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Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
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Astrocyte     Open Access  
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Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Journal Cover Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
  [SJR: 0.562]   [H-I: 35]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0940-9602
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3049 journals]
  • Radiological evaluation of maxillary sinus anatomy: A cross-sectional
           study of 300 patients
    • Authors: Naroa Lozano-Carrascal; Oscar Salomó-Coll; Sergio Alexandre Gehrke; José Luis Calvo-Guirado; Federico Hernández-Alfaro; Jordi Gargallo-Albiol
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 214
      Author(s): Naroa Lozano-Carrascal, Oscar Salomó-Coll, Sergio Alexandre Gehrke, José Luis Calvo-Guirado, Federico Hernández-Alfaro, Jordi Gargallo-Albiol
      Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the principal anatomical characteristics of the maxillary sinus using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in order to facilitate prevention of intra- and post-operative complications. Materials and methods Three hundred CBCT scans from patients undergoing implant surgery were analysed. The following anatomical structures were evaluated: (1) Residual ridge height (RRH) and width (RRW); (2) Ridge bone density (BD); (3) Maxillary sinus angle (MSA); (4) Maxillary sinus lateral wall thickness (LWT); (5) Schneiderian membrane thickness (MT); (6) Maxillary sinus septa (SS); (7) Posterior superior alveolar artery (PSAA).‘ Results Mean patient age was 59.5±13.6. Mean RRH at upper second premolar (2PM) was 8.66±3.95mm, 4.90±2.28mm at first molar (1M), and 5.26±2.13mm at second molar (2M). Mean RRW was 6.72±2.69mm at 2PM, 6.87±2.65mm at 1M and 7.09±2.80mm at 2M. Bone density was 330.93±211.02 Hounsfield Units (HU) at first molar position and MSA was 73.39±15.23°. LWT was 1.95±0.98mm. Mean Schneider Membrane thickness (MT) was 1.82±1.59mm; MT was ≤3mm in 72.9% of patients and >3mm in 27.10%. 20.56% of patients presented bucco-palatal oriented septa with a mean height of 13.11±3.82mm. PSAA was observed in 48.60% and mean distance to the top of the ridge was 13.15±3.71mm, and was mostly observed inside the sinus (53.85%). Conclusions CBCT scanning has been shown to be a useful tool for evaluating maxillary sinus anatomical variations. CBCT should be considered the gold standard when evaluating the maxillary sinus area.

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T05:17:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 214 (2017)
  • Online Embryology teaching using learning management systems appears to be
           a successful additional learning tool among Egyptian medical students
    • Authors: Ahmed Farid Al-Neklawy
      Pages: 9 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 214
      Author(s): Ahmed Farid Al-Neklawy
      Although the traditional didactic lecture is considered to be efficient for presenting information and providing explanations, it usually does not provide adequate time for deeper learning activities. So, traditional lecture is one of the most widely criticized educational methods. Virtual learning environment (VLE) is a specially designed environment that facilitates teachers’ management of educational courses for their students, using computer hardware and software, which involves distance learning. In this study, we evaluated the experiment of online teaching of General Embryology for Egyptian undergraduate medical students using WizIQ learning management system. A total of 100 students were invited to submit an online survey at the end of the course to evaluate delivery of instruction, creation of an environment that supported learning, and administrative issues. Most of the students reported that they were strongly satisfied with the efficacy of the instructional methods and were strongly satisfied with the degree of clarity of the course material. They strongly accepted the page format and design of the virtual classroom and strongly agreed that the learning environment supported the learning procedure. The item of easy logging into the virtual classroom had aberrant variable responses; it recorded the lowest mean response; this variation in responses was due to technical factors as the students used different devices with different speeds of internet connections. Ninety percent of students have strongly recommended the course attendance for their fellow students. These results demonstrate that online Anatomy teaching using learning management systems appears to be a successful additional learning tool among Egyptian medical students.

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T05:17:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 214 (2017)
  • Age-related remodeling of the JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling pathway and
           associated myocardial changes: From histological to molecular level
    • Authors: Basma Emad Aboulhoda
      Pages: 21 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 214
      Author(s): Basma Emad Aboulhoda
      Background The cellular and molecular mechanisms implicated in age-associated changes in myocardial structure are of paramount importance since they cause profound alterations in the functional response and represent targets for alleviating age-related pathologies. One of these mechanisms is the JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling pathway. Aim of the study The present study is designed to elucidate age-dependent changes of the myocardium to provide morphological basis displaying the pathogenesis of myocardial hypertrophy, fibrosis and inflammation with aging. Material and methods Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats aged; 6, 30 and 36 months were used in this study. The animals were divided into three age groups, young adult, senile and very senile rats, respectively. The heart weight/body weight ratio was determined. The heart was subjected to gross morphologic examination, microscopic examination using H&E and Masson’s trichrome stains and immunohistochemical examination for detection of JAK, pSTAT3, α-SMA, β-MHC and CD45. Western blotting was also carried out to detect SOCS genes. Real-time PCR was used to detect the inflammatory markers TNFα and IL1β and the hypertrophy marker α-SKA. Biochemical analysis of cardiac troponin I and creatine kinase-MB was done. Quantitative histomorphometric estimations included estimation of cardiac myocyte cross sectional area, estimation of the area percent of collagen fibers in Masson's trichrome stained sections and determination of optical density in immunostained sections. Electron microscopic examination was done to determine capillary density. Results Jak and pSTAT3 were predominantly localized to the nuclei and exhibited progressive decline with aging, while SOCS3 activity displayed an age-related increase. The aged myocardium displayed profound age associated structural changes as well as myocardial hypertrophy, fibrosis and inflammation in senile and very senile rats. Conclusion The age-related modifications in the JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling as well as the age-associated pathological changes in myocardial structure are of particular interest as they provide further insight in age-associated heart pathologies and represent potential targets for cardioprotective and therapeutic approaches.

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T05:17:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 214 (2017)
  • An Augmented Reality Magic Mirror as Additive Teaching Device for Gross
    • Authors: Daniela Kugelmann; Leonard Stratmann Nils Felix Bork Saskia Hoffmann Golbarg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Daniela Kugelmann, Leonard Stratmann, Nils Nühlen, Felix Bork, Saskia Hoffmann, Golbarg Samarbarksh, Anna Pferschy, Anna Maria von der Heide, Andreas Eimannsberger, Pascal Fallavollita, Nassir Navab, Jens Waschke
      When preparing young medical students for clinical activity, it is indispensable to acquaint them with anatomical section images which enable them to use the clinical application of imaging methods A new Augmented Reality Magic Mirror (AR MM) system, which provides the advantage of a novel, interactive learning tool in addition to a regular dissection course, was therefore tested and evaluated by 880 first-year medical students as part of the macroscopic anatomy course in 2015/16 at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (LMU) in Munich. The system consists of an RGB-D sensor as a real-time tracking device, which enables the system to link a deposited section image to the projection of the user’s body, as well as a large display mimicking a real-world physical mirror. Using gesture input, the users have the ability to interactively explore radiological images in different anatomical intersection planes. We designed a tutorial during which students worked with the system in groups of about 12 and evaluated the results. Subsequently, each participant was asked to assess the system’s value by filling out a Likert-scale questionnaire. The respondents approved all statements which stressed the potential of the system to serve as an additional learning resource for anatomical education. In this case, emphasis was put on active learning, 3-dimensional understanding, and a better comprehension of the course of structures. We are convinced that such an AR MM system can be beneficially installed into anatomical education in order to prepare medical students more effectively for the clinical standards and for more interactive, student-centered learning.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T08:56:21Z
  • OBC
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 214

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T08:48:59Z
  • Introducing a simple method of maxillary sinus volume assessment based on
           linear dimensions
    • Authors: Przystańska Agnieszka; Kulczyk Tomasz; Rewekant Artur; Sroka Alicja; Jończyk-Potoczna Katarzyna; Lorkiewicz-Muszyńska Dorota; Gawriołek Krzysztof; Czajka-Jakubowska Agata
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Przystańska Agnieszka, Kulczyk Tomasz, Rewekant Artur, Sroka Alicja, Jończyk-Potoczna Katarzyna, Lorkiewicz-Muszyńska Dorota, Gawriołek Krzysztof, Czajka-Jakubowska Agata
      Measuring sinus volume in a general practice clinic is a complex and time-consuming procedure, requiring experience in the use of radiological methods In the presented research, the automatically estimated maxillary sinus volume was compared with maxillary sinus volume assessed with mathematical formulas used to calculate the volume of spheres and pyramids. The starting point for the statistical analysis were specific measurements of the sinuses. We wanted to discover which geometric shape has the volume that is nearest to the automatically estimated volume. The study was performed using samples of CT scans of pediatric patients age 1 to 17. The dimensions (maximal width, maximal height, maximal length) were used for manual calculations. For the automatic volume calculation, the CT Image Segmentation algorithm (Syngo Via for Oncology, Siemens) was used. Pearson's correlation coefficient was applied to analyse the interrelationship between automatically and manually calculated volume of maxillary sinus. It was statistically established that the “sphere”, “pyramid” and “mean” manually calculated maxillary sinus volume were accurate and strongly correlated with the automatically estimated maxillary sinus volume. The volume of the sphere corresponds better with the automatic measurements than the volume of the pyramid. The variations are significant and they were made reliable with the application of a statistical test. It is quick and easy to calculate the maxillary sinus volume based on its linear dimensions instead of applying advanced software. The manual method for maxillary sinus volume calculation requires three linear measurements of the sinus (length, width, and height) and can be recommended if the automatically estimated volume cannot be obtained.

