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Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
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African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access  
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
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Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
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ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
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American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
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Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
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Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
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Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
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Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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BC Medical Journal     Free  
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Bijblijven     Hybrid Journal  
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
  [SJR: 0.562]   [H-I: 35]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0940-9602
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • Review: Limb regeneration in humans: dream or reality'
    • Authors: Lorenzo Alibardi
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Lorenzo Alibardi
      Appendage regeneration occurs by a sequence of events resembling those that take place during development in the embryo. This requires embryonic conditions such as hydration and hyaluronate content where Wnt and other signaling pathways, together with non- coding RNAs, can be re-expressed. These conditions among vertebrates are fully met only in amputated limbs of amphibians, likely because they are neotenic and maintain larval characteristics, including immaturity of their immune system and permanence of numerous stem cells. Although some key genes orchestrating limb regeneration are also present in amniotes, including humans, these genes are not expressed after injury. In amniotes a key problem for regeneration derives from the efficient immune system, largely deficient in anamniotes. As a consequence, wounds and appendage loss tend to scar instead of regenerating. Efforts of regenerative medicine in the attempt to induce the regrowth of limbs in humans must produce outgrowths with high hydration and hyaluronate content in order to create the immune-suppressed conditions similar to those present during development. The induced blastema must be manipulated for long periods of time in order to maintain the same regions present during limb development, an apical epidermal ridge and a polarizing region that forms gradients of expression of Wnt, Shh, FGF, BMP and Hox-genes. Pharmacological treatments to direct the regenerating limb into normal growth without risk of inducing abnormal or tumorigenic growth must be monitored during the course of the regeneration process − a medical treatment lasting years to fully regain the size of the lost appendage.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:11:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.12.008
      Issue No: Vol. 217 (2018)
  • Reversal of drug-induced gingival overgrowth by UV-mediated apoptosis of
           gingival fibroblasts — an in vitro study.
    • Authors: Casey Ritchhart; Anita Joy
      Pages: 7 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 217
      Author(s): Casey Ritchhart, Anita Joy
      Gingival overgrowth (GO) is an undesirable result of certain drugs like Cyclosporine A (CsA). Histopathology of GO shows hyperplasia of gingival epithelium, expansion of connective tissue with increased collagen, or a combination. Factors such as age, gender, oral hygiene, duration, and dosage also influence onset and severity of GO. One of the mechanisms behind uncontrolled cell proliferation in drug-induced GO is inhibition of apoptotic pathways, with a consequent effect on normal cell turnover. Our objective was to determine if UV photo-treatment would activate apoptosis in the gingival fibroblast component. Human gingival fibroblast cells (HGF-1) were exposed to 200ng/ml or 400ng/ml CsA and maintained for 3, 6, and 9 days, followed by UV radiation for 2, 5, or 10min (N=6). Naïve (no CsA or UV), negative (UV, no CsA), and positive controls (CsA, no UV) were designated. Prior to UV treatment, growth media was replaced with 1M PBS to prevent absorption of UV radiation by serum proteins, and cells were incubated in growth media for 24h post-UV before processing for TUNEL assay, cell proliferation assays, or immunofluorescence. Data showed a temporal increase in proliferation of HGF-1 cells under the influence of CsA. The 200ng/ml dose was more effective in causing over-proliferation. UV treatment for 10min resulted in significant reduction in cell numbers, as evidenced by counts and proliferation assays. Our study is a first step to further evaluate UV-mediated apoptosis as a mechanism to control certain forms of GO.

      PubDate: 2018-02-16T03:52:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 217 (2018)
  • Advances in cryo-electron tomography for biology and medicine
    • Authors: Roman I. Koning; Abraham J. Koster; Thomas H. Sharp
      Pages: 82 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Roman I. Koning, Abraham J. Koster, Thomas H. Sharp
      Cryo-electron tomography (CET) utilizes a combination of specimen cryo-fixation and multi-angle electron microscopy imaging to produce three-dimensional (3D) volume reconstructions of native-state macromolecular and subcellular biological structures with nanometer-scale resolution. In recent years, cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) has experienced a dramatic increase in the attainable resolution of 3D reconstructions, resulting from technical improvements of electron microscopes, improved detector sensitivity, the implementation of phase plates, automated data acquisition schemes, and improved image reconstruction software and hardware. These developments also greatly increased the usability and applicability of CET as a diagnostic and research tool, which is now enabling structural biologists to determine the structure of proteins in their native cellular environment to sub-nanometer resolution. These recent technical developments have stimulated us to update on our previous review (Koning, R.I., Koster, A.J., 2009. Cryo-electron tomography in biology and medicine. Ann Anat 191, 427-445) in which we described the fundamentals of CET. In this follow-up, we extend this basic description in order to explain the aforementioned recent advances, and describe related 3D techniques that can be applied to the anatomy of biological systems that are relevant for medicine.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T09:23:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 217 (2018)
  • Effect of ageing on the myosin heavy chain composition of the human
           sternocleidomastoid muscle
    • Authors: M. Meznaric; I. Eržen; P. Karen; E. Cvetko
      Pages: 95 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 216
      Author(s): M. Meznaric, I. Eržen, P. Karen, E. Cvetko
      The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition of ageing limb muscles is transformed into a slower phenotype and expresses fast-twitch fibre type atrophy, presumably due to age-related motor unit remodelling and a change in the patterns of physical activity. It is not known if ageing affects the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) in a similar way. The goal of the study was to analyze the MyHC composition and the size of muscle fibres in the ageing SCM by immunohistochemical methods and quantitative analysis and stereology using our own software for morphometry. We hypothesize that with ageing the MyHC composition of SCM transforms similarly as in ageing limb muscles, but the size of the muscle fibres is less effected as in limb muscles. The study was performed on the autopsy samples of the SCM in 12 older males. The results were compared with those published in our previous study on 15 young adult males. An ageing SCM transforms into a slower MyHC profile: the percentage of slow-twitch fibres is enhanced (numerical proportion 44.6 vs. 31.5%, P<0.05; area proportion 57.2 vs. 38.4%, P<0.05). The share of hybrid 2a/2x fibres is diminished (numerical proportion 14.1 vs. 26.8%, P<0.05), the area proportion of all fast-twitch fibres expressing MyHC-2a and 2x is smaller (50.6 vs. 63.5%, P<0.05), and the area proportion of fibres expressing the fastest myosin isoform MyHC-2x is smaller too (19.0 vs. 34.5%, P<0.05). The slower phenotype with the preferential reduction of the fibres expressing the fastest MyHC-2x provide circumstantial evidence for: (i) more fast-twitch than slow-twitch motor units being lost; and (ii) reinnervation by the surviving motor units. There appears to be no significant influence on muscle fibre size, which is congruent with relatively unchanged SCM activity during life.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2018)
  • Massa adiposa ligamenti falciformis or anterior abdominal fat pad — Its
           dimension and relation to body weight
    • Authors: Friedemann Strobel; Eckart Schirg; Martin Schlaud; Thomas Tschernig
      Pages: 100 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 216
      Author(s): Friedemann Strobel, Eckart Schirg, Martin Schlaud, Thomas Tschernig
      The anterior abdominal fat pad is associated with the falciform ligament in the upper middle/right abdomen and is frequently seen there in diagnostic imaging. It varies greatly in size and has often been described as an incidental finding in adults and has hitherto rarely been regarded as being illness-relevant. The aim of this study has been to assess whether the dimension of the corpus adiposum may be associated with body mass index. Ultrasound findings of 26 patients from birth until adolescence were analyzed for this purpose. In addition, an example from a recent dissection course has been included. The structure is constantly found with its smallest dimension in newborns, with a slight increase in infancy. The average dimensions were 7.6 by 3.5 by 0.7cm. The cubic volume correlated with age, weight and body mass index, whereas the latter association was strongest. Our data suggest that routinely determined dimension of falciform fat may be a surrogate parameter of relative body weight in childhood.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2018)
  • Periostin, dentin matrix protein 1 and P2rx7 ion channel in human teeth
           and periodontal ligament
    • Authors: I. Menéndez-Diaz; J.D. Muriel; O. García-Suárez; A. Obaya; S. Cal; J. Cobo; J.A. Vega; T. Cobo
      Pages: 103 - 111
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 216
      Author(s): I. Menéndez-Diaz, J.D. Muriel, O. García-Suárez, A. Obaya, S. Cal, J. Cobo, J.A. Vega, T. Cobo
      The periostin is a matricellular protein present in the human periodontal ligament and human dental pulp-derived cells lines, that up-regulates the in vitro expression of some genes involved in the dentin mineralization, such as dentin matrix protein 1 and P2x7-ion channel receptor. Here we investigated the distribution of periostin in human teeth and periodontal ligaments, mapping in parallel the localization of dentin matrix protein 1 and P2x7-ion channel receptor to establish whether or not they are expressed in the same places as periostin. The periodontal ligament and the subodontoblastic layer of the dental pulp displayed strong periostin immunoreactivity, whereas dentin matrix protein 1 was detected in the periodontal ligament co-localized with periostin in the vicinity of the cement. The P2x7 ion channel receptor was regularly absent in both the periodontal ligament and dental tissues, but in some cases, it was observed in the odontoblasts. Present results demonstrate the occurrence of periostin in the healthy adult human tooth without co-localization with proteins involved in tooth mineralization, the expression of which it regulates. These results might serve as a baseline for future studies on pathological conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2018)
  • Early molecular response and microanatomical changes in the masseter
           muscle and mandibular head after botulinum toxin intervention in adult
