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Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access  
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access  
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access  
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access  
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Fundeni Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access  
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Journal Khulna     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Research Council Bulletin     Open Access  
Basal Ganglia     Hybrid Journal  
Basic Sciences of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BC Medical Journal     Free  
Benha Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bijblijven     Hybrid Journal  
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biologics in Therapy     Open Access  
Biology of Sex Differences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Annals of Biomedical Engineering
  [SJR: 1.182]   [H-I: 94]   [18 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-9686 - ISSN (Online) 0090-6964
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2354 journals]
  • Implantable Systems for Stress Urinary Incontinence
    • Authors: Kenana M. Al Adem; Sarah S. Bawazir; Waleed A. Hassen; Ahsan H. Khandoker; Kinda Khalaf; Tim McGloughlin; Cesare Stefanini
      Pages: 2717 - 2732
      Abstract: Abstract Stress urinary incontinence (SUI), the involuntary urine leakage due to failure of the urethral closure mechanism, is a global health challenge with substantial human suffering and socioeconomic costs. Approximately 167 million male and female patients are predicted to suffer from SUI in 2018, worldwide. A wide range of surgical interventions are available for the treatment of SUI. Severe cases, however, usually require the implantation of artificial urinary sphincter devices. This review comparatively presents and analyzes the working principles, as well as the challenges, associated with the current implantable SUI systems in clinical use. These include slings, urethral bulking agents, artificial urinary sphincters, and adjustable continence devices. It further reports on recent research progress and state-of-the-art in the field of SUI implants, including an original approach proposed by the authors with a pressure feedback sensory mechanism. The new emerging field of artificial muscle devices, including electroactive polymers, provides a promising innovative solution for replacing the weakened urethral sphincter in SUI patients.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1939-9
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 12 (2017)
  • Ranges of Injury Risk Associated with Impact from Unmanned Aircraft
    • Authors: Eamon T. Campolettano; Megan L. Bland; Ryan A. Gellner; David W. Sproule; Bethany Rowson; Abigail M. Tyson; Stefan M. Duma; Steven Rowson
      Pages: 2733 - 2741
      Abstract: Abstract Regulations have allowed for increased unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) operations over the last decade, yet operations over people are still not permitted. The objective of this study was to estimate the range of injury risks to humans due to UAS impact. Three commercially-available UAS models that varied in mass (1.2–11 kg) were evaluated to estimate the range of risk associated with UAS-human interaction. Live flight and falling impact tests were conducted using an instrumented Hybrid III test dummy. On average, live flight tests were observed to be less severe than falling impact tests. The maximum risk of AIS 3+ injury associated with live flight tests was 11.6%, while several falling impact tests estimated risks exceeding 50%. Risk of injury was observed to increase with increasing UAS mass, and the larger models tested are not safe for operations over people in their current form. However, there is likely a subset of smaller UAS models that are safe to operate over people. Further, designs which redirect the UAS away from the head or deform upon impact transfer less energy and generate lower risk. These data represent a necessary impact testing foundation for future UAS regulations on operations over people.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1921-6
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 12 (2017)
  • Nano-Composite Foam Sensor System in Football Helmets
    • Authors: A. Jake Merrell; William F. Christensen; Matthew K. Seeley; Anton E. Bowden; David T. Fullwood
      Pages: 2742 - 2749