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T07:24:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.09.010
  • Bodies of children in the Institute of Anatomy in Halle (Saale), Germany,
           between 1920 and 1945
    • Authors: F. Winter; D. Stoevesandt; R. Schultka; M. Viebig; K. Moeller; F. Steger; H. Kielstein
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): F. Winter, D. Stoevesandt, R. Schultka, M. Viebig, K. Moeller, F. Steger, H. Kielstein
      At the Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology in Halle (Saale) 74 children's bodies of unknown historical provenance are being held in storage. The aim of this study was the evaluation of their identities, the circumstances of their acquisition, as well as the documentation of their individual characteristics. For these purposes, all bodies were comprehensively examined and photo-documented. Furthermore, CT-scans of 29 bodies were performed and information was collected from various local and national archives. Although most of the bodies were found to be those of stillborn children and infants, five children were between two and twelve years old, according to an age estimate by body-length and carpal bone analysis. The CT-scans revealed the cause of death for some of the children. The embalming method indicates that the bodies date from the first decades of the 20th century, and archival sources containing documents from 1920 to 1960 strongly suggest that these children's bodies were acquired by Institute of Anatomy between 1920 and 1942. During that period, a total of 2,602 children's bodies were delivered to the Institute of Anatomy and registered in the communal burial records. At this point, there is no evidence that these children might have been victims of National Socialist crimes. It is planned to give them a dignified burial.

