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MEDICAL SCIENCES (1946 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access  
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)     Open Access  
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta Medica International     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access  
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acupuncture and Natural Medicine     Open Access  
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / Health Sciences Journal of Adıyaman University     Open Access  
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access  
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Skeletal Muscle Function Assessment     Open Access  
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
AJSP: Reviews & Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access  
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy     Open Access  
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ankara Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası     Open Access  
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Fundeni Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives Medical Review Journal / Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi     Open Access  
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access  
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASHA Leader     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine     Open Access  
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Medical Journal     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Annals of Biomedical Engineering
  [SJR: 1.182]   [H-I: 94]   [18 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-9686 - ISSN (Online) 0090-6964
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • From Tension to Compression: Asymmetric Mechanical Behaviour of Trabecular
           Bone’s Organic Phase
    • Authors: Shuqiao Xie; Robert J. Wallace; Anthony Callanan; Pankaj Pankaj
      Pages: 801 - 809
      Abstract: Trabecular bone is a cellular composite material comprising primarily of mineral and organic phases with their content ratio known to change with age. Therefore, the contribution of bone constituents on bone’s mechanical behaviour, in tension and compression, at varying load levels and with changing porosity (which increases with age) is of great interest, but remains unknown. We investigated the mechanical response of demineralised bone by subjecting a set of bone samples to fully reversed cyclic tension–compression loads with varying magnitudes. We show that the tension to compression response of the organic phase of trabecular bone is asymmetric; it stiffens in tension and undergoes stiffness reduction in compression. Our results indicate that demineralised trabecular bone struts experience inelastic buckling under compression which causes irreversible damage, while irreversible strains due to microcracking are less visible in tension. We also identified that the values of this asymmetric mechanical response is associated to the original bone volume ratio (BV/TV).
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2009-7
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 6 (2018)
  • Cartilage Metabolism is Modulated by Synovial Fluid Through
           Metalloproteinase Activity
    • Authors: Eric Y. Sun; Allison K. M. Fleck; Ahmad E. Abu-Hakmeh; Alexandra Kotsakis; Garrett R. Leonard; Leo Q. Wan
      Pages: 810 - 818
      Abstract: Synovial fluid (SF) contains various cytokines that regulate chondrocyte metabolism and is dynamically associated with joint disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of diluted normal SF on catabolic metabolism of articular cartilage under inflammatory conditions. For this purpose, SF was isolated from healthy bovine joints, diluted, and added to cartilage explant cultures stimulated with interleukin-1 (IL-1) for 12 days. The kinetic release of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) and collagen, as well as nitric oxide and gelatinase matrix metalloproteinases were analyzed in the supernatant. Chondrocyte survival and matrix integrity in the explants were evaluated with Live/Dead and histological staining. Diluted synovial fluid treatment suppressed sGAG and collagen release, downregulated the production of nitric oxide and matrix metalloproteinases, reduced IL-1-induced chondrocyte death, and rescued matrix depletion. Our results demonstrate that normal SF can counteract inflammation-driven cartilage catabolism. This study reports on the protective function of healthy SF and the therapeutic potential of recapitulation of SF for cartilage repair.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2010-1
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 6 (2018)
  • The Importance of the Scalp in Head Impact Kinematics
    • Authors: Antonia Trotta; Dimitris Zouzias; Guido De Bruyne; Aisling Ní Annaidh
      Pages: 831 - 840