    • Authors: Julián Balanta-Melo; Viviana Toro-Ibacache; Maria Angélica Torres-Quintana; Kornelius Kupczik; Carolina Vega; Camilo Morales; Nadia Hernández-Moya; Manuel Arias-Calderón; Carolina Beato; Sonja Buvinic
      Pages: 112 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 216
      Author(s): Julián Balanta-Melo, Viviana Toro-Ibacache, Maria Angélica Torres-Quintana, Kornelius Kupczik, Carolina Vega, Camilo Morales, Nadia Hernández-Moya, Manuel Arias-Calderón, Carolina Beato, Sonja Buvinic
      Background Masseter muscle paralysis induced by botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) evokes subchondral bone loss in mandibular heads of adult rats and growing mice after 4 weeks. However, the primary cellular and molecular events leading to altered bone remodeling remain unexplored. Thus, the aim of the current work has been to assess the molecular response that precedes the early microanatomical changes in the masseter muscle and subchondral bone of the mandibular head in adult mice after BoNTA intervention. Methods A pre-clinical in vivo study was performed by a single intramuscular injection of 0.2 U BoNTA in the right masseter (experimental) of adult BALB/c mice. The contralateral masseter was injected with vehicle (control). Changes in mRNA levels of molecular markers of bone loss or muscle atrophy/regeneration were addressed by qPCR at day 2 or 7, respectively. mRNA levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) was assessed in mandibular heads, whilst mRNA levels of Atrogin-1/MAFbx, MuRF-1 and Myogenin were addressed in masseter muscles. In order to identify the early microanatomical changes at day 14, fiber diameters in transversal sections of masseter muscles were quantified, and histomorphometric analysis was used to determine the bone per tissue area and the trabecular thickness of subchondral bone of the mandibular heads. Results An increase of up to 4-fold in RANKL mRNA levels were detected in mandibular heads of the BoNTA-injected sides as early as 2 days after intervention. Moreover, a 4–6 fold increase in Atrogin-1/MAFbx and MuRF-1 and an up to 25 fold increase in Myogenin mRNA level were detected in masseter muscles 7 days after BoNTA injections. Masseter muscle mass, as well as individual muscle fiber diameter, were significantly reduced in BoNTA-injected side after 14 days post-intervention. At the same time, in the mandibular heads from the treated side, the subchondral bone loss was evinced by a significant reduction in bone per tissue area (−40%) and trabecular thickness (−55%). Conclusions Our results show that masseter muscle paralysis induced by BoNTA leads to significant microanatomical changes by day 14, preceded by molecular changes as early as 2 days in bone, and 7 days in muscle. Therefore, masseter muscle atrophy and subchondral bone loss detected at 14 days are preceded by molecular responses that occur during the first week after BoNTA intervention.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.11.009
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2018)
  • Human body donation in Thailand: Donors at Khon Kaen University
    • Authors: N. Techataweewan; C. Panthongviriyakul; Y. Toomsan; W. Mothong; P. Kanla; A. Chaichun; P. Amarttayakong; N. Tayles
      Pages: 142 - 151
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 216
      Author(s): N. Techataweewan, C. Panthongviriyakul, Y. Toomsan, W. Mothong, P. Kanla, A. Chaichun, P. Amarttayakong, N. Tayles
      Background Culture, society and spirituality contribute to variability in the characteristics of human body donors and donation programmes worldwide. The donors and the body donation programme at Khon Kaen University, northeast Thailand, reflect all these aspects of Thailand, including the status accorded to the donors and the ceremonial acknowledgement of the donors and their families. Methods Data from the programme records and from surveys of samples of currently registering donors and recently received donor bodies are analysed to define the characteristics of both registering and received donors, including motivation, demography, socio-economic status, health, and use of the bodies. Findings The body donation programme at Khon Kaen University currently has a very high rate of registration of body donors, with gender and age differences in the patterns of donation. Registrants include more females than males, a long-standing pattern, and are an average age of 50 years. The bodies of 12% of registrants are received after death and include more males than females. Both sexes are of an average age of 69 years. Males had registered their donation eight years prior to death and females ten years prior. Current registrants identified altruistic motives for their decision to donate, although the coincidence of body donation by a highly revered monk with a surge in donations in 2015 suggests that Buddhism plays a primary role in motivation. The opportunity to make merit for donors and their families, and respect shown to donors and the nature of the ceremonies acknowledging the donors and their families, including the use of the Royal Flame at the cremation ceremony, all contribute to decisions to donate. Conclusions The characteristics of body donors and the body donation programme at Khon Kaen University are reflective of Thai society and the centrality of Buddhism to Thai culture.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T08:22:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2018)
  • An Augmented Reality magic mirror as additive teaching device for gross
    • Authors: Daniela Kugelmann; Leonard Stratmann; Nils Nühlen; Felix Bork; Saskia Hoffmann; Golbarg Samarbarksh; Anna Pferschy; Anna Maria von der Heide; Andreas Eimannsberger; Pascal Fallavollita; Nassir Navab; Jens Waschke
      Pages: 71 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 215
      Author(s): Daniela Kugelmann, Leonard Stratmann, Nils Nühlen, Felix Bork, Saskia Hoffmann, Golbarg Samarbarksh, Anna Pferschy, Anna Maria von der Heide, Andreas Eimannsberger, Pascal Fallavollita, Nassir Navab, Jens Waschke
      When preparing young medical students for clinical activity, it is indispensable to acquaint them with anatomical section images which enable them to use the clinical application of imaging methods. A new Augmented Reality Magic Mirror (AR MM) system, which provides the advantage of a novel, interactive learning tool in addition to a regular dissection course, was therefore tested and evaluated by 880 first-year medical students as part of the macroscopic anatomy course in 2015/16 at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (LMU) in Munich. The system consists of an RGB-D sensor as a real-time tracking device, which enables the system to link a deposited section image to the projection of the user’s body, as well as a large display mimicking a real-world physical mirror. Using gesture input, the users have the ability to interactively explore radiological images in different anatomical intersection planes. We designed a tutorial during which students worked with the system in groups of about 12 and evaluated the results. Subsequently, each participant was asked to assess the system’s value by filling out a Likert-scale questionnaire. The respondents approved all statements which stressed the potential of the system to serve as an additional learning resource for anatomical education. In this case, emphasis was put on active learning, 3-dimensional understanding, and a better comprehension of the course of structures. We are convinced that such an AR MM system can be beneficially installed into anatomical education in order to prepare medical students more effectively for the clinical standards and for more interactive, student-centered learning.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T08:22:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.09.011
      Issue No: Vol. 215 (2018)
    • Authors: Mehmet Erkut Kara; Figen Sevil-Kilimci; Ömer Gürkan Dilek; Vedat Onar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Mehmet Erkut Kara, Figen Sevil-Kilimci, Ömer Gürkan Dilek, Vedat Onar
      Many researchers are interested in femoral conformation because most orthopaedic problems of the long bones occur in the femur and its joints. The neck-shaft (NSA) and the anteversion (AVA) angles are good predictors for understanding the orientation of the proximal end of the femur. The varus (aLDFA) and procurvatum (CDFA) angles have also been used to understand the orientation of the distal end of the femur. The purposes of this study were to investigate the relationship between the proximal and distal angles of the femur and to compare the distal femoral angles in male and female dogs in order to investigate the sexual dimorphism. The measurements of normal CDFAs, which have not been previously reported, may also provide a database of canine distal femoral morphology. A total of 75 cleaned healthy femora from different breeds or mixed breed of dogs were used. The three-dimensional images were reconstructed from computed tomographic images. The AVA, NSA, aLDFA and CDFA were measured on the 3D images. The correlation coefficients were calculated among the measured angles. The distal femoral angles were also compared between male and female femora. The 95% confidence intervals of the AVA and the NSA were calculated to be 24.22°–29.50° and 144.97°–147.50°, respectively. The 95% confidence intervals of the aLDFA and the CDFA for all studied dogs were 92.62°–94.08° and 89.09°–91.94°, respectively. The NSA showed no correlation with either the aLDFA or CDFA. There was a weak inverse correlation between the AVA and CDFA and a weak positive correlation between the AVA and aLDFA. The differences in the aLDFA and CDFA measurements between male and female dog were not significant. In conclusion, femoral version, regardless of the plane, might have little influence on distal femoral morphology in normal dogs. Besides this, there is no evidence of a sexual dimorphism in the varus and procurvatum angles of the dog distal femur. The data from this study may be used in both orthopaedic studies and for clinical applications related to the distal femur of dogs.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T09:23:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.02.006
  • Elongated styloid process in patients with temporomandibular disorders
           — Is there a link'
    • Authors: Sebastian Krohn; Phillipp Brockmeyer; Dietmar Kubein-Meesenburg; Christian Kirschneck; Ralf Buergers
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Sebastian Krohn, Phillipp Brockmeyer, Dietmar Kubein-Meesenburg, Christian Kirschneck, Ralf Buergers
      Background Elongated styloid processes may display clinical signs that can easily be confused with symptoms associated with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Thus, the present study aimed to investigate alterations of the styloid process in patients with TMD. Methods Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) X-ray images of 192 patients with RDC/TMD diagnoses were examined retrospectively. On each side, the styloid process and mandibular ramus were evaluated regarding length as well as sagittal angulation. Data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA, Pearson’s r and Kruskal-Wallis test. In order to confirm the accuracy of the obtained X-ray measurements, the available cone-beam-computed tomographies (CBCT) of the subjects were also examined as reference standard and compared with the X-ray TMJ data by using Bland-Altman analysis. Results In a group of TMD patients we assessed a mean styloid length of 40.8mm over both genders. In female subjects the means of length and angulation of the styloid process were 40.4mm and 54.9degree, male subjects showed means of 42.1mm and 63.4degree. The mean height of the mandibular ramus in males was significantly higher than the same measurement in females (66.8mm vs 59.7mm). Styloid length in relation to ramus height (relative styloid length) was significantly larger in females. No significant correlations between RDC/TMD diagnoses and process length as well as process angle were found. A Bland-Altman analysis revealed conformity of CBCT and digital X-ray results. Conclusion The mean styloid length measured in a group of TMD patients is referred to as elongated, whereas females showed longer styloid in relation to body height. However, it appears that alterations of the styloid are not related to TMD diagnoses.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T09:23:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.01.007
  • Gender as an underestimated factor in mental health of medical students