      Abstract: Abstract American football has both the highest rate of concussion incidences as well as the highest number of concussions of all contact sports due to both the number of athletes and nature of the sport. Recent research has linked concussions with long term health complications such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy and early onset Alzheimer’s. Understanding the mechanical characteristics of concussive impacts is critical to help protect athletes from these debilitating diseases and is now possible using helmet-based sensor systems. To date, real time on-field measurement of head impacts has been almost exclusively measured by devices that rely on accelerometers or gyroscopes attached to the player’s helmet, or embedded in a mouth guard. These systems monitor motion of the head or helmet, but do not directly measure impact energy. This paper evaluates the accuracy of a novel, multifunctional foam-based sensor that replaces a portion of the helmet foam to measure impact. All modified helmets were tested using a National Operating Committee Standards for Athletic Equipment-style drop tower with a total of 24 drop tests (4 locations with 6 impact energies). The impacts were evaluated using a headform, instrumented with a tri-axial accelerometer, mounted to a Hybrid III neck assembly. The resultant accelerations were evaluated for both the peak acceleration and the severity indices. These data were then compared to the voltage response from multiple Nano Composite Foam sensors located throughout the helmet. The foam sensor system proved to be accurate in measuring both the HIC and Gadd severity index, as well as peak acceleration while also providing additional details that were previously difficult to obtain, such as impact energy.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1910-9
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 12 (2017)
  • A Simulation of the Viscoelastic Behaviour of Heel Pad During
           Weight-Bearing Activities of Daily Living
    • Authors: Sara Behforootan; Panagiotis E. Chatzistergos; Nachiappan Chockalingam; Roozbeh Naemi
      Pages: 2750 - 2761
      Abstract: Abstract Internal strain is known to be one of the contributors to plantar soft tissue damage. However, due to challenges related to measurement techniques, there is a paucity of research investigating the strain within the plantar soft tissue during daily weight-bearing activities. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to develop a non-invasive method for predicting heel pad strain during loading. An ultrasound indentation technique along with a mathematical model was employed to calculate visco-hyperelastic structural coefficients from the results of cyclic-dynamic indentation and stress-relaxation tests. Subject-specific structural coefficients of heel pads were calculated from twenty participants along with the assessment of plantar pressure. The average difference between the predicted and the measured force during the cyclic-dynamic indentation test was only 5.8%. Moreover, the average difference between the predicted and the in vivo strain during walking was 14%. No statistically significant correlation was observed between maximum strain and peak plantar pressure during walking; indicating that the measurement of strain along with plantar pressure can improve our understanding of the mechanical behaviour of the plantar soft tissue.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1918-1
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 12 (2017)
  • Why are Antagonist Muscles Co-activated in My Simulation' A
           Musculoskeletal Model for Analysing Human Locomotor Tasks
    • Authors: Adrian K. M. Lai; Allison S. Arnold; James M. Wakeling
      Pages: 2762 - 2774
      Abstract: Abstract Existing “off-the-shelf” musculoskeletal models are problematic when simulating movements that involve substantial hip and knee flexion, such as the upstroke of pedalling, because they tend to generate excessive passive fibre force. The goal of this study was to develop a refined musculoskeletal model capable of simulating pedalling and fast running, in addition to walking, which predicts the activation patterns of muscles better than existing models. Specifically, we tested whether the anomalous co-activation of antagonist muscles, commonly observed in simulations, could be resolved if the passive forces generated by the underlying model were diminished. We refined the OpenSim™ model published by Rajagopal et al. (IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 63:1–1, 2016) by increasing the model’s range of knee flexion, updating the paths of the knee muscles, and modifying the force-generating properties of eleven muscles. Simulations of pedalling, running and walking based on this model reproduced measured EMG activity better than simulations based on the existing model—even when both models tracked the same subject-specific kinematics. Improvements in the predicted activations were associated with decreases in the net passive moments; for example, the net passive knee moment during the upstroke of pedalling decreased from 36.9 N m (existing model) to 6.3 N m (refined model), resulting in a dramatic decrease in the co-activation of knee flexors. The refined model is available from and is suitable for analysing movements with up to 120° of hip flexion and 140° of knee flexion.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1920-7
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 12 (2017)
  • The Influence of Body Mass Index, Sex, & Muscle Activation on Pressure
           Distribution During Lateral Falls on the Hip
    • Authors: Steven P. Pretty; Daniel R. Martel; Andrew C. Laing
      Pages: 2775 - 2783
