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  Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8279 journals)
    - ALLERGOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY (208 journals)
    - ANAESTHESIOLOGY (117 journals)
    - CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (327 journals)
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    - EMERGENCY AND INTENSIVE CRITICAL CARE (119 journals)
    - ENDOCRINOLOGY (147 journals)
    - FORENSIC SCIENCES (41 journals)
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    - GERONTOLOGY AND GERIATRICS (131 journals)
    - HEMATOLOGY (151 journals)
    - HYPNOSIS (4 journals)
    - INTERNAL MEDICINE (164 journals)
    - LABORATORY AND EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE (97 journals)
    - MEDICAL GENETICS (58 journals)
    - MEDICAL SCIENCES (2235 journals)
    - NURSES AND NURSING (353 journals)
    - OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY (198 journals)
    - ONCOLOGY (373 journals)
    - OPHTHALMOLOGY AND OPTOMETRY (134 journals)
    - ORTHOPEDICS AND TRAUMATOLOGY (163 journals)
    - OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (80 journals)
    - PATHOLOGY (96 journals)
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    - PSYCHIATRY AND NEUROLOGY (809 journals)
    - RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE (190 journals)
    - RESPIRATORY DISEASES (103 journals)
    - RHEUMATOLOGY (75 journals)
    - SPORTS MEDICINE (78 journals)
    - SURGERY (389 journals)
    - UROLOGY, NEPHROLOGY AND ANDROLOGY (149 journals)

MEDICAL SCIENCES (2235 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
4 open     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AboutOpen     Open Access  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access  
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Científica Estudiantil     Open Access  
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Herediana     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access  
Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)     Open Access  
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta Medica International     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acupuncture and Natural Medicine     Open Access  
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / Health Sciences Journal of Adıyaman University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell and Gene Therapy     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Advances in Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access  
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Skeletal Muscle Function Assessment     Open Access  
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Thoracic and Critical Care Medicine     Open Access  
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AJOB Empirical Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AJSP: Reviews & Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ALERTA : Revista Científica del Instituto Nacional de Salud     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Althea Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Anatomica Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ankara Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası     Open Access  
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Clinical Hypertension     Open Access  
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Annals of Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives Medical Review Journal / Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi     Open Access  
Archives of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology     Open Access  
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access  
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASHA Leader     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.042
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 19  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-9686 - ISSN (Online) 0090-6964
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2573 journals]
  • Straining 3D Hydrogels with Uniform Z -Axis Strains While Enabling Live
           Microscopy Imaging
    • Abstract: Abstract External forces play an important role in the development and regulation of many tissues. Such effects are often studied using specialized stretchers—standardized commercial and novel laboratory-designed. While designs for 2D stretchers are abundant, the range of available 3D stretcher designs is more limited, especially when live imaging is required. This work presents a novel method and a stretching device that allow straining of 3D hydrogels from their circumference, using a punctured elastic silicone strip as the sample carrier. The system was primarily constructed from 3D-printed parts and low-cost electronics, rendering it simple and cost-efficient to reproduce in other labs. To demonstrate the system functionality, > 100 μm thick soft fibrin gels (< 1 KPa) were stretched, while performing live confocal imaging. The subsequent strains and fiber alignment were analyzed and found to be relatively homogenous throughout the gel’s thickness (Z axis). The uniform Z-response enabled by our approach was found to be in contrast to a previously reported approach that utilizes an underlying elastic substrate to convey strain to a 3D thick sample. This work advances the ability to study the role of external forces on biological processes under more physiological 3D conditions, and can contribute to the field of tissue engineering.
      PubDate: 2019-12-04
       
  • Stem Cell Mechanosensation on Gelatin Methacryloyl (GelMA) Stiffness
           Gradient Hydrogels
    • Abstract: Abstract Stiffness gradient hydrogels are a useful platform for studying mechanical interactions between cells and their surrounding environments. Here, we developed linear stiffness gradient hydrogels by controlling the polymerization of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) via differential UV penetration with a gradient photomask. Based on previous observations, a stiffness gradient GelMA hydrogel was created ranging from ~ 4 to 13 kPa over 15 mm (0.68 kPa/mm), covering the range of physiological tissue stiffness from fat to muscle, thereby allowing us to study stem cell mechanosensation and differentiation. Adipose-derived stem cells on these gradient hydrogels showed no durotaxis, which allowed for the screening of mechanomarker expression without confounding directed migration effects. In terms of morphological markers, the cell aspect ratio showed a clear positive correlation to the underlying substrate stiffness, while no significant correlation was found in cell size, nuclear size, or nuclear aspect ratio. Conversely, expression of mechanomarkers (i.e., Lamin A, YAP, and MRTFa) all showed a highly significant correlation to stiffness, which could be disrupted via inhibition of non-muscle myosin or Rho/ROCK signalling. Furthermore, we showed that cells plated on stiffer regions became stiffer themselves, and that stem cells showed stiffness-dependent differentiation to fat or muscle as has been previously reported in the literature.
      PubDate: 2019-12-04
       