    • Authors: P.H.M. Burger; M. Scholz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): P.H.M. Burger, M. Scholz
      Background In Germany, currently two out of three medical students are female. Several studies corroborate that medical students show a significantly higher prevalence of stress-related mental disorders than the population in general. Aims We aimed to evaluate, if gender has an influence on the distribution of mental stress parameters and learning style among male and female medical students. Methods We investigated a total of 758 students of the medical faculty at the University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Germany, using standardized and validated psychological questionnaires on depressive symptoms (BDI-II), burnout (BOSS-II) and quality of life (SF-12). In addition, we screened the students for their learning styles according to Kolb. Results Out of 723 participants who declared their gender, 57,8% were female and 37,6% were male. Female students showed significantly higher values for depressiveness as well as for emotional and cognitive burnout, whereas the mental quality of life was significantly lower. A considerably higher percentage of male students with a converging or an accommodating learning style were found in comparison to their female fellows. Conclusions We postulate that an adaptation of the medical curriculum content to the investigated factors may contribute to a higher mental stability and less stress-related symptoms in medical students.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T09:23:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.02.005
  • Three-step monitoring of glycan and galectin profiles in the anterior
           segment of the adult chicken eye
    • Authors: Joachim C. Manning; Gabriel García Caballero; Clemens Knospe; Herbert Kaltner; Hans-Joachim Gabius
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Joachim C. Manning, Gabriel García Caballero, Clemens Knospe, Herbert Kaltner, Hans-Joachim Gabius
      A histochemical three-step approach is applied for processing a panel of sections that covers the different regions of fixed anterior segment of the adult chicken eye. This analysis gains insight into the presence of binding partners for functional pairing by galectin/lectin recognition in situ. Glycophenotyping with 11 fungal and plant lectins (step 1) revealed a complex pattern of reactivity with regional as well as glycan- and cell-type-dependent differences. When characterizing expression of the complete set of the seven adhesion/growth-regulatory chicken galectins immunohistochemically (step 2), the same holds true, clearly demonstrating profiles with individual properties, even for the CG1A/B paralogue pair. Testing this set of labeled tissue lectins as probes (step 3) detected binding sites in a galectin-type-dependent manner. The results of steps 2 and 3 reflect the divergence of sequences and argue against functional redundancy among the galectins. These data shape the concept of an in situ network of galectins. As consequence, experimental in vitro studies will need to be performed from the level of testing a single protein to work with mixtures that mimic the (patho)physiological situation, – a key message of this report.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T08:22:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.02.002
  • Effects of in-office bleaching on human enamel and dentin. Morphological
           and mineral changes
    • Authors: Carmen Llena; Irene Esteve; Leopoldo Forner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Carmen Llena, Irene Esteve, Leopoldo Forner
      Background the effects of HP-based products upon dental enamel and dentin are inconclusive. Aim to evaluate changes in micromorphology and composition of calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) in enamel and dentin after the application of 37,5% hydrogen peroxide (HP) and 35% carbamide peroxide (CP) Methods crowns of 20 human teeth were divided in two halves. One half was used as control specimen and the other as experimental specimen. The control specimens were kept in artificial saliva, and the experimental specimens were divided into four groups (n=5 each): group 1 (enamel HP for 45minutes); group 2 (dentin HP for 45minutes); group 3 (enamel CP for 90minutes); and group 4 (dentin CP for 90minutes). The morphological changes were evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), while the changes in the composition of Ca and P were assessed using environmental scanning electron microscopy combined with a microanalysis system (ESEM+EDX). The results within each group and between groups were compared using the Wilcoxon test and Mann Whitney U-test, respectively (p <0.05). Results similar morphological changes in the enamel and no changes in dentin were assessed with both products. Ca and P decreased in enamel and dentin, without significant differences between them or with respect to their control specimens (p >0.05). Conclusions when bleaching products with a neutral pH are used in clinical practice, both, the concentration and the application time should be taken into account in order to avoid possible structural and mineral changes in enamel and dentin.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T08:22:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.01.003
  • Medical Students’ Perspective on Current and Future Training in
    • Authors: C.P.R. Triepels; D.M Koppes; S.M.J. Van Kuijk; H.E. Popeijus; W.H. Lamers; T. van Gorp; J.J. Futterer; R.F.P.M Kruitwagen; K.J.B Notten
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): C.P.R. Triepels, D.M Koppes, S.M.J. Van Kuijk, H.E. Popeijus, W.H. Lamers, T. van Gorp, J.J. Futterer, R.F.P.M Kruitwagen, K.J.B Notten
      Gaining sufficient knowledge of anatomy is an important part of medical education. Factors that influence how well students learn anatomical structures include available sources, learning time and study assistance. This study explores the attitude of medical students with regard to studying anatomy and evaluates possibilities for improvement of training in anatomy. Twenty medical students participated in a focus group meeting. Based on this focus group, an online survey consisting of 27 questions was developed and distributed amongst medical students of Maastricht University, the Netherlands. A total of 495 medical students (both Bachelor and Master level) participated in this survey. Master students found studying anatomy less attractive than Bachelor students (36.8% of the Master students vs. 47.9% of the Bachelor students (p=0.024)). Although most students responded that they thought it is important to study anatomy, 48% of all students studied anatomy less than 10hours per study block of 8 weeks. Only 47.9% of the students rated their knowledge of anatomy as adequate. Students suggested that three-dimensional techniques would help improve their knowledge of anatomy. Therefore investing in three-dimensional tools could prove beneficial in the future.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T08:22:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.01.006
  • Reaching the sellar region endonasally − one or both nostrils' A
           pilot study in body donors
    • Authors: Stefan Linsler; David Breuskin; Thomas Tschernig; Joachim Oertel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Stefan Linsler, David Breuskin, Thomas Tschernig, Joachim Oertel
      Introduction The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of posterior septectomy size on surgical exposure and surgical freedom during the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach to the sellar and parasellar region. Methods A mononostril and binostril approach to the sellar region was performed on 4 formalin-fixed cadaveric heads. Predefined anatomical structures were identified. Additionally, a millimeter gauge was introduced into the surgical site and the extent of dorsal septectomy was analyzed for both approaches. Surgical freedom was defined as the distance between the ipsilateral and contralateral limit of opening of the sphenoid sinus. Results The mean extent of dorsal septectomy was 15.7±5.7mm using a binostril approach to achieve adequate visualization of all relevant anatomical structures. Superior results were obtained via binostril technique with respect to the ability to identify the contralateral internal carotid artery or opticocarotid recessus. No such advantage was found for all other landmarks. Surgical freedom between the ipsilateral and contralateral limit of exposure of the sphenoid sinus was measured with 15±0.8mm in the mononostril and 19.2±0.9mm in the binostril group. Conclusions The surgical exposure increased significantly with progressively larger posterior septectomy in binostril approaches until a 20-mm posterior septectomy. Bilateral lateral opticocarotid recesses were accessible with a mean of 15mm for posterior septectomy. In the mononostril group no dorsal septectomy was necessary. Thus, the nasal mucosa is more preserved by this technique. However, the lateral exposure is partially limited and the use of angled endoscopes is recommended when adopting a mononostril approach to the sellar region.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T08:22:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.01.005
  • The anatomy of the thoracic duct at the level of the diaphragm: a cadaver
    • Authors: Ingmar L. Defize; Bernadette Schurink; Teus J. Weijs; Tom A.P. Roeling; Jelle P. Ruurda; Richard van Hillegersberg; Ronald L.A.W. Bleys
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Ingmar L. Defize, Bernadette Schurink, Teus J. Weijs, Tom A.P. Roeling, Jelle P. Ruurda, Richard van Hillegersberg, Ronald L.A.W. Bleys
      Background Injury and subsequent leakage of unrecognized thoracic duct tributaries during transthoracic esophagectomy may lead to chylothorax. Therefore, we hypothesized that thoracic duct anatomy at the diaphragm is more complex than currently recognized and aimed to provide a detailed description of the anatomy of the thoracic duct at the diaphragm. Basic procedures The thoracic duct and its tributaries were dissected in 7 (2 male and 5 female) embalmed human cadavers. The level of origin of the thoracic duct and the points where tributaries entered the thoracic duct were measured using landmarks easily identified during surgery: the aortic and esophageal hiatus and the arch of the azygos vein. Main findings The thoracic duct was formed in the thoracic cavity by the union of multiple abdominal tributaries in 6 cadavers. In 3 cadavers partially duplicated systems were present that communicated with interductal branches. The thoracic duct was formed by a median of 3 (IQR: 3–5) abdominal tributaries merging 8.3 centimeters (IQR: 7.3–9.3cm) above the aortic hiatus, 1.8 centimeters (IQR: −0.4–2.4cm) above the esophageal hiatus, and 12.3 centimeters (IQR: 14.0–−11.0cm) below the arch of the azygos vein. Conclusion This study challenges the paradigm that abdominal lymphatics join in the abdomen to pass the diaphragm as a single thoracic duct. In this study, this occurred in 1/7 cadavers. Although small, the results of this series suggest that the formation of the thoracic duct above the diaphragm is more common than previously thought. This knowledge may be vital to prevent and treat post-operative chyle leakage.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T08:22:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.02.003
  • Electrochemical testing of a novel alloy in natural and artificial body
    • Authors: Ioana Bunoiu; Mihaela Mindroiu; Claudiu Constantin Manole; Mihai Andrei; Adrian Nicoara; Ecaterina Vasilescu; Monica Popa; Andreea Cristiana Didilescu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Ioana Bunoiu, Mihaela Mindroiu, Claudiu Constantin Manole, Mihai Andrei, Adrian Nicoara, Ecaterina Vasilescu, Monica Popa, Andreea Cristiana Didilescu
      There is a recent trend in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine to use nanotechnology and bionanomaterials to obtain materials that mimic the surface properties of a natural tissue. From this perspective, nanolevel tissue engineering can be viewed as a novel anatomy of the future. In this paper, a novel titanium-based alloy is studied following this strategy. The alloy nanostructuration is proposed as an improved alternative for restorative prosthodontics or an implantable biomaterial. Tests in i) standard solution of simulated body fluid (SBF) and ii) natural saliva were performed to investigate the alloy’s electrochemical stability. The results show that nanochannel growth on the alloy surface confers a higher stability than that of the untreated one in both natural and simulated environments.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T08:22:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.12.011