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T07:24:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.09.005
  • A Micro-Computed Tomographic (micro-CT) Analysis of the Root Canal
           Morphology of Maxillary Third Molar Teeth
    • Authors: Iwona M. Tomaszewska; Bartosz Leszczyński; Andrzej Wróbel; Tomasz Gładysz; Hal F. Duncan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Iwona M. Tomaszewska, Bartosz Leszczyński, Andrzej Wróbel, Tomasz Gładysz, Hal F. Duncan
      Introduction The aim of this study was to analyze the root canal morphology of maxillary third molars (MTMs) using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Materials and Methods Seventy-eight consecutively-extracted human MTMs were scanned using micro-CT (spatial resolution=13.68μm per pixel). Dedicated software (SkyScan®) was used to create virtual reconstructions and perform 3D-analysis. A range of anatomical features were assessed; externally (root number, length, fusion, curvature, apex), within the pulp chamber (distance between canal orifices, floor thickness) and within the root canal system (root canal number, classification, ramifications, isthmuses, apical constriction). Results The donor age ranged from 19-73 years (mean±SD 32.3±16.5years). MTMs possessed one or three roots, which principally curved buccally/palatally (75.9%), had 1-4 root canals and typically no apical constriction (84.4%). The average external root length was 11.89±1.53mm, while root canal length was 10.18±0.35mm. The root canal diameter 1mm from the apex was 0.37±0.23mm and negatively correlated with donor’s age (r=−0.76; p=0.01), while pulp chamber thickness positively correlated with age (r=0.58; p=0.035). Significantly, furcation canals, canal loops and root canal calcifications were sporadic findings. Conclusions In some cases the anatomy of MTMs may not be as complicated as previously documented, being similar to the reported anatomy of other maxillary molars. During root canal treatment of MTMs, the frequent deviation of the apical foramen from the radiographic apex should be considered, as should the absence of an apical constriction in the majority of cases. In addition, buccal/palatal root curvature, often undiagnosed radiographically, is the most common root curvature in MTMs.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T06:09:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.09.003
  • Phospholipase C zeta parameters in sperm from polymorphic teratozoospermic
    • Authors: Nahid Azad; Hamid Nazarian; Marefat Ghaffari Novin; Reza Masteri Farahani; Abbas Piryaei; Mohammad Hassan Heidari
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Nahid Azad, Hamid Nazarian, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Reza Masteri Farahani, Abbas Piryaei, Mohammad Hassan Heidari
      Teratozoospermia is a disorder associated with high abnormal sperm morphology which affects fertility in males. In recent years, it has been described that biomarker-based sperm quality evaluation can alleviate male infertility treatment. Phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) is a sperm-specific factor which appears to be a predicting biomarker for fertilization potential of males. Following fertilization, PLCζ enters into oocyte cytoplasm and induces oocyte activation, a fundamental stage in initiation of embryo development. Currently, PLCζ parameters, including localization patterns, the proportion of PLCζ-expressing sperm and the expression level, are not defined in polymorphic teratozoospermic men. This study aimed to evaluate PLCζ parameters in polymorphic teratozoospermic men, and compare these parameters with fertile normozoospermic men. Semen samples from thirteen normozoospermic fertile men and twenty-three polymorphic teratozoospermic men were included in this study and evaluated using western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses. Our data indicated significantly lower expression of PLCζ in polymorphic teratozoospermic men, as compared with control men; however, there was no significant difference in localization patterns and the proportion of PLCζ-expressing sperm between polymorphic teratozoospermic patients and control men. Collectively, findings from the present study demonstrated that polymorphic teratozoospermic men did not show abnormal localization patterns or the absence of PLCζ, as compared to the control men; nonetheless, lower expression of PLCζ, considering its role in oocyte activation, might be one of the possible causes of infertility in these patients.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T06:09:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.09.007
  • Gonial Angle Growth Patterns According To Age And Gender
    • Authors: Carolina Larrazabal-Moron; Juan A. Sanchis-Gimeno
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Carolina Larrazabal-Moron, Juan A. Sanchis-Gimeno
      Currently there are controversial results about gender and age differences in human gonial angle values. In this context we aimed to ascertain the gender and age differences in the gonial angle values of young Caucasian Mediterranean subjects. We tested the hypothesis of a relation between the gonial angle values and the gender and age of the subjects by means of a prospective study involving 266 subjects. Panoramic radiographs (Cranex Novus®, XMIND Novus® Soredex, France) were carried out in order to measure the gonial angle values. We found significant differences between females and males in the subgroups aged≤10years old (128.6±3.4 vs 126.8±4.5, p=0.017), 16-20 years old (119.1±5.6 vs 122.3±7.7, p=0.011), 21-25 years old (117.6±5.2 vs 120.8±7.0, p=0.016) and 26-30 years old (117.5±5.4 vs 120.6±5.4, p=0.019) but not in the subgroup aged 11 to 15 years old (123.4±5.2 vs 123.5±5.4, p=0.927). A significant negative correlation was found between age and gonial angle values (r=−0.365, p <0.001). In sum, females under 10 years of age have significantly higher values than males. The angle values decreased until the age of 11-15 years of age when there were no significant gender differences. Thus, the males aged over 16 years old presented significantly higher values than the females. The decrease in gonial angle values seems to slow or stop from 21 years onwards. Knowledge of the pattern differences will serve for age and gender determination when analyzing human remains.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T06:09:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.09.004
    • Authors: A. Solé-Magdalena; M. Martínez-Alonso; C.A. Coronado; L.M. Junquera; J. Cobo; J.A. Vega
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): A. Solé-Magdalena, M. Martínez-Alonso, C.A. Coronado, L.M. Junquera, J. Cobo, J.A. Vega
      Odontoblasts are the dental pulp cells responsible for the formation of dentin. In addition, accumulating data strongly suggest that they can also function as sensory cells that mediate the early steps of mechanical, thermic, and chemical dental sensitivity. This assumption is based on the expression of different families of ion channels involved in various modalities of sensitivity and the release of putative neurotransmitters in response to odontoblast stimulation which are able to act on pulp sensory nerve fibers. This review updates the current knowledge on the expression of transient-potential receptor ion channel and acid-sensing ion channels in odontoblasts, nerve fibers innervating them and trigeminal sensory neurons, as well as in pulp cells. Moreover, the innervation of the odontoblasts and the interrelationship been odontoblasts and nerve fibers mediated by neurotransmitters was also revisited. These data might provide the basis for novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of dentine sensibility and/or dental pain.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T06:09:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.09.006
  • Calcium-binding proteins expression in the septum and cingulate cortex of
           the adult guinea pig
    • Authors: Beata Hermanowicz-Sobieraj; Krystyna Bogus-Nowakowska; Anna Robak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Beata Hermanowicz-Sobieraj, Krystyna Bogus-Nowakowska, Anna Robak
      For the first time this study demonstrates the distribution pattern and expression of three neuroanatomical markers: calbindin D28k (CB), calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) in topographically connected brain regions − the septum (SE) and the cingulate cortex (CC). The co-existence among calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) was also examined.The study was conducted on the adult guinea pig with the use of immunohistochemical and molecular biological techniques. Among the studied CaBPs, which occurred in both examined brain regions at transcript and protein levels, CB was the most expressed in the SE, while CR in the CC. CR, unlike CB and PV, showed higher immunoreactivity in the superficial layers (II–III) of the CC than in the deep ones (V–VI). Most of CB and PV-positive perikarya were detected in the deep layers of the CC. Some CC neurons contained both CB and PV, suggesting cooperation between these CaBPs in the CC. Co-localization between CB and CR in the CC was not observed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T06:09:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.09.009
  • Effects of ß-TCP Scaffolds on neurogenic and osteogenic differentiation
           of Human Embryonic Stem Cells
    • Authors: Premjit Arpornmaeklong; Michael J. Pressler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Premjit Arpornmaeklong, Michael J. Pressler
      Extracellular matrix (ECM) and adhesion molecules play crucial roles in regulating growth and differentiation of stem cells. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of Beta-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP) scaffolds on differentiation and expression of ECM and adhesion molecules of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Undifferentiated hESCs were seeded on ß-TCP scaffolds and cell culture plates and cultured in growth and osteogenic medium for 21 days. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) displayed adhesion and growth of hESCs on the porous ß-TCP scaffolds. Histological analysis, immunohistochemical staining and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) demonstrated that the scaffolds supported growth and differentiation of hESCs. Expression levels of neural crest related genes (AP2a, FoxD3, HNK1, P75, Sox1, Sox10) and osteoblast-related genes (Runx2, SPP1 and BGLA) on the scaffolds in osteogenic medium were significantly higher than on the scaffolds in growth and cell culture plates in osteogenic medium, respectively (p <0.05). Polymerase chain reaction array experiments demonstrated increased expression of ECM and adhesion molecule-related genes on the scaffolds. In conclusion, osteoconductive scaffolds such as ß-TCP scaffolds promoted differentiation of hESCs, particularly expression of genes related to neural crest stem cell and osteoblastic differentiations. Beta-TCP scaffolds could be an alternative cell culture substrate for neural crest and osteogenic differentiation of hESCs. Optimization of culture medium may be necessary to enhance lineage restriction of hESCs on the ß-TCP scaffolds.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T06:09:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.09.008
  • Comparative postnatal histomorphogenesis of the mandible in wild and
           laboratory mice
    • Authors: Jessica Martínez-Vargas; Cayetana Martinez-Maza; Francesc Muñoz-Muñoz; Nuria Medarde; Hayat Lamrous; María José López-Fuster; Jorge Cubo; Jacint Ventura
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Jessica Martínez-Vargas, Cayetana Martinez-Maza, Francesc Muñoz-Muñoz, Nuria Medarde, Hayat Lamrous, María José López-Fuster, Jorge Cubo, Jacint Ventura
      The coordinated activity of bone cells (i.e., osteoblasts and osteoclasts) during ontogeny underlies observed changes in bone growth rates (recorded in bone histology and bone microstructure) and bone remodeling patterns explaining the ontogenetic variation in bone size and shape. Histological cross-sections of the mandible in the C57BL/6J inbred mouse strain were recently examined in order to analyze the bone microstructure, as well as the directions and rates of bone growth according to the patterns of fluorescent labeling, with the aim of description of the early postnatal histomorphogenesis of this skeletal structure. Here we use the same approach to characterize the histomorphogenesis of the mandible in wild specimens of Mus musculus domesticus, from the second to the eighth week of postnatal life, for the first time. In addition, we assess the degree of similarity in this biological process between the wild specimens examined and the C57BL/6J laboratory strain. Bone microstructure data show that Mus musculus domesticus and the C57BL/6J strain differ in the temporospatial pattern of histological maturation of the mandible, which particularly precludes the support of mandibular organization into the alveolar region and the ascending ramus modules at the histological level in Mus musculus domesticus. The patterns of fluorescent labeling reveal that the mandible of the wild mice exhibits temporospatial differences in the remodeling pattern, as well as higher growth rates particularly after weaning, compared to the laboratory mice. Since the two mouse groups were reared under the same conditions, the dissimilarities found suggest the existence of differences between the groups in the genetic regulation of bone remodeling, probably as a result of their different genetic backgrounds. Despite the usual suitability of inbred mouse strains as model organisms, inferences from them to natural populations regarding bone growth should be made with caution.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T05:43:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.09.001
  • Platelet-released growth factors inhibit proliferation of primary
           keratinocytes in vitro
    • Authors: Andreas Bayer; Mersedeh Tohidnezhad; Rouven Berndt; Sebastian Lippross; Peter Behrendt; Tim Klüter; Thomas Pufe; Holger Jahr; Jochen Cremer; Franziska Rademacher; Maren Simanski; Regine Gläser; Jürgen Harder
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Andreas Bayer, Mersedeh Tohidnezhad, Rouven Berndt, Sebastian Lippross, Peter Behrendt, Tim Klüter, Thomas Pufe, Holger Jahr, Jochen Cremer, Franziska Rademacher, Maren Simanski, Regine Gläser, Jürgen Harder
      Autologous thrombocyte concentrate lysates as platelet-released growth factors (PRGF) or Vivostat Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF®) represent important tools in modern wound therapy, especially in the treatment of chronic, hard-to-heal or infected wounds. Nevertheless, underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of the beneficial clinical effects of a local wound therapy with autologous thrombocyte concentrate lysates are poorly understood. Recently, we have demonstrated that PRGF induces antimicrobial peptides in primary keratinocytes and accelerates keratinocytes’ differentiation. In the present study we analyzed the influence of PRGF on primary human keratinocytes’ proliferation. Using the molecular proliferation marker Ki-67 we observed a concentration- and time dependent inhibition of Ki-67 gene expression in PRGF treated primary keratinocytes. These effects were independent from the EGFR- and the IL-6-R pathway. Inhibition of primary keratinocytes‘ proliferation by PRGF treatment was confirmed in colorimetric cell proliferation assays. Together, these data indicate that the clinically observed positive effects of autologous thrombocytes concentrates in the treatment of chronic, hard-to-heal wounds are not based on an increased keratinocytes proliferation.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T05:43:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.09.002
  • Maxillary sinuses and midface in patients with cleidocranial dysostosis
    • Authors: Tomasz Kulczyk; Agnieszka Przystańska; Artur Rewekant; Renata Turska-Malińska; Agata Czajka-Jakubowska
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Tomasz Kulczyk, Agnieszka Przystańska, Artur Rewekant, Renata Turska-Malińska, Agata Czajka-Jakubowska
      The cleidocranial dysplasia is general skeletal disorder with an autosomal dominant inheritance. It is manifested by many craniofacial abnormalities, of which the maxillary hypoplasia is the most evident. The aim of the study was to use CBCT to evaluate the volume of the maxillary sinuses and the dimensions of maxillae in patients with CCD and compare them with healthy individuals. Files of four children with cleidocranial dysplasia were investigated.Volume of every maxillary sinus as well as two dimensional measurements of distances between particular points of interest located on surface of maxilla were calculated from reconstructed CBCT examination. Data were compared with a control group. Statistical analysis was performed. Linear and volumetric data obtained using CBCT was collected and compared with a control group.All affected children had both maxillary sinus volume and maxillary dimensions smaller than control values. The maxillary sinuses were underdeveloped up to half of normal values. The largest differences were recorded in vertical linear dimensions of the maxillae. Horizontal dimensions were also lower. There are morphological modifications of bone tissue which accompany CCD. It seems that these changes occur on the midfacial region and to a greater extent concern the maxillary sinus volume.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T05:17:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.08.002
  • Anatomical connections between the buccinator and the tendons of the
    • Authors: Mi-Sun Hur
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Mi-Sun Hur
      The aim of this study was to clarify the anatomical relationship between the buccinator and the temporalis in order to improve understanding of the precise and coordinated movements of the mouth and the mandible. The buccinator and the temporalis were investigated in 72 hemifaces from Korean cadavers. Removing the buccal fat pad from the buccinator revealed that the fascia encircled the space between the superficial and deep tendons of the temporalis laterally, and the external surface of the buccinator medially in all specimens (100%). The fascia was located between the buccinator and the tendons of the temporalis, thereby connecting these two muscles. The fascial space was filled with connective tissue, and the buccal nerve and artery passed through this space. The inferior fibers of the buccinator arose from the anterior portion of the deep tendon of the temporalis in all specimens (100%). The anterior portion of the deep tendon of the temporalis extended forward obliquely between the ramus and body of the mandible. Thus, both the anterior portion of the deep tendon of the temporalis and its attaching inferior muscle fibers of the buccinator coursed obliquely. The above observations indicate that the connecting fascia between the buccinator and tendons of the temporalis and the inferior fibers of the buccinator that were attached to the deep tendon of the temporalis could assist in coordinatation of the movements of the mandibular region and the mouth angle in the timing and strength of contraction of the muscles during mastication, facial expression, and speech.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T11:05:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.08.005
  • Can Skull Form Predict the Shape of the Temporomandibular Joint' A
           Study Using Geometric Morphometrics on the Skulls of Wolves and Domestic
    • Authors: Stefan Curth; Martin S. Fischer; Kornelius Kupczik
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Stefan Curth, Martin S. Fischer, Kornelius Kupczik
      The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) conducts and restrains masticatory movements between the mammalian cranium and the mandible. Through this functional integration, TMJ morphology in wild mammals is strongly correlated with diet, resulting in a wide range of TMJ variations. However, in artificially selected and closely related domestic dogs, dietary specialisations between breeds can be ruled out as a diversifying factor although they display an enormous variation in TMJ morphology. This raises the question of the origin of this variation. Here we hypothesise that, even in the face of reduced functional demands, TMJ shape in dogs can be predicted by skull form; i.e. that the TMJ is still highly integrated in the dog skull. If true, TMJ variation in the dog would be a plain by-product of the enormous cranial variation in dogs and its genetic causes. We addressed this hypothesis using geometric morphometry on a data set of 214 dog and 60 wolf skulls. We digitized 53 three-dimensional landmarks of the skull and the TMJ on CT-based segmentations and compared (1) the variation between domestic dog and wolf TMJs (via principal component analysis) and (2) the pattern of covariation of skull size, flexion and rostrum length with TMJ shape (via regression of centroid size on shape and partial least squares analyses). We show that the TMJ in domestic dogs is significantly more diverse than in wolves: its shape covaries significantly with skull size, flexion and rostrum proportions in patterns which resemble those observed in primates. Similar patterns in canids, which are carnivorous, and primates, which are mostly frugivorous imply the existence of basic TMJ integration patterns which are independent of dietary adaptations. However, only limited amounts of TMJ variation in dogs can be explained by simple covariation with overall skull geometry. This implies that the final TMJ shape is gained partially independently of the rest of the skull.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T11:05:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.08.003
  • In vivo characterization of the murine venous system before and during
           dobutamine stimulation: implications for preclinical models of venous
    • Authors: Olivia R. Palmer; Calvin B. Chiu; Amos Cao; Ulrich M. Scheven; Jose A. Diaz; Joan M. Greve
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Olivia R. Palmer, Calvin B. Chiu, Amos Cao, Ulrich M. Scheven, Jose A. Diaz, Joan M. Greve
      Although widely used as a preclinical model for studying venous diseases, there is a scarcity of in vivo characterizations of the naïve murine venous system. Additionally, previous studies on naïve veins (ex vivo) have not included the influence of surrounding structures and biomechanical forces. Using MRI, we noninvasively quantified the cross-sectional area, cyclic strain, and circularity of the venous system in young and old, male and female C57BL/6 mice. We investigated the most common venous locations used to perform venous disease research: the common jugular vein, suprarenal inferior vena cava (IVC), infrarenal IVC, common iliac vein, and common femoral vein. Our results elucidate age-dependent changes in venous cross-sectional area, which varied by location. Maximum cyclic strain, a parameter of lumen expansion, showed 10% change across the cardiac cycle, approximately half the magnitude of arteries. Veins demonstrated noncircular shapes, particularly in the core vasculature. The cardiovascular stressor dobutamine had only a small impact on the venous system. Also, our data demonstrate that the peripheral veins tend to decrease in cross-sectional area and circularity with age. Conversely, the IVC tends to increase in size and circularity with age, with males exhibiting larger variability in response to dobutamine compared to females. This work provides a foundation for drawing age and sex comparisons in disease models, and represents the first in vivo characterization of the murine venous system at rest and during the application of a pharmacological exercise surrogate.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T11:05:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.08.004
  • Expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms mRNA transcripts in the
           temporalis muscle of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)
    • Authors: Neus Ciurana; Rosa Artells; Carmen Muñoz; Júlia Arias-Martorell; Gaëlle Bello-Hellegouarch; Aroa Casado; Elisabeth Cuesta; Alejandro Pérez-Pérez; Juan Francisco Pastor; Josep Maria Potau
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Neus Ciurana, Rosa Artells, Carmen Muñoz, Júlia Arias-Martorell, Gaëlle Bello-Hellegouarch, Aroa Casado, Elisabeth Cuesta, Alejandro Pérez-Pérez, Juan Francisco Pastor, Josep Maria Potau
      Purpose The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is the primate that is phylogenetically most closely related to humans (Homo sapiens). In order to shed light on the anatomy and function of the temporalis muscle in the chimpanzee, we have analyzed the expression patterns of the mRNA transcripts of the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms in different parts of the muscle. Basic procedures We dissected the superficial, deep and sphenomandibularis portions of the temporalis muscle in five adult P. troglodytes and quantified the expression of the mRNA transcripts of the MyHC isoforms in each portion using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Main findings We observed significant differences in the patterns of expression of the mRNA transcripts of the MyHC-IIM isoform between the sphenomandibularis portion and the anterior superficial temporalis (33.6% vs 47.0%; P=0.032) and between the sphenomandibularis portion and the anterior deep temporalis (33.6% vs 43.0; P=0.016). We also observed non-significant differences between the patterns of expression in the anterior and posterior superficial temporalis. Principal conclusions The differential expression patterns of the mRNA transcripts of the MyHC isoforms in the temporalis muscle in P. troglodytes may be related to the functional differences that have been observed in electromyographic studies in other species of primates. Our findings can be applicable to the fields of comparative anatomy, evolutionary anatomy, and anthropology.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T11:05:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.08.001
  • Immunohistochemical and western blot analysis suggest that the soluble
           forms of FGF1-2 and FGFR1-2 sustain tail regeneration in the lizard
    • Authors: Alibardi Lorenzo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Alibardi Lorenzo
      Fibroblast Growth Factors 1-2 (FGF1-2) stimulate tail regeneration in lizards and therefore the distribution of their receptors, FGFR1-2, in the regenerating tail of the lizard. Podarcis muralis has been studied using immunofluorescence and western blotting. Immunoreactive protein bands at 15–16kDa for FGF1-2 in addition to those at 50–65kDa are detected in the regenerating epidermis, but weak bands at 35, 45 and 50kDa appear from the regenerating connective tissues. Strongly immunolabeled bands for FGFR1 at 32, 60, and 80kDa and less intense for FGFR2 only appear in the regenerating tail. In normal tail epidermis and dermis, higher MW forms are present at 80 and 115–140kDa, respectively, but they disappear in the regenerating epidermis and dermis where low MW forms of FGFR1-2 are found at 50–70kDa. Immunolocalization confirms that most FGFR1-2 are present in the wound epidermis, apical epidermal peg, ependymal tube while immunolabeling lowers in regenerating muscles, blastema cells, cartilage and connectives tissues. The likely release of FGFs from the apical epidermal peg and ependyma and the presence of their receptors in these tissues may determine the autocrine stimulation of proliferation and a paracrine stimulation of the blastema cells through their FGF Receptors.

