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  Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 7328 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (1833 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

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African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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African Journal of Trauma     Open Access  
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
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ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
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American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
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Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
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Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
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Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
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Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
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Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
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Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
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Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access  
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Journal Cover Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
  [SJR: 0.562]   [H-I: 35]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0940-9602
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3123 journals]
  • Effect of ageing on the myosin heavy chain composition of the human
           sternocleidomastoid muscle
    • Authors: M. Meznaric; I. Eržen; P. Karen; E. Cvetko
      Pages: 95 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 216
      Author(s): M. Meznaric, I. Eržen, P. Karen, E. Cvetko
      The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition of ageing limb muscles is transformed into a slower phenotype and expresses fast-twitch fibre type atrophy, presumably due to age-related motor unit remodelling and a change in the patterns of physical activity. It is not known if ageing affects the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) in a similar way. The goal of the study was to analyze the MyHC composition and the size of muscle fibres in the ageing SCM by immunohistochemical methods and quantitative analysis and stereology using our own software for morphometry. We hypothesize that with ageing the MyHC composition of SCM transforms similarly as in ageing limb muscles, but the size of the muscle fibres is less effected as in limb muscles. The study was performed on the autopsy samples of the SCM in 12 older males. The results were compared with those published in our previous study on 15 young adult males. An ageing SCM transforms into a slower MyHC profile: the percentage of slow-twitch fibres is enhanced (numerical proportion 44.6 vs. 31.5%, P<0.05; area proportion 57.2 vs. 38.4%, P<0.05). The share of hybrid 2a/2x fibres is diminished (numerical proportion 14.1 vs. 26.8%, P<0.05), the area proportion of all fast-twitch fibres expressing MyHC-2a and 2x is smaller (50.6 vs. 63.5%, P<0.05), and the area proportion of fibres expressing the fastest myosin isoform MyHC-2x is smaller too (19.0 vs. 34.5%, P<0.05). The slower phenotype with the preferential reduction of the fibres expressing the fastest MyHC-2x provide circumstantial evidence for: (i) more fast-twitch than slow-twitch motor units being lost; and (ii) reinnervation by the surviving motor units. There appears to be no significant influence on muscle fibre size, which is congruent with relatively unchanged SCM activity during life.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2018)
       
  • Massa adiposa ligamenti falciformis or anterior abdominal fat pad — Its
           dimension and relation to body weight
    • Authors: Friedemann Strobel; Eckart Schirg; Martin Schlaud; Thomas Tschernig
      Pages: 100 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 216
      Author(s): Friedemann Strobel, Eckart Schirg, Martin Schlaud, Thomas Tschernig
      The anterior abdominal fat pad is associated with the falciform ligament in the upper middle/right abdomen and is frequently seen there in diagnostic imaging. It varies greatly in size and has often been described as an incidental finding in adults and has hitherto rarely been regarded as being illness-relevant. The aim of this study has been to assess whether the dimension of the corpus adiposum may be associated with body mass index. Ultrasound findings of 26 patients from birth until adolescence were analyzed for this purpose. In addition, an example from a recent dissection course has been included. The structure is constantly found with its smallest dimension in newborns, with a slight increase in infancy. The average dimensions were 7.6 by 3.5 by 0.7cm. The cubic volume correlated with age, weight and body mass index, whereas the latter association was strongest. Our data suggest that routinely determined dimension of falciform fat may be a surrogate parameter of relative body weight in childhood.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2018)
       
  • Periostin, dentin matrix protein 1 and P2rx7 ion channel in human teeth
           and periodontal ligament
    • Authors: I. Menéndez-Diaz; J.D. Muriel; O. García-Suárez; A. Obaya; S. Cal; J. Cobo; J.A. Vega; T. Cobo
      Pages: 103 - 111
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 216
      Author(s): I. Menéndez-Diaz, J.D. Muriel, O. García-Suárez, A. Obaya, S. Cal, J. Cobo, J.A. Vega, T. Cobo
      The periostin is a matricellular protein present in the human periodontal ligament and human dental pulp-derived cells lines, that up-regulates the in vitro expression of some genes involved in the dentin mineralization, such as dentin matrix protein 1 and P2x7-ion channel receptor. Here we investigated the distribution of periostin in human teeth and periodontal ligaments, mapping in parallel the localization of dentin matrix protein 1 and P2x7-ion channel receptor to establish whether or not they are expressed in the same places as periostin. The periodontal ligament and the subodontoblastic layer of the dental pulp displayed strong periostin immunoreactivity, whereas dentin matrix protein 1 was detected in the periodontal ligament co-localized with periostin in the vicinity of the cement. The P2x7 ion channel receptor was regularly absent in both the periodontal ligament and dental tissues, but in some cases, it was observed in the odontoblasts. Present results demonstrate the occurrence of periostin in the healthy adult human tooth without co-localization with proteins involved in tooth mineralization, the expression of which it regulates. These results might serve as a baseline for future studies on pathological conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2018)
       
  • Early molecular response and microanatomical changes in the masseter
           muscle and mandibular head after botulinum toxin intervention in adult
           mice
    • Authors: Julián Balanta-Melo; Viviana Toro-Ibacache; Maria Angélica Torres-Quintana; Kornelius Kupczik; Carolina Vega; Camilo Morales; Nadia Hernández-Moya; Manuel Arias-Calderón; Carolina Beato; Sonja Buvinic
      Pages: 112 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 216
      Author(s): Julián Balanta-Melo, Viviana Toro-Ibacache, Maria Angélica Torres-Quintana, Kornelius Kupczik, Carolina Vega, Camilo Morales, Nadia Hernández-Moya, Manuel Arias-Calderón, Carolina Beato, Sonja Buvinic
      Background Masseter muscle paralysis induced by botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) evokes subchondral bone loss in mandibular heads of adult rats and growing mice after 4 weeks. However, the primary cellular and molecular events leading to altered bone remodeling remain unexplored. Thus, the aim of the current work has been to assess the molecular response that precedes the early microanatomical changes in the masseter muscle and subchondral bone of the mandibular head in adult mice after BoNTA intervention. Methods A pre-clinical in vivo study was performed by a single intramuscular injection of 0.2 U BoNTA in the right masseter (experimental) of adult BALB/c mice. The contralateral masseter was injected with vehicle (control). Changes in mRNA levels of molecular markers of bone loss or muscle atrophy/regeneration were addressed by qPCR at day 2 or 7, respectively. mRNA levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) was assessed in mandibular heads, whilst mRNA levels of Atrogin-1/MAFbx, MuRF-1 and Myogenin were addressed in masseter muscles. In order to identify the early microanatomical changes at day 14, fiber diameters in transversal sections of masseter muscles were quantified, and histomorphometric analysis was used to determine the bone per tissue area and the trabecular thickness of subchondral bone of the mandibular heads. Results An increase of up to 4-fold in RANKL mRNA levels were detected in mandibular heads of the BoNTA-injected sides as early as 2 days after intervention. Moreover, a 4–6 fold increase in Atrogin-1/MAFbx and MuRF-1 and an up to 25 fold increase in Myogenin mRNA level were detected in masseter muscles 7 days after BoNTA injections. Masseter muscle mass, as well as individual muscle fiber diameter, were significantly reduced in BoNTA-injected side after 14 days post-intervention. At the same time, in the mandibular heads from the treated side, the subchondral bone loss was evinced by a significant reduction in bone per tissue area (−40%) and trabecular thickness (−55%). Conclusions Our results show that masseter muscle paralysis induced by BoNTA leads to significant microanatomical changes by day 14, preceded by molecular changes as early as 2 days in bone, and 7 days in muscle. Therefore, masseter muscle atrophy and subchondral bone loss detected at 14 days are preceded by molecular responses that occur during the first week after BoNTA intervention.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.11.009
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2018)
       
  • The Meckel Collections (Die Meckelschen Sammlungen), Rüdiger Schultka
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 217
      Author(s): Friedrich Paulsen


      PubDate: 2018-02-16T03:52:13Z
       
  • Reversal of drug-induced gingival overgrowth by UV-mediated apoptosis of
           gingival fibroblasts — an in vitro study.
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 217
      Author(s): Casey Ritchhart, Anita Joy
      Gingival overgrowth (GO) is an undesirable result of certain drugs like Cyclosporine A (CsA). Histopathology of GO shows hyperplasia of gingival epithelium, expansion of connective tissue with increased collagen, or a combination. Factors such as age, gender, oral hygiene, duration, and dosage also influence onset and severity of GO. One of the mechanisms behind uncontrolled cell proliferation in drug-induced GO is inhibition of apoptotic pathways, with a consequent effect on normal cell turnover. Our objective was to determine if UV photo-treatment would activate apoptosis in the gingival fibroblast component. Human gingival fibroblast cells (HGF-1) were exposed to 200ng/ml or 400ng/ml CsA and maintained for 3, 6, and 9 days, followed by UV radiation for 2, 5, or 10min (N=6). Naïve (no CsA or UV), negative (UV, no CsA), and positive controls (CsA, no UV) were designated. Prior to UV treatment, growth media was replaced with 1M PBS to prevent absorption of UV radiation by serum proteins, and cells were incubated in growth media for 24h post-UV before processing for TUNEL assay, cell proliferation assays, or immunofluorescence. Data showed a temporal increase in proliferation of HGF-1 cells under the influence of CsA. The 200ng/ml dose was more effective in causing over-proliferation. UV treatment for 10min resulted in significant reduction in cell numbers, as evidenced by counts and proliferation assays. Our study is a first step to further evaluate UV-mediated apoptosis as a mechanism to control certain forms of GO.