      Abstract: The best way to reduce the risk of head injury (up to 69% reduction) is to wear a helmet. In recent years, the improvement of helmet standard tests focused on reproducing realistic impact conditions and including the effect of rotational acceleration. However, less importance has been given to the development of a realistic headform. The goal of this work was to evaluate the role of scalp tissue in head impact kinematics; both with respect to its mechanical properties and with respect to its sliding properties. An EN960 and HIII headform were subjected to linear and oblique impacts, respectively, both with and without porcine scalp attached. Different speeds, impact locations and impact surfaces were tested. Standard linear drop tests (EN960) showed that the scalp reduced the impact energy by up to 68.7% (rear impact). Oblique head impact tests showed how the headform-anvil friction coefficient changes when the HIII is covered with scalp, affecting linear and rotational accelerations. Therefore, the scalp plays an important role in head impacts and it should be realistically represented in headforms used for impact tests and in numerical models of the human head.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2003-0
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 6 (2018)
  • A Novel Plasma-Based Fluid for Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV): In-Vitro
           Feasibility Study of Flow Diverter Effects in Aneurysm Model
    • Authors: Johanna Clauser; Marius S. Knieps; Martin Büsen; Andreas Ding; Thomas Schmitz-Rode; Ulrich Steinseifer; Jutta Arens; Giorgio Cattaneo
      Pages: 841 - 848
      Abstract: Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a commonly used method for in vitro investigation of fluid dynamics in biomedical devices, such as flow diverters for intracranial aneurysm treatment. Since it is limited to transparent blood substituting fluids like water-glycerol mixture, the influence of coagulation and platelet aggregation is neglected. We aimed at the development and the application of a modified platelet rich plasma as a new PIV fluid with blood-like rheological and coagulation properties. In standardized intracranial aneurysm silicone models, the effect of this new PIV plasma on the fluid dynamics before and after flow diverter implantation was evaluated and compared with water-glycerol measurements. The flow diverting effect was strongly dependent on the used fluid, with considerably lower velocities achieved using PIV plasma, despite the same starting viscosity of both fluids. Moreover, triggering coagulation of PIV plasma allowed for intra-aneurysmal clot formation. We presented the first in vitro PIV investigation using a non-Newtonian, clottable PIV plasma, demonstrating a mismatch to a standard PIV fluid and allowing for thrombus formation.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2002-1
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 6 (2018)
  • Performance Assessment of a Radiofrequency Powered Guidewire for Crossing
           Peripheral Arterial Occlusions Based on Lesion Morphology
    • Authors: Mohammad A. Tavallaei; James J. Zhou; Trisha L. Roy; Graham A. Wright
      Abstract: Endovascular wires and devices for peripheral arterial disease therapy have evolved greatly, yet failure rates of these procedures remain high. Information on lesion composition may inform device selection to improve the success rates of these procedures. This paper, presents an approach for informed guidewire selection. The objective of this study is to quantitatively assess the performance of a radiofrequency powered guidewire in the crossing of various morphology types of peripheral chronic total occlusions. Samples taken from amputated patient limbs are characterized by magnetic resonance imaging. Using a customized catheter test station, the performance of a radiofrequency powered guidewire in puncturing these lesions is compared to a conventional guidewire, and to itself when not powered. The analysis includes quantitative and statistical comparisons of the puncture forces experienced by the different guidewires in “hard” vs. “soft” lesions as well as qualitative assessment of deflections, buckling and puncture success of the wires. Results indicate that the use of radiofrequency ablation significantly reduces the required puncture force, reduced events of buckling and deflection, and resulted in a significantly higher puncture success rate.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2021-y
  • Quantitative Dual Contrast CT Technique for Evaluation of Articular
           Cartilage Properties
    • Authors: Abhisek Bhattarai; Juuso T. J. Honkanen; Katariina A. H. Myller; Mithilesh Prakash; Miitu Korhonen; Annina E. A. Saukko; Tuomas Virén; Antti Joukainen; Amit N. Patwa; Heikki Kröger; Mark W. Grinstaff; Jukka S. Jurvelin; Juha Töyräs