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T05:24:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.07.005
  • Modulation of macrophage phagocytosis in vitro – a role for
           cholinergic stimulation'
    • Authors: Amira-Talaat Moussa; Andrea Rabung Sandra Reichrath Stefan Wagenpfeil Thai Dinh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Amira-Talaat Moussa, Andrea Rabung, Sandra Reichrath, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Thai Dinh, Gabriela Krasteva-Christ, Carola Meier, Thomas Tschernig
      Acetylcholine is synthetized and released from neural cells, but also by non-neuronal cells such as epithelial cells or keratinocytes. Cholinergic agonists enhance the phagocytosis of zymosan particles in primary peritoneal macrophages. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of carbachol stimulation on phagocytosis in a macrophage cell line using microspheres. The murine cell line MH-S was used in a phagocytosis assay with fluorescent latex beads. The amount of the ingested beads was determined using flow cytometry. Gene expression was investigated using polymerase chain reaction. Gene expression of the muscarinic receptors M1, M3, M4 and M5 but not M2 was found. Carbachol slightly increased the phagocytosis of microspheres in the macrophages. A co-stimulation using lipopolysaccharide and carbachol did not increase the effect of lipopolysaccharide alone. In conclusion, cholinergic stimulation in vitro only moderately modulates the phagocytosis of microspheres. M2 might have a role in stimulation of macrophage phagocytosis.