      PubDate: 2018-02-16T03:52:13Z
       
  • Human body donation in Thailand: Donors at Khon Kaen University
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 216
      Author(s): N. Techataweewan, C. Panthongviriyakul, Y. Toomsan, W. Mothong, P. Kanla, A. Chaichun, P. Amarttayakong, N. Tayles
      Background Culture, society and spirituality contribute to variability in the characteristics of human body donors and donation programmes worldwide. The donors and the body donation programme at Khon Kaen University, northeast Thailand, reflect all these aspects of Thailand, including the status accorded to the donors and the ceremonial acknowledgement of the donors and their families. Methods Data from the programme records and from surveys of samples of currently registering donors and recently received donor bodies are analysed to define the characteristics of both registering and received donors, including motivation, demography, socio-economic status, health, and use of the bodies. Findings The body donation programme at Khon Kaen University currently has a very high rate of registration of body donors, with gender and age differences in the patterns of donation. Registrants include more females than males, a long-standing pattern, and are an average age of 50 years. The bodies of 12% of registrants are received after death and include more males than females. Both sexes are of an average age of 69 years. Males had registered their donation eight years prior to death and females ten years prior. Current registrants identified altruistic motives for their decision to donate, although the coincidence of body donation by a highly revered monk with a surge in donations in 2015 suggests that Buddhism plays a primary role in motivation. The opportunity to make merit for donors and their families, and respect shown to donors and the nature of the ceremonies acknowledging the donors and their families, including the use of the Royal Flame at the cremation ceremony, all contribute to decisions to donate. Conclusions The characteristics of body donors and the body donation programme at Khon Kaen University are reflective of Thai society and the centrality of Buddhism to Thai culture.

      PubDate: 2018-02-16T03:52:13Z
       
  • A new procedure for processing extracted teeth for immediate grafting in
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): José Luis Calvo Guirado, Pilar Cegarra del Pino, Lari Sapoznikov, Rafael Arcesio Delgado Ruíz, Manuel Fernández Dominguez, Sérgio Alexandre Gehrke
      Objectives To investigate freshly extracted dental particulate used to graft post-extraction sockets in dogs, comparing new bone formation at experimental and control sites. Material and Methods Bilateral premolars P2, P3, P4 and first mandibular molars were extracted atraumatically from six American Fox Hound dogs. The teeth were ground immediately using a ‘Smart Dentin Grinder.’ The dentin particulate was sieved to ensure a grain size of 300-1200μm and immersed in an alcohol cleanser to dissolve organic debris and bacteria, followed by washing in sterile saline buffer solution. The animals were divided into two groups randomly: group ‘A’ (control) samples were left to heal without any extraction socket grafting procedure; group ‘B’ (experimental) sockets were filled with the autogenous dentin particulate graft. The rate of tissue healing and the quantity of bone formation were evaluated using histological and histomorphometric analyses at 60 and 90 days post-grafting. The type of bone generated was categorized as woven (immature bone) or lamellar bone (mature bone). Results Substantially more bone formation was found in Group B (experimental) than Group A (control) at 60 and 90 days (p<0.05). Less immature bone was identified in the dentin grafted group (25.7%) than the control group (5.9%). Similar differences were also observed at 90 days post grafting. Conclusion Autogenous dentin particulate grafted immediately after extractions may be considered a useful biomaterial for socket preservation, protecting both buccal and lingual plates, generating large amounts of new woven bone formation after 60 days, and small amounts of lamellar bone after 90 days healing.

      PubDate: 2018-02-16T03:52:13Z
       
  • Anatomists’ perceptions of the skills and attributes required of
           newly-recruited medical students
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Bernard J. Moxham, Odile Plaisant, Baptiste Lignier, Feisal Brahim
      Background and purpose Admission procedures for recruiting students to medical school vary considerably across the world. Notwithstanding such variability, it is important to know what skills and attributes are required of the students by their teachers on entering medical school. Procedures Anatomists are often the teachers who first meet the students as they enter medical school and this report analyses, by means of a questionnaire, the putative skills required of their medical students by anatomists from the U.S.A. and Europe. Findings The findings from a questionnaire suggest that there are few differences between anatomists in the U.S.A. and Europe, even though medical students are postgraduates in the U.S.A. but undergraduates in Europe. Furthermore, the skill requirements expected of the students differed only slightly according to the gender and age of the anatomists and to whether or not they had clinical qualifications. The most important skills and attributes required of the students were found to be: good study skills and abilities to study independently, understanding of biology (but not chemistry, physics, mathematics, statistics, or understanding of the scientific method), memory/factual retention, communication and teamwork skills, problem-solving abilities, and attributes related to life-long learning, readiness to be challenged, and emotional stability and conscientiousness. Conclusions Anatomists within the U.S.A. and Europe essentially agree on the skills and attributes initially required of their medical students, as well as those not deemed initially important. These findings are presented with the view of enhancing admission policies and procedures for admitting students into medical schools.

      PubDate: 2018-02-16T03:52:13Z
       
  • An Augmented Reality magic mirror as additive teaching device for gross
           anatomy
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 215
      Author(s): Daniela Kugelmann, Leonard Stratmann, Nils Nühlen, Felix Bork, Saskia Hoffmann, Golbarg Samarbarksh, Anna Pferschy, Anna Maria von der Heide, Andreas Eimannsberger, Pascal Fallavollita, Nassir Navab, Jens Waschke
      When preparing young medical students for clinical activity, it is indispensable to acquaint them with anatomical section images which enable them to use the clinical application of imaging methods. A new Augmented Reality Magic Mirror (AR MM) system, which provides the advantage of a novel, interactive learning tool in addition to a regular dissection course, was therefore tested and evaluated by 880 first-year medical students as part of the macroscopic anatomy course in 2015/16 at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (LMU) in Munich. The system consists of an RGB-D sensor as a real-time tracking device, which enables the system to link a deposited section image to the projection of the user’s body, as well as a large display mimicking a real-world physical mirror. Using gesture input, the users have the ability to interactively explore radiological images in different anatomical intersection planes. We designed a tutorial during which students worked with the system in groups of about 12 and evaluated the results. Subsequently, each participant was asked to assess the system’s value by filling out a Likert-scale questionnaire. The respondents approved all statements which stressed the potential of the system to serve as an additional learning resource for anatomical education. In this case, emphasis was put on active learning, 3-dimensional understanding, and a better comprehension of the course of structures. We are convinced that such an AR MM system can be beneficially installed into anatomical education in order to prepare medical students more effectively for the clinical standards and for more interactive, student-centered learning.

      PubDate: 2018-02-16T03:52:13Z
       
  • Review: Limb regeneration in humans: dream or reality'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Lorenzo Alibardi
      Appendage regeneration occurs by a sequence of events resembling those that take place during development in the embryo. This requires embryonic conditions such as hydration and hyaluronate content where Wnt and other signaling pathways, together with non- coding RNAs, can be re-expressed. These conditions among vertebrates are fully met only in amputated limbs of amphibians, likely because they are neotenic and maintain larval characteristics, including immaturity of their immune system and permanence of numerous stem cells. Although some key genes orchestrating limb regeneration are also present in amniotes, including humans, these genes are not expressed after injury. In amniotes a key problem for regeneration derives from the efficient immune system, largely deficient in anamniotes. As a consequence, wounds and appendage loss tend to scar instead of regenerating. Efforts of regenerative medicine in the attempt to induce the regrowth of limbs in humans must produce outgrowths with high hydration and hyaluronate content in order to create the immune-suppressed conditions similar to those present during development. The induced blastema must be manipulated for long periods of time in order to maintain the same regions present during limb development, an apical epidermal ridge and a polarizing region that forms gradients of expression of Wnt, Shh, FGF, BMP and Hox-genes. Pharmacological treatments to direct the regenerating limb into normal growth without risk of inducing abnormal or tumorigenic growth must be monitored during the course of the regeneration process − a medical treatment lasting years to fully regain the size of the lost appendage.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:11:29Z
       
  • Long-term estradiol-17β exposure decreases the cholinergic
           innervation pattern of the pig ovary
    • Authors: B. Jana; K.A. Meller; M. Czajkowska; J. Całka
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): B. Jana, K.A. Meller, M. Czajkowska, J. Całka
      Elevated levels of endogenous estrogens in the course of pathological states of ovaries, as well as xenoestrogens, may lead to hyperestrogenism. It has previously been demonstrated that long-term estradiol-17β (E2) administration in adult gilts affected the population of sympathetic intraovarian nerve fibers. The aim of this study has been to determine the effect of long-term E2 exposure on the cholinergic innervation pattern of porcine ovaries. Intraovarian distribution and the density of nerve fibers immunoreactive (IR) to vesicular acetylocholine transporter (VAChT) and/or neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), somatostatin (SOM) were determined. From day 4 of the first estrous cycle to day 20 of the second studied cycle, experimental gilts were intramuscularly injected with E2, while control gilts received corn oil. The ovaries were then collected and processed for double-labelling immunofluorescence. After E2 administration, the total number of fibers IR to VAChT, nNOS and VIP decreased significantly. The numbers of VAChT-, nNOS- and VIP-IR fibers within the ground plexus were significantly lower, while they were significantly higher around small or medium tertiary follicles. In the E2-affected ovaries, the numbers of nNOS- and VIP-IR fibers were significantly higher near secondary follicles and VAChT-IR in the vicinity of medullar blood vessels. In turn, around the latter structures there were significantly lowered populations of nNOS- and VIP-IR nerve fibers. These results suggest that the elevated E2 levels that occur during pathological states may affect the cholinergic innervation pattern of ovaries and their function(s).

