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Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
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Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / Health Sciences Journal of Adıyaman University     Open Access  
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
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Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Skeletal Muscle Function Assessment     Open Access  
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
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Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
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Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Althea Medical Journal     Open Access  
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Anatomica Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ankara Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası     Open Access  
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Hypertension     Open Access  
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Annals of Health Research     Open Access  
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives Medical Review Journal / Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi     Open Access  
Archives of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology     Open Access  
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access  
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASHA Leader     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine     Open Access  
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.65
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 2  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0940-9602
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3160 journals]
  • Atlas of Human Fascial Topography, Hanno Steinke (Ed.). Leipziger
           Universitätsverlag (2018)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 219Author(s): Winfried Neuhuber
  • Key molecules in lymphatic development, function, and identification
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 219Author(s): Sawan Kumar Jha, Khushbu Rauniyar, Michael Jeltsch While both blood and lymphatic vessels transport fluids and thus share many similarities, they also show functional and structural differences, which can be used to differentiate them. Specific visualization of lymphatic vessels has historically been and still is a pivot point in lymphatic research. Many of the proteins that are investigated by molecular biologists in lymphatic research have been defined as marker molecules, i.e. to visualize and distinguish lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) from other cell types, most notably from blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs) and cells of the hematopoietic lineage.Among the factors that drive the developmental differentiation of lymphatic structures from venous endothelium, Prospero homeobox protein 1 (PROX1) is the master transcriptional regulator. PROX1 maintains lymphatic identity also in the adult organism and thus is a universal LEC marker. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) is the major tyrosine kinase receptor that drives LEC proliferation and migration. The major activator for VEGFR-3 is vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C). However, before VEGF-C can signal, it needs to be proteolytically activated by an extracellular protein complex comprised of Collagen and calcium binding EGF domains 1 (CCBE1) protein and the protease A disintegrin and metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif 3 (ADAMTS3).This minireview attempts to give an overview of these and a few other central proteins that scientific inquiry has linked specifically to the lymphatic vasculature. It is limited in scope to a brief description of their main functions, properties and developmental roles.
  • Salivary biomarkers of inflammation in systemic lupus erythematosus
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 219Author(s): Iulia-Ioana Stanescu, Bogdan Calenic, Alina Dima, Livia Alexandra Gugoasa, Eugenia Balanescu, Raluca-Ioana Stefan-van Staden, Cristian Baicus, Daniela Gabriela Badita, Maria Greabu Saliva is currently used as a reliable diagnostic fluid in a wide range of local and systemic diseases. However, the link between salivary diagnosis and the inflammatory process in autoimmune diseases has not yet been explored. The aim of our study is to assess possible correlations between salivary inflammatory markers and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients fulfilling the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) diagnosis criteria were included. Salivary and serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were determined using stochastic sensors. Serum leptin and IL-6 had significantly higher levels in SLE patients compared to non-SLE. Also, salivary IL-6 levels highly correlated with the serum IL-6 levels. A positive correlation was found between salivary and serum levels of IL-6, signaling salivary IL-6 as a reliable marker for assessing the inflammation process in SLE.
  • Optical coherence tomography assessment of gingival epithelium
           inflammatory status in periodontal — Systemic affected patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 219Author(s): Petra Șurlin, Adrian Camen, Stefan Ioan Stratul, Alexandra Roman, Dorin-Nicolae Gheorghe, Elena Herăscu, Eugen Osiac, Ion Rogoveanu IntroductionOptical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging tool used in various medical fields (ophthalmology, dermatology), which allows the observation of morphological particularities on the surface of tissues or internal constructive details of about 2–3 mms in depth. In periodontology, it has been used as an experimental tool for periodontal pocket analysis (depth, calculus deposits) but not for the assessment of periodontal inflammation in the gingival tissues, which has been the subject of our in-vitro study.Material and methodGingival samples were collected from three types of patients: patients with periodontal disease; patients with periodontal disease and a systemic comorbidity; periodontal and systemic healthy patients. The samples were scanned with an OCT light beam, resulting two-dimensional images of the gingival tissue (full thickness epithelium and partial connective tissue). The images were assessed using dedicated software, which allowed the quantification of pixels on a given segment in the epithelium. The average pixel densities were then calculated for each patient group and statistically analyzed.ResultsThe resulted pixel densities were highest for the control group samples, while the lowest pixel densities were found in samples originating from periodontal patients with diabetes mellitus. For the other possible periodontal comorbidity, chronic hepatitis C, image assessment also exhibited lower pixel densities than those of the periodontal group, suggesting that this condition could also have an added effect on the tissular changes induced by periodontal disease.ConclusionOCT has proven that in an in-vitro environment it can be a useful tool for the assessment of periodontal inflammation in gingival samples of periodontal patients. In terms of inflammatory tissular changes observed by OCT analysis, chronic hepatitis C could be regarded as possible periodontal disease’s comorbidity.
  • Fractal dimension analysis a supplementary mathematical method for bone
           defect regeneration measurement
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 219Author(s): Kamil Jurczyszyn, Paweł Kubasiewicz-Ross, Izabela Nawrot-Hadzik, Tomasz Gedrange, Marzena Dominiak, Jakub Hadzik Aim or purposeThe geometry of a bone defect is very complex. Its shape is too complicated to measure or compare with other bone defects using only traditional measuring methods Traditional measuring techniques based on the histomorphometric analysis of a bone specimen require supplementary measuring. For the fractal dimension analysis (FDA) mathematic formulas are used to describe complicated and chaotic shapes. The FDA offers a possibility of a comparison between complicated and complex shapes such as a histological image of a bone defect.The aim of this study was to evaluate the FDA of bone defects as a supplementary method for a defect regeneration assessment.Materials and methodsFor the purpose of this study, microscopic photographs of bone specimens stained with hematoxylin and eosin obtained during a block biopsy were used. The bone blocks used in this study were obtained during a rat animal model study. Specimens were collected from 36 Wistar rats where a cranial defect was created and augmented with five different novel biomaterials and compared to the unfilled defect in the control group. New bone formation in every specimen was histomorphometrically measured by two independent operators and compared to FDA measurements.ResultsBoth traditional and FDA techniques have shown statistically significant differences between bone formation in test groups compared to the control one; on the other hand, no statistically significant difference was found between other groups. The Pearson’s r-test was conducted to measure the linear dependence (correlation) between standard measurements and the FDA, and a positive linear correlation was found −r = 0.94.ConclusionsThe FDA can be used as a supplementary method for bone regeneration measurements.
  • The Terminologia Histologica after 10 years: Inconsistencies,
           mistakes, and new proposals
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 219Author(s): Ivan Varga, Alzbeta Blankova, Marek Konarik, Vaclav Baca, Vlasta Dvorakova, Vladimir Musil This article details our experience with the Terminologia Histologica (TH) and its utility in the teaching of histology, cytology, and clinical medicine (e.g., pathology and hematology). Latin histological nomenclature has been used for 43 years, and the latest version of the TH has been in use for 15 years (although it was only issued publicly within the past 10 years). The following findings and ensuing proposals allow us to discuss key points pertaining to the TH and make important suggestions for potential changes to the TH (such as the exclusion and inclusion of various terms). We classify these changes into six groups: 1.) mistakes in the TH, 2.) discrepancies among various Terminologiae, 3.) discrepancies within the TH, 4.) the repetition of terms, 5.) synonyms in the TH, and 6.) missing terms in the TH. Surprisingly, unlike the anatomical nomenclature, the histological nomenclature has been neglected in the literature. This article addresses this problem by reviewing and summarizing the state of this field, pointing out key discrepancies, offering solutions, and highlighting topics for further discussion.