  • Assessing Changes in Airflow and Energy Loss in a Progressive Tracheal
           Compression Before and After Surgical Correction
    • Abstract: Abstract The energy needed to drive airflow through the trachea normally constitutes a minor component of the work of breathing. However, with progressive tracheal compression, patient subjective symptoms can include severe breathing difficulties. Many patients suffer multiple respiratory co-morbidities and so it is important to assess compression effects when evaluating the need for surgery. This work describes the use of computational prediction to determine airflow resistance in compressed tracheal geometries reconstructed from a series of CT scans. Using energy flux analysis, the regions that contribute the most to airway resistance during inhalation are identified. The principal such region is where flow emerging from the zone of maximum constriction undergoes breakup and turbulent mixing. Secondary regions are also found below the tongue base and around the glottis, with overall airway resistance scaling nearly quadratically with flow rate. Since the anatomical extent of the imaged airway varied between scans—as commonly occurs with clinical data and when assessing reported differences between research studies—the effect of sub-glottic inflow truncation is considered. Analysis shows truncation alters the location of jet breakup and weakly influences the pattern of pressure recovery. Tests also show that placing a simple artificial glottis in the inflow to a truncated model can replicate patterns of energy loss in more extensive models, suggesting a means to assess sensitivity to domain truncation in tracheal airflow simulations.
      PubDate: 2019-12-02
       
  • Differences in Pressure Recovery Between Balloon Expandable and
           Self-expandable Transcatheter Aortic Valves
    • Abstract: Abstract Pressure recovery downstream of the aortic valve constitutes an important factor affecting the calculation of pressure gradient (PG) across the valve and therefore the accuracy of the calculated aortic valve area. Some clinical studies hypothesized that stent and valve cusps design contribute to flow acceleration and Doppler-measured valve gradients across the balloon-expandable transcatheter aortic valve. This study aims at elucidating the physical mechanisms behind pressure recovery variations between Edwards SAPIEN 3 and Medtronic Evolut TAVs through the measurements of sensitive and precise axial pressure profiles. A 23 mm Edwards SAPIEN3 and a 26 mm Medtronic Evolut were deployed in a pulse duplicator. A Millar catheter was used to record 50 cycles of pressure data along the centerline of the valve chamber upstream and downstream of the valve. The peak PG obtained with SAPIEN at vena contracta (VC) is 18.83 ± 0.75 mmHg and after recovery, 9.56 ± 0.78 mmHg. For Evolut at VC, peak PG is 18.25 ± 0.63 mmHg and after recovery, 10.3 ± 0.57 mmHg. The differences in peak PG at VC and at the recovery were statistically significant (p < 0.001). With SAPIEN 3 at VC, the mean PG obtained is 10.11 ± 0.63 mmHg and after recovery 7.06 ± 0.46 mmHg. For Evolut, mean PG at VC is 10.45 ± 0.67 mmHg and after recovery 7.99 ± 0.61 mmHg. The differences between the mean PG between the two valves was not statistically significant at VC (p = 0.71) but significant post-recovery (p < 0.00001). While gradients at the VC are higher with the SAPIEN 3, the net gradient after pressure recovery is significantly lower compared to Evolut TAV. Efficiency of pressure recovery significantly depends on valve type due to stent interference with the recovering blood flow.
      PubDate: 2019-12-02
       