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T05:24:30Z
  • Combined anatomical variations: The mylohyoid bridge, retromolar canal and
           accessory palatine canals branched from the canalis sinuosus
    • Authors: M.C. Rusu; Bichir L.A.S. Muntianu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): M.C. Rusu, M. Săndulescu, C. Bichir, L.A.S. Muntianu
      The study of anatomical variations is important not only for collecting anthropometric data, but also for improving clinical protocols and understanding why a particular clinical procedure sometimes does not yield the expected results. We report the case of a 74 year-old patient, in which we observed combined anatomical variants of the mandible and maxillary bone. One of these was the unilateral mylohyoid bridge (MB) of the uncommon, lingular type. This MB extended posteriorly to the spine of Spix, over the sulcus colli behind the spine. It thus formed a common mandibular canal (MC) which further divided into a retromolar canal and the MC proper. This combination of variants in the mandible has not, to our knowledge, previously been reported, at least in studies using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Additionally we found multiple accessory canals (ACs) deriving from the canalis sinuosus, which opened opposite to each frontal tooth, presumably carrying either dental fibers of the palatine nerves, or palatine fibers of the anterior superior alveolar nerve. Although the ACs in the anterior palate are well established anatomical variants, the MB appears in publications rather as an anthropological identifier. However, when present, it can impede anaesthesia of the lower teeth and thus deserves to be included in anatomical descriptions. The evaluation of patients in CBCT should observe the anatomical features on a case-by-case basis and it also provide data for studies of MB prevalence in large numbers of patients.

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T05:24:30Z
  • OBC
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 213

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T05:17:19Z
  • The protective effect of platelet released growth factors and bone
           augmentation (Bio-Oss®) on ethanol impaired osteoblasts
    • Authors: Tolga Taha Sönmez; Andreas Bayer; Tillman Cremer; Jennifer Vanessa Phi Hock; Bernd Lethaus; Nisreen Kweider; Christoph Jan Wruck; Wolf Drescher; Holger Jahr; Sebastian Lippross; Thomas Pufe; Mersedeh Tohidnezhad
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Tolga Taha Sönmez, Andreas Bayer, Tillman Cremer, Jennifer Vanessa Phi Hock, Bernd Lethaus, Nisreen Kweider, Christoph Jan Wruck, Wolf Drescher, Holger Jahr, Sebastian Lippross, Thomas Pufe, Mersedeh Tohidnezhad
      Background Chronic alcohol consumption is a known limiting factor for bone healing. One promising strategy to improve bone augmentation techniques with Bio-Oss® in oral and maxillofacial surgery might be the supportive application of platelet-concentrated biomaterials as platelet-released growth factor (PRGF). To address this matter, we performed an in vitro study investigating the protective effects of PRGF and Bio-Oss® in ethanol (EtOH) treated osteoblasts. Methods The SAOS-2 osteosarcoma cell line, with and without EtOH pretreatment was used. The cell viability, proliferation and alkali phosphatase activity (ALP) after application of 0%, 5% and 10% PRGF and Bio-Oss® were assessed. Results The application of PRGF and Bio-Oss® in EtOH impaired osteoblasts showed a significant beneficial influence increasing the viability of the osteoblasts in cell culture. The synergistic effect of Bio-Oss® and 5% PRGF on the proliferation of osteoblasts was also demonstrated. Bio-Oss® only in combination with PRGF increases the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in EtOH pretreated cells. Conclusions These results indicate that the simultaneous application of PRGF and Bio-Oss® inhibits EtOH induced bone healing impairment. Furthermore, in the cells, PRGF induced a protective mechanism which might promote bone regeneration.

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T05:17:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.07.002
  • Preface - 25th International Symposia on Morphological Science (ISMS) 2017
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 212, Supplement

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T02:21:52Z
  • Abstracts - 25th International Symposia on Morphological Science (ISMS)
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 212, Supplement

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T02:21:52Z
  • OBC
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 212, Supplement

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T02:21:52Z
  • Anastomotic patterns of the facial parotid plexus (PP). A human cadaver
    • Authors: Habib Bendella; Barbara Spacca; Svenja Rink; Hans-Jürgen Stoffels; Makoto Nakamura; Martin Scaal; Heide Heinen; Orlando Guntinas-Lichius; Roland Goldbrunner; Maria Grosheva; Doychin N. Angelov
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Habib Bendella, Barbara Spacca, Svenja Rink, Hans-Jürgen Stoffels, Makoto Nakamura, Martin Scaal, Heide Heinen, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius, Roland Goldbrunner, Maria Grosheva, Doychin N. Angelov
      Details of the human facial parotid plexus (PP) are not readily accessible during ordinary anatomical teaching because of insufficient time and difficulties encountered in the preparation. For parotid and facial nerve surgery however, precise knowledge of PP is of crucial importance. The aim of this study was therefore to provide more details of PP in anatomic specimens. Following anatomical dissection, its location, syntopy and morphology were analyzed in 158 cervico-facial halves of 95 cadavers. The facial nerve (FN) divides into a larger temporo-facial and a smaller cervico-facial trunk. Both trunks branch, form PP, and thus form connections along six distinctive anastomotic types. These anastomoses may explain why accidental or essential severance of a supposed terminal facial branch fails to result in the expected muscle weakness. However, whereas earlier anatomical and clinical studies report connections between both trunks in 67-90% of the cases, our data indicate the presence of anastomoses only in 44%. One reason for this difference may be found in our microscope-assisted dissection in infratemporal regions from which the parotid gland has been removed. Thereby we tracked both FN-trunks in both directions − distally and proximally − and determined the exact origin of all terminal FN branches. This lower rate of occurrence of connections between both trunks reduces the chances of luckily preserved muscle innervation and enhances the risk of facial palsy after transection of a terminal branch. Accordingly, precise anatomical knowledge on PP should be renewed and transection of facial nerve branches avoided.

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T02:21:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.06.001
  • The hypaxial origin of the epaxially located rhomboid muscles
    • Authors: Minu Saberi; Qin Pu; Petr Valasek; Tannaz Norizadeh Abbariki; Ketan Patel; Ruijin Huang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 June 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Minu Saberi, Qin Pu, Petr Valasek, Tannaz Norizadeh Abbariki, Ketan Patel, Ruijin Huang
      In vertebrates, skeletal muscles of the body are made up of epaxial and hypaxial muscles based on their innervation and relative position to the vertebral column. The epaxial muscles are innervated by the dorsal branches of the spinal nerves and comprise the intrinsic (deep) back muscles, while the hypaxial muscles are innervated by the ventral branches of the spinal nerves including the plexus and consist of a heterogeneous group of intercostal, abdominal, and limb as well as girdle muscles. The canonical view holds that the epaxial muscles are derived from the medial halves of the somites, whereas the hypaxial muscles are all derived from the lateral somitic halves. The rhomboid muscles are situated dorsal to the vertebral column and therefore in the domain typically occupied by epaxial muscles. However, they are innervated by a ventral branch of the brachial plexus called the N. dorsalis scapulae. Due to the apparent inappropriate position of the muscle in relation to its innervation we investigated its origin to help clarify this issue. To study the embryonic origin of the rhomboid muscles, we followed derivatives of the medial and lateral somite halves using quail-chick chimeras. Our results showed that the rhomboid muscles are made up of cells derived mainly from the lateral portion of the somite. Therefore the rhomboid muscles which lie within the epaxial domain of the body, originate from the hypaxial domain of the somites. However their connective tissue is derived from both medial and lateral somites.

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T02:21:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.05.009
  • New nano-hydroxyapatite in bone defect regeneration: a histological study
           in rats
    • Authors: Paweł Kubasiewicz-Ross; Jakub Hadzik; Julia Seeliger; Karol Kozak; Kamil Jurczyszyn; Hanna Gerber; Marzena Dominiak; Christiane Kunert-Keil
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Paweł Kubasiewicz-Ross, Jakub Hadzik, Julia Seeliger, Karol Kozak, Kamil Jurczyszyn, Hanna Gerber, Marzena Dominiak, Christiane Kunert-Keil
      Many types of bone substitute materials are available on the market. Researchers are refining new bone substitutes to make them comparable to autologous grafting materials in treatment of bone defects. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the osseoconductive potential and bone defect regeneration in rat calvaria bone defects treated with new synthetic nano-hydroxyapatite. The study was performed on 30 rats divided into 5 equal groups. New preproduction of experimental nano-hydroxyapatite material by NanoSynHap (Poznań, Poland) was tested and compared with commercially available materials. Five mm critical size defects were created and filled with the following bone grafting materials: 1) Geistlich Bio-Oss®; 2) nano-hydroxyapatite + β-TCP; 3) nano-hydroxyapatite; 4) nano-hydroxyapatite+collagen membrane. The last group served as controls without any augmentation. Bone samples from calvaria were harvested for histological and micro-ct evaluation after 8 weeks. New bone formation was observed in all groups. Histomorphometric analysis revealed an amount of regenerated bone between 34.2 and 44.4% in treated bone defects, whereas only 13.0% regenerated bone was found in controls. Interestingly, in group 3, no significant particles of the nano-HA material were found. In contrast, residual bone substitute material could be detected in all other test groups. Micro-CT study confirmed the results of the histological examinations. The new nano-hydroxyapatite provides comparable results to other grafts in the field of bone regeneration.

