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  Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8250 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2224 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
4 open     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
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Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Científica Estudiantil     Open Access  
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
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Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
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Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / Health Sciences Journal of Adıyaman University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
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Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access  
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Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Skeletal Muscle Function Assessment     Open Access  
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Thoracic and Critical Care Medicine     Open Access  
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
AJSP: Reviews & Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ALERTA : Revista Científica del Instituto Nacional de Salud     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Althea Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Anatomica Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ankara Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası     Open Access  
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Clinical Hypertension     Open Access  
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Annals of Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives Medical Review Journal / Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi     Open Access  
Archives of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology     Open Access  
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access  
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASHA Leader     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.65
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0940-9602
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3181 journals]
  • Localization of nitro-tyrosine immunoreactivity in human retina
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 223Author(s): Tapas C. Nag, Poorti Kathpalia, Shilpa Gorla, Shashi Wadhwa Oxidative stress (OS) is associated with retinal aging and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In both cases there are reports for the presence of markers of lipid peroxidation in retinal cells. We investigated if nitrosative stress also occurs in the human retina with aging. We examined the cellular localization of nitro-tyrosine, a biomarker of protein tyrosine nitration, in human donor retina (17–91 years; N = 15) by immunohistochemistry. Immunoreactivity (IR) to nitro-tyrosine was present in ten retinas and absent in five retinas. It was predominant in photoreceptor inner segments, cell bodies and axons. In six retinas, IR was present in abnormal, swollen axons of macular and peripheral cones. In the inner retina, weak immunoreactivity was detected in the outer and inner plexiform layer. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a variable degree of microtubule disorganization, abnormal outgrowth from the swollen macular axons (as the fibers of Henle) and few dead axons. The present study adds further evidence to the presence of aberrant photoreceptor axonal changes in the human retina and that nitro-tyrosine immunoreactivity is associated with the photoreceptor cells in select human retina.
       
  • Lacrimal drainage anatomy in the Japanese population
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 223Author(s): Ma. Regina Paula Valencia, Yasuhiro Takahashi, Munekazu Naito, Takashi Nakano, Hiroshi Ikeda, Hirohiko Kakizaki PurposeThe aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive and clinically relevant review of the lacrimal drainage anatomy in the Japanese population.MethodsA thorough search on the lacrimal drainage anatomy in the Japanese population was performed using PubMed and Ichushi Web, which is managed by the Japan Medical s Society, for related studies up to December 2018. Published books on the same topic were also reviewed. Data from all articles and book chapters were reviewed, analyzed, and incorporated in this review.ResultsThis review presents the subparts of the lacrimal drainage anatomy in a chronological manner, from proximal to distal. The location, dimensions, position or angle, histology (with some reference to the essential clinical functions and physiology of the lacrimal drainage system) are described in this review.ConclusionsUnderstanding lacrimal drainage anatomy in the Japanese population is essential to provide insight as to how it is important to consider patients as individuals, with unique and specific anatomies, and uphold a patient-specific approach.
       
  • Radiologist’s views on anatomical knowledge amongst junior doctors and
           the teaching of anatomy in medical curricula
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 223Author(s): Gerard W. O’Keeffe, Shane Davy, Denis S. Barry Reduced teaching resources, increasing student numbers and congested medical curricula have led to reports of inadequate anatomical knowledge among newly qualified doctors, placing scrutiny on pre-clinical education. We wished to gauge the opinions of practicing radiologists on undergraduate anatomy education. Members of the Irish Faculty of Radiologists were invited to complete a questionnaire based on anatomy teaching practices, its relevance and the standards of anatomical knowledge at graduation. Out of 67 respondents, 69% were of senior grade, with the majority working in diagnostic radiology. Respondents universally agreed that anatomy is central to radiology; however, decade of graduation significantly influenced radiologist’s level of satisfaction with their anatomical knowledge at the start of their training. Fifty percent believed that the cadaver should remain the cornerstone of anatomy education. The vast majority of radiologists agreed that radiology and anatomy should be taught in tandem during pre-clinical training to better prepare students for clinical practice. Practicing radiologists believed they were best positioned to deliver radiology-based anatomy teaching. CT and MRI respectively were proposed as the preferred imaging modalities for teaching anatomy, although free comments showed varied opinion on how radiology and cadaveric anatomy should be integrated. Radiologists were also concerned with the anatomical knowledge of the junior doctor. This study may add to the debate concerning the vertical integration of anatomy in medical education and may help inform the delivery of radiology in the anatomy curriculum.
       
  • Solving a problem by dissolving a tradition. Munich anatomy’s body
           supply since the Second World War
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 223Author(s): Mathias Schütz, Jens Waschke, Georg Marckmann, Florian Steger The system of anatomical body procurement had to be reorganized in Germany after the end of the Second World War. At that time, the country had been split up and, in its Western zones of occupation, which eventually would form the Federal Republic of Germany, a democratic form of government was reintroduced. While political and economic conditions were improving, well-known obstacles of sufficient body supply turned out to be increasingly complicated to overcome. This development led to the dissolution of the traditional system of body procurement which had, during the centuries and political systems, always depended on the state. From the 1960s onwards, it became solely reliant on willed body donations. The article deals with the question how this fundamental change came to be, and which motives and arguments on the side of the anatomists as well as the administration were crucial for the final decision of limiting body procurement to willed donations. Using the example of the anatomical institute of Munich University, it is possible not only to highlight the political process of dealing with the problem of anatomical body procurement after 1945. Additionally, the quantitative changes in body supply resulting from those developments will be presented and analyzed. Thereby it can be displayed how the dissolution of the traditional system meant the solution of its inherent problems.
       