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.11.010
       
  • Biomolecules in the treatment of lichen planus refractory to
           corticosteroid therapy: clinical and histopathological assessment
    • Authors: Laura Piñas; Mohammad Hamdan Alkhraisat; Ricardo Suárez Fernández; Eduardo Anitua
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 January 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Laura Piñas, Mohammad Hamdan Alkhraisat, Ricardo Suárez Fernández, Eduardo Anitua
      Background Local deficit of several biomolecules have been described in oral lichen planus (OLP). Such a deficit impairs cellular functions and cell-matrix communication. Purpose Assess the efficacy of the local application of autologous biomolecules in the treatment of erosive OLP. Materials and methods In this study, the use of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) as a source of blood-derived and autologous growth factors and proteins were tested in erosive oral lichen planus refractory to corticosteroids. Histopathological features of the disease were also analysed at the time of diagnosis. Clinical data were the number of recurrences and achievement of pain reduction and complete healing of the lesions. A total of 10 patients with erosive OLP refractory to treatment by corticosteroids were included in the study. All patients were females with a mean age of 48±12years. Results A complete remission of the disease was achieved after one infiltration of PRGF in 8 patients. Only 2 patients required a total of 2 infiltrations to heal. Hydropic degeneration of the epithelium basal layer, band-like subepithelial lymphocytic infiltration and fibrin deposits in the epithelium were observed in all patients. Interestingly plasma cells were present in 2 patients. All patients presenting plasma cells healed after only one PRGF infiltration. However, 2 patients out of 6 (no plasma cells) required 2 infiltrations. Conclusions The local administration of autologous local factors could overcome the deficit of biomolecular clues and thus improve cell functions and restore cell-matrix communication.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.12.006
       
  • INDUCED POST-TRAUMATIC APEXIFICATION: 20 YEAR FOLLOW-UP AND MORPHOLOGICAL
           STUDY AFTER NEW FRACTURE
    • Authors: Federica Fonzar; Leopoldo Forner; Riccardo Fabian-Fonzar; Carmen Llena
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 January 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Federica Fonzar, Leopoldo Forner, Riccardo Fabian-Fonzar, Carmen Llena
      Apexification is an endodontic technique used in immature necrotic teeth, the primary goal of which is to induce a calcified barrier in roots with open apices and to promote the continuation of apical root development. A 7-year-old patient with a coronal fracture in a maxillary central incisor was treated with an apexification technique using calcium hydroxide. The apical closure was obtained after one year, then a permanent root canal filling was performed. The tooth was monitored for a period of 20 years, up to when a trauma caused its extraction. The newly formed root was analyzed macroscopically, histologically and through scanning electron microscopy. A morphologically normal root was observed, with a large apex and accessory foramina, showing a combination of tissue structures similar to secondary and tertiary dentine, close to amorphous mineralized areas. Despite the final evolution of the case, calcium hydroxide apexification is a good therapy in order to treat pulp necrosis in an immature tooth, leading to complete development of the root and allowing the tooth to be kept in the mouth.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.12.005
       
  • Fetal sigmoid colon mesentery − in relevance in fetal ultrasound
           application. A pilot study
    • Authors: Slawomir Wozniak; Jerzy Florjanski; Henryk Kordecki; Marzena Podhorska-Okolow; Zygmunt Domagala
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 December 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Slawomir Wozniak, Jerzy Florjanski, Henryk Kordecki, Marzena Podhorska-Okolow, Zygmunt Domagala
      Introduction Ultrasound examinations during pregnancy are routine procedures used to detect fetal congenital malformations. Ultrasound monitoring of sigmoid colon mesenterial development could be useful for early detection of subjects at risk of sigmoid colon volvulus. Objective The aim of our paper was to assess the sigmoid colon length, and sigmoid colon mesentery width and height in the late fetal period, and, using the results, to estimate the surface area of the mesocolon (in mm2) in living fetuses. Moreover, we attempted to repeat some of these measurements in living fetuses using ultrasound imaging. Methods The study was carried out on 209 formalin fixed human fetuses (100 female and 109 male) aged from 4th to 7th gestational months (102–203 days), with a crown-rump length of 132–342mm. The length of the sigmoid colon, as well as the height and width of its mesentery were measured. The surface area of the mesocolon was estimated. Correction for formalin induced shrinkage was applied. Pilot ultrasound examinations of live fetuses were performed. Results Mean values of sigmoid colon length, mesenteric width and height (formalin fixed fetuses) for respective gestational ages were: month 4: 21.46±6.7mm, 6.80±2.1mm, 5.5±1.49mm; month 5: 27.32±1.2mm, 7.62±2.01mm, 7.33±2.17mm; month 6: 47.56±9.57mm, 11.68±3.8mm, 10.3±3.05mm; month 7: 56.92±17.48mm. 15.32±8 mm, 12.81±3.16mm. The surface area ranges of the sigmoid colon mesentery found for respective gestational months (intrauterine fetuses) were as follows: month 4: 33.24 − 51.95mm2; month 5: 49.63 − 77.6mm2; month 6: 106.89 − 167.15mm2 and month 7: 145.69 − 272.53mm2. Conclusion The surface area of the sigmoid colon mesentery can be used as a simple parameter applied in fetal ultrasonographic evaluation. The development of the sigmoid colon accelerates in the 6th gestational month, and decelerates in the 7th gestational month. The sigmoid colon mesentery width was larger than its height between the 4th and 7th gestational months.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.12.003
       
  • Periodontal materials and cell biology for guided tissue and bone
           regeneration
    • Authors: Mihai Andrei; Anca Dinischiotu; Andreea Cristiana Didilescu; Daniela Ionita; Ioana Demetrescu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Mihai Andrei, Anca Dinischiotu, Andreea Cristiana Didilescu, Daniela Ionita, Ioana Demetrescu
      The present review is intended to find links between periodontal materials of the dentomaxillary apparatus and cell biology at the beginning of a century fraught with various forms of periodontal diseases and needing new treatment strategies. The manuscript has two different parts. The first describes the anatomy of tooth supporting structures, as well as related pathologies. The second part is related to cell and molecular biology in the context of periodontal regeneration.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.11.007
       
  • Lipopolysaccharide induces tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 independent
           relocation of lymphocytes from the red pulp of the mouse spleen
    • Authors: Ivana M. Lalić; Rudolf Bichele; Anja Repar; Sanja Z. Despotović; Saša Petričević; Martti Laan; Pärt Peterson; Jürgen Westermann; Živana Milićević; Ivana Mirkov; Novica M. Milićević
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Ivana M. Lalić, Rudolf Bichele, Anja Repar, Sanja Z. Despotović, Saša Petričević, Martti Laan, Pärt Peterson, Jürgen Westermann, Živana Milićević, Ivana Mirkov, Novica M. Milićević
      It is well known that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces migration of several cellular populations within the spleen. However, there are no data about the impact of LPS on B and T lymphocytes present in the red pulp. Therefore, we used an experimental model in which we tested the effects of intravenously injected LPS on the molecular, cellular and structural changes of the spleen, with special reference to the red pulp lymphocytes. We discovered that LPS induced a massive relocation of B and T lymphocytes from the splenic red pulp, which was independent of the tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 signaling axis. Early after LPS treatment, quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed the elevated levels of mRNA encoding numerous chemokines and proinflammatory cytokines (XCL1, CXCL9, CXCL10, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL17, CCL20, CCL22, TNFα and LTα) which affect the navigation and activities of B and T lymphocytes in the lymphoid tissues. An extreme increase in mRNA levels for CCL20 was detected in the white pulp of the LPS-treated mice. The CCL20-expressing cells were localized in the PALS. Some smaller CCL20-expressing cells were evenly dispersed in the B cell zone. Thus, our study provides new knowledge of how microbial products could be involved in shaping the structure of lymphatic organs.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.12.002
       
  • Dissociation of mono- and co-culture spheroids into single cells for
           subsequent flow cytometric analysis
    • Authors: Ute Grässer; Monika Bubel; Daniela Sossong; Martin Oberringer; Tim Pohlemann; Wolfgang Metzger
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 216
      Author(s): Ute Grässer, Monika Bubel, Daniela Sossong, Martin Oberringer, Tim Pohlemann, Wolfgang Metzger
      Background Spheroids are considered to reflect the natural organization of cells better than 2D cell cultures, but their analysis by flow cytometry requires dissociation into single cells. Methods We established protocols for dissociation of mono- and co-culture spheroids consisting of human fibroblasts and human endothelial cells. Cell recovery rate and viability after dissociation were evaluated with hemocytometer and by flow cytometry. The diameter of cells and the amount of cell aggregates were quantified by Casy®-technology and the cellular composition was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Optimal dissociation conditions with low cell aggregation were determined by size, cultivation time and cellular composition of the spheroids. Smaller spheroids (10,000 cells) could be dissociated with Accutase®, whereas larger spheroids (50,000 cells) required more stringent dissociation conditions. The size of the cells decreased with increasing cultivation time. Cell recovery rate was dependent upon cellular composition and spheroid size. The highest cell recovery rate was found for co-culture spheroids. The highest cell viability was detected for dissociated fibroblast spheroids. A quantitative analysis of the cellular composition of dissociated co-culture spheroids was possible. Discussion Spheroids can be successfully dissociated into singular cells for subsequent flow cytometric analysis. Dissociation conditions as well as cell recovery rate and cell viability depend on size, cultivation time and cellular composition of the spheroids. The observed decrease in cell size in spheroids over time might be responsible for the well-known time-dependent decrease in spheroid size.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T13:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2017)
       
  • Morphological characteristics and variations of the human quadratus
           plantae muscle
    • Authors: Bettina Pretterklieber
      Pages: 9 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 216
      Author(s): Bettina Pretterklieber
      The quadratus plantae (QP) is a highly variable structure. A number of partly inexact descriptions of this entity have been provided in textbooks of anatomy. Although several authors have examined the QP, its exact site of origin and type of insertion have hitherto not been specified. The aim of this study has been to provide detailed qualitative and quantitative data about the number of heads, points of origin, and type of insertion of the QP. The QP in both feet of 50 formalin-fixed specimens of body donors (25 men and women) were analyzed by gross anatomical dissection. It was composed of one (34%), two (57%) or three heads (9%). The latter condition was observed only in men. The lateral head was absent in 31 feet, and the medial head only in one right foot of a man. The medial head arose, amongst others, in 100% of the examined cases from the medial calcaneal surface, in 93% from the long plantar ligament and in 80% from the plantar calcaneocuboid ligament. The lateral head arose, amongst others, from the long plantar ligament in 90%, and from the lateral process of the calcaneal tuberosity in 64% of the examined feet. The type of insertion was always a mixture of at least two of three types; i.e. muscular (84%), tendinous (89%) and aponeurotic (45%). As additional findings, the flexor digitorum accessorius longus (FDAL) and the peroneocalcaneus internus (PCI) were observed in 12% of all individuals and in 20% of men. The present investigation revealed that the QP may be classified according to the number of heads, but no classification can be given for its points of origin or type of insertion. The present data are mandatory for anatomical and surgical practice and will hopefully lead to further imaging and biomechanical studies.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T13:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.10.006
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2017)
       