      Abstract: Abstract Hip fracture incidence rates are influenced by body mass index (BMI) and sex, likely through mechanistic pathways that influence dynamics of the pelvis-femur system during fall-related impacts. The goal of this study was to extend our understanding of these impact dynamics by investigating the effects of BMI, sex, and local muscle activation on pressure distribution over the hip region during lateral impacts. Twenty participants underwent “pelvis-release experiments” (which simulate a lateral fall onto the hip), including muscle-‘relaxed’ and ‘contracted’ trials. Males and low-BMI individuals exhibited 44 and 55% greater peak pressure, as well as 66 and 56% lower peripheral hip force, compared to females and high-BMI individuals, respectively. Local muscle activation increased peak force by 10%, contact area by 17%, and peripheral hip force by 11% compared to relaxed trials. In summary, males and low-BMI individuals exhibited more concentrated loading over the greater trochanter. Muscle activation increased peak force, but this force was distributed over a larger area, preventing increased localized loading over the greater trochanter. These findings suggest potential value in incorporating sex, gender, and muscle activation-specific force distributions as inputs into computational tissue-level models, and have implications for the design of personalized protective devices including wearable hip protectors.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1928-z
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 12 (2017)
  • The Automated Assessment of Postural Stability: Balance Detection
    • Authors: Alessandro Napoli; Stephen M. Glass; Carole Tucker; Iyad Obeid
      Pages: 2784 - 2793
      Abstract: Abstract Impaired balance is a common indicator of mild traumatic brain injury, concussion and musculoskeletal injury. Given the clinical relevance of such injuries, especially in military settings, it is paramount to develop more accurate and reliable on-field evaluation tools. This work presents the design and implementation of the automated assessment of postural stability (AAPS) system, for on-field evaluations following concussion. The AAPS is a computer system, based on inexpensive off-the-shelf components and custom software, that aims to automatically and reliably evaluate balance deficits, by replicating a known on-field clinical test, namely, the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). The AAPS main innovation is its balance error detection algorithm that has been designed to acquire data from a Microsoft Kinect® sensor and convert them into clinically-relevant BESS scores, using the same detection criteria defined by the original BESS test. In order to assess the AAPS balance evaluation capability, a total of 15 healthy subjects (7 male, 8 female) were required to perform the BESS test, while simultaneously being tracked by a Kinect 2.0 sensor and a professional-grade motion capture system (Qualisys AB, Gothenburg, Sweden). High definition videos with BESS trials were scored off-line by three experienced observers for reference scores. AAPS performance was assessed by comparing the AAPS automated scores to those derived by three experienced observers. Our results show that the AAPS error detection algorithm presented here can accurately and precisely detect balance deficits with performance levels that are comparable to those of experienced medical personnel. Specifically, agreement levels between the AAPS algorithm and the human average BESS scores ranging between 87.9% (single-leg on foam) and 99.8% (double-leg on firm ground) were detected. Moreover, statistically significant differences in balance scores were not detected by an ANOVA test with alpha equal to 0.05. Despite some level of disagreement between human and AAPS-generated scores, the use of an automated system yields important advantages over currently available human-based alternatives. These results underscore the value of using the AAPS, that can be quickly deployed in the field and/or in outdoor settings with minimal set-up time. Finally, the AAPS can record multiple error types and their time course with extremely high temporal resolution. These features are not achievable by humans, who cannot keep track of multiple balance errors with such a high resolution. Together, these results suggest that computerized BESS calculation may provide more accurate and consistent measures of balance than those derived from human experts.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1911-8
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 12 (2017)
  • Kinematic Outcome Measures using Target-Reaching Arm Movement in Stroke
    • Authors: Qianqian Yang; Yuan Yang; Jie Luo; Le Li; Tiebin Yan; Rong Song
      Pages: 2794 - 2803
      Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to quantitatively investigate upper extremity motor performance and disclose the abnormality of motor control induced by stroke. Ten patients and ten healthy subjects were instructed to perform target-reaching tasks at nine difficulty levels, and coordinates of the shoulder, elbow and tip of the index finger were recorded. Age-matched control performed significantly better than patients, as indicated by lower movement time (MT) and normalized jerk score (NJS) and higher peak velocity (V peak), percentage time to peak velocity (PTPV), fuzzy approximate entropy (fApEn) and relative joint angles correlation (RJAC); also, significant effects of difficulty on all parameters except RJAC and fApEn, were observed in two groups. There were significant correlations between PTPV and Fugl-Meyer assessment for upper extremity (FMA-UE) and between RJAC and FMA-UE at certain difficulty levels. The stroke-related differences could be explained by the increase in intrinsic neuromotor noise, and the difficulty-related differences may be related to extrinsic neuromotor noise. The increase in either noises could result in a degradation in motor control. The significant linear relationships between some kinematic parameters and the clinical score suggested that the kinematic parameters could be applied as quantitative outcome measures in the clinic in the future.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1912-7