  • ‘Superior biceps aponeurosis’—Morphological characteristics of the
           origin of the short head of the biceps brachii muscle
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 223Author(s): Michał Podgórski, Łukasz Olewnik, Marcelina Rusinek, Maciej Cichosz, Michał Polguj, Mirosław Topol PurposeOur aim was to characterize the morphology of the proximal attachment of the biceps brachii short head. We hypothesize that it has an aponeurotic component that may affect shoulder joint biomechanics.MethodsThe coracoacromial region and the biceps brachii muscle were dissected in 30 cadaveric shoulders. The course and dimensions of the tendon and aponeurosis were evaluated. The cross-sectional area of the belly of the short head and the length of the whole muscle were measured. Correlations between the aponeurosis and dimensions of the muscle were tested with the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient.ResultsAponeurosis was present in all specimens, although in 10 cases it was vestigial. The aponeurotic part of the muscle (mean length 90.7 ± 16.3 mm, mean width 12.5 ± 2.9 mm) branched off laterally and traveled to the acromion, blending with the coracoacromial ligament creating the aponeurotic membrane. We named this structure the “superior biceps aponeurosis”. The mean length of the biceps brachii was 31.3 ± 2.1 cm and the mean cross-sectional area of the short head was 210.7 ± 54.3 mm2. The dimensions of the “superior biceps aponeurosis” correlated positively with the cross-sectional area of the muscle (R2 from 0.37 to 0.52, p from 0.014 to 0.001).ConclusionThe origin of the short head of the biceps brachii muscle has a varied aponeurotic component combining the aponeurotic part of the muscle and the aponeurotic membrane. Together, they create the “superior biceps aponeurosis”.Clinical relevanceThe morphology of the origin of the biceps brachii short head is relevant in Bristow/Latarjet procedures. This aponeurotic component may affect the shoulder joint biomechanics after the coracoid process transfer.
       
  • A novel intraoral injection technique for rat levator veli palatini muscle
           regeneration
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 223Author(s): Xu Cheng, Hanyao Huang, Bing Shi, Jingtao Li BackgroundThe levator veli palatini (LVP) muscle drives the elevation and retraction of the soft palate to facilitate speech and feeding, but undergoes atrophic changes in patients with cleft palate deformity. This study aimed to establish an effective drug delivery technique for LVP muscle regeneration.MethodsAn intraoral injection technique for rat LVP muscle regeneration was developed based on careful examination of the rat craniofacial anatomy. The accuracy and reliability of this technique were tested by cone-beam computed tomography and nitrocellulose dye labeling. Recombinant human Wnt7a was delivered via this injection technique, and the subsequent responses of the levator veli palatini muscle were analyzed.ResultsBoth the cone-beam computed tomography orientation of the needle tip and dye labeling suggested repeatable accuracy of the injection technique. Recombinant human Wnt7a delivery via this technique induced regeneration-related changes, including increased expression of centrally nucleated myofibers and Ki67+ve nuclei.ConclusionThe intraoral injection technique is safe and efficient. It can be used for accurate drug delivery and to screen regenerative therapeutics for the LVP muscle.
       
  • Altered laryngeal morphology in Period1 deficient mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 223Author(s): Olaf Bahlmann, Christoph Schürmann, Erik Maronde BackgroundUltrasonic vocalizations (USV) of mice are produced in and emitted by the larynx. However, which anatomical elements of the mouse larynx are involved and to which aspects of USV they contribute is not clear.Frequency and amplitude parameters of mice, deficient in the clock gene Period1 (mPer1−/− mice) are distinguishably different compared to C3H wildtype (WT) controls. Because structural differences in the larynx may be a reason for the different USV observed, we analyzed laryngeal anatomy of mPer1−/− mice and WT control animals using micro-computed-tomography and stereology.ResultsIn mPer1−/− mice, we found laryngeal cartilages to be normally arranged, and the thyroid, arytenoid and epiglottal cartilages were similar in diameter and volume measurements, compared to WT mice. However, in the cricoid cartilage, a significant difference in the dorso-ventral diameter and volume was evident.ConclusionOur findings imply that laryngeal morphology is affected by inactivation of the clock gene Period1 in mice, which may contribute to their abnormal USV.
       
  • Deep lymphatic anatomy of the upper limb: An anatomical study and clinical
           implications
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 223Author(s): Chuan-Xiang Ma, Wei-Ren Pan, Zhi-An Liu, Fan-Qiang Zeng, Zhi-Qiang Qiu, Mei-Ying Liu BackgroundThe deep and perforating lymphatic anatomy of the upper limb still remains the least described in medical literature.Materials and MethodsSix upper limbs with the axillary tissue were harvested from three unembalmed human cadavers amputated at the shoulder joint. A small amount of 6% hydrogen peroxide was employed to detect the lymphatic vessels around the deep palmar arch, radial and ulnar neurovascular bundles. A 30-gauge needle was inserted into the vessels and they were injected with a barium sulphate compound. Each specimen was dissected, photographed and radiographed to demonstrate deep lymphatic distribution of the upper limb.ResultsContinuing from the deep lymph vessels of the hand, single or multiple deep collecting lymph vessels have been found along the radial, ulnar, anterior and posterior interosseous neurovascular bundles in the forearm, brachial and deep branchial neurovascular bundles in the upper arm. During their courses, lymph nodes were found setting in the trunk of the radial, ulnar and brachial lymph vessels near or in the cubital fossa, and in the axillar. Perforating lymph vessels have been found near the wrist and in the cubital fossa, which linked the superficial and deep lymph vessels. The direction of lymphatic drainage was from the deep to superficial or superficial to deep vessels.ConclusionThe deep lymphatic anatomy of the upper limb has been described. The results will provide an anatomical basis for clinical management, educational reference and scientific research.
       
  • GLP-1 mediated improvement of the glucose tolerance in the T2DM GK rat
           model after massive jejunal resection
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 223Author(s): J. Arturo Prada-Oliveira, Alonso Camacho-Ramirez, Jesús Salas-Alvarez, Francisco Javier Campos-Martinez, Alfonso M. Lechuga-Sancho, David Almorza-Gomar, Manuel Blandino-Rosano, Gonzalo M. Perez-Arana ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to clarify the role of the middle gut in the entero-pancreatic axis modification that leads to glucose improvement in the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat as a non-obese T2DM model.BackgroundBariatric surgery is considered an assured solution for type 2 Diabetes (T2DM). Enterohormones such as ghrelin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide and mainly glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were recognized as key players in the physiophathological mechanisms associated with entero-pancreatic axis regulation and glucose tolerance improvement. However, the influence of anatomical arrangements post-bariatric surgery on this axis is still debatable.MethodTo this purpose, 50% of small intestine resections were performed on GK rats (n = 6), preserving the proximal half of the jejunum and the ileum (IR50). Phenotypic and functional changes, such as performance in oral glucose tolerance tests, ileal release of GLP-1, beta-cell sensitivity to GLP-1, beta-cell mass, and turnover were characterized in IR50 and the surgical control group (Sham).ResultsThe glucose tolerance was improved and ileal release of GLP-1 was enhanced four weeks after IR50 versus the control group rats. Beta-cell mass, beta-cell proliferation, and beta-cell sensitivity to GLP-1 were also increased in the pancreas of IR50 versus the control group rats.Conclusionthe jejunal exclusion increases beta-cell-mass and improves glucose tolerance by increasing in GLP-1 expression and number of receptors via the entero-pancreatic axis.
       