  • Anatomic characterization of the radial and ulnar nutrient arteries in
           humans
    • Authors: Shota Kinose; Yosuke Kanaya; Yuto Kawasaki; Taro Okamura; Kota Kato; Tatsuo Sakai; Koichiro Ichimura
      Pages: 23 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 216
      Author(s): Shota Kinose, Yosuke Kanaya, Yuto Kawasaki, Taro Okamura, Kota Kato, Tatsuo Sakai, Koichiro Ichimura
      Background The localization of nutrient foramens has been extensively studied in humans and other vertebrate animals. However, accurate information on the origin and extraosseous course of the nutrient arteries in some types of long tubular bones is lacking. Terminologia Anatomica, the international standard on human anatomic terminology, lists the radial nutrient artery (RNA) and the ulnar nutrient artery (UNA) as branches of the radial and ulnar arteries, respectively. Anatomy textbooks published in both German- and English-speaking countries regard both the RNA and UNA as branches of the anterior interosseous artery. Methods To clarify the anatomic characteristics of the RNA and UNA in humans, we reexamined the origin and course of these arteries by cadaveric dissection. Results Almost all RNAs and UNAs branched from the ulnar artery or its tributaries. In typical cases, the RNA branched from the anterior interosseous artery and the UNA branched from the proximal part of the ulnar artery or the anterior interosseous artery. These findings are reasonable from the perspective of regional anatomy, since the ulnar artery passes more deeply than the radial artery in the proximal forearm and thus the proximal part of the ulnar artery and its major branches are situated more closely to the radial and ulnar nutrient foramens. Conclusions Based on our findings, it is necessary to correct the position of the RNA and UNA in the arterial hierarchy of T. Anatomica for accurate morphological description.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T13:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2017)
       
  • Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction and plastination in whole body slices.
           A novel technique to identify fascial tissue structures
    • Authors: Hanno Steinke; Dina Wiersbicki; Marie-Lynn Speckert; Claudia Merkwitz; Thomas Wolfskämpf; Benjamin Wolf
      Pages: 29 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 216
      Author(s): Hanno Steinke, Dina Wiersbicki, Marie-Lynn Speckert, Claudia Merkwitz, Thomas Wolfskämpf, Benjamin Wolf
      Since collagen rich fascial tissue is often very delicate and difficult to discern on native tissue slices, we have developed a method for staining full-body slices using the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction with subsequent plastination. Since the PAS reaction primarily stains carbohydrates, we could exploit the circumstance that different collagen types vary in carbohydrate content. Contrary to fasciae, tissues such as muscle, bone, nerves and blood vessels exhibit significantly less staining or remain unstained. We have validated the whole-body slice staining results in microscopic tissue slides which were stained with standard extracellular matrix stains such as Masson-Goldner trichrome stain and van-Gieson stain. Furthermore, we have performed immunofluorescence imaging to confirm the presence of collagen in the stained tissue. We achieved very good staining and plastination results and were able to clearly identify even very thin fascia in transversal body slices. This technique may prove useful in advancing our knowledge on the complex topography of fascial structures.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T13:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2017)
       
  • Immunolocalization of connective tissue growth factor, transforming growth
           factor-beta1 and phosphorylated-SMAD2/3 during the postnatal tooth
           development and formation of junctional epithelium
    • Authors: Shubo Li; Yihuai Pan
      Pages: 52 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 216
      Author(s): Shubo Li, Yihuai Pan
      Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a downstream mediator of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and TGF-β1-induced CTGF expression is regulated through SMAD pathway. However, there is no literature showing the expression of TGF-β1-SMAD2/3-CTGF signaling pathway during postnatal tooth development and the formation of junctional epithelium (JE). Hence, we aimed to analyze the localization of TGF-β1, CTGF and phosphorylated SMAD2/3 (p-SMAD2/3) in the developing postnatal rat molars. Wistar rats were killed at postnatal (PN) 0.5, 3.5, 7, 14 and 21days and the upper jaws were processed for immunohistochemistry. At PN0.5 and PN3.5, weak staining for TGF-β1 and CTGF was evident in preameloblasts (PA), while moderate to strong staining was seen in odontoblasts (OD), dental papilla (DPL), secretary ameloblasts (SA), preodontoblasts (PO) and polarized odontoblasts (PoO). There was no staining for p-SMAD2/3 in PA, SA, PO and PoO, although strong staining was localized in DPL. OD was initially moderately positive and then negative for p-SMAD2/3. At PN7, intense staining for TGF-β1 and CTGF was observed in SA, OD, dental pulp (DP) and predentin respectively. p-SMAD2/3 was strongly expressed in DP and moderately expressed in SA and OD. At PN14 and PN21, both reduced enamel epithelium (REE) and JE showed a strong reaction for TGF-β1 and CTGF. p-SMAD2/3 was intensely and weakly expressed in REE and JE respectively. These data demonstrate that the expression of CTGF, TGF-β1 and p-SNAD2/3 is tissue-specific and stage-specific, and indicate a regulatory role for a TGF-β1-SMAD2/3-CTGF signaling pathway in amelogenesis, dentinogenesis and formation of JE.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T13:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.10.005
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2017)
       
  • Complications in the treatment of mandibular condylar fractures: Surgical
           versus conservative treatment
    • Authors: Iván García-Guerrero; Juan M. Ramírez; Rafael Gómez de Diego; José M. Martínez-González; María S. Poblador; José L. Lancho
      Pages: 60 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 216
      Author(s): Iván García-Guerrero, Juan M. Ramírez, Rafael Gómez de Diego, José M. Martínez-González, María S. Poblador, José L. Lancho
      Objectives In the present article, we aim to review the main intra- and post-operative complications associated with two different therapeutic approaches for treating mandibular condylar fractures: conservative (CTR) and surgical treatment (ORIF, Open Reduction and Internal Fixation). Material and methods We have carried out a retrospective, meta-analytic, observational study using literature review, covering the period between 2000- September 2017. The data obtained were processed using statistical software SPSS v.0.18 and R v.2.11.1. The chi-squared test was used for comparison of relative frequencies for independent samples. Results A total of 2458 patients with 2810 fractures were collected for study. Patients treated with CTR and ORIF were an average of 29 years old, of those treated with CTR, 72.37% and 27.63% were male or female respectively and, of those treated with ORIF, 70.36% and 29.64% were male or female respectively. The main complications suffered by CTR and ORIF patients were: asymmetry (10.2%/6.4%), residual pain (6.5%/5.6%), temporomandibular joint and articular imbalance (15.9%/10.3%) and malocclusion (11.1%/4.0%), respectively. We only found significant differences between CTR and ORIF in the number of cases of temporomandibular joint and articular imbalance and malocclusion. Facial nerve damage was found exclusively among ORIF patients (8.6%) of which 8.3% were temporary and 0.3% permanent. Conclusions The complications associated with either technique are minimal and infrequent, resulting in successful outcomes with minimal morbidity. CTR are associated with complications deriving from delayed mobilization leading to functional limitation, whereas the main complication associated with ORIF treatment was facial nerve damage.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T13:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.10.007
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2017)
       
  • Morphological features of the anterior talofibular ligament by the number
           of fiber bundles
    • Authors: Mutsuaki Edama; Ikuo Kageyama; Takanori Kikumoto; Masatoshi Nakamura; Wataru Ito; Emi Nakamura; Ryo Hirabayashi; Tomoya Takabayashi; Takuma Inai; Hideaki Onishi
      Pages: 69 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 216
      Author(s): Mutsuaki Edama, Ikuo Kageyama, Takanori Kikumoto, Masatoshi Nakamura, Wataru Ito, Emi Nakamura, Ryo Hirabayashi, Tomoya Takabayashi, Takuma Inai, Hideaki Onishi
      The aims of this study have been to clarify differences in morphological features based on the number of fiber bundles in the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL), and to investigate the relationship between the ATFL and the calcaneofibular ligament (CFL). This study used 81 legs from 43 cadavers. The ATFL was classified according to differences in the number of fiber bundles as: Type I, with one fiber bundle; Type II-a, with two fiber bundles that were incompletely separated; Type II-b, with two fiber bundles that were completely separated; and Type III, with three fiber bundles. The morphological features measured were fiber bundle length, fiber bundle width, and fiber bundle angle. For the relationship between the ATFL and CFL, the positional relationship and attachment sites of the two ligaments were examined. Type I was present in 33%, Type II-a in 17%, Type II-b in 40%, and Type III in 10%. The morphological features of superior fiber bundles and inferior fiber bundles were significantly different within each type. Among types, there were significant differences in the morphological features of Type II-a and Type III inferior fiber bundles. In the relationship between the ATFL and CFL, there was a connection between the ATFL and CFL in all specimens. Various types were present in the positional relationship and attachment sites of the two ligaments. The results of this study suggest that, among different ligament types with two or three fiber bundles, the control function of the ankle may differ within each type and among types.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T13:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2017)
       