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 12 (2017)
  • Spine Posture Influences Tactile Perceptual Sensitivity of the Trunk
    • Authors: Shawn M. Beaudette; Simone G. V. S. Smith; Leah R. Bent; Stephen H. M. Brown
      Pages: 2804 - 2812
      Abstract: Abstract The purpose of the current work was to quantify the influence of posture-mediated skin deformation on trunk dorsum tactile perceptual sensitivity. Twelve young and healthy individuals were assessed while adopting three different spine postures (extension, neutral and flexion). Tactile sensitivity threshold tests (T10 and L4 vertebral levels) included measures of touch sensitivity, spatial acuity and stretch sensitivity. The results demonstrate that tactile sensitivity can differ due to changes in body posture. The skin of the trunk dorsum had increased thresholds for touch sensitivity, longitudinal spatial acuity and transverse stretch sensitivity in spine flexion. Furthermore, spine flexion also resulted in a reduced sensory threshold to stretching stimuli in the longitudinal direction. The opposite trends occurred when participants adopted spine extension. It is suggested that posture-mediated skin deformation generates changes in the amount of strain experienced by individual skin mechanoreceptors, and the relative spacing between mechanoreceptors. Furthermore, it is suggested that “pre-stretch” of the skin brings mechanoreceptors closer to their stretch activation thresholds, thereby increasing an individual’s sensitivity to skin stretch when in spine flexion.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1924-3
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 12 (2017)
  • A Nociceptive Role for Integrin Signaling in Pain After Mechanical Injury
           to the Spinal Facet Capsular Ligament
    • Authors: Sijia Zhang; Ethan Zhao; Beth A. Winkelstein
      Pages: 2813 - 2825
      Abstract: Abstract Integrins modulate chemically-induced nociception in a variety of inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. Yet, the role of integrins in mechanically-induced pain remains undefined, despite its well-known involvement in cell adhesion and mechanotransduction. Excessive spinal facet capsular ligament stretch is a common injury that induces morphological and functional changes in its innervating afferent neurons and can lead to pain. However, the local mechanisms underlying the translation from tissue deformation to pain signaling are unclear, impeding effective treatment. Therefore, the involvement of the integrin subunit β1 in pain signaling from facet injury was investigated in complementary in vivo and in vitro studies. An anatomical study in the rat identified expression of the integrin subunit β1 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons innervating the facet, with greater expression in peptidergic than non-peptidergic DRG neurons. Painful facet capsule stretch in the rat upregulated the integrin subunit β1 in small- and medium-diameter DRG neurons at day 7. Inhibiting the α2β1 integrin in a DRG-collagen culture prior to its stretch injury prevented strain-induced increases in axonal substance P (SP) in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these findings suggest that integrin subunit β1-dependent pathways may contribute to SP-mediated pain from mechanical injury of the facet capsular ligament.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1917-2
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 12 (2017)
  • Poly- N -Acetyl Glucosamine (sNAG) Enhances Early Rotator Cuff Tendon
           Healing in a Rat Model
    • Authors: C. A. Nuss; J. Huegel; J. F. Boorman-Padgett; D. S. Choi; S. N. Weiss; J. Vournakis; L. J. Soslowsky
      Pages: 2826 - 2836
      Abstract: Abstract Rotator cuff injuries frequently require surgical repairs which have a high failure rate. Biological augmentation has been utilized in an attempt to improve tendon repair. Poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (sNAG) polymer containing nanofibers has been shown to increase the rate for healing of venous leg ulcers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the healing and analgesic properties of sNAG in a rat rotator cuff injury and repair model. 144 adult male Sprague–Dawley rats underwent a transection and repair of their left supraspinatus tendons. Half of the animals received a sNAG membrane on the tendon-to-bone insertion site. Animals were further subdivided, receiving 1 or 3 days of analgesics. Animals were sacrificed 2, 4, or 8 weeks post-injury. Animals sacrificed at 4 and 8 weeks underwent longitudinal in vivo ambulatory assessment. Histological properties were assessed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks, and mechanical properties at 4 and 8 weeks. In the presence of analgesics, tendons receiving the sNAG polymer had significantly increased max load and max stress at 4 weeks, but not at 8 weeks. Ambulatory improvements were observed at 14 days in stride length and speed. Therefore, sNAG improves tendon-to-bone healing in a rat rotator cuff detachment and repair model.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1923-4