  • Resveratrol can inhibit Notch signaling pathway to improve spinal cord
           injury
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 223Author(s): Songou Zhang, Benson O.A. Botchway, Yong Zhang, Xuehong Liu Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the severe central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Although various therapeutic approaches have been researched, there are still no effective therapeutic measures for SCI. Development of novel, safe and effective therapeutics for SCI have currently gained a lot of interest. Medicinal and chemical agents have the tendency of regulating signaling pathways. Notch signaling pathway plays an important role in neuronal cell differentiation, neuroinflammation and axonal regeneration in the wake of SCI. Resveratrol has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects in CNS conditions. Resveratrol can inhibit Notch signaling pathway to curtail SCI. Herein, we systematically review potential mechanisms of resveratrol-inhibiting Notch signaling pathway in SCI treatment.
       
  • Comparative morphology of the primate tongue
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 223Author(s): Shin-ichi Iwasaki, Ken Yoshimura, Junji Shindo, Ikuo Kageyama To clarify the role of the primate tongue as a means to better understand the evolution of oral function among primates – an example of adaptation within the restricted phylogenetic group - we review the morphological knowledge of the tongues of extant primates in relation to phylogenetic classification. Prosimians tongues are more effective than those of Haplorhini for taking up food with the tongue alone, because they are capable of fine movement when outside the oral cavity. However, the role of the tongue in food uptake has diminished when juxtaposed with progress in hand manipulation of food and tools in Haplorhini, especially with the manipulation of tools by Homininae. This change in the tongue from prosimians to Homininae can be regarded as degeneration in food uptake by the tongue, although the functional role of the tongue within the oral cavity has not diminished. The distribution pattern and form of lingual papillae, except foliate papillae, are very similar among all reported primates species. Although foliate papillae are generally well developed in Haplorhini, most prosimian species have no foliate papillae, or a different type of papillae that substitute for foliate papillae. There are three vallate papillae in prosimian species and the New-World macaques, Platyrrhini. These papillae exhibit an inverted V-shape and are more numerous in Old World macaques, Catarrhini. These differences seem to be the result of phylogenetic origin.
       
  • The history of anatomical research of lymphatics — From the ancient
           times to the end of the European Renaissance
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 223Author(s): Regina Irschick, Claudia Siemon, Erich Brenner Very often, descriptions of the scientific discovery of the lymphatic system start with Gaspare Aselli, probably because of his so captivating account. Nevertheless, there was prior and even very old evidence of the lymphatic vessels, which was of course known to Aselli himself, as he cited most of these antique references.In fact, the first insights were contributed by the Hippocratic School. The Alexandrian School added quite a lot but unfortunately most of that knowledge is not extant and can only be appreciated by translations or citations by other authors such as Galen.The ‘dark’ middle ages did not add to the anatomical knowledge of the lymphatics, and only the rise of the Renaissance brought new insights. Even at that time, Aselli was not the first to identify at least some components of the lymphatic system, but he was actually the first to present a proper account in a book dedicated to the “lacteal veins”. Afterwards the interest rose enormously and cumulated in one of the first priority – or plagiarism – disputes, the Rudbeck–Bartholin feud. Surprisingly, William Harvey, the discoverer of the systemic blood circulation, ignored, at least in part, the progress of the discoveries in lymphatic circulation.This narrative review tries to summarize the major contributions to the anatomical knowledge of the lymphatic system from the ancient times up to the end of the European Renaissance.
       
  • Morphology of the vasa vasorum in coronary arteries of the porcine heart:
           a new insight
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer AnzeigerAuthor(s): Matej Patzelt, David Kachlik, Josef Stingl, Josef Sach, Radek Stibor, Oldrich Benada, Olga Kofronova, Vladimir Musil IntroductionThe vasa vasorum interna were described during the last decade as a special kind of vessels originating directly from the lumen of the paternal artery and participating in the nourishment of its wall, especially of the aorta and coronary arteries. At the same time, their existence was repeatedly denied/negated by many other authors.AimThe purpose of the actual study was the anatomical verification of the existence of the vasa vasorum interna in porcine coronary arteries.Materials and MethodsThe vascular supply was studied on the wall of the anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery on 36 hearts taken from healthy pigs. Light microscopy, vascular injections and scanning electron microscopy were used for the analysis of 141 samples.ResultsIn only two cases small arteries resembling vasa vasorum interna and originating directly from the lumen of the coronary artery were found. But, in both cases these vessels ran without branching, passed over the whole thickness of adventitia and branched in the wider periarterial space. In contrast to this all feeding arteries of the vasa vasorum arose from the larger branches of the paternal artery, branched entirely in its adventitia and did not enter the media.ConclusionDue to the very low incidence of these small arteries originating from the lumen of the paternal artery and the absence of their participation on the nourishment of the arterial wall we came to the conclusion that it is not suitable to use the term „vasa vasorum interna “for their designation.
       
  • Ultrastructure of the lacrimal drainage system in health and disease: A
           major review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer AnzeigerAuthor(s): Mohammad Javed Ali, Friedrich Paulsen PurposeTo provide a systematic review of the literature on the ultrastructural findings of the lacrimal drainage system in healthy state and in few of the disorders studied so far.MethodsThe authors performed a PubMed search of all articles published with reference to electron microscopic features of the lacrimal drainage pathways. Data captured include demographics, study techniques, scanning or transmission electron microscopic features, presumed or confirmed interpretations and their implications. Specific emphasis was laid on addressing the lacunae and potential directions for future research.ResultsUltrastructural studies have led to better understanding of the lacrimal drainage anatomy-physiology correlations. Cellular interactions between fibroblasts and lymphocytes could form a basis for pathogenesis of punctal stenosis. Ultrastructural characterization of peri-lacrimal cavernous bodies and changes in primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO) led to them being partly implicated in its etiopathogenesis. Electron microscopic characterization of the dacryolith core promises insights into their evolution. Ultrastructural tissue effects of mitomycin-C during a DCR surgery has provided potential evidence of its role in cases with high-risk of failure. Lacrimal stent biofilms are common but their clinical implications are currently uncertain.ConclusionUltrastructural exploration of lacrimal drainage system so far has been limited and sparsely explored. The list of unexplored areas is exhaustive. There is a need for the lacrimal Clinician-Scientist to make themselves familiar with techniques and interpretation of electron microscopy to advance the ultrastructural frontier of this science.
       