  • Airflow Simulation in Pulmonary Conducting Airways
    • PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Correction to: Clinical Applicability of an Existing Proportionality
           Scheme in Three-Segment Kinetic Foot Models
    • Abstract: This article was updated to correct Giovanni A. Matricali’s name.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Correction to: A Predictive Model of High Shear Thrombus Growth
    • Abstract: This erratum is to correct the heading of column 2 (titled “b”) in Table 1, which was missing proper units. The heading for that column was revised to include proper units, reading “b (× 10−6 s)”.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Correction to: In Vivo Evaluation of Mg–5%Zn–2%Nd Alloy as an
           Innovative Biodegradable Implant Material
    • Abstract: The article In Vivo Evaluation of Mg–5%Zn–2%Nd Alloy as an Innovative Biodegradable Implant Materialwritten by Elkaiam et al. was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on September 17, 2019 with open access. With the author(s)’ decision to step back from Open Choice, the copyright of the article changed on October 3, 2019 to Biomedical Engineering Society 2019 and the article is forthwith distributed under the terms of copyright.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Response to the Letter to the Editor “Airflow Simulation in Pulmonary
           Conducting Airways” by M. Monjezi and H. Jamaati
    • PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Difference in Bicarbonate Calculation Algorithm by Manufacturer Alters
           Diagnosis of Acid–Base Disorders
    • PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Human Factors and User Experience Issues with Ventricular Assist Device
           Wearable Components: A Systematic Review
    • Abstract: Abstract Ventricular Assist Devices (VADs) provide continuous mechanical circulatory support during in- and out-of-hospital care. However, limitations of the external wearable components influence patient quality of life. There is insufficient understanding of the issues with such components that combines a holistic viewpoint from both human factors and user (including patient and caregiver) experience perspectives. This paper comprehensively details the issues with VAD wearable systems and proposes a way for human-centered design to bridge the gap, addressing such issues synergistically. Through the review the authors investigated: the user issues caused by wearable components of VADs, and how human factors issues correlate to the VAD user experience. A Boolean search (“ventricular assist” AND “human factors” AND “experience”) for peer-reviewed studies published between 2008 and 2018 returned 338 titles, with 35 relevant studies selected using a PRISMA process for inclusion in cross-study analysis and synthesis. This paper provides design recommendations for the issues found in the literature. Four key focus areas to inform the future design of VAD wearable components were identified—‘Power Supply’, ‘Wearability and Travel Freedom’, ‘The Female Experience’ and ‘Intuitive Handling’. Using design to drive innovation could result in VAD wearable components which better meet or exceed users’ quality of life goals.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Contribution of Human Hair in Solar UV Transmission in Skin: Implications
           for Melanoma Development
    • Abstract: Abstract Melanoma is the deadliest type of skin cancer with its prevalence on the rise. Recently, the melanocyte stem cells in hair follicles have been identified as the possible origin of melanoma upon exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) through skin. It is hypothesized that colourless vellus hair (predominant in childhood) can serve as an alternative pathway in transmitting these ultraviolet (UV) photons to the stem cells. To investigate this, we have used the CRAIC microspectrophotometer to investigate the optical properties of ‘vellus-like’ hairs and terminal hairs of different colours using UV–VIS–NIR light sources. It was found that the average attenuation coefficient of ‘vellus-like’ hair is significantly lower than that of terminal hair in the UVA (p < 0.0001) and UVB (p < 0.001) wavelength ranges. Next, the optical properties of hairs are applied to simulations for examining their influence on UV transmission into the skin. The results show that the presence of vellus hair would increase the solar UV transmission to the melanocyte stem cell layer significantly. The findings explain why children are particularly vulnerable to sun exposure and the positive correlation found between the incidence of melanoma in adults’ bodies and the number of vellus hairs in these areas.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • EMG-Informed Musculoskeletal Modeling to Estimate Realistic Knee Anterior
           Shear Force During Drop Vertical Jump in Female Athletes
    • Abstract: Abstract The anterior cruciate ligament is the primary structural restraint to tibial anterior shear force. The anterior force occurring at the knee during landing contributes to anterior cruciate ligament injury risk, but it cannot be directly measured experimentally. The objective of this study was to develop electromyography-informed musculoskeletal simulations of the drop vertical jump motor task and assess the contribution of knee muscle forces to tibial anterior shear force. In this cross-sectional study, musculoskeletal simulations were used to estimate the muscle forces of thirteen female athletes performing a drop vertical jump using an electromyography-informed method. Muscle activation and knee loads that resulted from these simulations were compared to the results obtained with the more common approach of minimization of muscle effort (optimization-based method). Quadriceps–hamstrings and quadriceps–gastrocnemius co-contractions were progressively increased and their contribution to anterior shear force was quantified. The electromyography-informed method produced co-contraction indexes more consistent with electromyography data than the optimization-based method. The muscles that presented the largest contribution to peak anterior shear force were the gastrocnemii, likely from their wrapping around the posterior aspect of the tibia. The quadriceps–hamstring co-contraction provided a protective effect on the ACL and reduced peak anterior shear force by 292 N with a co-contraction index increase of 25% from baseline (31%), whereas a quadriceps–gastrocnemius co-contraction index of 61% increased peak anterior shear force by 797 N compared to baseline (42%). An increase in gastrocnemius contraction, which might be required to protect the ankle from the impact with the ground, produced a large quadriceps–gastrocnemius co-activation, increasing peak anterior shear force. A better understanding of each muscle’s contribution to anterior shear force and, consequently, anterior cruciate ligament tension may inform subject-specific injury prevention programs and rehabilitation protocols.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Cortical and Trabecular Bone Fracture Characterisation in the Vertebral