  • Effect of different resistance-training protocols on the extracellular
           matrix of the calcaneal tendon of rats
    • Authors: Josete Mazon; Andrea Aparecida de Aro; Priscyla Waleska Simões; Edson Rosa Pimentel
      Pages: 75 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 216
      Author(s): Josete Mazon, Andrea Aparecida de Aro, Priscyla Waleska Simões, Edson Rosa Pimentel
      The calcaneal tendon extracellular matrix (ECM) is composed of collagen, non-collagenous glycoproteins and proteoglycans, and able to adapt to various biomechanical stimuli. The objective of this study was to analyze the response of different resistance-training protocols, such as hypertrophy, strength and resistance, on the organization of the calcaneal tendon after training. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: untrained (UT), resistance training (RT), hypertrophy training (HT), and strength training (ST). The protocol in a vertical climbing platform was performed thrice per week over twelve weeks. For biochemical study, the tendons of each group were minced and analyzed for gelatinases, quantification of non-collagenous proteins, sulfated glycosaminoglycans, and hydroxyproline. For morphological analysis, sections were stained with HE and toluidine blue. Non-stained sections were used for birefringence analysis under polarization microscopy. The highest hydroxyproline concentrations were found in HT (154.8±14.2) and RT (173.6±25.2) compared with UT (122.4±27.0). A higher concentration of non-collagenous proteins was detected in the RT group (14.98mg/g) compared with the other groups. In polarization microscopy, major birefringence was observed in HT and the lowest in ST compared with UT, indicating higher organization of collagen bundles in HT. In analysis for zymography, the presence of latent MMP-9 was more prominent in the ST group and the active MMP-9 more prominent in the HT group. For MMP-2, significant differences in the latent isoform between the HT (184,867±6765) and UT (173,018±9696) groups were found. In sections stained with toluidine blue (TB), higher metachromasia was observed in the tendon’s distal region in HT and RT groups, indicating a greater amount of proteoglycans. We conclude that the different training protocols produced different responses in the ECM. The remarkable presence of MMP-2 and -9 in the hypertrophy training group may be related to the highest organization of collagen bundles and possibly a more efficient remodeling process, observed in that group, as demonstrated by images and measurements of birefringence.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T13:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2017)
       
  • Age-related remodeling of the JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling pathway and
           associated myocardial changes: From histological to molecular level
    • Authors: Basma Emad Aboulhoda
      Pages: 21 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 214
      Author(s): Basma Emad Aboulhoda
      Background The cellular and molecular mechanisms implicated in age-associated changes in myocardial structure are of paramount importance since they cause profound alterations in the functional response and represent targets for alleviating age-related pathologies. One of these mechanisms is the JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling pathway. Aim of the study The present study is designed to elucidate age-dependent changes of the myocardium to provide morphological basis displaying the pathogenesis of myocardial hypertrophy, fibrosis and inflammation with aging. Material and methods Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats aged; 6, 30 and 36 months were used in this study. The animals were divided into three age groups, young adult, senile and very senile rats, respectively. The heart weight/body weight ratio was determined. The heart was subjected to gross morphologic examination, microscopic examination using H&E and Masson’s trichrome stains and immunohistochemical examination for detection of JAK, pSTAT3, α-SMA, β-MHC and CD45. Western blotting was also carried out to detect SOCS genes. Real-time PCR was used to detect the inflammatory markers TNFα and IL1β and the hypertrophy marker α-SKA. Biochemical analysis of cardiac troponin I and creatine kinase-MB was done. Quantitative histomorphometric estimations included estimation of cardiac myocyte cross sectional area, estimation of the area percent of collagen fibers in Masson's trichrome stained sections and determination of optical density in immunostained sections. Electron microscopic examination was done to determine capillary density. Results Jak and pSTAT3 were predominantly localized to the nuclei and exhibited progressive decline with aging, while SOCS3 activity displayed an age-related increase. The aged myocardium displayed profound age associated structural changes as well as myocardial hypertrophy, fibrosis and inflammation in senile and very senile rats. Conclusion The age-related modifications in the JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling as well as the age-associated pathological changes in myocardial structure are of particular interest as they provide further insight in age-associated heart pathologies and represent potential targets for cardioprotective and therapeutic approaches.

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T05:17:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 214 (2017)
       
  • OBC
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 215


      PubDate: 2017-12-24T13:24:51Z
       
  • Quantification of surfactant proteins in tears of patients suffering from
           dry eye disease compared to healthy subjects
    • Authors: Andreas Posa; Friedrich Paulsen; Richard Dietz; Fabian Garreis; Ralph Sander; Martin Schicht; Saadettin Sel; Michael Scholz; Christian M. Hammer; Lars Bräuer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Andreas Posa, Friedrich Paulsen, Richard Dietz, Fabian Garreis, Ralph Sander, Martin Schicht, Saadettin Sel, Michael Scholz, Christian M. Hammer, Lars Bräuer
      Purpose To quantify and compare the amounts of surfactant proteins SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D in the tear fluid collected from patients with dry eye syndrome and from individuals with a healthy ocular surface. Methods Schirmer strips were used to collect tear fluid from both eyes of 241 volunteers (99 men, 142 women; age range: 18-87 years). Dry eye syndrome was diagnosed by ophthalmologists in 125 patients, whereas the healthy control group comprised 116 individuals. The total protein concentration was determined via Bradford assay. The relative concentration of surfactant proteins SP-A through −D was measured by enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). Results The mean relative concentrations of SP-A, SP-C and SP-D were significantly higher in the dry eye group as compared to the healthy controls (p<0.05, one-way ANOVA). SP-B was also detected at a higher concentration in the dry eye group, but the difference to the control group was not statistically significant. Conclusions The upregulation of SP-A and SP-D in the dry eye group is probably related to these proteins’ known antimicrobial and immunomodulatory effects at the ocular surface. It may represent a pathophysiological response to the inflammatory condition of the ocular surface in dry eye. The upregulation of SP-B and SP-C may represent an effort of the lacrimal system to reduce surface tension and thus to counteract the increased tendency of the tear film to tear in dry eye.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T13:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.11.006
       
  • Carthamus Tinctorius L. extract improves hemodynamic and vascular
           alterations in a rat model of renovascular hypertension through Ang
           II-AT1R-NADPH oxidase pathway
    • Authors: Sarawoot Bunbupha; Chutamas Wunpathe; Putcharawipa Maneesai; Thewarid Berkban; Upa Kukongviriyapan; Veerapol Kukongviriyapan; Parichat Prachaney; Poungrat Pakdeechote
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Sarawoot Bunbupha, Chutamas Wunpathe, Putcharawipa Maneesai, Thewarid Berkban, Upa Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol Kukongviriyapan, Parichat Prachaney, Poungrat Pakdeechote
      Carthamus tinctorius L. (CT) is widely used in Asian countries as a beverage and in folk medicine. The effects of CT extract on hemodynamics, vascular remodeling, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and oxidative stress in the two-kidney, one clip (2K-1C) hypertensive rat model were investigated. Renovascular hypertension was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats and were treated with CT extract (500mg/kg/day) or captopril (5mg/kg/day) or vehicle for four weeks. CT extract or captopril reduced blood pressure, hindlimb vascular resistance, and increased hindlimb blood flow in 2K-1C hypertensive rats (p < 0.05). Increases in aortic wall thickness, cross-sectional area and collagen deposition in 2K-1C rats were alleviated with CT extract or captopril treatment (p < 0.05). CT extract or captopril suppressed RAS activation, including elevated serum ACE activity, and plasma Ang II level and up-regulated aortic AT1R protein expression in 2K-1C rats (p < 0.05). Furthermore, CT extract or captopril reduced vascular superoxide production, aortic NADPH oxidase subunit gp91phox expression and increased plasma nitric oxide metabolite levels in 2K-1C rats (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that CT extract ameliorated hemodynamic alteration and vascular remodeling in 2K-1C hypertensive rats. Possible mechanisms may involve RAS inhibitor effects and potent antioxidant activity.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T13:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.11.005
       
  • Ultrasound assessment of soft tissue augmentation around implants in the
           aesthetic zone using a connective tissue graft and xenogeneic collagen
           matrix - 1-year randomised follow-up
    • Authors: Monika Puzio; Artur Błaszczyszyn; Jakub Hadzik; Marzena Dominiak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Monika Puzio, Artur Błaszczyszyn, Jakub Hadzik, Marzena Dominiak
      Purpose A comparative, ultrasound evaluation of the thickness of keratinized mucosa (TKT) around implants one year after gingival augmentation (GA) by means of a connective tissue graft (CTG) and the xenogeneic collagen matrix (CMX). Materials and methods A total of 75 bone level tapered implants (Conelog® Camlog) were inserted in 57 patients in the aesthetic area of both jaws. The patients were divided into 3 groups: control group I- without GA; group II- GA 3 months before implantation, and group III- GA 3 months after implantation. Groups II and III were divided into two subgroups depends on type of material used for GA: a) CMX (Mucograft®, Geistlich Pharma AG) and b) CTG. The patients underwent a clinical and ultrasound examination before, then after 3 and 12 months following GA respectively to evaluate TKT at two points using ultrasound equipment (Pirop®, Echoson). Point 1 was considered to be in the middle of the line connecting the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) to the adjacent teeth, and point 2 on the mucogingival junction (MGJ). Results Three months after GA, the highest increase in gingival thickness was noted in group IIIb (point 1-0.95mm, 2- 1.01mm). However, 12 months after GA the highest gingival thickness was observed in group IIb (point 1- 1.76mm, 2- 1.36m) and next IIIb (point 1- 1.52mm, 2- 1.15mm). Conclusions Both CTG and Geistlich Mucograft® increased TKT, but higher values were noted using CTG augmentation before implantation. An ultrasonic device can be used as a non-invasive, reliable, and reproducible method for evaluating TKT.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T13:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.11.003
       