  • Musculoskeletal Anatomy Education: Evaluating the Influence of Different
           Teaching and Learning Activities on Medical Students Perception and
           Academic Performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 219Author(s): Jason Peeler, Hugo Bergen, Alison Bulow Medical schools have traditionally used a lecture and dissection-based approach for educating students about human anatomy. There is growing interest in the adoption of alternative teaching and learning activities (TLAs) that incorporate the use of cadaveric prosection and computer-based learning into musculoskeletal (MSK) anatomy curricula. The purpose of this investigation was to examine retrospectively how different TLAs influenced student perceptions about learning, and performance on MSK anatomy examinations. Pre-clerkship students from the same medical school were compared. One group completed 15 hours of dissection-based laboratory instruction; another group completed 15 hours of prosection-based laboratory instruction. All other aspects of the curricula were the same. Information was gathered about student perceptions using a standardized survey that compared six different TLAs on eight specific learning objectives. Academic performance on examinations was compared. Ninety-three medical students (50% of first year class/34% of second year class) participated. Only 27 had taken a MSK anatomy course prior to enrolling in medicine. Both groups rated learning via medical imaging and clinical case-based scenarios highly. While each group also ranked both methods of cadaveric teaching highly, only the prosection group thought there was a significant difference. No differences in academic performance were noted between groups. Data support the inclusion of cadaveric-based teaching, medical imaging and clinical case-based scenarios as key elements of a MSK anatomy curriculum, and suggest that academic performance is not influenced by the method of cadaveric instruction. These results should help guide the selection of effective MSK anatomy TLAs within undergraduate medical programs.
  • Micro-anatomical structure of the first spine of the dorsal fin of
           Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Osteichthyes: Scombridae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 219Author(s): Nicoletta Santamaria, Giambattista Bello, Letizia Passantino, Mariasevera Di Comite, Rosa Zupa, Chrysovalentinos Pousis, Robert Vassallo-Agius, Vincenzo Cicirelli, Gualtiero Basilone, Salvatore Mangano, Aldo Corriero The first spine of the first dorsal fin (FS) of the Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT), Thunnus thynnus, is customarily used in age determination research because its transverse sections display well-defined growth marks. In this paper the FS structure was studied to explain its known dramatic age- and season-related morphological modifications, which are evidently caused by bone remodeling. Cross sections of samples from six adult ABFT were in part decalcified to be stained with histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods, and in part embedded in methyl-methacrylate to be either observed under a linear polarized light or microradiographed. FS showed an external compact bone zone and an inner trabecular bone zone. The compact bone zone consisted of an outer non-osteonic primary bone layer (C1) and an inner osteonic bone layer (C2). C1 was in turn characterized by alternate translucent and opaque bands. Evidence of spine bone remodeling was shown by the presence of osteoclasts and osteoblasts as well as by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive bands at the boundary between old and newly formed bone. The examination of plain, i.e. not-fixed and not-decalcified, FS from 28 ABFT showed that the average thickness of C1 remained fairly constant during fish growth, whereas C2 increased significantly, indicating that the periosteal primary bone apposition is counterbalanced by the parallel bone remodeling occurring inside the compact bone zone. The present study revealed the structure of the ABFT FS and the pattern of its bone remodeling. Both of them underlay phenomena, never examined in detail before, such as the appearance followed by the progressive disappearance of growth bands.
  • Acrylamide-induced alterations in the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated
           peptide transcript (CART)-like immunoreactivity within the enteric nervous
           system of the porcine small intestines
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 219Author(s): Katarzyna Palus, Krystyna Makowska, Jarosław Całka The main goal of the present study was to determine the influence of low and high doses of acrylamide on CART-like immunoreactivity within the ENS of the porcine small intestines. Investigation was performed on 15 sexually immature female pigs, divided into three groups: control group, where empty gelatin capsules were administered, and two experimental groups, where capsules containing low or high doses of acrylamide were given. After 28 days of acrylamide exposure all animals were euthanized with a gradual overdose of anaesthetics. Immediately after euthanasia fragments of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were collected and fixed. Then, 14 μm-thick cryostat sections were processed for routine double-labelling immunofluorescence using primary antisera directed towards a pan neuronal marker — protein gene-product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated peptide transcript (CART). During the present investigation, CART-LI cell bodies were detected in all types of enteric plexuses of duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Acrylamide intoxication resulted in a significant increase in expression of CART in the intramural neurons of the porcine small intestines, especially in myenteric plexuses. It may suggest participation of CART in neuronal protection and recovery processes within the gut. Moreover, results of the present study suggest that even low doses of acrylamide cause a significant response of ENS neurons.
  • Fast and reliable dissection of porcine parathyroid glands — A protocol
           for molecular and histological analyses
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 219Author(s): Michael Oster, Jonas Keiler, Marko Schulze, Henry Reyer, Andreas Wree, Klaus Wimmers As calcium and phosphorus are of vital importance for life, physiological activity of the parathyroid glands (PTGs) is crucial to maintain mineral homeostasis and bone mineralization. However, PTG-specific molecular routes in response to environmental factors and intrinsic hormonal responses are not yet fully understood. Since nutrient requirements, pathophysiology and functional genomics of pigs are similar to those of humans, pigs might be a suitable model to study the holistic gene expression and physiological aspects of the parathyroid gland, which could be used in both animal sciences and biomedical research. However, due to their small size and hidden location, the dissection of the PTGs, particularly in pigs, is difficult. Therefore, a protocol for untrained dissectors has been established that allows a fast and reliable identification of the PTGs in domestic pigs. Based on their localization within the cranial thymus near the carotid bifurcation, sampling was verified by histological staining and mRNA expression pattern. Analyses revealed the prominence of parathyroid hormone (PTH)-producing chief cells. Moreover, the copy numbers of PTH differed substantially between the PTGs and their surrounding thymus tissue, as PTH was expressed virtually exclusively in the PTGs. The developed protocol will substantially facilitate a fast and reliable dissection of porcine PTGs which is essential for studies characterizing the molecular mechanisms of parathyroid glands, e.g. when applying new feeding strategies in pigs.
  • 3D-Printed specimens as a valuable tool in anatomy education: A pilot
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 219Author(s): Monique Garas, Mauro Vaccarezza, George Newland, Kylie McVay-Doornbusch, Jamila Hasani Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a modern technique of creating 3D-printed models that allows reproduction of human structures from MRI and CT scans via fusion of multiple layers of resin materials. To assess feasibility of this innovative resource as anatomy educational tool, we conducted a preliminary study on Curtin University undergraduate students to investigate the use of 3D models for anatomy learning as a main goal, to assess the effectiveness of different specimen types during the sessions and personally preferred anatomy learning tools among students as secondary aim. The study consisted of a pre-test, exposure to test (anatomical test) and post-test survey. During pre-test, all participants (both without prior experience and experienced groups) were given a brief introduction on laboratory safety and study procedure thus participants were exposed to 3D, wet and plastinated specimens of the heart, shoulder and thigh to identify the pinned structures (anatomical test). Then, participants were provided a post-test survey containing five questions. In total, 23 participants completed the anatomical test and post-test survey. A larger number of participants (85%) achieved right answers for 3D models compared to wet and plastinated materials, 74% of population selected 3D models as the most usable tool for identification of pinned structures and 45% chose 3D models as their preferred method of anatomy learning. This preliminary small-size study affirms the feasibility of 3D-printed models as a valuable asset in anatomy learning and shows their capability to be used adjacent to cadaveric materials and other widely used tools in anatomy education.
  • The development of human digital Meissner’s and Pacinian corpuscles
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 219Author(s): J. Feito, O. García-Suárez, J. García-Piqueras, Y. García-Mesa, A. Pérez-Sánchez, I. Suazo, R. Cabo, J. Suárez-Quintanilla, J. Cobo, J.A. Vega Meissner’s and Pacinian corpuscles are cutaneous mechanoreceptors responsible for different modalities of touch. The development of these sensory formations in humans is poorly known, especially regarding the acquisition of the typical immunohistochemical profile related to their full functional maturity. Here we used a panel of antibodies (to specifically label the main corpuscular components: axon, Schwann-related cells and endoneurial-perineurial-related cells) to investigate the development of digital Meissner’s and Pacinian corpuscles in a representative sample covering from 11 weeks of estimated gestational age (wega) to adulthood. Development of Pacinian corpuscles starts at 13 wega, and it is completed at 4 months of life, although their basic structure and immunohistochemical characteristics are reached at 36 wega. During development, around the axon, a complex network of S100 positive Schwann-related processes is progressively compacted to form the inner core, while the surrounding mesenchyme is organized and forms the outer core and the capsule. Meissner’s corpuscles start to develop at 22 wega and complete their typical morphology and immunohistochemical profile at 8 months of life. In developing Meissner’s corpuscles, the axons establish complex relationships with the epidermis and are progressively covered by Schwann-like cells until they complete the mature arrangement late in postnatal life. The present results demonstrate an asynchronous development of the Meissner’s and Pacini’s corpuscles and show that there is not a total correlation between morphological and immunohistochemical maturation. The correlation of the present results with touch-induced cortical activity in developing humans is discussed.
