a gel phase is designed and assessed for bone regeneration. Our previous studies developed a synthetic ECM, hyaluronan (HA)–fibrin (FB), that is able to mimic cartilage-mediated bone formation in vitro. In this study, the well-characterized HA–FB hydrogel is combined with a biodegradable polymer template to form a hybrid matrix. In vitro evaluation of the matrix showed cartilage template formation, cell recruitment and recruited cell osteogenesis, essential stages in endochondral ossification. A transgenic reporter-mouse critical-defect model was used to evaluate the bone healing potential of the hybrid matrix in vivo. The results demonstrated host cell recruitment into the hybrid matrix that led to new bone formation and subsequent remodeling of the mineralization. Overall, the study developed and evaluated a novel load-bearing graft system for bone regeneration via endochondral ossification.
      PubDate: 2020-03-01
       
  • Improving the Osteogenicity of PCL Fiber Substrates by
           Surface-Immobilization of Bone Morphogenic Protein-2
    • Abstract: Abstract Polycaprolactone (PCL) fiber scaffolds are attractive, albeit inert, substrates for ligament regeneration, that may be improved by incorporating trophic factors to guide tissue remodeling in vivo. In particular, immobilization of bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) to the scaffold surface may facilitate rapid and robust integration of the scaffold with adjacent bone tissues. As a first step toward testing this, model PCL surfaces were modified by the addition of heparin (Hep) and BMP-2 to facilitate osteoblastic differentiation. Specifically, Hep was combined with PCL at 0, 0.5, and 1 wt% (denoted as PCL, PCL–0.5Hep, and PCL–1Hep), cast into films, and then BMP-2 was immobilized to surfaces by either adsorption and covalent conjugation. Here, BMP-2 concentration increased systematically with incorporation of Hep, and higher concentrations were achieved by covalent conjugation. Next, blends were electrospun to form thin meshes with fiber diameters of 0.92, 0.62, and 0.54 μm for PCL, PCL–0.5Hep, and PCL–1Hep, respectively. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) had no difficulty attaching to and proliferating on all meshes. Lastly, PCL–1Hep meshes were prepared with adsorbed or covalently conjugated BMP-2 and cultured with MSCs in the absence of osteogenic factors. Under these conditions, alkaline phosphatase activity and deposition of bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, and calcium minerals—markers of osteoblastic differentiation—were significantly higher on surfaces with immobilized BMP-2. Together, these data indicate that covalent immobilization of trophic factors confers bioactivity to scaffolds, which may be applied in a spatially controlled manner for ligament regeneration and bone integration.
      PubDate: 2020-03-01
       
  • Design of an Adhesive Film-Based Microfluidic Device for Alginate
           Hydrogel-Based Cell Encapsulation
    • Abstract: Abstract To support the increasing translational use of transplanted cells, there is a need for high-throughput cell encapsulation technologies. Microfluidics is a particularly promising candidate technology to address this need, but conventional polydimethylsiloxane devices have encountered challenges that have limited their utility, including clogging, leaking, material swelling, high cost, and limited scalability. Here, we use a rapid prototyping approach incorporating patterned adhesive thin films to develop a reusable microfluidic device that can produce alginate hydrogel microbeads with high-throughput potential for microencapsulation applications. We show that beads formed in our device have high sphericity and monodispersity. We use the system to demonstrate effective cell encapsulation of mesenchymal stem cells and show that they can be maintained in culture for at least 28 days with no measurable reduction in viability. Our approach is highly scalable and will support diverse translational applications of microencapsulated cells.
      PubDate: 2020-03-01
       