  • Sectioned images and 3D models of a cadaver head with reference to dermal
           filler injection
    • Authors: Dong Sun Shin; YoungJoo Shim; Bong Chul Kim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Dong Sun Shin, YoungJoo Shim, Bong Chul Kim
      The purpose of this study was to describe anatomical consideration with reference to dermal filler injection on sectioned images and three dimensional (3D) models using Visible Korean for medical education and clinical training purposes in the field of facial surgery. Serially sectioned images of the head were acquired from a cadaver. Anatomic structures related to dermal filler injection were 3D-reconstructed based on sectioned images, and additional structures were built on the basis of the established ones using a semi-automatic method. The anatomical 3D models were assembled and converted to a PDF file (66MB), which can be downloaded and used for free. In the PDF file, noticeable anatomical structures related with dermal filler injection can be identified on the 3D models as well as on the sectioned anatomical images. The 3D models in PDF were optimized and displayed in real time. These state-of-the-art sectioned images, outlined images, and 3D models will aid students and trainees to acquire a better understanding of the anatomy related to dermal filler injection, and will also improve medical understanding of patients and the general public. The 3D models in PDF files also can be used on dermal filler injection simulations.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T08:22:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.02.001
  • Porcine heart interatrial septum anatomy
    • Authors: Mateusz K. Hołda; Mateusz Koziej; Katarzyna Piątek; Wiesława Klimek-Piotrowska
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Mateusz K. Hołda, Mateusz Koziej, Katarzyna Piątek, Wiesława Klimek-Piotrowska
      Background The left-sided atrial septal pouch (SP), a recently re-discovered anatomical structure within the human interatrial septum, has emerged as a possible source of thrombi formation and a trigger for atrial fibrillation, thereby potentially increasing the risk for ischemic stroke. In many studies, the swine interatrial septum has been used as model of the human heart. Also, possible new strategies and devices for management of the SPs may first be tested in this pig model. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to evaluate swine interatrial septum morphology and to compare it with the human analog, especially in the light of SP occurrence. Methods A total of 75 swine (Sus scrofa f. domestica) hearts were examined. The interatrial septum morphology was assessed, and SPs were measured. Results The most common variant of the interatrial septum was smooth septum (26.6%) followed by the patent foramen ovale channel and right SP (both 22.7%). No left or double SPs were observed. In 28.0% of all cases the fold of tissue (left septal ridge) was observed on the left side of the interatrial septum in the location where the left-sided SP should be expected. The mean length of the patent foramen ovale channel was 7.1±1.5mm. The mean right SP depth was 6.3±2.2mm, and its ostium width and height were 5.8±1.2 and 5.3±1.6mm, respectively. Conclusions There are significant differences between human and porcine interatrial septum morphology that should be taken into account during experimental studies. The absence of the left SP in swine results in the inability to use porcine heart as an experimental model for left-sided SP management.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T05:05:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.01.002
  • Changes In Anatomic Position Of Root Canal Orifices In Pluriradicular
           Teeth Following Re-Location During Endodontic Treatment
    • Authors: Darian Rusu; Petra Surlin; Stefan-Ioan Stratul; Marius Boariu; Horia Calniceanu; Adrian Kasaj; Cosmin Sinescu; Andreea Didilescu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Darian Rusu, Petra Surlin, Stefan-Ioan Stratul, Marius Boariu, Horia Calniceanu, Adrian Kasaj, Cosmin Sinescu, Andreea Didilescu
      Direct access to the root canals in posterior teeth for endodontic treatment is most frequently facilitated by the straightening of the coronal parts of the root canals, having as a consequence the relocation of the canal orifices on the map of the floor of the pulp chamber (Christie & Thompson, 1994). This procedure intentionally moves the coronal aspect of a canal away from the center of the chamber, while simultaneously removing internal dentin from the pulp chamber walls. The aim of this study was to evaluate the displacement resulting from the relocation of root canal orifices during the initial phase of rotary root canal treatment in molars using the dental operating microscope (DOM) and digital image processing. Forty-three molars (17 maxillary and 26 mandibular) belonging to 43 patients (aged 18 to 62 years) with indications for root canal treatment were endodontically treated. The differences between the initial perimeter and the perimeter of the root canal orifices polygon after relocation varied between 2.7 and 3.4 microns (mean 3.0 microns), while the differences between the initial area and the area after relocation varied between 2,448,456.8 and 3,249,306.6 square microns (mean 2,848,881.7). The increase in access to the cavities and the alterations of the pulp chambers can be satisfactorily approximated by the variations of the perimeters and areas of the pulp floor polygons during root canal treatment. From a clinical perspective, these results indicate that there is a significant decrease in tooth substance in molars (except MB2).

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T05:05:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.01.004
  • The Meckel Collections (Die Meckelschen Sammlungen), Rüdiger Schultka
    • Authors: Friedrich Paulsen
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 217
      Author(s): Friedrich Paulsen

      PubDate: 2018-02-16T03:52:13Z
  • A new procedure for processing extracted teeth for immediate grafting in
    • Authors: José Luis Calvo Guirado; Pilar Cegarra del Pino; Lari Sapoznikov; Rafael Arcesio Delgado Ruíz; Manuel Fernández Dominguez; Sérgio Alexandre Gehrke
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): José Luis Calvo Guirado, Pilar Cegarra del Pino, Lari Sapoznikov, Rafael Arcesio Delgado Ruíz, Manuel Fernández Dominguez, Sérgio Alexandre Gehrke
      Objectives To investigate freshly extracted dental particulate used to graft post-extraction sockets in dogs, comparing new bone formation at experimental and control sites. Material and Methods Bilateral premolars P2, P3, P4 and first mandibular molars were extracted atraumatically from six American Fox Hound dogs. The teeth were ground immediately using a ‘Smart Dentin Grinder.’ The dentin particulate was sieved to ensure a grain size of 300-1200μm and immersed in an alcohol cleanser to dissolve organic debris and bacteria, followed by washing in sterile saline buffer solution. The animals were divided into two groups randomly: group ‘A’ (control) samples were left to heal without any extraction socket grafting procedure; group ‘B’ (experimental) sockets were filled with the autogenous dentin particulate graft. The rate of tissue healing and the quantity of bone formation were evaluated using histological and histomorphometric analyses at 60 and 90 days post-grafting. The type of bone generated was categorized as woven (immature bone) or lamellar bone (mature bone). Results Substantially more bone formation was found in Group B (experimental) than Group A (control) at 60 and 90 days (p<0.05). Less immature bone was identified in the dentin grafted group (25.7%) than the control group (5.9%). Similar differences were also observed at 90 days post grafting. Conclusion Autogenous dentin particulate grafted immediately after extractions may be considered a useful biomaterial for socket preservation, protecting both buccal and lingual plates, generating large amounts of new woven bone formation after 60 days, and small amounts of lamellar bone after 90 days healing.

      PubDate: 2018-02-16T03:52:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.12.010
  • Anatomists’ perceptions of the skills and attributes required of
           newly-recruited medical students
    • Authors: Bernard J. Moxham; Odile Plaisant; Baptiste Lignier; Feisal Brahim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Bernard J. Moxham, Odile Plaisant, Baptiste Lignier, Feisal Brahim
      Background and purpose Admission procedures for recruiting students to medical school vary considerably across the world. Notwithstanding such variability, it is important to know what skills and attributes are required of the students by their teachers on entering medical school. Procedures Anatomists are often the teachers who first meet the students as they enter medical school and this report analyses, by means of a questionnaire, the putative skills required of their medical students by anatomists from the U.S.A. and Europe. Findings The findings from a questionnaire suggest that there are few differences between anatomists in the U.S.A. and Europe, even though medical students are postgraduates in the U.S.A. but undergraduates in Europe. Furthermore, the skill requirements expected of the students differed only slightly according to the gender and age of the anatomists and to whether or not they had clinical qualifications. The most important skills and attributes required of the students were found to be: good study skills and abilities to study independently, understanding of biology (but not chemistry, physics, mathematics, statistics, or understanding of the scientific method), memory/factual retention, communication and teamwork skills, problem-solving abilities, and attributes related to life-long learning, readiness to be challenged, and emotional stability and conscientiousness. Conclusions Anatomists within the U.S.A. and Europe essentially agree on the skills and attributes initially required of their medical students, as well as those not deemed initially important. These findings are presented with the view of enhancing admission policies and procedures for admitting students into medical schools.

      PubDate: 2018-02-16T03:52:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.12.009
  • Long-term estradiol-17β exposure decreases the cholinergic
           innervation pattern of the pig ovary
    • Authors: B. Jana; K.A. Meller; M. Czajkowska; J. Całka
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): B. Jana, K.A. Meller, M. Czajkowska, J. Całka
      Elevated levels of endogenous estrogens in the course of pathological states of ovaries, as well as xenoestrogens, may lead to hyperestrogenism. It has previously been demonstrated that long-term estradiol-17β (E2) administration in adult gilts affected the population of sympathetic intraovarian nerve fibers. The aim of this study has been to determine the effect of long-term E2 exposure on the cholinergic innervation pattern of porcine ovaries. Intraovarian distribution and the density of nerve fibers immunoreactive (IR) to vesicular acetylocholine transporter (VAChT) and/or neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), somatostatin (SOM) were determined. From day 4 of the first estrous cycle to day 20 of the second studied cycle, experimental gilts were intramuscularly injected with E2, while control gilts received corn oil. The ovaries were then collected and processed for double-labelling immunofluorescence. After E2 administration, the total number of fibers IR to VAChT, nNOS and VIP decreased significantly. The numbers of VAChT-, nNOS- and VIP-IR fibers within the ground plexus were significantly lower, while they were significantly higher around small or medium tertiary follicles. In the E2-affected ovaries, the numbers of nNOS- and VIP-IR fibers were significantly higher near secondary follicles and VAChT-IR in the vicinity of medullar blood vessels. In turn, around the latter structures there were significantly lowered populations of nNOS- and VIP-IR nerve fibers. These results suggest that the elevated E2 levels that occur during pathological states may affect the cholinergic innervation pattern of ovaries and their function(s).