  • Neurotrophins and Trk receptors in the developing and adult ovary of
           Coturnix coturnix japonica
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 219Author(s): L. Maruccio, C. Lucini, P. de Girolamo, L. Avallone, C. Solcan, L.E. Nechita, L. Castaldo NGF, BDNF, NT-3 and their specific receptors TrkA, TrkB and TrkC are known to be involved in the development and maintenance of vertebrates’ nervous system. However, these molecules play a role also in non-neuronal tissue, such as in the reproductive system. In this study we investigated the presence and localization of neurotrophins and Trk receptors to unravel their potential role in the developing and adult ovary of Japanese quail, a model species well suited for reproduction studies. Western blotting analysis on ovaries of three month old quails in the period of egg laying showed the presence of pro and mature forms of neurotrophins and splice variants of Trk receptors. Immunohistochemical investigation reported that in embryonic ovaries from the 9th day of incubation to the hatching NGF and NT-3 were observed in the cortical and medullar areas respectively, whereas Trk receptors were observed in both areas. In adult ovary, all NTs were detected in glandular stromal cells, NGF and NT-3 also in the nervous component. Regarding follicle components, NGF and BDNF were observed in oocytes and follicular cells. All TrK receptors were present in nervous components and only TrkA in glandular stromal cells. In follicles, TrkA was present in oocyte cytoplasm and TrkB in theca cells. The results suggest an involvement of the neurotrophin system in the quail ovary physiology, promoting the oocyte development and follicular organization in the embryo, as well as oocyte and follicular maturation in adults.
  • Adipocytes spectrum – from homeostasia to obesity and its associated
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer AnzeigerAuthor(s): Adriana Grigoraş, Cornelia Amalinei, Raluca Anca Balan, Simona Eliza Giuşcă, Elena Roxana Avădănei, Ludmila Lozneanu, Irina-Draga Căruntu Firstly identified by anatomists, the fat tissue is nowadays an area of intense research due to increased global prevalence of obesity and its associated diseases. Histologically, there are four types of fat tissue cells which are currently recognized (white, brown, beige, and perivascular adipocytes). Therefore, in this study we are reviewing the most recent data regarding the origin, structure, and molecular mechanisms involved in the development of adipocytes. White adipocytes can store triglycerides as a consequence of lipogenesis, under the regulation of growth hormone or leptin and adiponectin, and release fatty acids resulted from lipolysis, under the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system, glucocorticoids, TNF-α, insulin, and natriuretic peptides. Brown adipocytes possess a mitochondrial transmembrane protein thermogenin or UCP1 which allows heat generation. Recently, thermogenic, UCP positive adipocytes have been identified in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue and have been named beige adipocytes. The nature of these cells is still controversial, as current theories are suggesting their origin either by transdifferentiation of white adipocytes, or by differentiation from an own precursor cell. Perivascular adipocytes surround most of the arteries, exhibiting a supportive role and being involved in the maintenance of intravascular temperature. Thoracic perivascular adipocytes resemble brown adipocytes, while abdominal ones are more similar to white adipocytes and, consequently, are involved in obesity-induced inflammatory reactions. The factors involved in the regulation of adipose stem cells differentiation may represent potential pathways to inhibit or to divert adipogenesis. Several molecules, such as pro-adipogenic factors (FGF21, BMP7, BMP8b, and Cox-2), cell surface proteins or receptors (Asc-1, PAT2, P2RX5), and hypothalamic receptors (MC4R) have been identified as the most promising targets for the development of future therapies. Further investigations are necessary to complete the knowledge about adipose tissue and the development of a new generation of therapeutic tools based on molecular targets.
  • Stromal cells/telocytes and endothelial progenitors in the perivascular
           niches of the trigeminal ganglion
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): M.C. Rusu, V.S. Mănoiu, D. Creţoiu, S.M. Creţoiu, A.D. Vrapciu Stromal cells/telocytes (SCs/TCs) were recently described in the human adult trigeminal ganglion (TG). As some markers are equally expressed in SCs/TCs and endothelial cells, we hypothesized that a subset of the TG SCs/TCs is in fact represented by endothelial progenitor cells of a myelomonocytic origin. This study aimed to evaluate whether the interstitial cells of the human adult TG correlate with the myelomonocytic lineage. We used primary antibodies for c-erbB2/HER-2, CD31, nestin, CD10, CD117/c-kit, von Willebrand factor (vWF), CD34, Stro-1, CD146, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), CD68, VEGFR-2 and cytokeratin 7 (CK7). The TG pial mesothelium and subpial vascular microstroma expressed c-erbB2/HER-2, CK7 and VEGFR-2. SCs/TCs neighbouring the neuronoglial units (NGUs) also expressed HER-2, which suggests a pial origin. These cells were also positive for CD10, CD31, CD34, CD68 and nestin. Endothelial cells expressed CD10, CD31, CD34, CD146, nestin and vWF. We also found vasculogenic networks with spindle-shaped and stellate endothelial progenitors expressing CD10, CD31, CD34, CD68, CD146 and VEGFR-2. Isolated mesenchymal stromal cells expressed Stro-1, CD146, CK7, c-kit and nestin. Pericytes expressed α-SMA and CD146. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we found endothelial-specific Weibel–Palade bodies in spindle-shaped stromal progenitors. Our study supports the hypothesis that an intrinsic vasculogenic niche potentially involved in microvascular maintenance and repair might be present in the human adult trigeminal ganglion and that it might be supplied by either the pial mesothelium or the bone marrow niche.
  • The telopode- and filopode-projecting heterogeneous stromal cells of the
           human sclera niche
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): C.E. Petrea, Ş. Crăiţoiu, A.D. Vrapciu, V.S. Mănoiu, M.C. Rusu Telocytes (TCs) are stromal cells defined by the presence of long and slender prolongations (telopodes). They are a biologically and functionally heterogeneous population that has not been previously investigated in the sclera. The purpose of this study is to investigate the presence and characteristics of scleral telocytes through a combined immunohistochemical and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study using samples from ten adult patients. Stromal cells with a TC-like morphology expressed CD34, CD45, CD105, vimentin and occasionally CD68 but were negative for collagen III, CD31, CD133, and CD146. Conjunctival epithelial cells expressed CD45, CD105, CD146, and vimentin. These phenotypes support a scleral niche with immune TCs and haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In TEM, we often found spindle-shaped stromal cells projecting telopodes or filopodes, with extremely long nuclei extended even within those prolongations. We separated these cells into a light subtype, which contained a complete set of organelles, and a dark subtype, consisting of undifferentiated stem/progenitor cells. The light cells contained dense vesicles, Weibel–Palade bodies, and rounded α-granule-like structures. These storage areas for the von Willebrand factor (vWF) are known to express selectins that are critically involved in HSC homing and could also indicate endothelial progenitors. The dark cells were scarcely myoid, populated the episcleral perivascular niches and the scleral stroma, and were equipped with lipid storage areas such as lamellar bodies and lipid droplets (LDs). Previously, unreported intranuclear LDs were found in these cells, which is characteristic of an HSC population. It appears that the human scleral stroma is a niche harbouring TC-like cells with immune and HSC phenotypes, and the mere presence or characteristics of telopodes are not enough to differentiate them.
  • What podoplanin tells us about cells with telopodes
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): L. Manta, M.C. Rusu, F. Pop Telocytes (TCs) are stromal cells with telopodes, which represent long, thin, moniliform cell processes; however, this morphological feature alone is insufficient to define a cell type. Specific markers of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), such as Prox-1, podoplanin (D2-40) or LYVE-1, are not usually tested in TCs. We thus aimed at performing a study in light microscopy to evaluate whether or not LECs could be mistaken for TCs. Therefore we used CD34, α-smooth muscle actin and D2-40 for an immunohistochemical study on archived paraffin-embedded samples of uterine leiomyoma. Lymphatic vessels were identified by the expression of D2-40, but on the microscopic slides, false spindle-shaped TCs appearances either corresponded to collapsed lymphatic lumina or were determined by grazing longitudinal cuts of lymphatics. It is therefore mandatory to check the expression of lymphatic markers in telocyte-like cells and, moreover, to carefully examine the bidimensional cuts in order to avoid false results.