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 12 (2017)
  • Random Electromyostimulation Promotes Osteogenesis and the Mechanical
           Properties of Rat Bones
    • Authors: Shigeo M. Tanaka; Yuma Yorozuya; Daisuke Takatsu
      Pages: 2837 - 2846
      Abstract: Abstract Exercise is often recommended as a promising non-pharmacologic countermeasure to prevent osteoporosis. However, elderly osteoporotic patients generally have physical fitness difficulties preventing them from performing effective and sustainable exercise. Electromyostimulation should be one effective modality for non-pharmacological prevention of osteoporosis without any voluntary physical movements. However, successful stimulation patterns remain controversial. As suggested by our previous in vitro studies, randomized timing of stimulation could be a candidate to maximize the osteogenic effect of electromyostimulation. In this study, the effects of random stimulation to the quadriceps on osteogenesis in the femurs were investigated using rats, in comparison with a periodic stimulation pattern. In histomorphometric assessments, both stimulation patterns demonstrated increases in bone formation rate either in cortical bone at the midshaft or in trabecular bone at the femoral neck on the stimulated side. However, maximum load and strain energy to failure were enhanced only by the random stimulation, on either the stimulated or non-stimulated side. It is concluded that randomized muscle stimulation has effective osteogenic capability at the stimulation site, similar to periodic stimulation; however, its effectiveness on mechanical properties is expandable to other non-stimulated sites.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1927-0
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 12 (2017)
  • Are DXA/aBMD and QCT/FEA Stiffness and Strength Estimates Sensitive to Sex
           and Age'
    • Authors: Asghar Rezaei; Hugo Giambini; Timothy Rossman; Kent D. Carlson; Michael J. Yaszemski; Lichun Lu; Dan Dragomir-Daescu
      Pages: 2847 - 2856
      Abstract: Abstract Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by simplifying a complex 3D bone structure to a 2D projection and is not equally effective for explaining fracture strength in women and men. Unlike DXA, subject-specific quantitative computed tomography-based finite element analysis (QCT/FEA) estimates fracture strength using 3D bone mineral distribution and geometry. By using experimentally-measured femoral stiffness and strength from a one hundred sample cadaveric cohort that included variations in sex and age, we wanted to determine if QCT/FEA estimates were able to better predict the experimental variations than DXA/aBMD. For each femur, DXA/aBMD was assessed and a QCT/FEA model was developed to estimate femoral stiffness and strength. Then, the femur was mechanically tested to fracture in a sideways fall on the hip position to measure stiffness and strength. DXA/aBMD and QCT/FEA estimates were compared for their sensitivity to sex and age with multivariate statistical analyses. When comparing the measured data with DXA/aBMD predictions, both age and sex were significant (p ≤ 0.0398) for both femoral stiffness and strength. However, QCT/FEA predictions of stiffness and strength showed sex was insignificant (p ≥ 0.23). Age was still significant (p ≤ 0.0072). These results indicate that QCT/FEA, unlike DXA/aBMD, accounted for bone differences due to sex.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1914-5
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 12 (2017)
  • Dual Contrast CT Method Enables Diagnostics of Cartilage Injuries and
           Degeneration Using a Single CT Image
    • Authors: Annina E. A. Saukko; Juuso T. J. Honkanen; Wujun Xu; Sami P. Väänänen; Jukka S. Jurvelin; Vesa-Pekka Lehto; Juha Töyräs
      Pages: 2857 - 2866
      Abstract: Abstract Cartilage injuries may be detected using contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) by observing variations in distribution of anionic contrast agent within cartilage. Currently, clinical CECT enables detection of injuries and related post-traumatic degeneration based on two subsequent CT scans. The first scan allows segmentation of articular surfaces and lesions while the latter scan allows evaluation of tissue properties. Segmentation of articular surfaces from the latter scan is difficult since the contrast agent diffusion diminishes the image contrast at surfaces. We hypothesize that this can be overcome by mixing anionic contrast agent (ioxaglate) with bismuth oxide nanoparticles (BINPs) too large to diffuse into cartilage, inducing a high contrast at the surfaces. Here, a dual contrast method employing this mixture is evaluated by determining the depth-wise X-ray attenuation profiles in intact, enzymatically degraded, and mechanically injured osteochondral samples (n = 3 × 10) using a microCT immediately and at 45 min after immersion in contrast agent. BiNPs were unable to diffuse into cartilage, producing high contrast at articular surfaces. Ioxaglate enabled the detection of enzymatic and mechanical degeneration. In conclusion, the dual contrast method allowed detection of injuries and degeneration simultaneously with accurate cartilage segmentation using a single scan conducted at 45 min after contrast agent administration.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1916-3