      Abstract: Impact injuries of cartilage may initiate post-traumatic degeneration, making early detection of injury imperative for timely surgical or pharmaceutical interventions. Cationic (positively-charged) CT contrast agents detect loss of cartilage proteoglycans (PGs) more sensitively than anionic (negatively-charged) or non-ionic (non-charged, i.e., electrically neutral) agents. However, degeneration related loss of PGs and increase in water content have opposite effects on the diffusion of the cationic agent, lowering its sensitivity. In contrast to cationic agents, diffusion of non-ionic agents is governed only by steric hindrance and water content of cartilage. We hypothesize that sensitivity of an iodine(I)-based cationic agent may be enhanced by simultaneous use of a non-ionic gadolinium(Gd)-based agent. We introduce a quantitative dual energy CT technique (QDECT) for simultaneous quantification of two contrast agents in cartilage. We employ this technique to improve the sensitivity of cationic CA4+ (q =+4) by normalizing its partition in cartilage with that of non-ionic gadoteridol. The technique was evaluated with measurements of contrast agent mixtures of known composition and human osteochondral samples (n = 57) after immersion (72 h) in mixture of CA4+ and gadoteridol. Samples were arthroscopically graded and biomechanically tested prior to QDECT (50/100 kV). QDECT determined contrast agent mixture compositions correlated with the true compositions (R2= 0.99, average error = 2.27%). Normalizing CA4+ partition in cartilage with that of gadoteridol improved correlation with equilibrium modulus (from ρ = 0.701 to 0.795). To conclude, QDECT enables simultaneous quantification of I and Gd contrast agents improving diagnosis of cartilage integrity and biomechanical status.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2013-y
  • Development of a Metric for Predicting Brain Strain Responses Using Head
    • Authors: Lee F. Gabler; Jeff R. Crandall; Matthew B. Panzer
      Abstract: Diffuse brain injuries are caused by excessive brain deformation generated primarily by rapid rotational head motion. Metrics that describe the severity of brain injury based on head motion often do not represent the governing physics of brain deformation, rendering them ineffective over a broad range of head impact conditions. This study develops a brain injury metric based on the response of a second-order mechanical system, and relates rotational head kinematics to strain-based brain injury metrics: maximum principal strain (MPS) and cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM). This new metric, universal brain injury criterion (UBrIC), is applicable over a broad range of kinematics encountered in automotive crash and sports. Efficacy of UBrIC was demonstrated by comparing it to MPS and CSDM predicted in 1600 head impacts using two different finite element (FE) brain models. Relative to existing metrics, UBrIC had the highest correlation with the FE models, and performed better in most impact conditions. While UBrIC provides a reliable measurement for brain injury assessment in a broad range of head impact conditions, and can inform helmet and countermeasure design, an injury risk function was not incorporated into its current formulation until validated strain-based risk functions can be developed and verified against human injury data.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2015-9
  • Assessment of Ablative Therapies in Swine: Response of Respiratory
           Diaphragm to Varying Doses
    • Authors: Ashish Singal; Lars M. Mattison; Charles L. Soule; John R. Ballard; Eric N. Rudie; Erik N. K. Cressman; Paul A. Iaizzo
      Abstract: Ablation is a common procedure for treating patients with cancer, cardiac arrhythmia, and other conditions, yet it can cause collateral injury to the respiratory diaphragm. Collateral injury can alter the diaphragm’s properties and/or lead to respiratory dysfunction. Thus, it is important to understand the diaphragm’s physiologic and biomechanical properties in response to ablation therapies, in order to better understand ablative modalities, minimize complications, and maximize the safety and efficacy of ablative procedures. In this study, we analyzed physiologic and biomechanical properties of swine respiratory diaphragm muscle bundles when exposed to 5 ablative modalities. To assess physiologic properties, we performed in vitro tissue bath studies and measured changes in peak force and baseline force. To assess biomechanical properties, we performed uniaxial stress tests, measuring force–displacement responses, stress–strain characteristics, and avulsion forces. After treating the muscle bundles with all 5 ablative modalities, we observed dose-dependent sustained reductions in peak force and transient increases in baseline force—but no consistent dose-dependent biomechanical responses. These data provide novel insights into the effects of various ablative modalities on the respiratory diaphragm, insights that could enable improvements in ablative techniques and therapies.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2014-x
  • A Novel High-Resolution Method for the Respiration Rate and Breathing
           Waveforms Remote Monitoring
    • Authors: Boris G. Vainer