  • The telocytes/myofibroblasts 3-D network forms a stretch receptor in the
           human bladder mucosa. Is this structure involved in the detrusor
           overactive diseases'
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): Maria-Giuliana Vannucchi, Chiara Traini Several connective tissue cells are present in the human bladder wall; among them, the myofibroblasts (MyF) and the so-called interstitial cells (IC) are a matter of investigation either by basic researchers or clinicians.The interest derives from the possibility that these two cell types could regulate the organ function forming a special sensory system in the bladder mucosa. Whereas attention for the myofibroblasts was mainly focused on understanding their role, the so-called IC are debatable starting from their nomenclature. Indeed, the IC should correspond to the previously called fibroblasts-like cells/interstitial Cajal-like cells (ICLC)/interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) or PDGFRα positive cells, or CD34 positive cells. Recently a proper name was proposed to give them an identity, i.e. telocyte (TC).To date, this nomenclature is a better term than IC that is quite vague and can be used for all the cells that reside in the connective tissue.Noteworthy, in the bladder mucosa, TC and MyF form a hetero-cellular 3-D network.The detrusor overactivity/overactive bladder (DO/OAB) are pathological conditions characterized by hypersensitivity to filling. It has been hypothesized that erroneous afferent inputs generated in the mucosa affect the efferent pathways and, consequently, the detrusor response.Presently, we review the literature regarding the presence and the potential role of TC and MyF in control conditions and in DO/OAB. On the possibility that the 3D-network made up by these two cell types might play a major role in the genesis of anomalous afferent stimuli will be given attention.
  • Molecular phenotypes of the human kidney: Myoid stromal cells/telocytes
           and myoepithelial cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): M.C. Rusu, L. Mogoantă, F. Pop, M.A. Dobra The connective stromal and epithelial compartments of the kidney have regenerative potential and phenotypic flexibility. A few studies have shown that cells appertaining to both compartments can exhibit myoid phenotypes. The purpose of our study was to investigate the myoid pattern of kidney and its association with the kidney niches containing stromal cells/telocytes (SC/TCs). We performed an immunohistochemical study using a panel of endothelial, myoid, mesenchymal and stem/progenitor markers, namely CD31, CD34, CD105 (endoglin), CD117/c-kit, nestin, desmin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and the heavy chain of smooth muscle myosin (SMM). We used histologically normal kidney samples, obtained after nephrectomy, from nine adult patients. The capsular SC/TCs had a strong CD34 and partial nestin and CD105 immunopositivity. Subcapsular and interstitial SC/TCs expressed c-kit, nestin, CD105, but also α-SMA and SMM, therefore having a myoid phenotype. The endothelial SC/TCs phenotype was CD31+/CD34+/CD105+/nestin±/SMM±/α-SMA±. All three myoid markers were expressed in periendothelial SC/TCs. We also found a scarce expression of nestin in parietal epithelial cells of Bowman’s capsule, and in podocytes. In epithelial cells, we found a positive expression for CD31, CD117/c-kit, desmin, CD34, SMM, and CD105. In epithelial tubular cells, we found a predominant basal expression of the myoid markers (SMM and desmin). In conclusion, myoepithelial tubular cells, myoid endothelial cells and myoid SC/TCs are normal constituents of the kidney.
  • Telocyte-like cells containing Weibel–Palade bodies in rat lamina
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): C.E. Petrea, M.C. Rusu, V.S. Mănoiu, A.D. Vrapciu Telocytes (TCs) are cells with long, thin and moniliform processes called telopodes. These cells have been found in numerous tissues, including the eye choroid and sclera. Lamina fusca (LF), an anatomical structure located at the sclera-choroid junction, has outer fibroblastic lamellae containing cells with long telopodes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, via transmission electron microscopy, the LF for the presence of endothelial-specific ultrastructural features, such as Weibel–Palade bodies (WPBs), in the residing TCs. We found that the outer fibroblastic layer of LF lacked pigmented cells but contained numerous cells with telopodes. These cells had incomplete or absent basal laminae, were united by focal adhesions and close contacts, and displayed scarce caveolae and shedding vesicles. Within the stromal cells of LF, numerous WPBs in various stages of maturation and vesicular structures, as secretory pods that ensure the exocytosis of WPBs content, were observed. The WPBs content of the cells with telopodes in the LF could indicate either their involvement in vasculogenesis and/or lymphangiogenesis or that they are the P-selectin- and CD63-containing pools that play roles in scleral or choroidal inflammation.
  • Cardiac telocytes. From basic science to cardiac diseases. I. Atrial
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): Sorin Hostiuc, Ionuț Negoi, Catalin Dogaroiu, Eduard Drima, Cristian Bogdan Iancu IntroductionAtrial fibrillation (AF) is nowadays considered to be one of the most important causes of heart failure, stroke, cognitive decline, vascular dementia, sudden death and overall cardiovascular morbidity. Recently were published a few articles suggesting a possible involvement of telocytes in the development of atrial fibrillation. The purpose of this article is to analyze the results obtained in the field systematically, and to see if there is enough data to support a possible involvement of telocytes in arrhythmogenesis.Materials and methodsTo this end, we performed a systematic review of the relevant scientific literature, indexed in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus.Results and discussionsOur systematic review of the published data identified five articles containing original data, based on which the association between telocytes and atrial fibrillation was inferred in later studies. We analyzed the usefulness of the information contained in the original articles to support this association, showing a lack of definite proofs correlating telocytes with atrial fibrillation.ConclusionsEven if a few articles implied a potential association between AF and telocytes, the current data is not enough to support it. Moreover, even an association between the morphology, characteristics, or density of the telocytes in the atrium/pulmonary veins and AF is potentially speculative, and more studies should be performed before implying it with a reasonable degree of certainty.
  • Cardiac telocytes. From basic science to cardiac diseases. II. Acute
           myocardial infarction
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): Sorin Hostiuc, Mihai Marinescu, Mihnea Costescu, Maria Aluaș, Ionut Negoi IntroductionThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the scientific evidence regarding a potential role of telocytes in myocardial infarction.Materials and methodsTo this purpose, we performed a systematic review of relevant scientific literature, indexed in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus.Results and discussionsWe found six articles containing relevant studies aimed at liking myocardial infarction and telocytes. The studies that were analysed in this review failed to show, beyond a reasonable doubt, that telocytes do actually have significant roles in myocardial regeneration after myocardial infarction. The main issues to be addressed in future studies are a correct characterization of telocytes, and a differentiation from other cell types that either have similar morphologies (using electron microscopy) or similar immunophenotypes, with emphasis on endothelial progenitors, which were previously shown to have similar morphology, and functions in cardiac regeneration after myocardial infarction.
  • Mesenteric organ lymphatics and inflammatory bowel disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): Yuanyuan Ge, Yi Li, Jianfeng Gong, Weiming Zhu Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex gastrointestinal disorder and its etiology is unclear yet. Current theory in IBD is focused on genetics, immunity and intestinal microbes. Emerging clinical evidence and experimental results suggest that morphologic abnormalities and dysfunction of mesenteric lymphatics may have potential roles in the pathogenesis and disease course of IBD. In this review, we summarize the findings of specific investigations of the lymphatics and explore its role in IBD.
  • Pulmonary lymphatic vessel morphology: a review
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): E. Weber, F. Sozio, A. Borghini, P. Sestini, E. Renzoni Our understanding of lymphatic vessels has been advanced by the recent identification of relatively specific lymphatic endothelium markers, including Prox-1, VEGFR3, podoplanin and LYVE-1. The use of lymphatic markers has led to the observation that, contrary to previous assumptions, human lymphatic vessels extend deep inside the pulmonary lobule, either in association with bronchioles, intralobular arterioles or small pulmonary veins. Pulmonary lymphatic vessels may thus be classified into pleural, interlobular (in interlobular septa) and intralobular. Intralobular lymphatic vessels may be further subdivided in: bronchovascular (associated with a bronchovascular bundle), perivascular (associated with a blood vessel), peribronchiolar (associated with a bronchiole), and interalveolar (in interalveolar septa). Most of the intralobular lymphatic vessels are in close contact with a blood vessel, either alone or within a bronchovascular bundle. A minority is associated with a bronchiole, and small lymphatics are occasionally present even in interalveolar septa, seemingly independent of blood vessels or bronchioles. The lymphatics of the interlobular septa often contain valves, are usually associated with the pulmonary veins, and connect with the pleural lymphatics. The large lymphatics associated with bronchovascular bundles have similar characteristics to pleural and interlobular lymphatics and may be considered conducting vessels. The numerous small perivascular lymphatics and the few peribronchiolar ones that are found inside the lobule are probably the absorbing compartment of the lung responsible for maintaining the alveolar interstitium relatively dry in order to provide a minimal thickness of the air-blood barrier and thus optimize gas diffusion. These lymphatic populations could be differentially involved in the pathogenesis of diseases preferentially involving distinct lung compartments.