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 12 (2017)
  • Intestinal Mechanomorphological Remodeling Induced by Long-Term Low-Fiber
           Diet in Rabbits
    • Authors: Yue Liu; Jingbo Zhao; Donghua Liao; Guixue Wang; Hans Gregersen
      Pages: 2867 - 2878
      Abstract: Abstract Short-term feeding with low-fiber diet remodels the mechanomorphological properties in the rabbit small intestine. The aims were to study the effect of feeding low-fiber diet for 5 months on mechanomorphological properties including the collagen fraction in the rabbit intestines. Fifteen rabbits were divided into an Intervention group (IG, n = 10) fed a low-fiber diet and a Control group (CG, n = 5) fed a normal diet for 5 months. Five months later, four 10-cm-long segments obtained from the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and large intestine were used for histological and mechanical analysis, respectively. The wall thickness, wall area, mucosa and muscle layer thickness decreased whereas the submucosa layer thickness increased in the IG (p < 0.05). The collagen fraction decreased in all layers and segments in the IG (p < 0.05). The opening angle increased in the large intestine and decreased in the ileum in the IG (p < 0.05). The intestinal stress–strain curves for IG shifted to the right, indicating softening. The creep did not change in the four segments. The wall stiffness was associated with wall thickness and collagen fraction in the submucosa layer. Long-term low-fiber diet in rabbits induced histomorphometric and biomechanical remodelling of the intestines.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1922-5
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 12 (2017)
  • Increasing Distribution of Drugs Released from In Situ Forming PLGA
           Implants Using Therapeutic Ultrasound
    • Authors: Chawan Manaspon; Christopher Hernandez; Pinunta Nittayacharn; Selva Jeganathan; Norased Nasongkla; Agata A. Exner
      Pages: 2879 - 2887
      Abstract: Abstract One of the challenges in developing sustained-release local drug delivery systems is the limited treatment volume that can be achieved. In this work, we examine the effectiveness of using low frequency, high intensity ultrasound to promote the spatial penetration of drug molecules away from the implant/injection site boundary upon release from injectable, phase inverting poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) implants. Fluorescein-loaded PLGA solutions were injected into poly(acrylamide) phantoms, and the constructs were treated daily for 14 days with ultrasound at 2.2 W/cm2 for 10 min. The 2D distribution of fluorescein within the phantoms was quantified using fluorescence imaging. Implants receiving ultrasound irradiation showed a 1.7–5.6 fold increase (p < 0.05) in fluorescence intensity and penetration distance, with the maximum increase observed 5 days post-implantation. However, this evidence was not seen when the same experiment was also carried out in phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.4). Results suggest an active role of ultrasound in local molecular transport in the phantom. An increase of fluorescein release and penetration depth in phantoms can be accomplished through brief application of ultrasound. This simple technique offers an opportunity to eventually enhance the therapeutic efficacy and broaden the application of local drug delivery systems.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1926-1
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 12 (2017)
  • Development of a High-Throughput Magnetic Separation Device for
           Malaria-Infected Erythrocytes
    • Authors: A. Blue Martin; Wei-Tao Wu; Marina V. Kameneva; James F. Antaki
      Pages: 2888 - 2898
      Abstract: Abstract This study describes a non-dilutive high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) device intended to continuously remove malaria-infected red blood cells (iRBCs) from the circulation. A mesoscale prototype device with disposable photo-etched ferromagnetic grid and reusable permanent magnet was designed with a computationally-optimized magnetic force. The prototype device was evaluated in vitro using a non-pathogenic analog for malaria-infected blood, comprised of 24% healthy RBCs, 6% human methemoglobin RBCs (metRBCs), and 70% phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The device provided a 27.0 ± 2.2% reduction of metRBCs in a single pass at a flow rate of 77 μL min−1. This represents a clearance rate over 380 times greater throughput than microfluidic devices reported previously. These positive results encourage development of a clinical scale system that would economize time and donor blood for treating severe malaria.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1925-2
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 12 (2017)