  • Histological comparison between laser microtome sections and ground
           specimens of implant-containing tissues
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 222Author(s): Christiane Kunert-Keil, Heiko Richter, Ines Zeidler-Rentzsch, Isabel Bleeker, Tomasz Gredes Evaluation of bone regeneration and peri-implant bone apposition can only be accomplished using laboratory techniques that allow assessment of decalcified hard tissue. It is known that 5–15 μm thick sections can be prepared with the cutting-grinding technique, but their production causes a high material loss (≥0.5 mm) between two sections and requires years of training and experience. With the development of the laser microtome it has become possible to cut decalcified bone without high sample material loss. Many scientific publications deal with the application possibilities of the individual methods So far, there is no comparison work between the cutting-grinding technique and laser microtomy. For this reason, new tissue sections were prepared by laser microtome and analyzed histologically from samples that had been previously been prepared by the cutting-grinding technique. Using both methods, it could be demonstrated that the different implants were completely surrounded by a connective tissue layer. In sections (50–100 μm) produced by the routine cutting-grinding technique, magnifications up to 20× revealed no detailed histological information because cell structures could not be clearly identified. By contrast, laser microtome sections (10 μm) revealed these information as e.g. osteocytes are already clearly visible at 10× magnification. Furthermore, the interface between implant and the surrounding bone could be clearly demonstrated due to visible demarcation between a capsule and connective tissue. At the histological level, laser microtome sections were clearly superior at thicknesses ≥30 μm compared to sections produced by the cutting-grinding technique. In addition, laser microtomy has the advantages of time saving and markedly reduced sample loss, especially in cases of the production of serial sections.
       
  • Numerical investigations of bone remodelling around the mouse mandibular
           molar primordia
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 222Author(s): Junliang Chen, Yun He, Ludger Keilig, Susanne Reimann, Istabrak Hasan, Joachim Weinhold, Ralf Radlanski, Christoph Bourauel The formation of the alveolar bone, which houses the dental primordia, and later the roots of tooth, may serve as a model to approach general questions of alveolar bone formation. In this respect, this study aimed to investigate the potential interactions between the alveolar bone formation and tooth eruption by using finite element (FE) methods, and to figure out whether the expanding tooth systems induce shear stresses that lead to alveolar bone formation. 3D geometric surface models were generated from the 3D histological data of the heads of mice (C57 Bl/6J) ranging from stages embryonic (E) to postnatal (P) stages E15 to P20 using the reconstruction software 3-Matic. Bone, dentin, enamel and dental follicle around the primordia were generated and converted into 3D FE models. Models were imported into the FE software package MSC.Marc/Mentat. As material parameters of embryonic dentine, pulp, enamel, dental follicle, and bony structures basically are unknown, these were varied from 1% to 100% of the corresponding known material parameters for humans and a sensitivity analysis was performed. Surface loads were applied to the outside surface of dental follicle ranging from 0.1 to 5.0 N/mm2. The validity of the model was analysed by comparing the activity pattern of the alveolar bone as determined in the histological study with the loading pattern from the numerical analysis. The results show that when varying the surface loads, the distribution of shear stresses remained same, and while varying the material properties of the hard tissues, the location of highest shear stresses remained stable. Comparison of the histologically determined growth regions with the distribution of shear stresses computed in the numerical model showed a very close agreement. The results provide a strong proof to support Blechschmidt’s hypothesis that the bone in general is created under the influence of shear forces.
       
  • Leveraging medical imaging for medical education — A cinematic
           rendering-featured lecture
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 222Author(s): Johannes Binder, Christian Krautz, Klaus Engel, Robert Grützmann, Franz A. Fellner, Pascal H.M. Burger, Michael Scholz BackgroundThe integration of medical imaging into anatomical education offers advantages in understanding and learning. However, spatial orientation with conventional (2D) imaging data is challenging, and the students’ ability to imagine structures in three dimensions is individual. In addition, the quality of current volume rendering methods is limited.ObjectiveWe tested Cinematic Rendering (CR), a novel visualization technique that provides photorealistic volume rendering, in the setting of an interactive anatomy lecture with first-year undergraduate medical and dental students. Our goal was to estimate the acceptance and positive effects CR adds to the subjects.MethodsA total of 120 students were surveyed with specifically designed self-assessment questionnaires on the use of CR as a tool in anatomical education.ResultsOf 120 participating students (87 medical and 33 dental) a large majority of 95.9% (Q3) experienced CR as helpful to understand anatomy better. Overall a large majority of the students experienced CR as helpful for learning and understanding, 85% saw an improvement in anatomical education through the integration of CR (Q3–6) and could also imagine using CR as a self-study tool on an electronic device.ConclusionOur undergraduate medical and dental students experienced CR as a beneficial tool for anatomical education in the chosen setting (lecture) and see further opportunities for the sensible use of this technique. Future research on the topic should include other application possibilities as well.
       
  • Comparing the critical features of e-applications for three-dimensional
           anatomy education
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 222Author(s): Marijn Zilverschoon, Evelien M.G. Kotte, Babette van Esch, Olle ten Cate, Eugene J. Custers, Ronald L.A.W. Bleys Anatomical e-applications are increasingly being created and used in medical education and health care for the purpose of gaining anatomical knowledge. Research has established their superiority over 2D methods in the acquisition of spatial anatomy knowledge. Many different anatomy e-applications have been designed, but a comparative review is still lacking. We aimed to create an overview for comparing the features of anatomy e-applications in order to offer guidance in selecting a suitable anatomy e-application.A systematic search was conducted. Data were retrieved from the 3D model designs (realism), software aspects and program functionality.The non-commercial e-applications focused on small body regions and received an average score of 3.04 (range 1–5) for model realism. Their average score on program functionality was 8.8 (range 0–14). The commercial e-applications covered the entire human body and received an average score of 2.85 (range 1–5) for model realism. Their average score on program functionality was 10.4 (range 0–14).Non-commercial anatomy e-applications received higher scores on realism and facilities like performing a virtual dissection, while the commercial anatomy e-applications offer a much wider range of anatomical structures available and they showed higher scores on program functionality. These scores gave good insight of the e-applications’ possibilities, and may help future users to make an informed choice among the large number of available e-applications.
       