  • Distribution and neurochemistry of porcine urinary bladder-projecting
           sensory neurons in subdomains of the dorsal root ganglia: a quantitative
           analysis
    • Authors: Anna Kozłowska; Anita Mikołajczyk; Mariusz Majewski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Anna Kozłowska, Anita Mikołajczyk, Mariusz Majewski
      The aim of the present study has been to verify the inter- and intraganglionic distribution pattern of porcine urinary bladder-projecting (UBP) neurons localized in the sacral dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). The morphology and chemical phenotype of these cells have also been investigated. These neurons were visualized using the fluorescent tracer Fast Blue (FB) which was injected bilaterally into the urinary bladder wall of five juvenile female pigs. The intraganglionic distribution showed that small- and medium-sized FB+ perikarya were mainly located in the central (S3-S4) and periphero-central (S2) region of the ganglia, while large cells were heterogeneously distributed. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the most frequently observed markers in small and medium-sized UBP perikarya were: neurofilament 200, lectin from Bandeiraea simplicifolia (Griffonia simplicifolia) isolectin B4, substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1. Moreover, UBP neurons containing these substances were also mainly observed in the central and periphero-central region of the ganglion. Differences in the percentage of traced cells and their neuropeptide content were observed between the S2, S3 and S4 DRGs. In conclusion, the present study, for the first time, describes the arrangement of UBP DRGs neurons within particular subdomains of sacral ganglia, taking into account their size and chemical phenotype.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T13:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.10.003
       
  • Introducing a simple method of maxillary sinus volume assessment based on
           linear dimensions
    • Authors: Przystańska Agnieszka; Kulczyk Tomasz; Rewekant Artur; Sroka Alicja; Jończyk-Potoczna Katarzyna; Lorkiewicz-Muszyńska Dorota; Gawriołek Krzysztof; Czajka-Jakubowska Agata
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Przystańska Agnieszka, Kulczyk Tomasz, Rewekant Artur, Sroka Alicja, Jończyk-Potoczna Katarzyna, Lorkiewicz-Muszyńska Dorota, Gawriołek Krzysztof, Czajka-Jakubowska Agata
      Measuring sinus volume in a general practice clinic is a complex and time-consuming procedure, requiring experience in the use of radiological methods In the presented research, the automatically estimated maxillary sinus volume was compared with maxillary sinus volume assessed with mathematical formulas used to calculate the volume of spheres and pyramids. The starting point for the statistical analysis were specific measurements of the sinuses. We wanted to discover which geometric shape has the volume that is nearest to the automatically estimated volume. The study was performed using samples of CT scans of pediatric patients age 1 to 17. The dimensions (maximal width, maximal height, maximal length) were used for manual calculations. For the automatic volume calculation, the CT Image Segmentation algorithm (Syngo Via for Oncology, Siemens) was used. Pearson's correlation coefficient was applied to analyse the interrelationship between automatically and manually calculated volume of maxillary sinus. It was statistically established that the “sphere”, “pyramid” and “mean” manually calculated maxillary sinus volume were accurate and strongly correlated with the automatically estimated maxillary sinus volume. The volume of the sphere corresponds better with the automatic measurements than the volume of the pyramid. The variations are significant and they were made reliable with the application of a statistical test. It is quick and easy to calculate the maxillary sinus volume based on its linear dimensions instead of applying advanced software. The manual method for maxillary sinus volume calculation requires three linear measurements of the sinus (length, width, and height) and can be recommended if the automatically estimated volume cannot be obtained.

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T07:24:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.09.010
       
  • Bodies of children in the Institute of Anatomy in Halle (Saale), Germany,
           between 1920 and 1945
    • Authors: F. Winter; D. Stoevesandt; R. Schultka; M. Viebig; K. Moeller; F. Steger; H. Kielstein
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): F. Winter, D. Stoevesandt, R. Schultka, M. Viebig, K. Moeller, F. Steger, H. Kielstein
      At the Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology in Halle (Saale) 74 children's bodies of unknown historical provenance are being held in storage. The aim of this study was the evaluation of their identities, the circumstances of their acquisition, as well as the documentation of their individual characteristics. For these purposes, all bodies were comprehensively examined and photo-documented. Furthermore, CT-scans of 29 bodies were performed and information was collected from various local and national archives. Although most of the bodies were found to be those of stillborn children and infants, five children were between two and twelve years old, according to an age estimate by body-length and carpal bone analysis. The CT-scans revealed the cause of death for some of the children. The embalming method indicates that the bodies date from the first decades of the 20th century, and archival sources containing documents from 1920 to 1960 strongly suggest that these children's bodies were acquired by Institute of Anatomy between 1920 and 1942. During that period, a total of 2,602 children's bodies were delivered to the Institute of Anatomy and registered in the communal burial records. At this point, there is no evidence that these children might have been victims of National Socialist crimes. It is planned to give them a dignified burial.

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T07:24:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.09.005
       
  • A Micro-Computed Tomographic (micro-CT) Analysis of the Root Canal
           Morphology of Maxillary Third Molar Teeth
    • Authors: Iwona M. Tomaszewska; Bartosz Leszczyński; Andrzej Wróbel; Tomasz Gładysz; Hal F. Duncan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Iwona M. Tomaszewska, Bartosz Leszczyński, Andrzej Wróbel, Tomasz Gładysz, Hal F. Duncan
      Introduction The aim of this study was to analyze the root canal morphology of maxillary third molars (MTMs) using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Materials and Methods Seventy-eight consecutively-extracted human MTMs were scanned using micro-CT (spatial resolution=13.68μm per pixel). Dedicated software (SkyScan®) was used to create virtual reconstructions and perform 3D-analysis. A range of anatomical features were assessed; externally (root number, length, fusion, curvature, apex), within the pulp chamber (distance between canal orifices, floor thickness) and within the root canal system (root canal number, classification, ramifications, isthmuses, apical constriction). Results The donor age ranged from 19-73 years (mean±SD 32.3±16.5years). MTMs possessed one or three roots, which principally curved buccally/palatally (75.9%), had 1-4 root canals and typically no apical constriction (84.4%). The average external root length was 11.89±1.53mm, while root canal length was 10.18±0.35mm. The root canal diameter 1mm from the apex was 0.37±0.23mm and negatively correlated with donor’s age (r=−0.76; p=0.01), while pulp chamber thickness positively correlated with age (r=0.58; p=0.035). Significantly, furcation canals, canal loops and root canal calcifications were sporadic findings. Conclusions In some cases the anatomy of MTMs may not be as complicated as previously documented, being similar to the reported anatomy of other maxillary molars. During root canal treatment of MTMs, the frequent deviation of the apical foramen from the radiographic apex should be considered, as should the absence of an apical constriction in the majority of cases. In addition, buccal/palatal root curvature, often undiagnosed radiographically, is the most common root curvature in MTMs.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T06:09:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.09.003
       
  • Phospholipase C zeta parameters in sperm from polymorphic teratozoospermic
           men
    • Authors: Nahid Azad; Hamid Nazarian; Marefat Ghaffari Novin; Reza Masteri Farahani; Abbas Piryaei; Mohammad Hassan Heidari
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Nahid Azad, Hamid Nazarian, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Reza Masteri Farahani, Abbas Piryaei, Mohammad Hassan Heidari
      Teratozoospermia is a disorder associated with high abnormal sperm morphology which affects fertility in males. In recent years, it has been described that biomarker-based sperm quality evaluation can alleviate male infertility treatment. Phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) is a sperm-specific factor which appears to be a predicting biomarker for fertilization potential of males. Following fertilization, PLCζ enters into oocyte cytoplasm and induces oocyte activation, a fundamental stage in initiation of embryo development. Currently, PLCζ parameters, including localization patterns, the proportion of PLCζ-expressing sperm and the expression level, are not defined in polymorphic teratozoospermic men. This study aimed to evaluate PLCζ parameters in polymorphic teratozoospermic men, and compare these parameters with fertile normozoospermic men. Semen samples from thirteen normozoospermic fertile men and twenty-three polymorphic teratozoospermic men were included in this study and evaluated using western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses. Our data indicated significantly lower expression of PLCζ in polymorphic teratozoospermic men, as compared with control men; however, there was no significant difference in localization patterns and the proportion of PLCζ-expressing sperm between polymorphic teratozoospermic patients and control men. Collectively, findings from the present study demonstrated that polymorphic teratozoospermic men did not show abnormal localization patterns or the absence of PLCζ, as compared to the control men; nonetheless, lower expression of PLCζ, considering its role in oocyte activation, might be one of the possible causes of infertility in these patients.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T06:09:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.09.007
       
  • Gonial Angle Growth Patterns According To Age And Gender
    • Authors: Carolina Larrazabal-Moron; Juan A. Sanchis-Gimeno
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Carolina Larrazabal-Moron, Juan A. Sanchis-Gimeno
      Currently there are controversial results about gender and age differences in human gonial angle values. In this context we aimed to ascertain the gender and age differences in the gonial angle values of young Caucasian Mediterranean subjects. We tested the hypothesis of a relation between the gonial angle values and the gender and age of the subjects by means of a prospective study involving 266 subjects. Panoramic radiographs (Cranex Novus®, XMIND Novus® Soredex, France) were carried out in order to measure the gonial angle values. We found significant differences between females and males in the subgroups aged≤10years old (128.6±3.4 vs 126.8±4.5, p=0.017), 16-20 years old (119.1±5.6 vs 122.3±7.7, p=0.011), 21-25 years old (117.6±5.2 vs 120.8±7.0, p=0.016) and 26-30 years old (117.5±5.4 vs 120.6±5.4, p=0.019) but not in the subgroup aged 11 to 15 years old (123.4±5.2 vs 123.5±5.4, p=0.927). A significant negative correlation was found between age and gonial angle values (r=−0.365, p <0.001). In sum, females under 10 years of age have significantly higher values than males. The angle values decreased until the age of 11-15 years of age when there were no significant gender differences. Thus, the males aged over 16 years old presented significantly higher values than the females. The decrease in gonial angle values seems to slow or stop from 21 years onwards. Knowledge of the pattern differences will serve for age and gender determination when analyzing human remains.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T06:09:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.09.004
       