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.11.010
  • Biomolecules in the treatment of lichen planus refractory to
           corticosteroid therapy: clinical and histopathological assessment
    • Authors: Laura Piñas; Mohammad Hamdan Alkhraisat; Ricardo Suárez Fernández; Eduardo Anitua
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 January 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Laura Piñas, Mohammad Hamdan Alkhraisat, Ricardo Suárez Fernández, Eduardo Anitua
      Background Local deficit of several biomolecules have been described in oral lichen planus (OLP). Such a deficit impairs cellular functions and cell-matrix communication. Purpose Assess the efficacy of the local application of autologous biomolecules in the treatment of erosive OLP. Materials and methods In this study, the use of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) as a source of blood-derived and autologous growth factors and proteins were tested in erosive oral lichen planus refractory to corticosteroids. Histopathological features of the disease were also analysed at the time of diagnosis. Clinical data were the number of recurrences and achievement of pain reduction and complete healing of the lesions. A total of 10 patients with erosive OLP refractory to treatment by corticosteroids were included in the study. All patients were females with a mean age of 48±12years. Results A complete remission of the disease was achieved after one infiltration of PRGF in 8 patients. Only 2 patients required a total of 2 infiltrations to heal. Hydropic degeneration of the epithelium basal layer, band-like subepithelial lymphocytic infiltration and fibrin deposits in the epithelium were observed in all patients. Interestingly plasma cells were present in 2 patients. All patients presenting plasma cells healed after only one PRGF infiltration. However, 2 patients out of 6 (no plasma cells) required 2 infiltrations. Conclusions The local administration of autologous local factors could overcome the deficit of biomolecular clues and thus improve cell functions and restore cell-matrix communication.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.12.006
    • Authors: Federica Fonzar; Leopoldo Forner; Riccardo Fabian-Fonzar; Carmen Llena
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 January 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Federica Fonzar, Leopoldo Forner, Riccardo Fabian-Fonzar, Carmen Llena
      Apexification is an endodontic technique used in immature necrotic teeth, the primary goal of which is to induce a calcified barrier in roots with open apices and to promote the continuation of apical root development. A 7-year-old patient with a coronal fracture in a maxillary central incisor was treated with an apexification technique using calcium hydroxide. The apical closure was obtained after one year, then a permanent root canal filling was performed. The tooth was monitored for a period of 20 years, up to when a trauma caused its extraction. The newly formed root was analyzed macroscopically, histologically and through scanning electron microscopy. A morphologically normal root was observed, with a large apex and accessory foramina, showing a combination of tissue structures similar to secondary and tertiary dentine, close to amorphous mineralized areas. Despite the final evolution of the case, calcium hydroxide apexification is a good therapy in order to treat pulp necrosis in an immature tooth, leading to complete development of the root and allowing the tooth to be kept in the mouth.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.12.005
  • Fetal sigmoid colon mesentery − in relevance in fetal ultrasound
           application. A pilot study
    • Authors: Slawomir Wozniak; Jerzy Florjanski; Henryk Kordecki; Marzena Podhorska-Okolow; Zygmunt Domagala
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 December 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Slawomir Wozniak, Jerzy Florjanski, Henryk Kordecki, Marzena Podhorska-Okolow, Zygmunt Domagala
      Introduction Ultrasound examinations during pregnancy are routine procedures used to detect fetal congenital malformations. Ultrasound monitoring of sigmoid colon mesenterial development could be useful for early detection of subjects at risk of sigmoid colon volvulus. Objective The aim of our paper was to assess the sigmoid colon length, and sigmoid colon mesentery width and height in the late fetal period, and, using the results, to estimate the surface area of the mesocolon (in mm2) in living fetuses. Moreover, we attempted to repeat some of these measurements in living fetuses using ultrasound imaging. Methods The study was carried out on 209 formalin fixed human fetuses (100 female and 109 male) aged from 4th to 7th gestational months (102–203 days), with a crown-rump length of 132–342mm. The length of the sigmoid colon, as well as the height and width of its mesentery were measured. The surface area of the mesocolon was estimated. Correction for formalin induced shrinkage was applied. Pilot ultrasound examinations of live fetuses were performed. Results Mean values of sigmoid colon length, mesenteric width and height (formalin fixed fetuses) for respective gestational ages were: month 4: 21.46±6.7mm, 6.80±2.1mm, 5.5±1.49mm; month 5: 27.32±1.2mm, 7.62±2.01mm, 7.33±2.17mm; month 6: 47.56±9.57mm, 11.68±3.8mm, 10.3±3.05mm; month 7: 56.92±17.48mm. 15.32±8 mm, 12.81±3.16mm. The surface area ranges of the sigmoid colon mesentery found for respective gestational months (intrauterine fetuses) were as follows: month 4: 33.24 − 51.95mm2; month 5: 49.63 − 77.6mm2; month 6: 106.89 − 167.15mm2 and month 7: 145.69 − 272.53mm2. Conclusion The surface area of the sigmoid colon mesentery can be used as a simple parameter applied in fetal ultrasonographic evaluation. The development of the sigmoid colon accelerates in the 6th gestational month, and decelerates in the 7th gestational month. The sigmoid colon mesentery width was larger than its height between the 4th and 7th gestational months.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.12.003
  • Periodontal materials and cell biology for guided tissue and bone
    • Authors: Mihai Andrei; Anca Dinischiotu; Andreea Cristiana Didilescu; Daniela Ionita; Ioana Demetrescu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Mihai Andrei, Anca Dinischiotu, Andreea Cristiana Didilescu, Daniela Ionita, Ioana Demetrescu
      The present review is intended to find links between periodontal materials of the dentomaxillary apparatus and cell biology at the beginning of a century fraught with various forms of periodontal diseases and needing new treatment strategies. The manuscript has two different parts. The first describes the anatomy of tooth supporting structures, as well as related pathologies. The second part is related to cell and molecular biology in the context of periodontal regeneration.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.11.007
  • Lipopolysaccharide induces tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 independent
           relocation of lymphocytes from the red pulp of the mouse spleen
    • Authors: Ivana M. Lalić; Rudolf Bichele; Anja Repar; Sanja Z. Despotović; Saša Petričević; Martti Laan; Pärt Peterson; Jürgen Westermann; Živana Milićević; Ivana Mirkov; Novica M. Milićević
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Ivana M. Lalić, Rudolf Bichele, Anja Repar, Sanja Z. Despotović, Saša Petričević, Martti Laan, Pärt Peterson, Jürgen Westermann, Živana Milićević, Ivana Mirkov, Novica M. Milićević
      It is well known that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces migration of several cellular populations within the spleen. However, there are no data about the impact of LPS on B and T lymphocytes present in the red pulp. Therefore, we used an experimental model in which we tested the effects of intravenously injected LPS on the molecular, cellular and structural changes of the spleen, with special reference to the red pulp lymphocytes. We discovered that LPS induced a massive relocation of B and T lymphocytes from the splenic red pulp, which was independent of the tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 signaling axis. Early after LPS treatment, quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed the elevated levels of mRNA encoding numerous chemokines and proinflammatory cytokines (XCL1, CXCL9, CXCL10, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL17, CCL20, CCL22, TNFα and LTα) which affect the navigation and activities of B and T lymphocytes in the lymphoid tissues. An extreme increase in mRNA levels for CCL20 was detected in the white pulp of the LPS-treated mice. The CCL20-expressing cells were localized in the PALS. Some smaller CCL20-expressing cells were evenly dispersed in the B cell zone. Thus, our study provides new knowledge of how microbial products could be involved in shaping the structure of lymphatic organs.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.12.002
  • Dissociation of mono- and co-culture spheroids into single cells for
           subsequent flow cytometric analysis
    • Authors: Ute Grässer; Monika Bubel; Daniela Sossong; Martin Oberringer; Tim Pohlemann; Wolfgang Metzger
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 216
      Author(s): Ute Grässer, Monika Bubel, Daniela Sossong, Martin Oberringer, Tim Pohlemann, Wolfgang Metzger
      Background Spheroids are considered to reflect the natural organization of cells better than 2D cell cultures, but their analysis by flow cytometry requires dissociation into single cells. Methods We established protocols for dissociation of mono- and co-culture spheroids consisting of human fibroblasts and human endothelial cells. Cell recovery rate and viability after dissociation were evaluated with hemocytometer and by flow cytometry. The diameter of cells and the amount of cell aggregates were quantified by Casy®-technology and the cellular composition was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Optimal dissociation conditions with low cell aggregation were determined by size, cultivation time and cellular composition of the spheroids. Smaller spheroids (10,000 cells) could be dissociated with Accutase®, whereas larger spheroids (50,000 cells) required more stringent dissociation conditions. The size of the cells decreased with increasing cultivation time. Cell recovery rate was dependent upon cellular composition and spheroid size. The highest cell recovery rate was found for co-culture spheroids. The highest cell viability was detected for dissociated fibroblast spheroids. A quantitative analysis of the cellular composition of dissociated co-culture spheroids was possible. Discussion Spheroids can be successfully dissociated into singular cells for subsequent flow cytometric analysis. Dissociation conditions as well as cell recovery rate and cell viability depend on size, cultivation time and cellular composition of the spheroids. The observed decrease in cell size in spheroids over time might be responsible for the well-known time-dependent decrease in spheroid size.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T13:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2017)
  • Morphological characteristics and variations of the human quadratus
           plantae muscle
    • Authors: Bettina Pretterklieber
      Pages: 9 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 216
      Author(s): Bettina Pretterklieber