  • The effect of consecutive pregnancies on the ovine pelvic soft tissues:
           Link between biomechanical and histological components
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 222Author(s): Rita Rynkevic, Pedro Martins, Antonio Andre, Marco Parente, Teresa Mascarenhas, Henrique Almeida, Antonio A. Fernandes BackgroundPelvic organ prolapse, various types of incontinence (urinary incontinence, defecatory dysfunction), chronic cystourethritis, and sexual dysfunctions remain between the most common disorders in urogynecology. Currently, it is believed that the nature and number of births plays a major role in their development. Moreover, after these events, pelvic floor tissues may not recover to their original statuses. The close anatomical relationship among the vaginal wall, bladder and rectum often contribute to the emergence of anatomical-functional failure of adjacent organs and systems.Basic proceduresThe aim of this study was to investigate the effect of consecutive pregnancies on pelvic floor soft tissues, conducting biomechanical and histological analysis. Fifteen Swifter ewes: virgins, parous and pregnant were used. Samples, for uniaxial tension tests and histological analysis, were cut out from fresh tissue. A description of the mechanical properties of native tissue was obtained from the stress-strain curve. Histological samples were stained with Miller’s Elastica staining and analyzed using ImageJ software. Collagen, elastin, and smooth muscle contents (%) were analyzed along the full wall thickness of the selected organs. The links between mechanical properties of the soft tissues and histological parameters were analyzed.Main findingsMechanically, vaginal wall tissue and cervix of pregnant sheep were more compliant. In contrast, bladder and rectum became stiffer and had the highest total collagen content. Parous sheep rectum and bladder were stiffer, compared to virgin sheep.Principal conclusionsTensile strength appears to be linked to total collagen content. Elastin and smooth muscle show a direct influence on tissue compliance.
       
  • Anatomic conditions for bypass surgery between rostral (T7–T9) and
           caudal (L2, L4, S1) ventral roots to treat paralysis after spinal cord
           injury
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 222Author(s): Habib Bendella, Svenja Rink, Aliona Wöhler, Janna Feiser, Andre Wilden, Maria Grosheva, Hans-Jürgen Stoffels, Carolin Meyer, Marilena Manthou, Makoto Nakamura, Doychin N. Angelov Severe spinal cord injuries cause permanent neurological deficits and are still considered as inaccessible to efficient therapy. Injured spinal cord axons are unable to spontaneously regenerate. Re-establishing functional activity especially in the lower limbs by reinnervation of the caudal infra-lesional territories might represent an effective therapeutic strategy.Numerous surgical neurotizations have been developed to bridge the spinal cord lesion site and connect the intact supra-lesional portions of the spinal cord to peripheral nerves (spinal nerves, intercostal nerves) and muscles. The major disadvantage of these techniques is the increased hypersensitivity, spasticity and pathologic pain in the spinal cord injured patients, which occur due to the vigorous sprouting of injured afferent sensory fibers after reconstructive surgery.Using micro-surgical instruments and an operation microscope we performed detailed anatomical preparation of the vertebral canal and its content in five human cadavers. Our observations allow us to put forward the possibility to develop a more precise surgical approach, the so called “ventral root bypass” that avoids lesion of the dorsal roots and eliminates sensitivity complications.The proposed kind of neurotization has been neither used, nor put forward. The general opinion is that radix ventralis and radix dorsalis unite to form the spinal nerve inside the dural sac. This assumption is not accurate, because both radices leave the dural sac separately. This neglected anatomical feature allows a reliable intravertebral exposure of the dura-mater ensheathed ventral roots and their damage-preventing end-to-side neurorrhaphy by interpositional nerve grafts.
       
  • In vitro effects of benzalkonium chloride and prostaglandins on human
           meibomian gland epithelial cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 222Author(s): Anca Rath, Michael Eichhorn, Katharina Träger, Friedrich Paulsen, Ulrike Hampel PurposeBenzalkonium chloride is the most widely used preservative in ophthalmic topical solutions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of BAC as a single substance or as a component of several commercially available ophthalmic solutions on meibomian gland epithelial cells in vitro.Materials and methodsAn immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cell line (HMGEC) was used and cells were cultured in the absence or presence of fetal bovine serum to assess cell morphology, cell proliferation, cell viability (MTS assay) and impedance sensing (ECIS) after stimulation with BAC. Further, the viability of HMGECs stimulated with BAC-containing and BAC-free bimatoprost, travoprost and latanoprost was evaluated using the MTS assay. Real-time PCR analysis for hyperkeratinization associated genes (cornulin, involucrin) was performed.ResultsIn the absence of serum, the proliferation rate of HMGECs decreased starting with 0.1 μg/ml BAC. At concentrations of 50 μg/ml BAC and higher, cell viability was reduced after 10 min exposure with a corresponding change in cell morphology. Toxicity of BAC-containing ophthalmic solutions was greater than that of BAC alone, whereas BAC-free alternative products did not significantly influence cell viability. Confluence, cell-cell contacts and serum-containing medium appeared to facilitate HMGECs survival. Expression rate of involucrin and cornulin declined after exposure to preserved bimatoprost and BAC.ConclusionsBAC showed cytotoxic effects on HMGECs starting with a concentration of 0.1 μg/ml. The combination of BAC and prostaglandin-analogs might have a synergistic effect which results in higher toxicity than BAC alone. Unpreserved eye drops and eye drops preserved with Polyquaternium-1 are less damaging to HMGECs.
       