  • The deep lymphatic anatomy of the hand
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): Chuan-Xiang Ma, Wei-Ren Pan, Zhi-An Liu, Fan-Qiang Zeng, Zhi-Qiang Qiu BackgroundThe deep lymphatic anatomy of the hand still remains the least described in medical literature.MethodsEight hands were harvested from four nonembalmed human cadavers amputated above the wrist. A small amount of 6% hydrogen peroxide was employed to detect the lymphatic vessels around the superficial and deep palmar vascular arches, in webs from the index to little fingers, the thenar and hypothenar areas. A 30-gauge needle was inserted into the vessels and injected with a barium sulphate compound. Each specimen was dissected, photographed and radiographed to demonstrate deep lymphatic distribution of the hand.ResultsFive groups of deep collecting lymph vessels were found in the hand: superficial palmar arch lymph vessel (SPALV); deep palmar arch lymph vessel (DPALV); thenar lymph vessel (TLV); hypothenar lymph vessel (HTLV); deep finger web lymph vessel (DFWLV). Each group of vessels drained in different directions first, then all turned and ran towards the wrist in different layers.ConclusionThe deep lymphatic drainage of the hand has been presented. The results will provide an anatomical basis for clinical management, educational reference and scientific research.
  • William Hunter and lymphatics
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): Stuart W. McDonald, David Russell William Hunter along with his brother, John, and their colleagues William Hewson, William Cruikshank and John Sheldon made a large contribution to understanding of lymphatic vessels. Hewson, Cruikshank and Sheldon all carried out mercury injections and made much progress in mapping the distribution of lymphatics in the human body. William Hunter appreciated that lymphatics absorbed fluid from the tissues of the body and that lacteals of the intestine and lymphatics are similar structures. John Hunter carried out an elegant series of experiments that proved that lacteals absorb products of digestion. The Hunters, however, were wrong in dismissing absorption by blood vessels and missed the importance of blood capillaries. William Hewson showed that lymphatics were not confined to mammals but that they are present in reptiles, birds and fish. Hewson also demonstrated that tracheobronchial glands are lymph nodes and not mucus-secreting glands as previously thought. Although William Hunter appreciated that tuberculosis and venereal diseases might involve the regional lymph nodes, he does not seem to have fully grasped that malignant disease might involve the local nodes or the concept that knowledge of lymph drainage could be used to define the likely site of a primary malignancy.
  • Immunolocalization of Orexin A and its receptors in the different
           structures of the porcine ovary
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): Luisa Ragionieri, Francesca Ravanetti, Rosanna Di Lecce, Maddalena Botti, Robert Ciccimarra, Simona Bussolati, Giuseppina Basini, Ferdinando Gazza, Antonio Cacchioli Orexins are neuropeptides with pleiotropic functions, involved in the coordination of multiple versatile physiological processes, in particular related to food intake and several aspects of the reproductive process. Their actions are carried out through the bond with the related Orexin 1 (OXR1) and Orexin 2 (OXR2) G-protein-coupled receptors. Studies on the expression of the orexinergic system in the female genital organs are scarce and limited to preovulatory gametogenic follicles and corpora lutea isolated from the rest of the ovary. As the description of only these structures is insufficient to provide a complete picture of the organ, the present study is aimed to give a panoramic view of all the ovarian structures and cells expressing Orexin A (OXA) and its receptors in their original localization. Double labeling immunofluorescent methods, applied on frozen sections of the whole organ in both follicular and luteal phase, were used to highlight the particular distribution and colocalization of the proteins. For a better recognition of cellular morphology and a better distinction between gametogenic (healthy) and atretic follicles, also a single labeling immunolocalization of OXA on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues and a TUNEL staining were performed. The results indicate that OXA and its two receptors subtypes are expressed in all the different structures composing the swine ovary, albeit in different ways, in both phases of the ovarian cycle. In general, OXA and OXR2 appear diffusely distributed within “health”, proliferating and steroid producing cells, while has granular appearance, being presumably associated to cytoplasmic vesicles, in degenerating cells, independently if apoptotic or not. The immunoreactivity for OXR1, instead, is often associated with the nuclear envelope but it is also detectable, to a lesser extent, diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm of growing or steroid producing cells. When cells undertake the path leading to degeneration, also OXR1 immunoreactivity assumes a granular appearance in the cytoplasm and is colocalized with OXA and OXR2. Different roles for the two receptors in the same cell and a different regulation of their expression remain to be investigated. Their comprehension could help studies of follicle development in pig, as part of in vitro oocyte maturation and fertilization programs in livestock.
  • Normal microscopic anatomy of equine body and limb skin: A morphological
           and immunohistochemical study
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): Elin Jørgensen, Giulia Lazzarini, Andrea Pirone, Stine Jacobsen, Vincenzo Miragliotta IntroductionInformation on microscopic anatomy of equine skin is sparse. In horses, limb wounds often become chronic and/or non-healing whereas body wounds heal normally. These dissimilarities in healing patterns might be a product of different phenotypic characteristics of body and limb skin. The objective of this study was to investigate microscopic anatomy, epidermal thickness, keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation as well as the presence of mast cells in normal equine skin of body and limb.Materials and methodsThe study involved body and limb skin biopsies from six horses. Histological characteristics of the epidermis were assessed and epithelial thickness measured. Immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate epidermal differentiation patterns of cytokeratin (CK) 10, CK14, CK16, loricrin, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α), epidermal proliferation (Ki-67 immunostaining), and mast cells distribution in the skin.ResultsThe epidermis was significantly thicker in the limb skin compared to body skin (p 
  • Neuromast hair cells retain the capacity of regeneration during heavy
           metal exposure
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): G. Montalbano, G. Capillo, R. Laurà, F. Abbate, M. Levanti, M.C. Guerrera, E. Ciriaco, A. Germanà The neuromast is the morphological unit of the lateral line of fishes and is composed of a cluster of central sensory cells (hair cells) surrounded by support and mantle cells. Heavy metals exposure leads to disruption of hair cells within the neuromast. It is well known that the zebrafish has the ability to regenerate the hair cells after damage caused by toxicants. The process of regeneration depends on proliferation, differentiation and cellular migration of sensory and non-sensory progenitor cells. Therefore, our study was made in order to identify which cellular types are involved in the complex process of regeneration during heavy metals exposure. For this purpose, adult zebrafish were exposed to various heavy metals (Arsenic, cadmium and zinc) for 72 h. After acute (24 h) exposure, immunohistochemical localization of S100 (a specific marker for hair cells) in the neuromasts highlighted the hair cells loss. The immunoreaction for Sox2 (a specific marker for stem cells), at the same time, was observed in the support and mantle cells, after exposure to arsenic and cadmium, while only in the support cells after exposure to zinc. After chronic (72 h) exposure the hair cells were regenerated, showing an immunoreaction for S100 protein. At the same exposure time to the three metals, a Sox2 immunoreaction was expressed in support and mantle cells. Our results showed for the first time the regenerative capacity of hair cells, not only after, but also during exposure to heavy metals, demonstrated by the presence of different stem cells that can diversify in hair cells.