  • MOLECULAR BASIS OF DENTAL SENSITIVITY: THE ODONTOBLASTS ARE MULTISENSORY
           CELLS AND EXPRESS MULTIFUNCTIONAL ION CHANNELS
    • Authors: A. Solé-Magdalena; M. Martínez-Alonso; C.A. Coronado; L.M. Junquera; J. Cobo; J.A. Vega
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): A. Solé-Magdalena, M. Martínez-Alonso, C.A. Coronado, L.M. Junquera, J. Cobo, J.A. Vega
      Odontoblasts are the dental pulp cells responsible for the formation of dentin. In addition, accumulating data strongly suggest that they can also function as sensory cells that mediate the early steps of mechanical, thermic, and chemical dental sensitivity. This assumption is based on the expression of different families of ion channels involved in various modalities of sensitivity and the release of putative neurotransmitters in response to odontoblast stimulation which are able to act on pulp sensory nerve fibers. This review updates the current knowledge on the expression of transient-potential receptor ion channel and acid-sensing ion channels in odontoblasts, nerve fibers innervating them and trigeminal sensory neurons, as well as in pulp cells. Moreover, the innervation of the odontoblasts and the interrelationship been odontoblasts and nerve fibers mediated by neurotransmitters was also revisited. These data might provide the basis for novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of dentine sensibility and/or dental pain.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T06:09:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.09.006
       
  • Calcium-binding proteins expression in the septum and cingulate cortex of
           the adult guinea pig
    • Authors: Beata Hermanowicz-Sobieraj; Krystyna Bogus-Nowakowska; Anna Robak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Beata Hermanowicz-Sobieraj, Krystyna Bogus-Nowakowska, Anna Robak
      For the first time this study demonstrates the distribution pattern and expression of three neuroanatomical markers: calbindin D28k (CB), calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) in topographically connected brain regions − the septum (SE) and the cingulate cortex (CC). The co-existence among calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) was also examined.The study was conducted on the adult guinea pig with the use of immunohistochemical and molecular biological techniques. Among the studied CaBPs, which occurred in both examined brain regions at transcript and protein levels, CB was the most expressed in the SE, while CR in the CC. CR, unlike CB and PV, showed higher immunoreactivity in the superficial layers (II–III) of the CC than in the deep ones (V–VI). Most of CB and PV-positive perikarya were detected in the deep layers of the CC. Some CC neurons contained both CB and PV, suggesting cooperation between these CaBPs in the CC. Co-localization between CB and CR in the CC was not observed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T06:09:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.09.009
       
  • Effects of ß-TCP Scaffolds on neurogenic and osteogenic differentiation
           of Human Embryonic Stem Cells
    • Authors: Premjit Arpornmaeklong; Michael J. Pressler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Premjit Arpornmaeklong, Michael J. Pressler
      Extracellular matrix (ECM) and adhesion molecules play crucial roles in regulating growth and differentiation of stem cells. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of Beta-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP) scaffolds on differentiation and expression of ECM and adhesion molecules of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Undifferentiated hESCs were seeded on ß-TCP scaffolds and cell culture plates and cultured in growth and osteogenic medium for 21 days. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) displayed adhesion and growth of hESCs on the porous ß-TCP scaffolds. Histological analysis, immunohistochemical staining and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) demonstrated that the scaffolds supported growth and differentiation of hESCs. Expression levels of neural crest related genes (AP2a, FoxD3, HNK1, P75, Sox1, Sox10) and osteoblast-related genes (Runx2, SPP1 and BGLA) on the scaffolds in osteogenic medium were significantly higher than on the scaffolds in growth and cell culture plates in osteogenic medium, respectively (p <0.05). Polymerase chain reaction array experiments demonstrated increased expression of ECM and adhesion molecule-related genes on the scaffolds. In conclusion, osteoconductive scaffolds such as ß-TCP scaffolds promoted differentiation of hESCs, particularly expression of genes related to neural crest stem cell and osteoblastic differentiations. Beta-TCP scaffolds could be an alternative cell culture substrate for neural crest and osteogenic differentiation of hESCs. Optimization of culture medium may be necessary to enhance lineage restriction of hESCs on the ß-TCP scaffolds.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T06:09:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.09.008
       
  • Comparative postnatal histomorphogenesis of the mandible in wild and
           laboratory mice
    • Authors: Jessica Martínez-Vargas; Cayetana Martinez-Maza; Francesc Muñoz-Muñoz; Nuria Medarde; Hayat Lamrous; María José López-Fuster; Jorge Cubo; Jacint Ventura
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Jessica Martínez-Vargas, Cayetana Martinez-Maza, Francesc Muñoz-Muñoz, Nuria Medarde, Hayat Lamrous, María José López-Fuster, Jorge Cubo, Jacint Ventura
      The coordinated activity of bone cells (i.e., osteoblasts and osteoclasts) during ontogeny underlies observed changes in bone growth rates (recorded in bone histology and bone microstructure) and bone remodeling patterns explaining the ontogenetic variation in bone size and shape. Histological cross-sections of the mandible in the C57BL/6J inbred mouse strain were recently examined in order to analyze the bone microstructure, as well as the directions and rates of bone growth according to the patterns of fluorescent labeling, with the aim of description of the early postnatal histomorphogenesis of this skeletal structure. Here we use the same approach to characterize the histomorphogenesis of the mandible in wild specimens of Mus musculus domesticus, from the second to the eighth week of postnatal life, for the first time. In addition, we assess the degree of similarity in this biological process between the wild specimens examined and the C57BL/6J laboratory strain. Bone microstructure data show that Mus musculus domesticus and the C57BL/6J strain differ in the temporospatial pattern of histological maturation of the mandible, which particularly precludes the support of mandibular organization into the alveolar region and the ascending ramus modules at the histological level in Mus musculus domesticus. The patterns of fluorescent labeling reveal that the mandible of the wild mice exhibits temporospatial differences in the remodeling pattern, as well as higher growth rates particularly after weaning, compared to the laboratory mice. Since the two mouse groups were reared under the same conditions, the dissimilarities found suggest the existence of differences between the groups in the genetic regulation of bone remodeling, probably as a result of their different genetic backgrounds. Despite the usual suitability of inbred mouse strains as model organisms, inferences from them to natural populations regarding bone growth should be made with caution.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T05:43:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.09.001
       
  • Platelet-released growth factors inhibit proliferation of primary
           keratinocytes in vitro
    • Authors: Andreas Bayer; Mersedeh Tohidnezhad; Rouven Berndt; Sebastian Lippross; Peter Behrendt; Tim Klüter; Thomas Pufe; Holger Jahr; Jochen Cremer; Franziska Rademacher; Maren Simanski; Regine Gläser; Jürgen Harder
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Andreas Bayer, Mersedeh Tohidnezhad, Rouven Berndt, Sebastian Lippross, Peter Behrendt, Tim Klüter, Thomas Pufe, Holger Jahr, Jochen Cremer, Franziska Rademacher, Maren Simanski, Regine Gläser, Jürgen Harder
      Autologous thrombocyte concentrate lysates as platelet-released growth factors (PRGF) or Vivostat Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF®) represent important tools in modern wound therapy, especially in the treatment of chronic, hard-to-heal or infected wounds. Nevertheless, underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of the beneficial clinical effects of a local wound therapy with autologous thrombocyte concentrate lysates are poorly understood. Recently, we have demonstrated that PRGF induces antimicrobial peptides in primary keratinocytes and accelerates keratinocytes’ differentiation. In the present study we analyzed the influence of PRGF on primary human keratinocytes’ proliferation. Using the molecular proliferation marker Ki-67 we observed a concentration- and time dependent inhibition of Ki-67 gene expression in PRGF treated primary keratinocytes. These effects were independent from the EGFR- and the IL-6-R pathway. Inhibition of primary keratinocytes‘ proliferation by PRGF treatment was confirmed in colorimetric cell proliferation assays. Together, these data indicate that the clinically observed positive effects of autologous thrombocytes concentrates in the treatment of chronic, hard-to-heal wounds are not based on an increased keratinocytes proliferation.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T05:43:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.09.002
       
  • Maxillary sinuses and midface in patients with cleidocranial dysostosis
    • Authors: Tomasz Kulczyk; Agnieszka Przystańska; Artur Rewekant; Renata Turska-Malińska; Agata Czajka-Jakubowska
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Tomasz Kulczyk, Agnieszka Przystańska, Artur Rewekant, Renata Turska-Malińska, Agata Czajka-Jakubowska
      The cleidocranial dysplasia is general skeletal disorder with an autosomal dominant inheritance. It is manifested by many craniofacial abnormalities, of which the maxillary hypoplasia is the most evident. The aim of the study was to use CBCT to evaluate the volume of the maxillary sinuses and the dimensions of maxillae in patients with CCD and compare them with healthy individuals. Files of four children with cleidocranial dysplasia were investigated.Volume of every maxillary sinus as well as two dimensional measurements of distances between particular points of interest located on surface of maxilla were calculated from reconstructed CBCT examination. Data were compared with a control group. Statistical analysis was performed. Linear and volumetric data obtained using CBCT was collected and compared with a control group.All affected children had both maxillary sinus volume and maxillary dimensions smaller than control values. The maxillary sinuses were underdeveloped up to half of normal values. The largest differences were recorded in vertical linear dimensions of the maxillae. Horizontal dimensions were also lower. There are morphological modifications of bone tissue which accompany CCD. It seems that these changes occur on the midfacial region and to a greater extent concern the maxillary sinus volume.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T05:17:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.08.002
       