  • Carthamus Tinctorius L. extract attenuates cardiac remodeling in
           L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats by inhibiting the NADPH oxidase-mediated
           TGF-β1 and MMP-9 pathway
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 222Author(s): Sarawoot Bunbupha, Poungrat Pakdeechote, Putcharawipa Maneesai, Parichat Prachaney, Pattanapong Boonprom Carthamus tinctorius L. (CT) has been widely used in Asian countries as a beverage and a folk medicine. The current study investigates the effect of CT extract on cardiac remodeling and possible mechanisms involved in Nw-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administrated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) for five weeks to induce hypertension. Hypertensive rats were treated with CT extract (300 mg/kg/day) or captopril (5 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for a further two weeks. Treatment of hypertensive rats with CT extract or captopril significantly decreased systolic blood pressure, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and fibrosis, small intramyocardial coronary artery remodeling, and cardiac weight index. CT extract or captopril increased plasma nitric oxide metabolite (NOx) levels and reduced plasma transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) level, together with downregulation of cardiac TGF-β1 and matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) expression. In addition, decreased plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, consistent with downregulation of NADPH oxidase subunit gp91phox expression in heart tissue, was also observed after CT extract or captopril treatment. These findings suggest that CT extract alleviates cardiac remodeling in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats, which is possibly related to inhibition of the NADPH oxidase-mediated TGF-β1-MMP-9 pathway.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Ontogeny of calcium-binding proteins in the cingulate cortex of the guinea
           pig: The same onset but different developmental patterns
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 222Author(s): Beata Hermanowicz-Sobieraj, Krystyna Bogus-Nowakowska, Maciej Równiak, Anna Robak This paper compared the density of calbindin D28k (CB), calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) containing neurons in prenatal, newborn and postnatal periods in the cingulate cortex (CC) of the guinea pig as an animal model. The distribution and co-distribution among calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) was also investigated during the entire ontogeny. The study found that CB-positive neurons exhibited the highest density in the developing CC. The CC development in the prenatal period took place with a high level of CB and CR immunoreactivity and both of these proteins reached peak density during fetal life. The density of PV-positive neurons, in contrast to CB and CR-positive neurons, reached high levels postnatally. The observed changes of the CaBPs-positive neuron density in the developing CC coincide with developmental events in the guinea pig. E.g. the eyes opening moment may be preceded by elevated levels of CB and CR at E50, whereas high immunoreactivity of PV from P10 to P40 with a peak at P20 may indicate the participation of PV in enhancement of the inhibitory cortical pathway maturation.
       
  • Beneficial effect of Curcumin Nanoparticles-Hydrogel on excisional skin
           wound healing in type-I diabetic rat: Histological and immunohistochemical
           studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 222Author(s): Samaa Samir Kamar, Dina Helmy Abdel-Kader, Laila Ahmed Rashed Management of diabetic wounds remains a major challenge in the medical field, mostly due to incompetent outcomes of treatments. Curcumin has been documented as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antineoplastic agent in addition to wound healing activities. However, its poor aqueous solubility and impaired skin permeation handicap its topical pharmaceutical usage. Hydrogel loaded curcumin nanoparticle (Cur-NP/HG) could overcome this pitfall and enable extended topical delivery of curcumin. Rat model of diabetes mellitus (DM) type I was induced using single injection of 70 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) followed by full thickness skin wound. Rats were divided into 4 groups. GpI: control non-diabetic, GpII: diabetic non-treated, GpIII: diabetic treated with topical curcumin hydrogel (Cur/HG) and GpIV: diabetic treated with topical Cur-NP/HG. Histological assessment of epidermal regeneration, dermo-epidermal junction, leukocyte infiltration and collagen deposition, in addition to immunohistochemical staining for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and aquaporin-3 (AQP3) were performed. Diabetic rat possessed impaired wound closure, persistence of inflammation and decreased collagen deposition as compared to non-diabetic control. Application of Cur/HG induced partial improvement of the healing process in diabetic rats. Cur-NP/HG treatment provoked obvious improvement of the healing process with complete re-epithelization, intact dermo-epidermal junction, reorganization of the dermis with significantly increased collagen deposition and VEGF and AQP3 expression. These results illustrated that Cur-NP/HG have effectively improved the healing process in diabetic skin wound with substantial differences in the wound healing kinetics compared to wounds that received Cur/HG.
       
  • 15-year follow-up of short dental implants placed in the partially
           edentulous patient: Mandible Vs maxilla
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 222Author(s): Eduardo Anitua, Mohammad H. Alkhraisat There is paucity of the studies that assess the outcomes of short dental implants with a follow-up time higher than 10 years. This study aims to evaluate the long-term (15 years) survival and marginal bone loss around short dental implants and assess the influence of the anatomical location (mandible or maxilla) on these outcomes. A clinical retrospective study of short dental implants (≤8.5 mm) was conducted in a single private dental clinic. The predictor variable was the anatomical location (mandible or maxilla). The primary outcome was the dental implant survival rate. The secondary outcomes were the marginal bone loss, the prosthesis failures and the influence of anatomical location, the antagonist type, and the clinical/anatomical crown-to-implant ratio (CIR) on the marginal bone loss and implant success rate. Descriptive analysis was performed for patients’ demographic data, implant details, and prosthetic variables. Kaplan–Meier method was used to assess the implant survival rate. Fifty patients with a mean age of 59 ± 10 years had a mean follow-up time of 15 years. Seventy five implants were placed being 30 in the maxilla and 45 in the mandible. The implant position did not affect significantly the implant survival. The marginal bone loss has been significantly higher in the maxilla than the mandible. The implant survival rate was 93.3%. Short dental implants could be indicated to support fixed partial prosthesis in the mandible and the maxilla. Implant position may affect the marginal bone loss around the short dental implants.
       