  • Localization of cholecystokinin in the zebrafish retina from larval to
           adult stage
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): M.C. Guerrera, F. Abbate, G. Di Caro, G.P. Germanà, M. Levanti, V. Micale, G. Montalbano, R. Laurà, A. Germanà, U. Muglia The peptide hormone cholecistokinin (CCK) plays a key role in the central and peripheral nervous system. It is known to be involved in the digestive physiology and in the regulation of food intake. Moreover, the CCK expression has also been detected in the retina of different vertebrates, including fish, although its biological activity in this tissue remains to be elucidated. In literature no data are yet available about the CCK-immunoreactivity in the zebrafish retina during development. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the distribution of sulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK8-S) as a well preserved form during evolution in the zebrafish retina from 3 days post hatching (dph) until adult stage, using immunohistochemistry in order to elucidate the potential role of this protein in the development and maintenance of normal retinal homeostasis. The cellular distribution of CCK in the retina was similar from 3 dph to 40 days post fertilization (dpf) when immunoreactivity was found in the photoreceptors layer, in the outer plexiform layer, in the inner plexiform layer and, to a lesser extent, in the ganglion cell layer (GCL). Immunohistochemical localization at 50 dpf as well as in the adult stage was observed in a subpopulation of amacrine cells in the proximal inner nuclear layer, in the inner plexiform layer, in displaced amacrine cells and in retinal ganglion cells in the GCL. Our results demonstrate for the first time the occurrence of CCK in the zebrafish retina from larval to adult stage with a different pattern of distribution, suggesting different roles of CCK during retinal cells maturation.
  • Enhancement of peri-implant bone osteogenic activity induced by a
           peptidomimetic functionalization of titanium
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): F. Ravanetti, F. Gazza, D. D’Arrigo, G. Graiani, A. Zamuner, M. Zedda, E. Manfredi, M. Dettin, A. Cacchioli Osteoblast cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix is established through two main pathways: one is mediated by the binding between integrin and a minimal adhesion sequence (RGD) on the extracellular protein, the other is based on the interactions between transmembrane proteoglycans and heparin-binding sequences found in many matrix proteins.The aim of this study is the evaluation in an in vivo endosseous implant model of the early osteogenic response of the peri-implant bone to a biomimetic titanium surface functionalized with the retro-inverso 2DHVP peptide, an analogue of Vitronectin heparin binding site. The experimental plan is based on a bilateral study design of Control and 2DHVP implants inserted respectively in the right and left femur distal metaphysis of adult male Wistar rats (n = 16) weighing about 300 grams and evaluated after 15 days.Fluorochromic bone vital markers were given in a specific time frame, in order to monitor the dynamic of new bone deposition. The effect inducted by the peptidomimetic coating on the surrounding bone were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated by means of static and dynamic histomorphometric analyses performed within three concentric and subsequent circular Regions of Interest (ROI) of equivalent thickness (220 μm), ROI1 adjacent to the interface, ROI2, the middle, and ROI3 the farthest. The data indicated that these functionalized implants stimulated a higher bone apposition rate (p 
  • Craniofacial structure alterations of foetuses from folic acid deficient
           pregnant mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): Estela Maldonado, Yamila López, Manuel Herrera, Elena Martínez-Sanz, Concepción Martínez-Álvarez, Juliana Pérez-Miguelsanz IntroductionCraniofacial development in mammals is a complex process that involves a coordinated series of molecular and morphogenetic events. Folic acid (FA) deficiency has historically been associated with congenital spinal cord malformations, but the effect that a maternal diet deficient in FA has on the development of other structures has been poorly explored. In the present study, the objective was to describe and quantify the alterations of craniofacial structures presented in mouse foetuses from dams fed a FA deficient (FAD) diet compared with controls that were given a regular maternal diet.Material and methodsE17 mouse foetuses were removed from dams that were fed with a control diet or with a FAD diet for several weeks. Foetuses with maternal FAD diets were selected for the study when they showed an altered tongue or mandible. Histological sections were used to quantify the dimensions of the head, tongue, mandibular bone and masseter muscle areas using ImageJ software. The muscles of the tongue, suprahyoid muscles, lingual septum, submandibular ducts, and lingual arteries were also analysed.ResultsThe heads of malformed foetuses were smaller than the heads of the controls, and they showed different types of malformations: microglossia with micrognathia (some of which were combined with cleft palate) and aglossia with either micrognathia or agnathia. Lingual and suprahyoid muscles were affected in different forms and degrees. We also found alterations in the lingual arteries and in the ducts of the submandibular glands. Summarised we can state that pharyngeal arches-derived structures were affected, and the main malformations observed corroborate the vulnerability of cranial neural crest cells to FA deficiency.ConclusionThe present study reveals alterations in the development of craniofacial structures in FAD foetuses. This study provides a new focus for the role of FA during embryological development.
  • The influence of temporomandibular joint movement parameters on dental
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): Luminita Oancea, Roxana Stegaroiu, Corina Marilena Cristache Association between tooth morphology, occlusal relations and mandibular condyle/glenoid fossa morphology is still a controversial issue in dentistry.The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of three important articular parameters on the dental morphology and the crown volume, quantifying the variation for each tooth group: incisor, canine, premolar and molar.Materials and methodsAll maxillary teeth from a set of basic study models were prepared for zirconia single crowns. The models were scanned and then, using a computer aided design software, they were mounted in a virtual articulator and specific mandibular movements were defined. The crown morphology was designed and statically adapted. Ten models were obtained by dynamical adjustment of the basic model for successively modified articular parameters: sagittal condylar inclination (SCI) = 30°, Bennett angle (BA) = 10°, Immediate side shift (ISS) = 0.5 mm — for control and SCI: 40°, 50° and 60° with BA and ISS as control, BA: 15°, 20° and 25° with SCI and ISS as control, ISS: 1.5 mm, 1.0 mm and 0.0 mm with SCI and BA as control — for the nine test models. The following measurements were performed three times on the right side of each model: volume for each tooth group, slope (S) for the central incisor, S and mesio-distal angle (MDA) for canine, S, MDA and vestibulo-oral angle (VOA) for the first premolar and molar.ResultsWhen SCI was varied, statistically significant changes as compared to the controls were found for incisor’s and premolar’s S, premolar’s VOA and, for 50° and 60°, MDA and molar’s MDA (for 50°) and VOA (for 60°). When BA was varied, significant changes were found for S (canine) and, in certain models, MDA (premolar, molar). Variations of ISS significantly changed mainly MDA for molars and, in two models, premolars.ConclusionsWithin the limits of this study, among the articular parameters, SCI mostly influenced the dynamic tooth morphology, but canine and molar morphology was stronger influenced by BA and/or ISS.
  • Applications of inflammation-derived gingival stem cells for testing the
           biocompatibility of dental restorative biomaterials
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): A. Soancă, M. Lupse, M. Moldovan, E. Pall, M. Cenariu, A. Roman, O. Tudoran, P. Surlin, O. Șorițău BackgroundNormal or inflamed gingival tissues are regarded as a source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) abundant and easily accessible through minimally invasive dental procedures. Due to the proximity of dental resin composites to gingival tissues and to the possible local cytotoxic effect of the eluted components, gingiva-derived MSCs could be used to investigate the biocompatibility of dental biomaterials.PurposeThe present research aimed to isolate (MSCs) from inflamed and normal gingiva, to fully characterize them and to observe their behavior in relation with some commercial resin composite materials and one experimental material.Material and methodsFollowing their isolation, putative MSCs from both gingival sources were grown under the same culture conditions and characterized by immunophenotyping of cell surface antigens by flow-cytometry and transcription factors by immunocytochemical staining. Moreover, stemness gene expression was evaluated by RT-PCR analysis. Multipotent mesenchymal differentiation potential was investigated. Osteogenic and neurogenic differentiated cells were highlighted by immunocytochemical staining, chondrogenic cells by cytochemical staining, and adipocytes by cytochemical staining and spectrophotometry, respectively. Resin composite cytotoxicity was evaluated by cell membrane fluorescent labeling with PKH 26 and MTT assay. The results of PKH labeling were statistically analysed using two-way RM ANOVA with Bonferroni post-tests. For MTT assay, two-way RM ANOVA with Bonferroni post-tests and unpaired t test with Welch’s correction were used.ResultsA similar expression pattern of surface markers was observed. The cells were positive for CD105, CD73, CD90, CD49e, CD29, CD44 and CD166 and negative for CD45, CD34, CD14, CD79, HLA-DR and CD117 indicating a mesenchymal stem cell phenotype. The qRT-PCR analysis revealed a low gene expression for NOG, BMP4 and Oct3/4 and an increased expression for Nanog in both cells lines. Immunocytochemical analysis highlighted a more intense protein expression for Nanog, Oct3/4 and Sox-2 in MSCs derived from normal gingiva than from inflamed gingiva. Multipotent differentiation capacity of MSCs isolated from both sources was highlighted. The tested materials had no hazardous effect on MSCs as the two cell lines developed well onto resin composite substrates. Cell counting revealed some significant differences in the number of PKH-labeled MSCs at some experimental moments. Also, some differences in cell viability were recorded indicating better developmental conditions offered by some of the tested biomaterials.ConclusionsThe experimental resin composite behaved like the most biocompatible commercial material. Inflamed gingiva-derived MSCs retain their stem cell properties and could be used as a valuable cell line for testing dental biomaterials.