  • Complete Myogenic Differentiation of Adipogenic Stem Cells Requires Both
           Biochemical and Mechanical Stimulation
    • Abstract: Abstract Vascular tissue engineering of the middle layer of natural arteries requires contractile smooth muscle cells (SMC) which can be differentiated from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) by treatment with transforming growth factor-β, sphingosylphosphorylcholine and bone morphogenetic protein-4 (TSB). Since mechanical stimulation may support or replace TSB-driven differentiation, we investigated its effect plus TSB-treatment on SMC orientation and contractile protein expression. Tubular fibrin scaffolds with incorporated ASC or pre-differentiated SMC were exposed to pulsatile perfusion for 10 days with or without TSB. Statically incubated scaffolds served as controls. Pulsatile incubation resulted in collagen-I expression and orientation of either cell type circumferentially around the lumen as shown by alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA), calponin and smoothelin staining as early, intermediate and late marker proteins. Semi-quantitative Westernblot analyses revealed strongly increased αSMA and calponin expression by either pulsatile (12.48-fold; p < 0.01 and 38.15-fold; p = 0.07) or static incubation plus TSB pre-treatment (8.91-fold; p < 0.05 and 37.69-fold; p < 0.05). In contrast, contractility and smoothelin expression required both mechanical and TSB stimulation since it was 2.57-fold increased (p < 0.05) only by combining pulsatile perfusion and TSB. Moreover, pre-differentiation of ASC prior to pulsatile perfusion was not necessary since it could not further increase the expression level of any marker.
      PubDate: 2020-03-01
       
  • Re-Differentiation of Human Meniscus Fibrochondrocytes Differs in
           Three-Dimensional Cell Aggregates and Decellularized Human Meniscus Matrix
           Scaffolds
    • Abstract: Abstract Decellularized matrix (DCM) derived from native tissues may be a promising supporting material to induce cellular differentiation by sequestered bioactive factors. However, no previous study has investigated the use of human meniscus-derived DCM to re-differentiate human meniscus fibrochondrocytes (MFCs) to form meniscus-like extracellular matrix (ECM). We expanded human MFCs and seeded them upon a cadaveric meniscus-derived DCM prepared by physical homogenization under hypoxia. To assess the bioactivity of the DCM, we used conditions with and without chondrogenic factor TGF-β3 and set up a cell pellet culture model as a biomaterial-free control. We found that the DCM supported chondrogenic re-differentiation and ECM formation of MFCs only in the presence of exogenous TGF-β3. Chondrogenic re-differentiation was more robust at the protein level in the pellet model as MFCs on the DCM appeared to favour a more proliferative phenotype. Interestingly, without growth factors, the DCM tended to promote expression of hypertrophic differentiation markers relative to the pellet model. Therefore, the human meniscus-derived DCM prepared by physical homogenization contained insufficient bioactive factors to induce appreciable ECM formation by human MFCs.
      PubDate: 2020-03-01
       
  • X-ray CT in Phase Contrast Enhancement Geometry of Alginate Microbeads in
           a Whole-Animal Model
    • Abstract: Abstract Imaging soft biomaterials in vivo is a significant challenge, as most conventional techniques are limited by biomaterial contrast, penetration depth, or spatial resolution. Exogeneous contrast agents used to increase contrast may also alter material properties or exhibit local toxicity. The capability to observe biomaterial constructs in vivo without introducing exogenous contrast would improve preclinical testing and evaluation. Conventional X-ray Computed Tomography allows fast, high-resolution imaging at high penetration depth, but biomaterial contrast is low. Previous studies employing X-ray phase contrast (XPC) and utilizing a synchrotron source provided support for the significant potential of XPC in imaging biomaterials without contrast agents. In this study, XPC tomography was used to image alginate hydrogel microspheres within a small animal omental pouch model using a commercially available X-ray source. Multilayer microbeads could be identified in the XPC images with volumetric and structural information not possible in histological analysis. The number of microbeads present and microbead volume and diameter could be quantified from the images. The results of this study show that XPC tomography can be a useful tool for monitoring of implanted soft biomaterials in small animal models.
      PubDate: 2020-03-01
       