      Abstract: A search for robust noninvasive methods permitting to discern the respiration subtle peculiarities in mammals is a topical issue. A novel approach called “sorption-enhanced infrared thermography” (SEIRT), helping to solve this problem, is described. Its benefits spring from the integration of the infrared thermography (IRT) and chemical physics (phase transition heat release/absorption) within a single method. The SEIRT opportunities were verified in the investigation of 42 humans, 49 rats and 4 minipigs whose breathing waveforms were revealed to the last detail. It is shown that the SEIRT-obtained breathing-conditioned temperature response may exceed 10 °C (!) even in small animals (rats) and that the SEIRT sensitivity is 4.5–250 times higher than that of the matched IRT-based techniques. The new method is validated by a comparison with that based on thorax breathing movement (TBM). It is shown that the SEIRT-determined breaths have a close correlation with those determined via TBM (r = + 1.000, p ≪ 0.05); this is also true for breathing intervals (r = + 0.9772, p ≪ 0.05). SEIRT opens up the way to a high-resolution noncontact quantitative evaluation of respiration rate and breathing waveforms in both humans and animals. It may become a cutting-edge technique in diagnostic medicine and biomedical research.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2018-6
  • Coupled Morphological–Hemodynamic Computational Analysis of Type B
           Aortic Dissection: A Longitudinal Study
    • Authors: Huijuan Xu; Marina Piccinelli; Bradley G. Leshnower; Adrien Lefieux; W. Robert Taylor; Alessandro Veneziani
      Abstract: Progressive false lumen aneurysmal degeneration in type B aortic dissection (TBAD) is a complex process with a multi-factorial etiology. Patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations provide spatial and temporal hemodynamic quantities that facilitate understanding this disease progression. A longitudinal study was performed for a TBAD patient, who was diagnosed with the uncomplicated TBAD in 2006 and treated with optimal medical therapy but received surgery in 2010 due to late complication. Geometries of the aorta in 2006 and 2010 were reconstructed. With registration algorithms, we accurately quantified the evolution of the false lumen, while with CFD simulations we computed several hemodynamic indexes, including the wall shear stress (WSS), and the relative residence time (RRT). The numerical fluid model included large eddy simulation (LES) modeling for efficiently capturing the flow disturbances induced by the entry tears. In the absence of complete patient-specific data, the boundary conditions were based on a specific calibration method. Correlations between hemodynamics and the evolution field in time obtained by registration of the false lumen are discussed. Further testing of this methodology on a large cohort of patients may enable the use of CFD to predict whether patients, with originally uncomplicated TBAD, develop late complications.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2012-z
  • Experimental Verification of the Elastic Formula for the Aspirated Length
           of a Single Cell Considering the Size and Compressibility of Cell During
           Micropipette Aspiration
    • Authors: YongSheng Li; Jing Chen; LiLi Wang; Yuan Guo; JiLing Feng; WeiYi Chen
      Abstract: In this study, an aspiration system for elastic spheres was developed to verify the approximate elastic formula for the aspirated length of a single solid-like cell undergoing micropipette aspiration (MPA), which was obtained in our previous study by theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. Using this system, foam silicone rubber spheres with different diameters and mechanical properties were aspirated in a manner similar to the MPA of single cells. Comparisons between the approximate elastic formula and aspiration experiments of spheres indicated that the predictions of the formula agreed with the experimental results. Additionally, combined with the MPA data of rabbit chondrocytes, differences in terms of the elastic parameters derived from the half-space model, incompressible sphere model, and compressible sphere model were explored. The results demonstrated that the parameter ξ (ξ = R/a, where R is the radius of the cell and a is the inner radius of the micropipette) and Poisson’s ratio significantly influenced the determination of the elastic modulus and bulk modulus of the cell. This work developed for the first time an aspiration system of elastic spheres to study the elastic responses of the MPA of a single cell and provided new evidence supporting the use of the approximate elastic formula to determine cellular elastic parameters from the MPA data.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2023-9
  • Inter-subject FDG PET Brain Networks Exhibit Multi-scale Community
           Structure with Different Normalization Techniques
    • Authors: Megan M. Sperry; Sonia Kartha; Eric J. Granquist; Beth A. Winkelstein