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T16:01:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.05.010
  • Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of the implantation in the
           lateral part of the mandible between short tissue level (TE) and bone
           level (BL) Implant Systems.
    • Authors: Jakub Hadzik; Ute Botzenhart; Maciej Krawiec; Tomasz Gedrange; Friedhelm Heinemann; Andras Vegh; Marzena Dominiak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Jakub Hadzik, Ute Botzenhart, Maciej Krawiec, Tomasz Gedrange, Friedhelm Heinemann, Andras Vegh, Marzena Dominiak
      Short dental implants can be an alternative method of treatment to a vertical bone augmentation procedure at sites of reduced alveolar height. However, for successful treatment, an implant system that causes a minimal marginal bone loss (MBL) should be taken into consideration. The aim of the study has been to evaluate implantation effectiveness for bone level and tissue level short implants provided in lateral aspects of partially edentulous mandible and limited alveolar ridge height. The MBL and primary as well as secondary implant stability were determined in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups according to the method of treatment provided. Sixteen short Bone Level Implants (OsseoSpeed TX, Astra tech) and 16 short Tissue Level Implants (RN SLActive®, Straumann) were successfully placed in the edentulous part of the mandible. The determination of the marginal bone level was based on radiographic evaluation after 12 and 36 weeks. Implant stability was measured immediately after insertion and after 12 weeks. The marginal bone level of Bone Level Implants was significantly lower compared to Tissue Level Implants. Furthermore, the Bone Level Implants had greater primary and secondary stability in comparison with Tissue Level Implants (Primary: 77.8 ISQ versus 66.5 ISQ; Secondary: 78.9 ISQ versus 73.9 ISQ, respectively). Since short bone level implants showed a significantly decreased MBL 12 and 36 weeks after implantation as well as better results for the primary stability compared to tissue level implants, they should preferentially be used for this mentioned indication.

      PubDate: 2017-06-10T07:42:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.05.008
  • Distribution of BDNF and TrkB isoforms in growing antler tissues of red
    • Authors: Colitti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): M. Colitti
      Antlers are the cranial appendages of deer that regenerate each year. This renewal provides a model to explore molecules involved in mammalian organ regeneration. The cellular distributions of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the isoforms of its cognate receptor Trk tyrosine kinase receptor (TrkB) were localized by immunohistochemistry in sections of growing red deer antler. BDNF and TrkB full length were widely expressed in the integument, perichondrium, periosteum and bone. The truncated isoform receptor was particularly evidenced in integument and vascular inner dermis, but very light reaction was observed in cartilage and bone, both at the site of endochondral and intramembranous ossification. These observations were also assessed at transcriptional level by RT-PCR analyses. The highest expression of all genes significantly occurred in chondroprogenitor cells; however the full-length TrkB receptor was down regulated in osteocartilaginous compartments, in which the truncated isoform was up regulated. The truncated isoform is a dominant-negative receptor that inhibits the full length receptor signalling, even if the truncated isoform not only has this function. This study establishes the presence of BDNF and its receptor in the different cellular compartments of growing antler. Their transcripts assessed by RT-PCR indicate a local synthesis of these molecules that may contribute to the modulation of antler growth, acting as autocrine and/or paracrine factors independently of nerve supply. Among the plethora of other molecular signals and growth factors affecting the antler growth, the local production of BDNF and its cognate receptor could be of interest in understanding their role in antler renewal and to delineate the different involvement of the receptor isoforms.

      PubDate: 2017-06-10T07:42:09Z
  • An alternative didactic, functional and topographic systematization of the
           spinal muscles
    • Authors: Vivianne Izabelle de Araújo Baptista; William Paganini Mayer; Ricardo Eustáquio da Silva; Ricardo Bragança de Vasconcellos Fontes; Josemberg da Silva Baptista
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Vivianne Izabelle de Araújo Baptista, William Paganini Mayer, Ricardo Eustáquio da Silva, Ricardo Bragança de Vasconcellos Fontes, Josemberg da Silva Baptista
      Back muscles are commonly described in a topographically-oriented manner without necessarily following morphological criteria. In this manner, non-standard terms may be employed which convey incorrect morphological concepts and demanding more time from both faculty and students to transmit knowledge. We propose a classification system for spinal muscles incorporating morphological concepts with the goal of facilitating knowledge transfer and suggest the term “spinal muscles”. Paraspinal muscles were systematically divided and classified in seven strata from anterior to posterior: vertebro-appendicular (VA), transversarium (Tr), deep post-transversarium (DPT), middle post-transversarium (MPT), superficial post-transversarium (SPT), deep spino-appendicular (DSA) and superficial spino-appendicular (SSA). Besides topography and function, this system incorporates innervation and embryological origins of each muscle. The extrinsic (VA, DSA, SSA) or intrinsic (Tr, DPT, MPT, SPT) nature of these muscles in relation to the spine and also the topographic relationship to the transverse process is represented in this system. Specific areas of functional, nervous and developmental transition exist on Tr and DPT strata due to being adjacent to extrinsic strata. We believe this system represents a more modern and concise teaching strategy for back muscles which may be employed partially or fully within any program. We envision its full version may be particularly useful in postgraduate medical training for specialties dealing with the spinal column such as neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery and physical medicine and rehabilitation.

      PubDate: 2017-06-10T07:42:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.05.006
  • The use of porcine corrosion casts for teaching human anatomy
    • Authors: Lada Eberlovar; Vaclav Liskac; Hynek Mirka; Zbynek Tonar; Stanislav Haviar; Milos Svododa; Jane Benes; Richard Palek; Michal Emlinger; Jachym Rosendorf; Patrik Mik; Sarah Leupen; Alios Lametschwandtner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Lada Eberlovar, Vaclav Liskac, Hynek Mirka, Zbynek Tonar, Stanislav Haviar, Milos Svododa, Jane Benes, Richard Palek, Michal Emlinger, Jachym Rosendorf, Patrik Mik, Sarah Leupen, Alios Lametschwandtner
      In teaching and learning human anatomy, anatomical autopsy and prosected specimens have always been indispensable. However, alternative methods must often be used to demonstrate particularly delicate structures. Corrosion casting of porcine organs with Biodur E20® Plus is valuable for teaching and learning both gross anatomy and, uniquely, the micromorphology of cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, and urogenital systems. Assessments of casts with a stereomicroscope and/or scanning electron microscope as well as highlighting cast structures using color coding helps students to better understand how the structures that they have observed as two-dimensional images actually exist in three dimensions, and students found using the casts to be highly effective in their learning. Reconstructions of cast hollow structures from (micro-)computed tomography scans and videos facilitate detailed analyses of branching patterns and spatial arrangements in cast structures, aid in the understanding of clinically relevant structures and provide innovative visual aids. The casting protocol and teaching manual we offer can be adjusted to different technical capabilities and might also be found useful for veterinary or other biological science classes.

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T07:35:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.05.005
  • Interprofessional education in pediatrics − child protection and family
           services as a teaching example
    • Authors: Christine Straub; Marcus Krüger; Sebastian Bode
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Christine Straub, Marcus Krüger, Sebastian Bode
      Interprofessional collaboration between different professional groups in the health care system is essential to efficient and effective patient care. Especially in pediatrics, in the field of child protection, and family services it is mandatory to involve experts from different health-care professions to optimize support for children and their families. Interprofessional education in medical schools and specifically in pediatrics is rare in Germany, but is called for by the German National Competence Based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM). We developed an interprofessional course aimed at bringing medical students together with students of psychology, social work, clinical education, and educational science to learn from, about and with each other in the context of child protection and family services. This offers opportunities for all participants to understand profession-specific competencies, roles, attitudes, and limits of their professional roles. The course is led by an interprofessional teaching tandem (social scientist & physician); further input is provided by other health and social care professionals. After the students get a brief overview about the requirements for a successful interprofessional cooperation they solve case studies in interprofessional teams with online support by the teaching tandem. We assess the feasibility and acceptability of this interprofessional course and describe challenges encountered when conducting this kind of learning concept for health care professions. All conducted courses over five consecutive terms were evaluated with an arithmetic mean of AM=1.32 on a 6-point scale (1=“excellent”, 6=“insufficient”), the teaching tandem was evaluated with AM=1.1. All participants (N=85 complete evaluations) voted for the course to be continued in the following terms. Especially the opportunity to discuss cases with students from different degree programs was highly valued as were interprofessional discussions and more in-depth understanding of other professions’ competencies and roles.