  • Histological, SEM and three-dimensional analysis of the midfacial SMAS —
           New morphological insights
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 222Author(s): T. Sandulescu, H. Buechner, D. Rauscher, E.A Naumova, W.-H Arnold IntroductionThe superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) of the midface has a complex morphological architecture, and a multitude of controversial opinions exist regarding its in vitro appearance and clinical relevance. The aim of this study was to investigate the three-dimensional architecture of the midfacial SMAS.MethodHistological and SEM analyses were performed on tissue blocks of the skin, subcutaneous tissue and mimic musculature of the midfacial region between the anterior parotid gland pole and lateral to the nasolabial fold and tissue blocks of the skin, subcutaneous tissue and parotid fascia. Blocks were collected postmortem from six formalin-fixed donor bodies. Serial histological sections were made, stained with Azan and digitized. Three-dimensional reconstructions and visualization of the tissue blocks were performed using AutoCAD.ResultsTwo different SMAS architectures were found in the midfacial region: parotideal (type IV) and preparotideal (type I) SMAS. Type I SMAS showed three-dimensional interconnecting fibrous chambers embracing fat tissue lobules that cushioned the space between the skin and mimic musculature. Fibrous septa divided the mimic musculature surrounding the muscular bundles. Beneath the mimic muscular level, SMAS septa were oriented parallel to the muscular plane. Above the mimic muscular plane, SMAS septa were oriented perpendicularly, inserted into the skin. Type IV SMAS showed a parallel alignment of the fibrous septa to the skin level, anchoring the skin to the parotid fascia, presenting lymphatic nodes in the fat tissue compartments. The fat cells of the SMAS were enveloped in a fibrotic membrane at the border of the fibro-muscular septa. The SMAS blood supply comprised two subcutaneously epimuscularly spreading anastomosing vascular systems.ConclusionsMidfacial SMAS represents a functional unit with physical and immunological tasks appearing in two different morphological architecture types. A well-defined nomenclature is needed to prevent controversy.
       
  • Comprehensive study of pulmonary hilam with its clinical correlation
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 222Author(s): Anubha Saha, Phalguni Srimani IntroductionAwareness of pulmonary hilar variations is essential for lobectomy of lung.Materials and methodsWe studied 54 left and 49 right hilum of formalin fixed adult cadaveric lungs. Morphologic and mophometric details were recorded and variations were noted.ResultsClassical picture of hilum was found in 35.19% left lung and 40.82% right lung. Morphological variations were more on left side (64.81%) than right side (59.18%) in terms of numbers of structures. On the left side, highest percentage of variable structure was bronchus (46.3%) followed by pulmonary artery (37.31%) and lowest by pulmonary vein (31.48%) whereas on right side, percentage for variable pulmonary artery and vein were same (36.73%) followed by bronchi (20.41%). Maximum number of pulmonary veins was five, pulmonary artery was three and accessory bronchus was two on both side hila. In morphometric measurement, mean vertical length of hilum was more on right side whereas anteroposterior length was more on left side. Right hilum is slightly lower and anteriorly placed than left hilum in the mediastinal surface of lung. Significant correlations between vertical length of lung and hilum and antero-postero length of lung and hilum of left and right sides were found.ConclusionsBy analysis and comparison with previous studies, present study concludes that morphology of pulmonary hila is extremely variable which contributes significant consequences in the field of pulmonary resection.
       
  • Ansa cervicalis — A new classification approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 222Author(s): Anatoly I. Shvedavchenko, Marine V. Oganesyan, Christian M. Hammer, Friedrich Paulsen, Anastasia A. Bakhmet Normally, the inferior root of Ansa cervicalis passes around the internal jugular vein and runs in an anterior direction to meet the superior root ventral to the common carotid artery. However, anatomical variants of the Ansa cervicalis are as yet not well investigated and understood. To close this gap the present study was undertaken. The Ansa cervicalis was examined in 54 human formalin-fixed cadavers and preparations of the head and neck by conventional dissection. In 66% of the specimens the Ansa cervicalis displayed the typical course that was classified as “internal type” (located medial to the internal jugular vein inside the carotid sheath). The remaining 34% pertained to the “external type” of the Ansa cervicalis (lateral to the internal jugular vein). The distance of the Ansa cervicalis relative to the superior margin of the thyroid cartilage was measured in every specimen. The external type Ansa cervicalis was located significantly lower than the internal type relative to the superior margin of thyroid cartilage. Regarding its location relative to the internal jugular vein four variants of combinations of the external and internal types of Ansa cervicalis on the right and left sides were distinguished. Based on their distance from the superior margin of the thyroid cartilage three types of Ansa cervicalis were defined.
       
  • Expression and localization of VIAAT in distal uriniferous tubular
           epithelium of mouse
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 222Author(s): Waraporn Sakaew, Apussara Tachow, Wipawee Thoungseabyoun, Suthankamon Khrongyut, Atsara Rawangwong, Yada Polsan, Watanabe Masahiko, Hisatake Kondo, Wiphawi Hipkaeo Vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT) is a transmembrane transporter which is responsible for the storage of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or glycine in synaptic vesicles. According to recent studies, GABA is known to be expressed in the kidney. For clear understanding of the intra-renal GABA signaling, the localization of VIAAT was examined in the present study. Intense immunoreactivity was found largely confined to the distal tubule epithelia, especially distinct in the inner medulla, although the immunoreactivity was discerned more or less in all tubules and glomeruli. No distinct immunoreactivity was seen in capillary endothelia or interstitial fibroblasts. In immuno-DAB and immuno-gold electron microscopy, the immunoreaction was found at the basal infoldings of plasma membranes and basal portions of the lateral plasma membranes, but not in any vesicles or vacuoles within the distal tubular cells. The significance of the enigmatic finding, localization of a vesicular molecule on selected portions of the plasma membrane of distal tubular cells, was discussed in view of the possibility of paracrine or autocrine effects of GABA on some other uriniferous tubular cells or interstitial cells.
       
  • Integrating data on bone modeling and morphological ontogenetic changes of
           the maxilla in modern humans
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 222Author(s): Natalia Brachetta-Aporta, Paula N. Gonzalez, Valeria Bernal The aim of this work is to assess the association between the patterns of bone modeling and the changes in shape and size of the maxilla along ontogeny in modern humans. The sample analyzed includes an ontogenetic series of 30 individuals from an archeological site from Pampa Grande, northwest of Argentina. The areas of bone resorption and formation were described by histological analysis of bone surfaces and then quantified using spatial statistics. Morphological changes were analyzed by geometric morphometric methods using landmarks and semilandmarks digitized on 3D surfaces obtained from CT-scans. The regression of bone modeling maps on the centroid size shows no significant association between both variables neither in subadult nor adult individuals. On the contrary, the results of the partial least squares analysis shows a strong association between the shape changes in the maxilla with changes in the pattern of bone modeling in both groups of age, subadults and adults. Overall, this study contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms and processes that model maxillary morphology during growth.
       