  • In Vivo Strain Analysis of Dilated Ascending Thoracic Aorta by ECG-Gated
           CT Angiographic Imaging
    • Authors: Salvatore Pasta; Valentina Agnese; Marzio Di Giuseppe; Giovanni Gentile; Giuseppe M. Raffa; Diego Bellavia; Michele Pilato
      Pages: 2911 - 2920
      Abstract: Abstract Accurate assessment of aortic extensibility is a requisite first step for elucidating the pathophysiology of an ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm (ATAA). This study aimed to develop a framework for the in vivo evaluation of the full-field distribution of the aortic wall strain by imaging analysis of electrocardiographic- (ECG) gated thoracic data of 34 patients with ATAA. Seven healthy controls (i.e., non-aneurysmal aorta) from patients who underwent ECG-gated CT angiography for coronary artery diseases were included for comparison. To evaluate the systolic function, ECG-gated computed tomography (CT) angiography was used to generate patient-specific geometric meshes of the ascending aorta, and then to estimate both the displacement and strain fields using a mathematical algorithm. Results evidenced stiff behavior for the aneurysmal aorta compared with that of the healthy ascending aorta of the controls, with patients over 55 years of age displaying significantly lower extensibility. Moreover, the patient risk as quantified by the ratio of in vivo strain to the ruptured one increased significantly with increased systolic blood pressure, older age, and higher pressure-strain modulus. Statistical analysis also indicated that an increased pressure-strain modulus is a risk factor for ATAAs with bicuspid aortic valve, suggesting a different mechanism of failure in these patients. The approach here proposed for the in vivo evaluation of the aortic wall strain is simple and fast, with promising applicability in routine clinical imaging, and could be used to develop a rupture potential criterion on the basis of the aortic aneurysm extensibility.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1915-4
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 12 (2017)
  • Fluid- and Biomechanical Analysis of Ascending Thoracic Aorta Aneurysm
           with Concomitant Aortic Insufficiency
    • Authors: F. Condemi; S. Campisi; M. Viallon; T. Troalen; G. Xuexin; A. J. Barker; M. Markl; P. Croisille; O. Trabelsi; C. Cavinato; A. Duprey; S. Avril
      Pages: 2921 - 2932
      Abstract: Abstract We present a comprehensive and original framework for the biomechanical analysis of patients affected by ascending thoracic aorta aneurysm and aortic insufficiency. Our aim is to obtain crucial indications about the role played by deranged hemodynamics on the ATAAs risk of rupture. Computational fluid dynamics analysis was performed using patient-specific geometries and boundary conditions derived from 4D MRI. Blood flow helicity and wall shear stress descriptors were assessed. A bulge inflation test was carried out in vitro on the 4 ATAAs after surgical repair. The healthy volunteers showed no eccentric blood flow, a mean TAWSS of 1.5 ± 0.3 Pa and mean OSI of 0.325 ± 0.025. In 3 aneurismal patients, jet flow impingement on the aortic wall resulted in large TAWSS values and low OSI which were amplified by the AI degree. However, the tissue strength did not appear to be significantly reduced. The fourth patient, which showed the lowest TAWSS due to the absence of jet flow, had the smallest strength in vitro. Interestingly this patient presented a bovine arch abnormality. Jet flow impingement with high WSS values is frequent in ATAAs and our methodology seems to be appropriate for determining whether it may increase the risk of rupture or not.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1913-6
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 12 (2017)
  • Characterization and Separation of Cancer Cells with a Wicking Fiber
    • Authors: Suzanne M. Tabbaa; Julia L. Sharp; Karen J. L. Burg
      Pages: 2933 - 2941
      Abstract: Abstract Current cancer diagnostic methods lack the ability to quickly, simply, efficiently, and inexpensively screen cancer cells from a mixed population of cancer and normal cells. Methods based on biomarkers are unreliable due to complexity of cancer cells, plasticity of markers, and lack of common tumorigenic markers. Diagnostics are time intensive, require multiple tests, and provide limited information. In this study, we developed a novel wicking fiber device that separates cancer and normal cell types. To the best of our knowledge, no previous work has used vertical wicking of cells through fibers to identify and isolate cancer cells. The device separated mouse mammary tumor cells from a cellular mixture containing normal mouse mammary cells. Further investigation showed the device separated and isolated human cancer cells from a heterogeneous mixture of normal and cancerous human cells. We report a simple, inexpensive, and rapid technique that has potential to identify and isolate cancer cells from large volumes of liquid samples that can be translated to on-site clinic diagnosis.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1909-2
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 12 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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