      The quadratus plantae (QP) is a highly variable structure. A number of partly inexact descriptions of this entity have been provided in textbooks of anatomy. Although several authors have examined the QP, its exact site of origin and type of insertion have hitherto not been specified. The aim of this study has been to provide detailed qualitative and quantitative data about the number of heads, points of origin, and type of insertion of the QP. The QP in both feet of 50 formalin-fixed specimens of body donors (25 men and women) were analyzed by gross anatomical dissection. It was composed of one (34%), two (57%) or three heads (9%). The latter condition was observed only in men. The lateral head was absent in 31 feet, and the medial head only in one right foot of a man. The medial head arose, amongst others, in 100% of the examined cases from the medial calcaneal surface, in 93% from the long plantar ligament and in 80% from the plantar calcaneocuboid ligament. The lateral head arose, amongst others, from the long plantar ligament in 90%, and from the lateral process of the calcaneal tuberosity in 64% of the examined feet. The type of insertion was always a mixture of at least two of three types; i.e. muscular (84%), tendinous (89%) and aponeurotic (45%). As additional findings, the flexor digitorum accessorius longus (FDAL) and the peroneocalcaneus internus (PCI) were observed in 12% of all individuals and in 20% of men. The present investigation revealed that the QP may be classified according to the number of heads, but no classification can be given for its points of origin or type of insertion. The present data are mandatory for anatomical and surgical practice and will hopefully lead to further imaging and biomechanical studies.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T13:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.10.006
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2017)
  • Anatomic characterization of the radial and ulnar nutrient arteries in
    • Authors: Shota Kinose; Yosuke Kanaya; Yuto Kawasaki; Taro Okamura; Kota Kato; Tatsuo Sakai; Koichiro Ichimura
      Pages: 23 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 216
      Author(s): Shota Kinose, Yosuke Kanaya, Yuto Kawasaki, Taro Okamura, Kota Kato, Tatsuo Sakai, Koichiro Ichimura
      Background The localization of nutrient foramens has been extensively studied in humans and other vertebrate animals. However, accurate information on the origin and extraosseous course of the nutrient arteries in some types of long tubular bones is lacking. Terminologia Anatomica, the international standard on human anatomic terminology, lists the radial nutrient artery (RNA) and the ulnar nutrient artery (UNA) as branches of the radial and ulnar arteries, respectively. Anatomy textbooks published in both German- and English-speaking countries regard both the RNA and UNA as branches of the anterior interosseous artery. Methods To clarify the anatomic characteristics of the RNA and UNA in humans, we reexamined the origin and course of these arteries by cadaveric dissection. Results Almost all RNAs and UNAs branched from the ulnar artery or its tributaries. In typical cases, the RNA branched from the anterior interosseous artery and the UNA branched from the proximal part of the ulnar artery or the anterior interosseous artery. These findings are reasonable from the perspective of regional anatomy, since the ulnar artery passes more deeply than the radial artery in the proximal forearm and thus the proximal part of the ulnar artery and its major branches are situated more closely to the radial and ulnar nutrient foramens. Conclusions Based on our findings, it is necessary to correct the position of the RNA and UNA in the arterial hierarchy of T. Anatomica for accurate morphological description.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T13:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2017)
  • Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction and plastination in whole body slices.
           A novel technique to identify fascial tissue structures
    • Authors: Hanno Steinke; Dina Wiersbicki; Marie-Lynn Speckert; Claudia Merkwitz; Thomas Wolfskämpf; Benjamin Wolf
      Pages: 29 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 216
      Author(s): Hanno Steinke, Dina Wiersbicki, Marie-Lynn Speckert, Claudia Merkwitz, Thomas Wolfskämpf, Benjamin Wolf
      Since collagen rich fascial tissue is often very delicate and difficult to discern on native tissue slices, we have developed a method for staining full-body slices using the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction with subsequent plastination. Since the PAS reaction primarily stains carbohydrates, we could exploit the circumstance that different collagen types vary in carbohydrate content. Contrary to fasciae, tissues such as muscle, bone, nerves and blood vessels exhibit significantly less staining or remain unstained. We have validated the whole-body slice staining results in microscopic tissue slides which were stained with standard extracellular matrix stains such as Masson-Goldner trichrome stain and van-Gieson stain. Furthermore, we have performed immunofluorescence imaging to confirm the presence of collagen in the stained tissue. We achieved very good staining and plastination results and were able to clearly identify even very thin fascia in transversal body slices. This technique may prove useful in advancing our knowledge on the complex topography of fascial structures.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T13:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2017)
  • Immunolocalization of connective tissue growth factor, transforming growth
           factor-beta1 and phosphorylated-SMAD2/3 during the postnatal tooth
           development and formation of junctional epithelium
    • Authors: Shubo Li; Yihuai Pan
      Pages: 52 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 216
      Author(s): Shubo Li, Yihuai Pan
      Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a downstream mediator of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and TGF-β1-induced CTGF expression is regulated through SMAD pathway. However, there is no literature showing the expression of TGF-β1-SMAD2/3-CTGF signaling pathway during postnatal tooth development and the formation of junctional epithelium (JE). Hence, we aimed to analyze the localization of TGF-β1, CTGF and phosphorylated SMAD2/3 (p-SMAD2/3) in the developing postnatal rat molars. Wistar rats were killed at postnatal (PN) 0.5, 3.5, 7, 14 and 21days and the upper jaws were processed for immunohistochemistry. At PN0.5 and PN3.5, weak staining for TGF-β1 and CTGF was evident in preameloblasts (PA), while moderate to strong staining was seen in odontoblasts (OD), dental papilla (DPL), secretary ameloblasts (SA), preodontoblasts (PO) and polarized odontoblasts (PoO). There was no staining for p-SMAD2/3 in PA, SA, PO and PoO, although strong staining was localized in DPL. OD was initially moderately positive and then negative for p-SMAD2/3. At PN7, intense staining for TGF-β1 and CTGF was observed in SA, OD, dental pulp (DP) and predentin respectively. p-SMAD2/3 was strongly expressed in DP and moderately expressed in SA and OD. At PN14 and PN21, both reduced enamel epithelium (REE) and JE showed a strong reaction for TGF-β1 and CTGF. p-SMAD2/3 was intensely and weakly expressed in REE and JE respectively. These data demonstrate that the expression of CTGF, TGF-β1 and p-SNAD2/3 is tissue-specific and stage-specific, and indicate a regulatory role for a TGF-β1-SMAD2/3-CTGF signaling pathway in amelogenesis, dentinogenesis and formation of JE.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T13:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.10.005
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2017)
  • Complications in the treatment of mandibular condylar fractures: Surgical
           versus conservative treatment
    • Authors: Iván García-Guerrero; Juan M. Ramírez; Rafael Gómez de Diego; José M. Martínez-González; María S. Poblador; José L. Lancho
      Pages: 60 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 216
      Author(s): Iván García-Guerrero, Juan M. Ramírez, Rafael Gómez de Diego, José M. Martínez-González, María S. Poblador, José L. Lancho
      Objectives In the present article, we aim to review the main intra- and post-operative complications associated with two different therapeutic approaches for treating mandibular condylar fractures: conservative (CTR) and surgical treatment (ORIF, Open Reduction and Internal Fixation). Material and methods We have carried out a retrospective, meta-analytic, observational study using literature review, covering the period between 2000- September 2017. The data obtained were processed using statistical software SPSS v.0.18 and R v.2.11.1. The chi-squared test was used for comparison of relative frequencies for independent samples. Results A total of 2458 patients with 2810 fractures were collected for study. Patients treated with CTR and ORIF were an average of 29 years old, of those treated with CTR, 72.37% and 27.63% were male or female respectively and, of those treated with ORIF, 70.36% and 29.64% were male or female respectively. The main complications suffered by CTR and ORIF patients were: asymmetry (10.2%/6.4%), residual pain (6.5%/5.6%), temporomandibular joint and articular imbalance (15.9%/10.3%) and malocclusion (11.1%/4.0%), respectively. We only found significant differences between CTR and ORIF in the number of cases of temporomandibular joint and articular imbalance and malocclusion. Facial nerve damage was found exclusively among ORIF patients (8.6%) of which 8.3% were temporary and 0.3% permanent. Conclusions The complications associated with either technique are minimal and infrequent, resulting in successful outcomes with minimal morbidity. CTR are associated with complications deriving from delayed mobilization leading to functional limitation, whereas the main complication associated with ORIF treatment was facial nerve damage.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T13:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.10.007
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2017)
  • Morphological features of the anterior talofibular ligament by the number
           of fiber bundles
    • Authors: Mutsuaki Edama; Ikuo Kageyama; Takanori Kikumoto; Masatoshi Nakamura; Wataru Ito; Emi Nakamura; Ryo Hirabayashi; Tomoya Takabayashi; Takuma Inai; Hideaki Onishi
      Pages: 69 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 216
      Author(s): Mutsuaki Edama, Ikuo Kageyama, Takanori Kikumoto, Masatoshi Nakamura, Wataru Ito, Emi Nakamura, Ryo Hirabayashi, Tomoya Takabayashi, Takuma Inai, Hideaki Onishi
      The aims of this study have been to clarify differences in morphological features based on the number of fiber bundles in the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL), and to investigate the relationship between the ATFL and the calcaneofibular ligament (CFL). This study used 81 legs from 43 cadavers. The ATFL was classified according to differences in the number of fiber bundles as: Type I, with one fiber bundle; Type II-a, with two fiber bundles that were incompletely separated; Type II-b, with two fiber bundles that were completely separated; and Type III, with three fiber bundles. The morphological features measured were fiber bundle length, fiber bundle width, and fiber bundle angle. For the relationship between the ATFL and CFL, the positional relationship and attachment sites of the two ligaments were examined. Type I was present in 33%, Type II-a in 17%, Type II-b in 40%, and Type III in 10%. The morphological features of superior fiber bundles and inferior fiber bundles were significantly different within each type. Among types, there were significant differences in the morphological features of Type II-a and Type III inferior fiber bundles. In the relationship between the ATFL and CFL, there was a connection between the ATFL and CFL in all specimens. Various types were present in the positional relationship and attachment sites of the two ligaments. The results of this study suggest that, among different ligament types with two or three fiber bundles, the control function of the ankle may differ within each type and among types.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T13:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2017)