  • A proposal for a new classification of the fibular (lateral) collateral
           ligament based on morphological variations
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 222Author(s): Łukasz Olewnik, Bartosz Gonera, Konrad Kurtys, Michał Podgórski, Michał Polguj, Mirosław Topol BackgroundThe fibular collateral ligament (FCL) is subject to varus forces at all knee flexion angles and is also resistant to external rotation near extension. It originates on the lateral epicondyle of the femur and inserts on the lateral surface of the head of the fibula.However, its anatomical characteristics are inconsistent. Recent publications have focused on morphological variations concerning mainly femoral and fibular attachments, as well as morphometric measurements. Less attention has been paid to the morphology of the FCL and its relationship to the antero-lateral ligament (ALL).Question/purposesThe aim of this paper is therefore to introduce the first complete classification of the FCL that includes all important aspects of morphological variability.MethodsClassical anatomical dissection was performed on 111 lower limbs (25 isolated and 86 paired) fixed in 10% formalin solution. The lateral compartment of the knee was investigated in detail.ResultsThe fibular collateral ligament was present in all specimens. The FCL originated most commonly (72.1% of cases) from the lateral femoral epicondyle, and the inserted on the lateral surface of the head of the fibula (Type I). In addition, bifurcated (Type IIa — 12.6%) and trifurcated (Type IIb — 0.9%) ligaments were also found with two and three distal bands, respectively. A double FCL was also found (Type III — 6.3%), as was fusion of the FCL and ALL (Type IV — 8.1%).ConclusionThe FCL is characterized by high morphological variability. Knowledge of these variants is essential for surgeries performed in this region concerning the FCL and the ALL.Clinical relevanceDistinguishing FCL from the FCL-ALL Complex is necessary when planning surgical procedures.
       
  • Organ regeneration evolved in fish and amphibians in relation to
           metamorphosis: Speculations on a post-embryonic developmental process lost
           in amniotes after the water to land transition
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 222Author(s): Lorenzo Alibardi Organ regeneration occurs in anamniotes (fish and amphibians) while is absent in amniotes (reptiles, birds and mammals). An evolutionary hypothesis is presented to explain the loss of organ regeneration in amniotes. The aquatic life in fish or the initial aquatic and later terrestrial life in amphibians requires complex life cycles after embryonic development. One or more larval stages that occupy different ecological niches are necessary in fish to reach the final adult stage, generally through metamorphosis. This is a post-embryonic process determined by genes that are constitutive of the genome of fish and amphibians, and that can also be re-utilized during adult life to regenerate injured or lost organs. During the adaptation to terrestrial niches, the larval stages disappeared and a direct development evolved with the formation of the amniote egg in reptiles and birds or the blastocysts in mammals. The genome for developing larvae and metamorphosis was therefore eliminated from the life cycle of amniotes. The loss of genes utilized for metamorphosis determined also the loss of the capability to regenerate organs in adults, especially of the neural organization of the nervous system. The cellular immune system that in anamniotes was operating in metamorphic destruction of larval tissues, in amniotes became no longer tolerant to embryonic-larval antigens. The loss of genes operating during metamorphosis and presence of intolerant immune cells determined the inability to regenerate organs in amniotes. Efforts of regenerative medicine must overcome these genetic and immune barriers to induce organ regeneration.
       
  • Critical review: Cardiac telocytes vs cardiac lymphatic endothelial cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 222Author(s): Mugurel Constantin Rusu, Sorin Hostiuc The study of cardiac interstitial Cajal-like cells (ICLCs) began in 2005 and continued until 2010, when these cells were renamed as telocytes (TCs). Since then, numerous papers on cardiac ICLCs and TCs have been published. However, in the initial descriptions upon which further research was based, lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) and initial lymphatics were not considered. No specific antibodies for LECs (such as podoplanin or LYVE-1) were used in cardiac TC studies, although ultrastructurally, LECs and TCs have similar morphological traits, including the lack of a basal lamina. When tissues are longitudinally cut, migrating LECs involved in adult lymphangiogenesis have an ICLC or TC morphology, both in light and transmission electron microscopy. In this paper, we present evidence that at least some cardiac TCs are actually LECs. Therefore, a clear-cut distinction should be made between TCs and LECs, at both the molecular and the ultrastructural levels, in order to avoid obtaining invalid data.
       
  • Updates in the fields of dental anatomy, implantology and bone
           regeneration
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 222Author(s): Christiane Kunert-Keil, Ines Zeidler-Rentzsch, Werner Götz, Friedhelm Heinemann
       
  • Desmogleins as signaling hubs regulating cell cohesion and tissue/organ
           function in skin and heart — EFEM lecture 2018
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer AnzeigerAuthor(s): Jens Waschke Cell–cell contacts are crucial for intercellular cohesion and formation of endothelial and epithelial barriers. Desmosomes are the adhesive contacts providing mechanical strength to epithelial intercellular adhesion and therefore are most abundant in tissues subjected to high mechanical stress such as the epidermis and heart muscle. Desmogleins (Dsg) besides intercellular adhesion serve as signalling hubs regulating cell behaviour. In desmosomal diseases such as the autoimmune blistering skin disease pemphigus or arrhythmic cardiomyopathy (AC), which is caused by mutations of desmosomal components of cardiomyocyte intercalated discs, the adhesive and signalling functions of desmosomes are impaired. Therefore, our goal is to elucidate the mechanisms regulating adhesion of desmosomes in order to develop new strategies to treat desmosomal diseases. For pemphigus, we have provided evidence that intracellular signalling is required for loss of keratinocyte cohesion and have characterized a first disease-relevant adhesion receptor consisting of Dsg3 and p38MAPK. We propose that signalling patterns correlate with autoantibody profiles and thereby define the clinical phenotypes of pemphigus. Besides direct modulation of signalling pathways we have demonstrated that peptide-mediated crosslinking of Dsg molecules can abolish skin blistering in vivo. A similar approach may be effective to stabilize adhesion in cardiomyocytes of AC hearts. Since we observed that the adrenergic β1-receptor is localized at intercalated discs we evaluate signalling pathways regulating cardiomyocyte cohesion. With adrenergic signalling we have reported a first mechanism to stabilize desmosomal adhesion in intercalated discs and proposed a new function of the sympathicus in the heart we refer to as positive adhesiotropy.
       
 
 
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