      Abstract: Inter-subject networks are used to model correlations between brain regions and are particularly useful for metabolic imaging techniques, like 18F-2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Since FDG PET typically produces a single image, correlations cannot be calculated over time. Little focus has been placed on the basic properties of inter-subject networks and if they are affected by group size and image normalization. FDG PET images were acquired from rats (n = 18), normalized by whole brain, visual cortex, or cerebellar FDG uptake, and used to construct correlation matrices. Group size effects on network stability were investigated by systematically adding rats and evaluating local network connectivity (node strength and clustering coefficient). Modularity and community structure were also evaluated in the differently normalized networks to assess meso-scale network relationships. Local network properties are stable regardless of normalization region for groups of at least 10. Whole brain-normalized networks are more modular than visual cortex- or cerebellum-normalized network (p < 0.00001); however, community structure is similar at network resolutions where modularity differs most between brain and randomized networks. Hierarchical analysis reveals consistent modules at different scales and clustering of spatially-proximate brain regions. Findings suggest inter-subject FDG PET networks are stable for reasonable group sizes and exhibit multi-scale modularity.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2022-x
  • Hyperelastic Mechanical Properties of Ex Vivo Normal and Intrauterine
           Growth Restricted Placenta
    • Authors: Shier Nee Saw; Jess Yi Ru Low; May Han Huang Ong; Yu Wei Poh; Citra Nurfarah Zaini Mattar; Arijit Biswas; Choon Hwai Yap
      Abstract: Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) is a serious and prevalent pregnancy complication that is due to placental insufficiency and IUGR babies suffer significantly higher risks of mortality and morbidity. Current detection rate for IUGR is generally poor and thus an alternative diagnostic tool is needed to improve the IUGR detection. Elastography, a non-invasive method that measures the tissue stiffness, has been proposed as one such technique. However, to date, we have limited information on the mechanical properties of IUGR placenta. In this study, we investigated the mechanical properties of normal and IUGR placentae and prescribed a suitable hyperelastic model to describe their mechanical behaviors. A total of 46 normal and 43 IUGR placenta samples were investigated. Results showed that placenta samples were isotropic, but had a high spatial variability of stiffness. The samples also had significant viscoelasticity. IUGR placenta was observed to be slightly stiffer than normal placenta but the difference was significant only at compression rate of 0.25 Hz and with 20% compression depth. Three simple hyperelastic models—Yeoh, Ogden and Fung models, were found to be able to fit the experimentally measured mechanical behaviors, and Fung model performed slightly better. These results may be useful for optimizing placenta elastography for the detection of IUGR.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2019-5
  • A Semi-passive Planar Manipulandum for Upper-Extremity Rehabilitation
    • Authors: Chih-Kang Chang; Edward P. Washabaugh; Andrew Gwozdziowski; C. David Remy; Chandramouli Krishnan
      Abstract: Robotic rehabilitation is a promising approach to treat individuals with neurological or orthopedic disorders. However, despite significant advancements in the field of rehabilitation robotics, this technology has found limited traction in clinical practice. A key reason for this issue is that most robots are expensive, bulky, and not scalable for in-home rehabilitation. Here, we introduce a semi-passive rehabilitation robot (SepaRRo) that uses controllable passive actuators (i.e., brakes) to provide controllable resistances at the end-effector over a large workspace in a manner that is cost-effective and safe for in-home use. We also validated the device through theoretical analyses, hardware experiments, and human subject experiments. We found that by including kinematic redundancies in the robot’s linkages, the device was able to provide controllable resistances to purely resist the movement of the end-effector, or to gently steer (i.e., perturb) its motion away from the intended path. When testing these capabilities on human subjects, we found that many of the upper-extremity muscles could be selectively targeted based on the forcefield prescribed to the user. These results indicate that SepaRRo could serve as a low-cost therapeutic tool for upper-extremity rehabilitation; however, further testing is required to evaluate its therapeutic benefits in patient population.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2020-z
  • Genipin-Cross-Linked Chitosan Nerve Conduits Containing TNF-α Inhibitors
           for Peripheral Nerve Repair
    • Authors: Li Zhang; Weijia Zhao; Changmei Niu; Yujie Zhou; Haiyan Shi; Yalin Wang; Yumin Yang; Xin Tang