  • Structural differences in enamel and dentin in human, bovine, porcine, and
           ovine teeth
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): Antonio José Ortiz-Ruiz, Juan de Dios Teruel-Fernández, Luis Alberto Alcolea-Rubio, Ana Hernández-Fernández, Yolanda Martínez-Beneyto, Francesc Gispert-Guirado BackgroundThe aim was to study differences between crystalline nanostructures from the enamel and dentin of human, bovine, porcine, and ovine species.MethodsDentine and enamel fragments extracted from sound human, bovine, porcine and ovine incisors and molars were mechanically ground up to a final particle size of
  • Plasma of argon enhances the adhesion of murine osteoblasts on different
           graft materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): Luigi Canullo, Tullio Genova, Nadja Naenni, Yasushi Nakajima, Katsuhiko Masuda, Federico Mussano ObjectivePlasma of argon treatment was demonstrated to increase material surface energy leading to stronger and faster interaction with cells. The aim of the present in vitro study was to test the effect of plasma treatment on different graft materials.Materials and methodsSynthetic hydroxyapatite (Mg-HA), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), cancellous and cortical xenogeneic bone matrices (CaBM, CoBM) were used representing commonly used classes of bone substitute materials. Fifty serially numbered disks with a 10 mm-diameter from each graft material were randomly divided into two groups: test group (argon plasma treatment) and control group (absence of treatment).Cell morphology (using pre-osteoblastic murine cells) and protein adsorption were analyzed at all samples from both the test and control group.Differences between groups were analyzed using the Mann–Whitney test setting the level of significance at p 
  • Effectiveness evaluation of digital virtual simulation application in
           teaching of gross anatomy
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): Xiaohua Deng, Guowei Zhou, Bing Xiao, Zirui Zhao, Yicheng He, Chujun Chen IntroductionDigital virtual simulation (DVS) is increasingly used to supplement the teaching of anatomy. DVS can provide the students with three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic images and precise structures in anatomy teaching. We investigated the effects of digital virtual simulation (DVS) application in gross anatomy teaching.Materials and methodsFourth-year medical students (n = 120), majoring clinical medicine in Class 2013 from Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, were assigned into four classes. Two classes received a traditional teaching method and were the control classes, the others received a new teaching reform method-gross anatomy teaching by DVS, and were the experimental classes. After the reform was carried out, the students in teaching reform classes were proceeded to do a subjective evaluation of the teaching method in order to collect feedback information.ResultsStudents in the experimental group achieved a mean score of 84.97 (±7.86) compared to 78.96 (±5.78) in the control group, with statistical significance between two the groups (p 
  • Anatomy learning from prosected cadaveric specimens versus
           three-dimensional software: A comparative study of upper limb anatomy
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): Vasileios Mitrousias, Sokratis E. Varitimidis, Michael E. Hantes, Konstantinos N. Malizos, Dimitrios L. Arvanitis, Aristeidis H. Zibis IntroductionModern, three-dimensional (3D) anatomy software is a promising teaching method, though few studies examine its effectiveness on upper limb and musculoskeletal anatomy learning. The purpose of this study is to investigate which method is associated with a better outcome, as assessed by students’ performance on examinations, when comparing learning with prosections to the use of 3D software.Materials and methodsTwo groups of undergraduate, first-year medical students without previous knowledge of anatomy were compared. Overall, 72 students attended lectures and cadaveric prosections in the laboratory (n = 40), or lectures and the BioDigital Human software (n = 32). Four hours of lectures and four hours of laboratory work, combining brief demonstration and independent study in small teams, were completed by each group. An anonymous examination, including tag questions from both cadaveric and 3D images, and multiple-choice questions, was held after the end of the educational process. Students’ perceptions were also investigated via an anonymous questionnaire, which comprised 15 questions. Chi-square and student’s t-test were used for comparisons.ResultsStudents using the 3D software showed better performance in examinations, compared to students using prosection (mean: 55.88 ± 19.60 vs. 48 ± 16.11; p = 0.05, Cohen’s d = 0.5). No statistically significant difference was found regarding students’ satisfaction from using each learning method (p = 0.39).ConclusionsAlthough prosection is the most common method of teaching anatomy, recent technologies, such as 3D software, are also considered useful teaching tools. However, further research has to be done before they can be safely used as a part of a multimodal curriculum, since results from this study are limited to the upper limb musculoskeletal anatomy.
  • Gender as an underestimated factor in mental health of medical students
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): P.H.M. Burger, M. Scholz BackgroundIn Germany, currently two out of three medical students are female. Several studies corroborate that medical students show a significantly higher prevalence of stress-related mental disorders than the population in general.AimsWe aimed to evaluate, if gender has an influence on the distribution of mental stress parameters and learning style among male and female medical students.MethodsWe investigated a total of 758 students of the medical faculty at the University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Germany, using standardized and validated psychological questionnaires on depressive symptoms (BDI-II), burnout (BOSS-II) and quality of life (SF-12). In addition, we screened the students for their learning styles according to Kolb.ResultsOut of 723 participants who declared their gender, 57.8% were female and 37.6% were male. Female students showed significantly higher values for depressiveness as well as for emotional and cognitive burnout, whereas the mental quality of life was significantly lower. A considerably higher percentage of male students with a converging or an accommodating learning style were found in comparison to their female fellows.ConclusionsWe postulate that an adaptation of the medical curriculum content to the investigated factors may contribute to a higher mental stability and less stress-related symptoms in medical students.
  • Rhoton’s Atlas of Head, Neck and Brain 2-D and 3-D Images, Maria
           Peris-Celda, Francisco Martinez-Soriano, Albert L. Rhoton. Thieme
           Publishers (2018)
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): Pedro M. Faustmann
  • The existence of labial SMAS — Anatomical, imaging and histological
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): Delia Hînganu, Mihaela Monica Scutariu, Marius Valeriu Hînganu Cutaneous insertion of the facial mimic muscles concerns, at different levels, the superficial fascia of that region. A superficial musculoaponeurotic system is described at face level that facilitates skin insertion of the facial expression muscles through the superficial fascia that acquires particular functional aspects in each region of the face. The existence of a musculofascial system is seen controversial among anatomists, which is why the purpose of this study is to establish its existence at the oral region. The material used in our study consists of twenty-four dissected hemifacies, wherefrom we have recorded images using an operator microscope. Tissue samples have been taken from anatomical specimens examining them by usual staining methods. In parallel, fifteen patients have been investigated with imaging methods (MRI and CT). The results prove the existence of an oral musculoaponeurotic system with a particular organization, similar in the upper and lower part. The superficial fascia disappears into the free margin of the upper and lower lips, as we are emphasizing in the images taken from this level. These findings explain the functional anatomy of this region, but they also form the background of the modern oral plastic surgery.
  • Pitx2 and nodal as conserved early markers of the anterior-posterior axis
           in the rabbit embryo
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): Ruben Plöger, Christoph Viebahn Attaining molecular and morphological axial polarity during gastrulation is a fundamental early requirement for normal development of the embryo. In mammals, the first morphological sign of the anterior–posterior axis appears anteriorly in the form of the anterior marginal crescent (or anterior visceral endoderm) while in the avian the first such sign is the Koller’s sickle at the posterior pole of the embryonic disc. Despite this inverse mode of axis formation many genes and molecular pathways involved in various steps of this process seem to be evolutionarily conserved amongst amniotes, the nodal gene being a well-known example with its functional involvement prior and during gastrulation. The pitx2 gene, however, is a new candidate described in the chick as an early marker for anterior–posterior polarity and as a regulator of axis formation including twinning. To find out whether pitx2 has retained its inductive and early marker function during the evolution of mammals this study analyses pitx2 and nodal expression at parallel stages during formation of the anterior–posterior polarity in the early rabbit embryo using whole-mount in situ hybridization and serial light-microscopical sections. At a late pre-gastrulation stage a localized reduction of nodal expression presages the position of the anterior pole of the embryonic disc and thus serves as the earliest molecular marker of anterior–posterior polarity known so far. Pitx2 is expressed in a polarized manner in the anterior marginal crescent and in the posterior half of the embryonic disc during further development. In the anterior segment of the posterior pitx2 expression domain, the anterior streak domain (ASD) is defined by nodal expression as a hypothetical progenitor region of the anterior half of the primitive streak. The expression patterns of both genes thus serve as signs of a conserved involvement in early axis formation in amniotes and, possibly, in twinning in mammals as well.