  • Anatomical connections between the buccinator and the tendons of the
           temporalis
    • Authors: Mi-Sun Hur
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Mi-Sun Hur
      The aim of this study was to clarify the anatomical relationship between the buccinator and the temporalis in order to improve understanding of the precise and coordinated movements of the mouth and the mandible. The buccinator and the temporalis were investigated in 72 hemifaces from Korean cadavers. Removing the buccal fat pad from the buccinator revealed that the fascia encircled the space between the superficial and deep tendons of the temporalis laterally, and the external surface of the buccinator medially in all specimens (100%). The fascia was located between the buccinator and the tendons of the temporalis, thereby connecting these two muscles. The fascial space was filled with connective tissue, and the buccal nerve and artery passed through this space. The inferior fibers of the buccinator arose from the anterior portion of the deep tendon of the temporalis in all specimens (100%). The anterior portion of the deep tendon of the temporalis extended forward obliquely between the ramus and body of the mandible. Thus, both the anterior portion of the deep tendon of the temporalis and its attaching inferior muscle fibers of the buccinator coursed obliquely. The above observations indicate that the connecting fascia between the buccinator and tendons of the temporalis and the inferior fibers of the buccinator that were attached to the deep tendon of the temporalis could assist in coordinatation of the movements of the mandibular region and the mouth angle in the timing and strength of contraction of the muscles during mastication, facial expression, and speech.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T11:05:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.08.005
       
  • Can Skull Form Predict the Shape of the Temporomandibular Joint' A
           Study Using Geometric Morphometrics on the Skulls of Wolves and Domestic
           Dogs
    • Authors: Stefan Curth; Martin S. Fischer; Kornelius Kupczik
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Stefan Curth, Martin S. Fischer, Kornelius Kupczik
      The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) conducts and restrains masticatory movements between the mammalian cranium and the mandible. Through this functional integration, TMJ morphology in wild mammals is strongly correlated with diet, resulting in a wide range of TMJ variations. However, in artificially selected and closely related domestic dogs, dietary specialisations between breeds can be ruled out as a diversifying factor although they display an enormous variation in TMJ morphology. This raises the question of the origin of this variation. Here we hypothesise that, even in the face of reduced functional demands, TMJ shape in dogs can be predicted by skull form; i.e. that the TMJ is still highly integrated in the dog skull. If true, TMJ variation in the dog would be a plain by-product of the enormous cranial variation in dogs and its genetic causes. We addressed this hypothesis using geometric morphometry on a data set of 214 dog and 60 wolf skulls. We digitized 53 three-dimensional landmarks of the skull and the TMJ on CT-based segmentations and compared (1) the variation between domestic dog and wolf TMJs (via principal component analysis) and (2) the pattern of covariation of skull size, flexion and rostrum length with TMJ shape (via regression of centroid size on shape and partial least squares analyses). We show that the TMJ in domestic dogs is significantly more diverse than in wolves: its shape covaries significantly with skull size, flexion and rostrum proportions in patterns which resemble those observed in primates. Similar patterns in canids, which are carnivorous, and primates, which are mostly frugivorous imply the existence of basic TMJ integration patterns which are independent of dietary adaptations. However, only limited amounts of TMJ variation in dogs can be explained by simple covariation with overall skull geometry. This implies that the final TMJ shape is gained partially independently of the rest of the skull.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T11:05:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.08.003
       
  • In vivo characterization of the murine venous system before and during
           dobutamine stimulation: implications for preclinical models of venous
           disease
    • Authors: Olivia R. Palmer; Calvin B. Chiu; Amos Cao; Ulrich M. Scheven; Jose A. Diaz; Joan M. Greve
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Olivia R. Palmer, Calvin B. Chiu, Amos Cao, Ulrich M. Scheven, Jose A. Diaz, Joan M. Greve
      Although widely used as a preclinical model for studying venous diseases, there is a scarcity of in vivo characterizations of the naïve murine venous system. Additionally, previous studies on naïve veins (ex vivo) have not included the influence of surrounding structures and biomechanical forces. Using MRI, we noninvasively quantified the cross-sectional area, cyclic strain, and circularity of the venous system in young and old, male and female C57BL/6 mice. We investigated the most common venous locations used to perform venous disease research: the common jugular vein, suprarenal inferior vena cava (IVC), infrarenal IVC, common iliac vein, and common femoral vein. Our results elucidate age-dependent changes in venous cross-sectional area, which varied by location. Maximum cyclic strain, a parameter of lumen expansion, showed 10% change across the cardiac cycle, approximately half the magnitude of arteries. Veins demonstrated noncircular shapes, particularly in the core vasculature. The cardiovascular stressor dobutamine had only a small impact on the venous system. Also, our data demonstrate that the peripheral veins tend to decrease in cross-sectional area and circularity with age. Conversely, the IVC tends to increase in size and circularity with age, with males exhibiting larger variability in response to dobutamine compared to females. This work provides a foundation for drawing age and sex comparisons in disease models, and represents the first in vivo characterization of the murine venous system at rest and during the application of a pharmacological exercise surrogate.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T11:05:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.08.004
       
  • Modulation of macrophage phagocytosis in vitro – a role for
           cholinergic stimulation'
    • Authors: Amira-Talaat Moussa; Andrea Rabung Sandra Reichrath Stefan Wagenpfeil Thai Dinh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Amira-Talaat Moussa, Andrea Rabung, Sandra Reichrath, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Thai Dinh, Gabriela Krasteva-Christ, Carola Meier, Thomas Tschernig
      Acetylcholine is synthetized and released from neural cells, but also by non-neuronal cells such as epithelial cells or keratinocytes. Cholinergic agonists enhance the phagocytosis of zymosan particles in primary peritoneal macrophages. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of carbachol stimulation on phagocytosis in a macrophage cell line using microspheres. The murine cell line MH-S was used in a phagocytosis assay with fluorescent latex beads. The amount of the ingested beads was determined using flow cytometry. Gene expression was investigated using polymerase chain reaction. Gene expression of the muscarinic receptors M1, M3, M4 and M5 but not M2 was found. Carbachol slightly increased the phagocytosis of microspheres in the macrophages. A co-stimulation using lipopolysaccharide and carbachol did not increase the effect of lipopolysaccharide alone. In conclusion, cholinergic stimulation in vitro only moderately modulates the phagocytosis of microspheres. M2 might have a role in stimulation of macrophage phagocytosis.

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T05:24:30Z
       
  • The protective effect of platelet released growth factors and bone
           augmentation (Bio-Oss®) on ethanol impaired osteoblasts
    • Authors: Tolga Taha Sönmez; Andreas Bayer; Tillman Cremer; Jennifer Vanessa Phi Hock; Bernd Lethaus; Nisreen Kweider; Christoph Jan Wruck; Wolf Drescher; Holger Jahr; Sebastian Lippross; Thomas Pufe; Mersedeh Tohidnezhad
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Tolga Taha Sönmez, Andreas Bayer, Tillman Cremer, Jennifer Vanessa Phi Hock, Bernd Lethaus, Nisreen Kweider, Christoph Jan Wruck, Wolf Drescher, Holger Jahr, Sebastian Lippross, Thomas Pufe, Mersedeh Tohidnezhad
      Background Chronic alcohol consumption is a known limiting factor for bone healing. One promising strategy to improve bone augmentation techniques with Bio-Oss® in oral and maxillofacial surgery might be the supportive application of platelet-concentrated biomaterials as platelet-released growth factor (PRGF). To address this matter, we performed an in vitro study investigating the protective effects of PRGF and Bio-Oss® in ethanol (EtOH) treated osteoblasts. Methods The SAOS-2 osteosarcoma cell line, with and without EtOH pretreatment was used. The cell viability, proliferation and alkali phosphatase activity (ALP) after application of 0%, 5% and 10% PRGF and Bio-Oss® were assessed. Results The application of PRGF and Bio-Oss® in EtOH impaired osteoblasts showed a significant beneficial influence increasing the viability of the osteoblasts in cell culture. The synergistic effect of Bio-Oss® and 5% PRGF on the proliferation of osteoblasts was also demonstrated. Bio-Oss® only in combination with PRGF increases the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in EtOH pretreated cells. Conclusions These results indicate that the simultaneous application of PRGF and Bio-Oss® inhibits EtOH induced bone healing impairment. Furthermore, in the cells, PRGF induced a protective mechanism which might promote bone regeneration.

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T05:17:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.07.002
       
  • The hypaxial origin of the epaxially located rhomboid muscles
    • Authors: Minu Saberi; Qin Pu; Petr Valasek; Tannaz Norizadeh Abbariki; Ketan Patel; Ruijin Huang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 June 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Minu Saberi, Qin Pu, Petr Valasek, Tannaz Norizadeh Abbariki, Ketan Patel, Ruijin Huang
      In vertebrates, skeletal muscles of the body are made up of epaxial and hypaxial muscles based on their innervation and relative position to the vertebral column. The epaxial muscles are innervated by the dorsal branches of the spinal nerves and comprise the intrinsic (deep) back muscles, while the hypaxial muscles are innervated by the ventral branches of the spinal nerves including the plexus and consist of a heterogeneous group of intercostal, abdominal, and limb as well as girdle muscles. The canonical view holds that the epaxial muscles are derived from the medial halves of the somites, whereas the hypaxial muscles are all derived from the lateral somitic halves. The rhomboid muscles are situated dorsal to the vertebral column and therefore in the domain typically occupied by epaxial muscles. However, they are innervated by a ventral branch of the brachial plexus called the N. dorsalis scapulae. Due to the apparent inappropriate position of the muscle in relation to its innervation we investigated its origin to help clarify this issue. To study the embryonic origin of the rhomboid muscles, we followed derivatives of the medial and lateral somite halves using quail-chick chimeras. Our results showed that the rhomboid muscles are made up of cells derived mainly from the lateral portion of the somite. Therefore the rhomboid muscles which lie within the epaxial domain of the body, originate from the hypaxial domain of the somites. However their connective tissue is derived from both medial and lateral somites.

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T02:21:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.05.009
       
 
 
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