           Body Using Acoustic Emission
    • Abstract: Abstract The ability to rapidly detect localised fractures of cortical and/or trabecular bone sustained by the vertebral body would enhance the analysis of vertebral fracture initiation and propagation during dynamic loading. In this study, high rate axial compression tests were performed on twenty sets of three-vertebra lumbar spine specimens. Acoustic Emission (AE) sensor measurements of sound wave pressure were used to classify isolated trabecular fractures and severe compressive fractures of vertebral body cortical and trabecular bone. Fracture detection using standard AE parameters was compared to that of traditional mechanical parameters obtained from load cell and displacement readings. Results indicated that the AE parameters achieved slightly enhanced classification of isolated trabecular fractures, whereas the mechanical parameters better identified combined fractures of cortical and trabecular bone. These findings demonstrate that AE may be used to promptly and accurately identify localised fractures of trabecular bone, whereas more extensive fractures of the vertebral body are best identified by load cell readings due to the considerable loss in compressive resistance. The discrimination thresholds corresponding to the AE parameters were based on calibrated measurements of AE wave pressure and may ultimately be used to examine the onset and progression of vertebral fracture in other loading scenarios.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • In Vivo Measurement of Plantar Tissue Characteristics and Its Indication
           for Foot Modeling
    • Abstract: Abstract Plantar heel pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders and generally causing long term discomfort of the patients. The objective of the present study is to combine in vivo experimental measurements and finite element modelling of the foot to investigate the influences of stiffness and thickness variation of individual plantar tissues especially the heel pad on deformation behaviours of the human foot. The stiffness and thickness variance of individuals were measured through supersonic shear wave elastography considering detailed heel pad layers refered to in literature as: dermis, stiffer micro-chamber layer, softer macro-chamber layer. A corresponding foot model with separated heel pad layers was established and used to a sensitivity analysis related to the variance of above-mentioned tissue characteristics. The experimental results show that the average stiffness of the micro-chamber layer ranged from 24.7 (SD 2.4) kPa to 18.8 (SD 3.5) kPa with the age group increasing from 20–29 years old to 60–69 years old, while the average macro-chamber stiffness is 10.6 (SD 1.5) kPa that appears to slightly decrease with the increasing age. Both plantar soft tissue stiffness and thickness of male were generally larger than that of female. The numerical simulation results show that the variance of heel pad strain level can reach 27.5% due to the effects of stiffness and thickness change of the plantar tissues. Their influences on the calcaneus stress and plantar pressure were also significant. This indicates that the most appreciate way to establish a personalized foot model needs to consider the difference of both individual foot anatomic geometry and plantar soft tissue material properties.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Review of Robotic Needle Guide Systems for Percutaneous Intervention
    • Abstract: Abstract Numerous research groups in the past have designed and developed robotic needle guide systems that improve the targeting accuracy and precision by either providing a physical guidance for manual insertion or enabling a complete automated intervention. Here we review systems that have been reported in the last 11 years and limited to straight line needle interventions. Most systems fall under the category of image guided systems as they either use magnetic resonance image, computed tomography, ultrasound or a combination of these modalities for real time image feedback of the intervention path being followed. Actuation and control technology along with materials used for construction are the main aspects that differentiate these systems from each other and have been reviewed here. Image compatibility test details and results are also reviewed as they are used to ensure proper functioning of these systems under the respective imaging environments. We have also reviewed needle guide systems which either don’t use any image feedback or have not reported any but provide physical guidance. Throughout this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the technological aspects and trends in the field of robotic, straight line, needle guide intervention systems.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Magnetic Resonance Navigation for Targeted Embolization in a Two-Level
           Bifurcation Phantom
    • Abstract: Abstract This work combines a particle injection system with our proposed magnetic resonance navigation (MRN) sequence with the intention of validating MRN in a two-bifurcation phantom for endovascular treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A theoretical physical model used to calculate the most appropriate size of the magnetic drug-eluting bead (MDEB, 200 μm) aggregates was proposed. The aggregates were injected into the phantom by a dedicated particle injector while a trigger signal was automatically sent to the MRI to start MRN which consists of interleaved tracking and steering sequences. When the main branch of the phantom was parallel to B0, the aggregate distribution ratio in the (left–left, left–right, right–left and right–right divisions was obtained with results of 8, 68, 24 and 0% respectively at baseline (no MRN) and increased to 84%, 100, 84 and 92% (p < 0.001, p = 0.004, p < 0.001, p < 0.001) after implementing our MRN protocol. When the main branch was perpendicular to B0, the right-left branch, having the smallest baseline distribution rate of 0%, reached 80% (p < 0.001) after applying MRN. Moreover, the success rate of MRN was always more than 92% at the 1st bifurcation in the experiments above.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • 2019 Athanasiou ABME Student Awards
    • PubDate: 2019-11-25
       
  • Annals of Biomedical Engineering 2018 Year in Review
    • PubDate: 2019-11-25
       
  • 2019 ABME Paper Awards
    • PubDate: 2019-11-20
       
 
 
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