      Abstract: Tissue engineered nerve grafts (TENGs) are considered a promising alternative to autologous nerve grafting, which is considered the “gold standard” clinical strategy for peripheral nerve repair. Here, we immobilized tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitors onto a nerve conduit, which was introduced into a chitosan (CS) matrix scaffold utilizing genipin (GP) as the crosslinking agent, to fabricate CS-GP-TNF-α inhibitor nerve conduits. The in vitro release kinetics of TNF-α inhibitors from the CS-GP-TNF-α inhibitor nerve conduits were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography. The in vivo continuous release profile of the TNF-α inhibitors released from the CS-GP-TNF-α inhibitor nerve conduits was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay over 14 days. We found that the amount of TNF-α inhibitors released decreased with time after the bridging of the sciatic nerve defects in rats. Moreover, 4 and 12 weeks after surgery, histological analyses and functional evaluations were carried out to assess the influence of the TENG on regeneration. Immunochemistry performed 4 weeks after grafting to assess early regeneration outcomes revealed that the TENG strikingly promoted axonal outgrowth. Twelve weeks after grafting, the TENG accelerated myelin sheath formation, as well as functional restoration. In general, the regenerative outcomes following TENG more closely paralleled findings observed with autologous grafting than the use of the CS matrix scaffold. Collectively, our data indicate that the CS-GP-TNF-α inhibitor nerve conduits comprised an elaborate system for sustained release of TNF-α inhibitors in vitro, while studies in vivo demonstrated that the TENG could accelerate regenerating axonal outgrowth and functional restoration. The introduction of CS-GP-TNF-α-inhibitor nerve conduits into a scaffold may contribute to an efficient and adaptive immune microenvironment that can be used to facilitate peripheral nerve repair.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2011-0
  • Comparison of Ice Hockey Goaltender Helmets for Concussion Type Impacts
    • Authors: J. Michio Clark; Karen Taylor; Andrew Post; T. Blaine Hoshizaki; Michael D. Gilchrist
      Abstract: Concussions are among the most common injuries sustained by ice hockey goaltenders and can result from collisions, falls and puck impacts. However, ice hockey goaltender helmet certification standards solely involve drop tests to a rigid surface. This study examined how the design characteristics of different ice hockey goaltender helmets affect head kinematics and brain strain for the three most common impact events associated with concussion for goaltenders. A NOCSAE headform was impacted under conditions representing falls, puck impacts and shoulder collisions while wearing three different types of ice hockey goaltender helmet models. Resulting linear and rotational acceleration as well as maximum principal strain were measured for each impact condition. The results indicate that a thick liner and stiff shell material are desirable design characteristics for falls and puck impacts to reduce head kinematic and brain tissue responses. However for collisions, the shoulder being more compliant than the materials of the helmet causes insufficient compression of the helmet materials and minimizing any potential performance differences. This suggests that current ice hockey goaltender helmets can be optimized for protection against falls and puck impacts. However, given collisions are the leading cause of concussion for ice hockey goaltenders and the tested helmets provided little to no protection, a clear opportunity exists to design new goaltender helmets which can better protect ice hockey goaltenders from collisions.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2017-7
  • Learning-Based Cell Injection Control for Precise Drop-on-Demand Cell
    • Abstract: Drop-on-demand (DOD) printing is widely used in bioprinting for tissue engineering because of little damage to cell viability and cost-effectiveness. However, satellite droplets may be generated during printing, deviating cells from the desired position and affecting printing position accuracy. Current control on cell injection in DOD printing is primarily based on trial-and-error process, which is time-consuming and inflexible. In this paper, a novel machine learning technology based on Learning-based Cell Injection Control (LCIC) approach is demonstrated for effective DOD printing control while eliminating satellite droplets automatically. The LCIC approach includes a specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation model of piezoelectric DOD print-head considering inverse piezoelectric effect, which is used instead of repetitive experiments to collect data, and a multilayer perceptron (MLP) network trained by simulation data based on artificial neural network algorithm, using the well-known classification performance of MLP to optimize DOD printing parameters automatically. The test accuracy of the LCIC method was 90%. With the validation of LCIC method by experiments, satellite droplets from piezoelectric DOD printing are reduced significantly, improving the printing efficiency drastically to satisfy requirements of manufacturing precision for printing complex artificial tissues. The LCIC method can be further used to optimize the structure of DOD print-head and cell behaviors.