      PubDate: 2017-05-26T07:28:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.04.003
  • Platelet-released growth factors induce psoriasin in keratinocytes:
           Implications for the cutaneous barrier
    • Authors: Andreas Bayer; Justus Lammel; Sebastian Lippross; Tim Klüter; Peter Behrendt; Mersedeh Tohidnezhad; Thomas Pufe; Jochen Cremer; Holger Jahr; Franziska Rademacher; Regine Gläser; Jürgen Harder
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Andreas Bayer, Justus Lammel, Sebastian Lippross, Tim Klüter, Peter Behrendt, Mersedeh Tohidnezhad, Thomas Pufe, Jochen Cremer, Holger Jahr, Franziska Rademacher, Regine Gläser, Jürgen Harder
      Millions of patients around the world suffer minor or major extremity amputation due to progressive wound healing complications of chronic or infected wounds, the therapy of which remains a challenge. One emerging therapeutic option for the treatment of these complicated wounds is the local application of an autologous thrombocytes concentrate lysate (e.g. platelet-released growth factors ((PRGF)) or Vivostat PRF®) that contains a multitude of chemokines, cytokines and growth factors and is therefore supposed to stimulate the complex wound healing process. Although PRGF and Vivostat PRF® are already used successfully to support healing of chronic, hard-to-heal and infected wounds the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Psoriasin, also termed S100A7, is a multifunctional antimicrobial protein expressed in keratinocytes and is involved in various processes such as wound-healing, angiogenesis, innate immunity and immune-modulation. In this study, we investigated the influence of PRGF on psoriasin expression in human primary keratinocytes in vitro and the influence of Vivostat PRF® on psoriasin expression in experimentally generated skin wounds in vivo. PRGF treatment of primary keratinocytes caused a significant concentration- and time- dependent increase of psoriasin gene and protein expression in vitro that were partially mediated by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). In accordance with these cell culture data, Vivostat PRF® induced a significant psoriasin gene and protein expression when applied to artificially generated skin wounds in vivo. The observed psoriasin induction in keratinocytes may contribute to the wound healing-promoting effects of therapeutically used thrombocyte concentrate lysates.

      PubDate: 2017-05-26T07:28:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.04.002
    • Authors: Birgit Burda; Eva Steidle-Kloc; Torbrn Dannhauer; Wolfgang Wirth; Anja Ruhdorfer; Felix Eckstein
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Birgit Burda, Eva Steidle-Kloc, Torbrn Dannhauer, Wolfgang Wirth, Anja Ruhdorfer, Felix Eckstein
      The infra-patellar fat pad (IPFP) has been proposed to represent an endocrine link between obesity and knee osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of the current study has been to explore the extent to which IPFP volume is related to body mass index (BMI). A total of 152 participants (age 56±7yrs) without knee OA were studied. These consisted of 19 men and 19 women of normal weight (BMI 20-25), 19/19 pre-obese (BMI 25-30), 19/19 obese class I (BMI 30-35) and 19/19 obese class II (BMI 35-40), who were matched 1:1 for age and height. The IPFP volume was manually segmented from sagittal fat-suppressed magnetic resonance images (MRI). An ANOVA of repeated measures was used to assess whether IPFP volume was related to BMI. The IPFP volume differed significantly between the BMI strata (ANOVA: p=0.001): It was 27.1±6.7cm3 (mean±SD) in normal weight, 29.3±6.9cm3 in pre-obese, 31.0±6.9cm3 in obese class I, and 30.4±6.6cm3 in obese class II participants; the difference in IPFP volume (and body weight) relative to normal weight subjects was 10% (18%) in pre-obese, 17% (39%) in obese class I, and 15% (59%) in obese class II participants. Stratification by sex showed similar results. In conclusion, IPFP volume is shown to be related to BMI, albeit the relative increase (compared with normal weight) does not appear to be proportional to that in body weight. Nonetheless, these findings support the hypothesis that the IPFP may represent a potential endocrine link between obesity and OA, with more intra-articular adipose tissue potentially releasing greater amounts of adipokines.

      PubDate: 2017-05-26T07:28:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.04.004
  • Neuroprotective effects of food restriction on autonomic innervation of
           the lacrimal gland in rat
    • Authors: Hanaa Z. Nooh; NerGhada H. El-Saify; Nermeen M.Noor Eldien
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Hanaa Z. Nooh, NerGhada H. El-Saify, Nermeen M.Noor Eldien
      Inflammatory mechanisms and oxidative stress play important roles in age-related lacrimal gland (LG) degeneration as well as neural degeneration. Research suggests that caloric restriction can prevent age-related LG dysfunction and increase the life span of neurons. In the present study, we hypothesized that caloric restriction prevents age-related LG dysfunction by ameliorating the influence of inflammatory/oxidative stress on autonomic neurons controlling lacrimal function. We evaluated the effects of food restriction (FR) on inflammatory/oxidative status and on autonomic neural/neuroglial cell populations in LGs from aging rats. A total of 45 female albino rats were divided into young adult, aged, and aged-FR groups. The FR group was subjected to a 50% reduction in food from 14–20 months of age. LG samples were collected for each group and subjected to biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical studies. LGs from aged-FR rats, rather than those from aged rats, showed preservation of their cellular structures, organelles, and Schwan cell units. LG preservation was associated with a marked decrease in inflammatory markers, an increase in cellular antioxidants, and the up-regulation of choline acetyltransverase, tyrosine hydroxylase, neuron-specific enolase and S100. These findings strongly suggest that in aged rats, both oxidative and inflammatory stressors directly contribute to LG dysfunction by mediating the degeneration of autonomic neurons, and that FR can protect against these effects.

      PubDate: 2017-05-26T07:28:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.05.001
  • Aberrant distribution of the trochlear nerve: a cadaveric study supported
           by immunohistochemistry.
    • Authors: Kojiro Takezawa; Grant Townsend; Jim Manavis; Mounir Ghabriel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Kojiro Takezawa, Grant Townsend, Jim Manavis, Mounir Ghabriel
      The trochlear nerve is generally considered to be a purely motor nerve supplying one extraocular muscle, the superior oblique. In the current study, 28 orbits were dissected and in one orbit (3.6%), the trochlear nerve divided into two main branches. The medial branch followed the classical course, entered the superior oblique muscle and was presumed to be motor in function. However, before entering the muscle, it partially fused with the frontal nerve, and gave a bundle of nerve fibres to the frontal nerve. The lateral branch gave a communication to the frontal nerve, travelled along the lacrimal nerve, received a branch from the lacrimal nerve then penetrated the lacrimal gland. The lateral branch was presumed to be sensory. Paraffin sections from the two branches were stained using immunohistochemistry. The two branches had different nerve fibre populations and showed distinct differences in neurofilament protein (NFP) immuno-labelling. While both branches showed intense labelling for NFP-H, the lateral branch showed no staining or faint staining for NFP-M and NFP-L respectively, but the medial branch showed moderate labelling for both the NFP-M and NFP-L. Staining for substance P, a marker for nociceptive fibres, showed intense staining in a subset of fibres in the lateral branch, but no staining in the medial branch. Calcitonin gene-related peptide labelling was evident in some axons and some Schwann cells in the medial branch but widespread, weak and fine granular in the lateral branch. These findings indicate that, in some individuals (3.6%), the trochlear nerve may contain motor and sensory fibres, suggesting inter-nuclear communication within the brainstem during embryogenesis or mixing of nerve fibres in their extra-axial pathways.

      PubDate: 2017-05-26T07:28:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.04.001
  • Expression and distribution of leptin and its receptors in the digestive
           tract of DIO (diet-induced obese) zebrafish
    • Authors: M. Mania; L. Maruccio; F. Russo; F. Abbate; L. Castaldo; L. D’Angelo; P. de Girolamo; M.C. Guerrera; C. Lucini; M. Madrigrano; M. Levanti; A. Germanà
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): M. Mania, L. Maruccio, F. Russo, F. Abbate, L. Castaldo, L. D’Angelo, P. de Girolamo, M.C. Guerrera, C. Lucini, M. Madrigrano, M. Levanti, A. Germanà
      The expression and localization of leptin (A and B) and its receptor family in control and diet-induced obese (DIO) adult male zebrafish gut, after 5-weeks overfeeding, administering Artemia nauplii, as fat-rich food, were investigated. Recently, the obese adult zebrafish was considered an experimental model with pathophysiological pathways similar to mammalian obesity. Currently, there are no reports about leptin in fish obesity, or in a state of altered energy balance. By qRT-PCR, leptin A and leptin B expression levels were significantly higher in DIO zebrafish gut than in the control group (CTRL), and the lowest levels of leptin receptor mRNA appeared in DIO zebrafish gut. The presence of leptin and its receptor proteins in the intestinal tract was detected by Western blot analysis in both control and DIO zebrafish. By single immunohistochemical staining, leptin and leptin receptor immunoreactive endocrine cells were identified in the intestinal tract either in DIO or control zebrafish. Moreover, leptin immunopositive enteric nervous system elements were observed in both groups. By double immunohistochemical staining, leptin and its receptor were colocalized especially in DIO zebrafish. Thus, our study represents a starting point in the investigation of a possible involvement of leptin in control of energy homeostasis in control and DIO zebrafish.