  • Effect of different resistance-training protocols on the extracellular
           matrix of the calcaneal tendon of rats
    • Authors: Josete Mazon; Andrea Aparecida de Aro; Priscyla Waleska Simões; Edson Rosa Pimentel
      Pages: 75 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 216
      Author(s): Josete Mazon, Andrea Aparecida de Aro, Priscyla Waleska Simões, Edson Rosa Pimentel
      The calcaneal tendon extracellular matrix (ECM) is composed of collagen, non-collagenous glycoproteins and proteoglycans, and able to adapt to various biomechanical stimuli. The objective of this study was to analyze the response of different resistance-training protocols, such as hypertrophy, strength and resistance, on the organization of the calcaneal tendon after training. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: untrained (UT), resistance training (RT), hypertrophy training (HT), and strength training (ST). The protocol in a vertical climbing platform was performed thrice per week over twelve weeks. For biochemical study, the tendons of each group were minced and analyzed for gelatinases, quantification of non-collagenous proteins, sulfated glycosaminoglycans, and hydroxyproline. For morphological analysis, sections were stained with HE and toluidine blue. Non-stained sections were used for birefringence analysis under polarization microscopy. The highest hydroxyproline concentrations were found in HT (154.8±14.2) and RT (173.6±25.2) compared with UT (122.4±27.0). A higher concentration of non-collagenous proteins was detected in the RT group (14.98mg/g) compared with the other groups. In polarization microscopy, major birefringence was observed in HT and the lowest in ST compared with UT, indicating higher organization of collagen bundles in HT. In analysis for zymography, the presence of latent MMP-9 was more prominent in the ST group and the active MMP-9 more prominent in the HT group. For MMP-2, significant differences in the latent isoform between the HT (184,867±6765) and UT (173,018±9696) groups were found. In sections stained with toluidine blue (TB), higher metachromasia was observed in the tendon’s distal region in HT and RT groups, indicating a greater amount of proteoglycans. We conclude that the different training protocols produced different responses in the ECM. The remarkable presence of MMP-2 and -9 in the hypertrophy training group may be related to the highest organization of collagen bundles and possibly a more efficient remodeling process, observed in that group, as demonstrated by images and measurements of birefringence.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T13:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2017)
  • Quantification of surfactant proteins in tears of patients suffering from
           dry eye disease compared to healthy subjects
    • Authors: Andreas Posa; Friedrich Paulsen; Richard Dietz; Fabian Garreis; Ralph Sander; Martin Schicht; Saadettin Sel; Michael Scholz; Christian M. Hammer; Lars Bräuer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Andreas Posa, Friedrich Paulsen, Richard Dietz, Fabian Garreis, Ralph Sander, Martin Schicht, Saadettin Sel, Michael Scholz, Christian M. Hammer, Lars Bräuer
      Purpose To quantify and compare the amounts of surfactant proteins SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D in the tear fluid collected from patients with dry eye syndrome and from individuals with a healthy ocular surface. Methods Schirmer strips were used to collect tear fluid from both eyes of 241 volunteers (99 men, 142 women; age range: 18-87 years). Dry eye syndrome was diagnosed by ophthalmologists in 125 patients, whereas the healthy control group comprised 116 individuals. The total protein concentration was determined via Bradford assay. The relative concentration of surfactant proteins SP-A through −D was measured by enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). Results The mean relative concentrations of SP-A, SP-C and SP-D were significantly higher in the dry eye group as compared to the healthy controls (p<0.05, one-way ANOVA). SP-B was also detected at a higher concentration in the dry eye group, but the difference to the control group was not statistically significant. Conclusions The upregulation of SP-A and SP-D in the dry eye group is probably related to these proteins’ known antimicrobial and immunomodulatory effects at the ocular surface. It may represent a pathophysiological response to the inflammatory condition of the ocular surface in dry eye. The upregulation of SP-B and SP-C may represent an effort of the lacrimal system to reduce surface tension and thus to counteract the increased tendency of the tear film to tear in dry eye.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T13:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.11.006
  • Carthamus Tinctorius L. extract improves hemodynamic and vascular
           alterations in a rat model of renovascular hypertension through Ang
           II-AT1R-NADPH oxidase pathway
    • Authors: Sarawoot Bunbupha; Chutamas Wunpathe; Putcharawipa Maneesai; Thewarid Berkban; Upa Kukongviriyapan; Veerapol Kukongviriyapan; Parichat Prachaney; Poungrat Pakdeechote
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Sarawoot Bunbupha, Chutamas Wunpathe, Putcharawipa Maneesai, Thewarid Berkban, Upa Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol Kukongviriyapan, Parichat Prachaney, Poungrat Pakdeechote
      Carthamus tinctorius L. (CT) is widely used in Asian countries as a beverage and in folk medicine. The effects of CT extract on hemodynamics, vascular remodeling, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and oxidative stress in the two-kidney, one clip (2K-1C) hypertensive rat model were investigated. Renovascular hypertension was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats and were treated with CT extract (500mg/kg/day) or captopril (5mg/kg/day) or vehicle for four weeks. CT extract or captopril reduced blood pressure, hindlimb vascular resistance, and increased hindlimb blood flow in 2K-1C hypertensive rats (p < 0.05). Increases in aortic wall thickness, cross-sectional area and collagen deposition in 2K-1C rats were alleviated with CT extract or captopril treatment (p < 0.05). CT extract or captopril suppressed RAS activation, including elevated serum ACE activity, and plasma Ang II level and up-regulated aortic AT1R protein expression in 2K-1C rats (p < 0.05). Furthermore, CT extract or captopril reduced vascular superoxide production, aortic NADPH oxidase subunit gp91phox expression and increased plasma nitric oxide metabolite levels in 2K-1C rats (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that CT extract ameliorated hemodynamic alteration and vascular remodeling in 2K-1C hypertensive rats. Possible mechanisms may involve RAS inhibitor effects and potent antioxidant activity.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T13:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.11.005
  • Distribution and neurochemistry of porcine urinary bladder-projecting
           sensory neurons in subdomains of the dorsal root ganglia: a quantitative
    • Authors: Anna Kozłowska; Anita Mikołajczyk; Mariusz Majewski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Anna Kozłowska, Anita Mikołajczyk, Mariusz Majewski
      The aim of the present study has been to verify the inter- and intraganglionic distribution pattern of porcine urinary bladder-projecting (UBP) neurons localized in the sacral dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). The morphology and chemical phenotype of these cells have also been investigated. These neurons were visualized using the fluorescent tracer Fast Blue (FB) which was injected bilaterally into the urinary bladder wall of five juvenile female pigs. The intraganglionic distribution showed that small- and medium-sized FB+ perikarya were mainly located in the central (S3-S4) and periphero-central (S2) region of the ganglia, while large cells were heterogeneously distributed. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the most frequently observed markers in small and medium-sized UBP perikarya were: neurofilament 200, lectin from Bandeiraea simplicifolia (Griffonia simplicifolia) isolectin B4, substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1. Moreover, UBP neurons containing these substances were also mainly observed in the central and periphero-central region of the ganglion. Differences in the percentage of traced cells and their neuropeptide content were observed between the S2, S3 and S4 DRGs. In conclusion, the present study, for the first time, describes the arrangement of UBP DRGs neurons within particular subdomains of sacral ganglia, taking into account their size and chemical phenotype.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T13:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.10.003
  • Introducing a simple method of maxillary sinus volume assessment based on
           linear dimensions
    • Authors: Przystańska Agnieszka; Kulczyk Tomasz; Rewekant Artur; Sroka Alicja; Jończyk-Potoczna Katarzyna; Lorkiewicz-Muszyńska Dorota; Gawriołek Krzysztof; Czajka-Jakubowska Agata
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Przystańska Agnieszka, Kulczyk Tomasz, Rewekant Artur, Sroka Alicja, Jończyk-Potoczna Katarzyna, Lorkiewicz-Muszyńska Dorota, Gawriołek Krzysztof, Czajka-Jakubowska Agata
      Measuring sinus volume in a general practice clinic is a complex and time-consuming procedure, requiring experience in the use of radiological methods In the presented research, the automatically estimated maxillary sinus volume was compared with maxillary sinus volume assessed with mathematical formulas used to calculate the volume of spheres and pyramids. The starting point for the statistical analysis were specific measurements of the sinuses. We wanted to discover which geometric shape has the volume that is nearest to the automatically estimated volume. The study was performed using samples of CT scans of pediatric patients age 1 to 17. The dimensions (maximal width, maximal height, maximal length) were used for manual calculations. For the automatic volume calculation, the CT Image Segmentation algorithm (Syngo Via for Oncology, Siemens) was used. Pearson's correlation coefficient was applied to analyse the interrelationship between automatically and manually calculated volume of maxillary sinus. It was statistically established that the “sphere”, “pyramid” and “mean” manually calculated maxillary sinus volume were accurate and strongly correlated with the automatically estimated maxillary sinus volume. The volume of the sphere corresponds better with the automatic measurements than the volume of the pyramid. The variations are significant and they were made reliable with the application of a statistical test. It is quick and easy to calculate the maxillary sinus volume based on its linear dimensions instead of applying advanced software. The manual method for maxillary sinus volume calculation requires three linear measurements of the sinus (length, width, and height) and can be recommended if the automatically estimated volume cannot be obtained.