  • Anatomical study of the first dorsal extensor compartment for the
           treatment of de Quervain’s disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): Yong Seok Nam, GyeongHyeon Doh, Ki Yong Hong, SooA Lim, SuRak Eo IntroductionAnatomical variations of the first dorsal extensor compartment (1st EC) are commonly noted.Materials and methodsForty cadaver hands were dissected to define the 1st EC. Through the gross findings, we classified the contents according to the presence of septation, subcompartment, and variation of tendons. Bony cross-section of the wrist was performed to reveal any bony pattern within the 1st EC. We also measured the anatomical structures of the 1st EC.ResultsA septum that results in subcompartments was present in 24, complete in 2 and incomplete in 22 hands distally. The mean size of the 1st EC was 20.69 ± 12 mm in length, and 8.65 ± 0.67 mm in width. The mean length of the septum was 11.18 ± 5.18 mm, while the mean width of the subcompartment was 3.18 ± 0.40 mm. All the subcompartments enclosed only extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) tendons. The mean number of abductor pollicis longus and EPB tendon slips was 2.6 ± 0.5 and 1.1 ± 0.2, respectively. The bony floor of the 1st EC was classified into five types. Two distinctive grooves separating two tendons with protruding osseous ridge (type I, n = 9), two distinctive grooves separating two tendons without protruding osseous ridge (type II, n = 10), a single distinct groove with osteophytes (type III, n = 16), indistinct groove with fibrous septum separating two tendons (type IV, n = 4), and indistinct groove without fibrous septum (type V, n = 1).ConclusionKnowledge about the 1st EC abnormality is mandatory for the successful treatment of de Quervain’s disease.
  • Development of the long head of the biceps brachial tendon: A possible
           explanation of the anatomical variations
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): Jorge Murillo-González, Crótida De La Cuadra-Blanco, Luis-A. Arráez-Aybar, Manuel-E. Herrera-Lara, Alvaro Minuesa-Asensio, José Ramón Mérida-Velasco The anatomical variations of the proximal portion of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon (LHBT) are rarely observed in clinical practice. However, an increase in the rate of shoulder arthroscopic surgery has led to an increase in the observation of anatomical variations of this region. The aim of this work was to analyze the development of the LHBT in 23 human embryos ranging from the 6th to 8th weeks of development. The LHBT develops from the glenohumeral interzonal mesenchyme in the 6th week. By week 7, the myotendinous junction of the LHBT develops. The anlage of the LHBT is separated from that of the glenohumeral capsule during week 8. Our results suggest that the most important period for the LHBT development occurs between the 6th and 8th weeks of embryonic development. Alterations during this critical period may cause anatomical variations of the LHBT. An additional case report from our own experience is provided as Supplementary material.
  • Impact of obesity and aging on crestal alveolar bone height in mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): Anna Damanaki, Svenja Memmert, Marjan Nokhbehsaim, Abhishek Sanyal, Thorsten Gnad, Alexander Pfeifer, James Deschner Obesity and aging are associated with periodontitis, which represents a chronic inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues, i.e. the periodontium. However, if both risk factors also have a negative impact on crestal alveolar bone in a clinically healthy periodontium, has yet to be elucidated and was analyzed in this in-vivo study.Eight C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet during the entire study. Half of these mice were sacrificed at week 19 (group 1: younger lean mice), whereas the other half of the animals were sacrificed at week 25 (group 2: older lean mice). In addition, four mice were fed a high-fat diet until their sacrifice at week 19 (group 3: younger obese mice). Mandibles and maxillae were scanned by micro-computed tomography and, subsequently, the distance between the cementoenamel junction and alveolar bone crest (CEJ-ABC) at all molars was determined. Levels of interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, visfatin and adiponectin in gingival samples were quantified by real-time PCR. For statistical analyses, the Mann–Whitney-U test was applied (p 
  • Three-dimensional CAD/CAM imaging of the maxillary sinus in ageing process
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): Kvetuse Lovasova, David Kachlik, Mirela Rozpravkova, Maria Matusevska, Jana Ferkova, Darina Kluchova ObjectivesDuring the physiological ageing process atrophy of the alveolar bone appears in vertical direction. This bone resorption causes pushing the limits of the maxillary sinus at the expense of a degraded bone. The sinus volume increases due to the facial development in children and adolescents or during the ageing process due to the loss of teeth and bone mass. The main aim of this study is to determine the sinus shape and sinus floor morphology related to age.Materials and methodsHuman adult male and female cadaveric heads (aged 37 to 83 years) with different dental status were used. The three-dimensional CAD/CAM software was used to scan the solid impressions of the maxillary sinus to visualize the real sinus shape and sinus floor. Subsequently, other findings are shown in tables and evaluated graphically.ResultsThe maxillary sinus morphology, its relationship to the nasal cavity, the sub sinus alveolar bone height, displacement of the lowest and highest points of sinus, and the sinus relationship to the roots of the upper teeth were studied and evaluated. Some septa, crests, and the prominent infraorbital canal were also found in the area of the sinus floor.ConclusionsThis paper provides a unique view on the maxillary sinus and its changes during the ageing process with preserved topographical relations in a representative sample of the Slovak population. The visualization of the maxillary sinus anatomy is necessary in the diagnosis and treatment plans for dental implants and during current surgical procedures.
  • Corrigendum to “A new procedure for processing extracted teeth for
           immediate grafting in post-extraction sockets. An experimental study in
           American Fox Hound dogs” [Ann. Anat. 217 (2018) 14–23]
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218Author(s): José Luis Calvo Guirado, Pilar Cegarra del Pino, Lari Sapoznikov, Rafael Arcesio Delgado Ruíz, Manuel Fernández Dominguez, Sérgio Alexandre Gehrke
  • The mechanical properties of fresh versus fresh/frozen and preserved
           (Thiel and Formalin) long head of biceps tendons: A cadaveric
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2018Source: Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer AnzeigerAuthor(s): Erik Hohmann, Natalie Keough, Vaida Glatt, Kevin Tetsworth, Reinhard Putz, Andreas Imhoff Human cadaveric specimens commonly serve as mechanical models and as biological tissue donors in basic biomechanical research. Although these models are used to explain both in vitro and in vivo behavior, the question still remains whether the specimens employed reflect the normal in vivo situation. The mechanical properties of fresh-frozen or preserved cadavers may differ, and whether they can be used to reliably investigate pathology could be debated. The purpose of this study was to therefore examine the mechanical properties of cadaveric long biceps tendons, comparing fresh (n = 7) with fresh-frozen (n = 8), formalin embalmed (n = 15), and Thiel-preserved (n = 6) specimens using a Universal Testing Machine. The modulus of elasticity and the ultimate tensile strength to failure was recorded. Tensile failure occurred at an average of 12 N/mm2 in the fresh group, increasing to 40.1 N/mm2 in the fresh-frozen group, 50.3 N/mm2 in the formalin group, and 52 N/mm2 in the Thiel group. The modulus of elasticity/stiffness of the tendon increased from fresh (25.6 MPa), to fresh-frozen (55.3 MPa), to Thiel (82.5 MPa), with the stiffest being formalin (510.6 MPa). Thiel-preserved and formalin-embalmed long head of biceps tendons and fresh-frozen tendons have a similar load to failure. Either the Thiel or formalin preserved tendon could therefore be considered as alternatives for load to failure studies. However, the Young’s modulus of embalmed tendons were significantly stiffer than fresh or fresh frozen specimens, and these methods might be less suitable alternatives when viscoelastic properties are being investigated.
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