  • Targeted Intravenous Nanoparticle Delivery: Role of Flow and Endothelial
           Glycocalyx Integrity
    • Abstract: Abstract Therapies for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease should target early disease stages and specific vascular sites where disease occurs. Endothelial glycocalyx (GCX) degradation compromises endothelial barrier function and increases vascular permeability. This initiates pro-atherosclerotic lipids and inflammatory cells to penetrate vessel walls, and at the same time this can be leveraged for targeted drug delivery. In prior cell culture studies, GCX degradation significantly increased endothelial cell uptake of nanoparticle vehicles that are designed for drug delivery, compared to the effects of intact GCX. The present study assessed if the cell culture findings translate to selective nanoparticle uptake in animal vessels. In mice, the left carotid artery (LCA) was partially ligated to disturb blood flow, which induces GCX degradation, endothelial dysfunction, and atherosclerosis. After ligation, the LCA vessel wall exhibited a loss of continuity of the GCX layer on the intima. 10-nm gold nanospheres (GNS) coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) were delivered intravenously. GCX degradation in the ligated LCA correlated to increased GNS infiltration of the ligated LCA wall. This suggests that GCX dysfunction, which coincides with atherosclerosis, can indeed be targeted for enhanced drug delivery, offering a new approach in cardiovascular disease therapy.
      PubDate: 2020-02-18
       
  • Dual Carbon Dioxide Capture to Achieve Highly Efficient Ultra-Low Blood
           Flow Extracorporeal Carbon Dioxide Removal
    • Abstract: Abstract Extracorporeal CO2 removal is a highly promising support therapy for patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure but whose clinical implementation and patient benefit is hampered by high cost and highly specialized expertise required for safe use. Current approaches target removal of the gaseous CO2 dissolved in blood which limits their ease of clinical use as high blood flow rates are required to achieve physiologically significant CO2 clearance. Here, a novel hybrid approach in which a zero-bicarbonate dialysis is used to target removal of bicarbonate ion coupled to a gas exchange device to clear dissolved CO2, achieves highly efficiently total CO2 capture while maintaining systemic acid–base balance. In a porcine model of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure, a CO2-reduction of 61.4 ± 14.4 mL/min was achieved at a blood flow rate of 248 mL/min using pediatric-scale priming volumes. The dialyzer accounted for 81% of total CO2 capture with an efficiency of 33% with a minimal pH change across the entire circuit. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a novel hybrid CO2 capture approach capable of achieving physiologically significant CO2 removal at ultralow blood flow rates with low priming volumes while leveraging widely available dialysis platforms to enable clinical adoption.
      PubDate: 2020-02-18
       
  • Core Competencies for Undergraduates in Bioengineering and Biomedical
           Engineering: Findings, Consequences, and Recommendations
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper provides a synopsis of discussions related to biomedical engineering core curricula that occurred at the Fourth BME Education Summit held at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio in May 2019. This summit was organized by the Council of Chairs of Bioengineering and Biomedical Engineering, and participants included over 300 faculty members from 100+ accredited undergraduate programs. This discussion focused on six key questions: QI: Is there a core curriculum, and if so, what are its components' QII: How does our purported core curriculum prepare students for careers, particularly in industry' QIII: How does design distinguish BME/BIOE graduates from other engineers' QIV: What is the state of engineering analysis and systems-level modeling in BME/BIOE curricula' QV: What is the role of data science in BME/BIOE undergraduate education' QVI: What core experimental skills are required for BME/BIOE undergrads' s. Indeed, BME/BIOI core curricula exists and has matured to emphasize interdisciplinary topics such as physiology, instrumentation, mechanics, computer programming, and mathematical modeling. Departments demonstrate their own identities by highlighting discipline-specific sub-specialties. In addition to technical competence, Industry partners most highly value our students’ capacity for problem solving and communication. As such, BME/BIOE curricula includes open-ended projects that address unmet patient and clinician needs as primary methods to prepare graduates for careers in industry. Culminating senior design experiences distinguish BME/BIOE graduates through their development of client-centered engineering solutions to healthcare problems. Finally, the overall BME/BIOE curriculum is not stagnant—it is clear that data science will become an ever-important element of our students’ training and that new methods to enhance student engagement will be of pedagogical importance as we embark on the next decade.
      PubDate: 2020-02-05
       
 
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