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T07:24:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.09.010
  • Bodies of children in the Institute of Anatomy in Halle (Saale), Germany,
           between 1920 and 1945
    • Authors: F. Winter; D. Stoevesandt; R. Schultka; M. Viebig; K. Moeller; F. Steger; H. Kielstein
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): F. Winter, D. Stoevesandt, R. Schultka, M. Viebig, K. Moeller, F. Steger, H. Kielstein
      At the Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology in Halle (Saale) 74 children's bodies of unknown historical provenance are being held in storage. The aim of this study was the evaluation of their identities, the circumstances of their acquisition, as well as the documentation of their individual characteristics. For these purposes, all bodies were comprehensively examined and photo-documented. Furthermore, CT-scans of 29 bodies were performed and information was collected from various local and national archives. Although most of the bodies were found to be those of stillborn children and infants, five children were between two and twelve years old, according to an age estimate by body-length and carpal bone analysis. The CT-scans revealed the cause of death for some of the children. The embalming method indicates that the bodies date from the first decades of the 20th century, and archival sources containing documents from 1920 to 1960 strongly suggest that these children's bodies were acquired by Institute of Anatomy between 1920 and 1942. During that period, a total of 2,602 children's bodies were delivered to the Institute of Anatomy and registered in the communal burial records. At this point, there is no evidence that these children might have been victims of National Socialist crimes. It is planned to give them a dignified burial.

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T07:24:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.09.005
  • Phospholipase C zeta parameters in sperm from polymorphic teratozoospermic
    • Authors: Nahid Azad; Hamid Nazarian; Marefat Ghaffari Novin; Reza Masteri Farahani; Abbas Piryaei; Mohammad Hassan Heidari
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Nahid Azad, Hamid Nazarian, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Reza Masteri Farahani, Abbas Piryaei, Mohammad Hassan Heidari
      Teratozoospermia is a disorder associated with high abnormal sperm morphology which affects fertility in males. In recent years, it has been described that biomarker-based sperm quality evaluation can alleviate male infertility treatment. Phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) is a sperm-specific factor which appears to be a predicting biomarker for fertilization potential of males. Following fertilization, PLCζ enters into oocyte cytoplasm and induces oocyte activation, a fundamental stage in initiation of embryo development. Currently, PLCζ parameters, including localization patterns, the proportion of PLCζ-expressing sperm and the expression level, are not defined in polymorphic teratozoospermic men. This study aimed to evaluate PLCζ parameters in polymorphic teratozoospermic men, and compare these parameters with fertile normozoospermic men. Semen samples from thirteen normozoospermic fertile men and twenty-three polymorphic teratozoospermic men were included in this study and evaluated using western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses. Our data indicated significantly lower expression of PLCζ in polymorphic teratozoospermic men, as compared with control men; however, there was no significant difference in localization patterns and the proportion of PLCζ-expressing sperm between polymorphic teratozoospermic patients and control men. Collectively, findings from the present study demonstrated that polymorphic teratozoospermic men did not show abnormal localization patterns or the absence of PLCζ, as compared to the control men; nonetheless, lower expression of PLCζ, considering its role in oocyte activation, might be one of the possible causes of infertility in these patients.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T06:09:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.09.007
  • Calcium-binding proteins expression in the septum and cingulate cortex of
           the adult guinea pig
    • Authors: Beata Hermanowicz-Sobieraj; Krystyna Bogus-Nowakowska; Anna Robak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Beata Hermanowicz-Sobieraj, Krystyna Bogus-Nowakowska, Anna Robak
      For the first time this study demonstrates the distribution pattern and expression of three neuroanatomical markers: calbindin D28k (CB), calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) in topographically connected brain regions − the septum (SE) and the cingulate cortex (CC). The co-existence among calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) was also examined.The study was conducted on the adult guinea pig with the use of immunohistochemical and molecular biological techniques. Among the studied CaBPs, which occurred in both examined brain regions at transcript and protein levels, CB was the most expressed in the SE, while CR in the CC. CR, unlike CB and PV, showed higher immunoreactivity in the superficial layers (II–III) of the CC than in the deep ones (V–VI). Most of CB and PV-positive perikarya were detected in the deep layers of the CC. Some CC neurons contained both CB and PV, suggesting cooperation between these CaBPs in the CC. Co-localization between CB and CR in the CC was not observed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T06:09:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.09.009
  • Effects of ß-TCP Scaffolds on neurogenic and osteogenic differentiation
           of Human Embryonic Stem Cells
    • Authors: Premjit Arpornmaeklong; Michael J. Pressler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Premjit Arpornmaeklong, Michael J. Pressler
      Extracellular matrix (ECM) and adhesion molecules play crucial roles in regulating growth and differentiation of stem cells. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of Beta-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP) scaffolds on differentiation and expression of ECM and adhesion molecules of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Undifferentiated hESCs were seeded on ß-TCP scaffolds and cell culture plates and cultured in growth and osteogenic medium for 21 days. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) displayed adhesion and growth of hESCs on the porous ß-TCP scaffolds. Histological analysis, immunohistochemical staining and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) demonstrated that the scaffolds supported growth and differentiation of hESCs. Expression levels of neural crest related genes (AP2a, FoxD3, HNK1, P75, Sox1, Sox10) and osteoblast-related genes (Runx2, SPP1 and BGLA) on the scaffolds in osteogenic medium were significantly higher than on the scaffolds in growth and cell culture plates in osteogenic medium, respectively (p <0.05). Polymerase chain reaction array experiments demonstrated increased expression of ECM and adhesion molecule-related genes on the scaffolds. In conclusion, osteoconductive scaffolds such as ß-TCP scaffolds promoted differentiation of hESCs, particularly expression of genes related to neural crest stem cell and osteoblastic differentiations. Beta-TCP scaffolds could be an alternative cell culture substrate for neural crest and osteogenic differentiation of hESCs. Optimization of culture medium may be necessary to enhance lineage restriction of hESCs on the ß-TCP scaffolds.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T06:09:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.09.008
  • Comparative postnatal histomorphogenesis of the mandible in wild and
           laboratory mice
    • Authors: Jessica Martínez-Vargas; Cayetana Martinez-Maza; Francesc Muñoz-Muñoz; Nuria Medarde; Hayat Lamrous; María José López-Fuster; Jorge Cubo; Jacint Ventura
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Jessica Martínez-Vargas, Cayetana Martinez-Maza, Francesc Muñoz-Muñoz, Nuria Medarde, Hayat Lamrous, María José López-Fuster, Jorge Cubo, Jacint Ventura
      The coordinated activity of bone cells (i.e., osteoblasts and osteoclasts) during ontogeny underlies observed changes in bone growth rates (recorded in bone histology and bone microstructure) and bone remodeling patterns explaining the ontogenetic variation in bone size and shape. Histological cross-sections of the mandible in the C57BL/6J inbred mouse strain were recently examined in order to analyze the bone microstructure, as well as the directions and rates of bone growth according to the patterns of fluorescent labeling, with the aim of description of the early postnatal histomorphogenesis of this skeletal structure. Here we use the same approach to characterize the histomorphogenesis of the mandible in wild specimens of Mus musculus domesticus, from the second to the eighth week of postnatal life, for the first time. In addition, we assess the degree of similarity in this biological process between the wild specimens examined and the C57BL/6J laboratory strain. Bone microstructure data show that Mus musculus domesticus and the C57BL/6J strain differ in the temporospatial pattern of histological maturation of the mandible, which particularly precludes the support of mandibular organization into the alveolar region and the ascending ramus modules at the histological level in Mus musculus domesticus. The patterns of fluorescent labeling reveal that the mandible of the wild mice exhibits temporospatial differences in the remodeling pattern, as well as higher growth rates particularly after weaning, compared to the laboratory mice. Since the two mouse groups were reared under the same conditions, the dissimilarities found suggest the existence of differences between the groups in the genetic regulation of bone remodeling, probably as a result of their different genetic backgrounds. Despite the usual suitability of inbred mouse strains as model organisms, inferences from them to natural populations regarding bone growth should be made with caution.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T05:43:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.09.001
  • Platelet-released growth factors inhibit proliferation of primary
           keratinocytes in vitro
    • Authors: Andreas Bayer; Mersedeh Tohidnezhad; Rouven Berndt; Sebastian Lippross; Peter Behrendt; Tim Klüter; Thomas Pufe; Holger Jahr; Jochen Cremer; Franziska Rademacher; Maren Simanski; Regine Gläser; Jürgen Harder
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Andreas Bayer, Mersedeh Tohidnezhad, Rouven Berndt, Sebastian Lippross, Peter Behrendt, Tim Klüter, Thomas Pufe, Holger Jahr, Jochen Cremer, Franziska Rademacher, Maren Simanski, Regine Gläser, Jürgen Harder
      Autologous thrombocyte concentrate lysates as platelet-released growth factors (PRGF) or Vivostat Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF®) represent important tools in modern wound therapy, especially in the treatment of chronic, hard-to-heal or infected wounds. Nevertheless, underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of the beneficial clinical effects of a local wound therapy with autologous thrombocyte concentrate lysates are poorly understood. Recently, we have demonstrated that PRGF induces antimicrobial peptides in primary keratinocytes and accelerates keratinocytes’ differentiation. In the present study we analyzed the influence of PRGF on primary human keratinocytes’ proliferation. Using the molecular proliferation marker Ki-67 we observed a concentration- and time dependent inhibition of Ki-67 gene expression in PRGF treated primary keratinocytes. These effects were independent from the EGFR- and the IL-6-R pathway. Inhibition of primary keratinocytes‘ proliferation by PRGF treatment was confirmed in colorimetric cell proliferation assays. Together, these data indicate that the clinically observed positive effects of autologous thrombocytes concentrates in the treatment of chronic, hard-to-heal wounds are not based on an increased keratinocytes proliferation.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T05:43:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.09.002
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