      PubDate: 2018-06-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2054-2
  • Extracellular Matrix Expression and Production in Fibroblast-Collagen
           Gels: Towards an In Vitro Model for Ligament Wound Healing
    • Abstract: Ligament wound healing involves the proliferation of a dense and disorganized fibrous matrix that slowly remodels into scar tissue at the injury site. This remodeling process does not fully restore the highly aligned collagen network that exists in native tissue, and consequently repaired ligament has decreased strength and durability. In order to identify treatments that stimulate collagen alignment and strengthen ligament repair, there is a need to develop in vitro models to study fibroblast activation during ligament wound healing. The objective of this study was to measure gene expression and matrix protein accumulation in fibroblast-collagen gels that were subjected to different static stress conditions (stress-free, biaxial stress, and uniaxial stress) for three time points (1, 2 or 3 weeks). By comparing our in vitro results to prior in vivo studies, we found that stress-free gels had time-dependent changes in gene expression (col3a1, TnC) corresponding to early scar formation, and biaxial stress gels had protein levels (collagen type III, decorin) corresponding to early scar formation. This is the first study to conduct a targeted evaluation of ligament healing biomarkers in fibroblast-collagen gels, and the results suggest that biomimetic in-vitro models of early scar formation should be initially cultured under biaxial stress conditions.
      PubDate: 2018-06-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2064-0
  • Material Processing and Design of Biodegradable Metal Matrix Composites
           for Biomedical Applications
    • Authors: Jingxin Yang; Jason L. Guo; Antonios G. Mikos; Chunyan He; Guang Cheng
      Abstract: In recent years, biodegradable metallic materials have played an important role in biomedical applications. However, as typical for the metal materials, their structure, general properties, preparation technology and biocompatibility are hard to change. Furthermore, biodegradable metals are susceptible to excessive degradation and subsequent disruption of their mechanical integrity; this phenomenon limits the utility of these biomaterials. Therefore, the use of degradable metals, as the base material to prepare metal matrix composite materials, it is an excellent alternative to solve the problems above described. Biodegradable metals can thus be successfully combined with other materials to form biodegradable metallic matrix composites for biomedical applications and functions. The present article describes the processing methods currently available to design biodegradable metal matrix composites for biomedical applications and provides an overview of the current existing biodegradable metal systems. At the end, the manuscript presents and discusses the challenges and future research directions for development of biodegradable metallic matrix composites for biomedical purposes.
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2058-y
  • Robotic Surgery Improves Technical Performance and Enhances Prefrontal
           Activation During High Temporal Demand
    • Authors: Harsimrat Singh; Hemel N. Modi; Samriddha Ranjan; James W. R. Dilley; Dimitrios Airantzis; Guang-Zhong Yang; Ara Darzi; Daniel R. Leff
      Abstract: Robotic surgery may improve technical performance and reduce mental demands compared to laparoscopic surgery. However, no studies have directly compared the impact of robotic and laparoscopic techniques on surgeons’ brain function. This study aimed to assess the effect of the operative platform (robotic surgery or conventional laparoscopy) on prefrontal cortical activation during a suturing task performed under temporal demand. Eight surgeons (mean age ± SD = 34.5 ± 2.9 years, male:female ratio = 7:1) performed an intracorporeal suturing task in a self-paced manner and under a 2 min time restriction using conventional laparoscopic and robotic techniques. Prefrontal activation was assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy, subjective workload was captured using SURG-TLX questionnaires, and a continuous heart rate monitor measured systemic stress responses. Task progression scores (au), error scores (au), leak volumes (mL) and knot tensile strengths (N) provided objective assessment of technical performance. Under time pressure, robotic suturing led to improved technical performance (median task progression score: laparoscopic suturing = 4.5 vs. robotic suturing = 5.0; z = − 2.107, p = 0.035; median error score: laparoscopic suturing = 3.0 mm vs. robotic suturing = 2.1 mm; z = − 2.488, p = 0.013). Compared to laparoscopic suturing, greater prefrontal activation was identified in seven channels located primarily in lateral prefrontal regions. These results suggest that robotic surgery improves performance during high workload conditions and is associated with enhanced activation in regions of attention, concentration and task engagement.
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2049-z
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