      PubDate: 2017-05-05T14:36:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.03.005
  • Garcinia mangostana pericarp extract protects against oxidative stress and
           cardiovascular remodeling via suppression of p47phox and iNOS in nitric
           oxide deficient rats
    • Authors: Pattanapong Boonprom; Orachorn Boonla; Kanokporn Chayaburakul; Jariya Umka Welbat; Patchareewan Pannangpetch; Upa Kukongviriyapan; Veerapol Kukongviriyapan; Poungrat Pakdeechote; Parichat Prachaney
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Pattanapong Boonprom, Orachorn Boonla, Kanokporn Chayaburakul, Jariya Umka Welbat, Patchareewan Pannangpetch, Upa Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol Kukongviriyapan, Poungrat Pakdeechote, Parichat Prachaney
      N ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertension and cardiovascular remodeling are associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Garcinia mangostana Linn., has been reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study investigated whether Garcinia mangostana pericarp extract (GME) could prevent L-NAME-induced hemodynamic alterations, cardiovascular remodeling, oxidative stress and inflammation in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 40mg/kg/day of L-NAME in drinking water to induce hypertension, and were simultaneously treated with GME at a dose of 200mg/kg/day. Rats that received L-NAME for five weeks had high blood pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy and thickening of aortic wall. Vascular superoxide production, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), and plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were significantly increased in L-NAME-hypertensive rats (p< 0.05). This was consistent with up-regulation of the p47phox NADPH oxidase subunit and iNOS protein expression in aortic tissues (p < 0.05). Low levels of plasma nitric oxide metabolites were observed in L-NAME hypertension. GME prevented the development of hypertension and cardiovascular remodeling induced by L-NAME with reduced oxidative stress and inflammation. These data suggest that GME had a protective effect against L-NAME-induced hypertension and cardiovascular remodeling via suppressing p47phox NADPH oxidase subunit and iNOS protein expression resulting in enhancing NO bioavailability.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-29T13:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.03.007
  • The composition and biomechanical properties of human cryopreserved
           aortas, pulmonary trunks, and aortic and pulmonary cusps
    • Authors: Tereza Kubíková; Petra Kochová; Jan Brázdil; Jaroslav Špatenka; Jan Burkert; Milena Králíčková; Zbyněk Tonar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Tereza Kubíková, Petra Kochová, Jan Brázdil, Jaroslav Špatenka, Jan Burkert, Milena Králíčková, Zbyněk Tonar
      Human cryopreserved allografts of pulmonary and aortic heart valves, aortas and pulmonary trunks are used for valve replacement. However, it is unknown how the composition of these allografts relate to their mechanical properties. Our aims were to correlate the histological compositions and passive mechanical properties of aortic and pulmonary valves and to observe the microcracks of aortas and pulmonary trunks. The following parameters were quantified: ultimate stress; ultimate strain; Young's modulus of elasticity; valve cusp wall thickness; pulmonary and aortic intima-media thickness; area fraction of elastin, collagen and calcification; and length density of elastic fibres. The propagation of experimentally induced microcracks avoided elastic fibres. Ultimate strain was negatively correlated with the area fraction of calcification (r=−0.4) in aortas. Ultimate stress (r=0.27) and Young’s modulus in small deformation (r=0.29) and in large deformation (r=0.32) correlated with wall thickness in valve cusps. Young’s modulus (r=0.34) and ultimate strain (r=0.31) correlated with intima-media thickness. Ultimate strain correlated with the area fraction of elastin (r=−0.40) and collagen in the arteries (r=0.31). As conventional histology does not fully explain the mechanical properties of cryopreserved grafts, both morphological and biomechanical tests should be used complementarily when characterizing the ageing of the grafts.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T12:14:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.03.004
  • Medical Students’ Assessment of Eduard Pernkopf’s Atlas:
           Topographical Anatomy of Man
    • Authors: Demetrius M. Coombs; Steven J. Peitzman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Demetrius M. Coombs, Steven J. Peitzman
      Introduction To date there has been no study reflecting the perceptions of first-year medical students on Eduard Pernkopf’s atlas, particularly during their study of gross anatomy and prior to coursework in medical ethics. We present a discussion of Pernkopf’s Atlas: Topographical Anatomy of Man from the perspective of U.S. medical students, and sought to determine whether medical students view Pernkopf’s Topographical Anatomy of Man as a resource of greater accuracy, detail, and potential educational utility as compared to Netter’s Atlas of Human Anatomy. Methods The entire first-year class at Drexel University College of Medicine (265 students) was surveyed at approximately the midpoint of their gross anatomy course and 192 responses were collected (72% response rate). Results Of these, 176 (95%) were unaware of the existence of Pernkopf’s atlas. Another 71% of students found the Pernkopf atlas more likely complete and accurate, whereas 76% thought the Netter atlas more useful for learning (p < .001). When presented with a hypothetical scenario in which the subjects used in creating Pernkopf’s atlas were donated, or unclaimed, but with knowledge that Pernkopf was an active member of the Nazi party, 133 students (72%) retained their original position (p =.001). About 94% desired discussion of Pernkopf within a medical school bioethics course. The relationship between level of self-reported knowledge and whether or not students would advocate removal of the atlas was statistically significant (p =.013). Conclusion Discussing ethical violations in medical history, especially the Pernkopf atlas, must attain a secure place in medical school curricula, and more specifically, within a bioethics course.

      PubDate: 2017-04-08T14:20:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.02.011
  • Elaborative feedback in clinical dental teaching − an assessment from
           the students' perspective
    • Authors: C. Olms; H.A. Jakstat; R. Haak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): C. Olms, H.A. Jakstat, R. Haak
      Introduction The aim of this prospective learning research study is to examine the impact of structured elaborative feedback in clinical dental skills teaching from the students' perspective. Material and Methods A total of 60 dental students participated in the study. The mean average age was 23 years (20 - 40 years), of which 37 were female (61.7%) and 23 male (38.3%). The participants were randomly divided into a study and control group (n=30 each). The curriculum for clinical tooth-shade differentiation is a complete educational module. Recording of shadetaking was carried out on the phantom patient using clinically simulated settings with elaborative feedback in the study group. Pre-test (begin of module T1) and post-test (end of module T2) questionnaires were used to assess knowledge and interest in connection with elaborative feedback. Subjective learning success from the students' perspective and the acceptance of the learning environment were recorded using a questionnaire at the end of the module. The responses corresponded to a Likert scale. The STATA program (Stata/MP 12, StataCorp, CollegeStation, USA) was used for statistical analyses (p<0.05). Results A clear improvement in the quality of response in both groups was observed for questions regarding knowledge of the content and interest (p<0.001). The highest values were achieved at reference time T2 for "Practical steps with digital tooth-shade measurement devices" in the study group. Subjective success in terms of learning and the acceptance of the learning environment tended to be rated more highly in the study group. These results corresponded with the reduction of errors during the practical exercises. All participants (100%) in the study group found individual feedback to be helpful.

      PubDate: 2017-03-31T12:56:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.02.007
  • Mapping the secretome of human chondrogenic progenitor cells with mass
    • Authors: Sarah Batschkus; Ilian Atanassov; Christof Lenz; Philipp Meyer-Marcotty; Gökhan Cingöz; Christian Kirschneck; Henning Urlaub; Nicolai Miosge
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Sarah Batschkus, Ilian Atanassov, Christof Lenz, Philipp Meyer-Marcotty, Gökhan Cingöz, Christian Kirschneck, Henning Urlaub, Nicolai Miosge
      Tissue engineering offers promising perspectives in the therapy of osteoarthritis. In the context of cell-based therapy, chondrogenic progenitor cells (CPCs) may be used to regenerate defects in cartilage tissue. An in-depth characterization of the secretome of CPCs is a prerequisite to this approach. In this study, a method was developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the secretome of undifferentiated and differentiated CPCs. Secreted proteins from cells grown in two-dimensional as well as three-dimensional alginate cultures were extracted and analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Quantitation was achieved by internal standardization using stable isotope-labeled amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). Qualitative analysis of CPC secretomes revealed ECM-components, signal proteins and growth factors most of which were also found in healthy cartilage. A quantitative comparison revealed significantly upregulated proteins with regenerative potential during differentiation, while proteins involved in catabolic metabolism were significantly downregulated. The development of methods for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the secretome of CPCs by mass spectrometry provides a foundation for the investigation of progenitor or stem cells from other sources.

      PubDate: 2017-03-31T12:56:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.03.003
  • The anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee − part of the iliotibial
           tract or a truly separate structure'
    • Authors: Matthias Brockmeyer; Denis Höfer; Katja Schäfer; Romain Seil; Kurt Becker; Friedrich Paulsen; Dieter Kohn; Thomas Tschernig
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Matthias Brockmeyer, Denis Höfer, Katja Schäfer, Romain Seil, Kurt Becker, Friedrich Paulsen, Dieter Kohn, Thomas Tschernig
      In this Short Communication the issue is discussed whether the recently reported anterolateral ligament of the knee is a unique structure or just part of the iliotibial tract. The presented findings from investigations in body donors support the view of a unique structure.

      PubDate: 2017-03-31T12:56:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.02.010
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