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Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
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ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
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Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / Health Sciences Journal of Adıyaman University     Open Access  
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
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Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
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Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access  
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy     Open Access  
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ankara Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası     Open Access  
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Fundeni Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives Medical Review Journal / Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi     Open Access  
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access  
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASHA Leader     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine     Open Access  
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Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  
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Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Medical Journal     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
  [SJR: 0.562]   [H-I: 35]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0940-9602
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • Structural differences in enamel and dentin in human, bovine, porcine, and
           ovine teeth
    • Authors: Antonio José Ortiz-Ruiz; Juan de Dios Teruel-Fernández; Luis Alberto Alcolea-Rubio; Ana Hernández-Fernández; Yolanda Martínez-Beneyto; Francesc Gispert-Guirado
      Pages: 7 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218
      Author(s): Antonio José Ortiz-Ruiz, Juan de Dios Teruel-Fernández, Luis Alberto Alcolea-Rubio, Ana Hernández-Fernández, Yolanda Martínez-Beneyto, Francesc Gispert-Guirado
      Background The aim was to study differences between crystalline nanostructures from the enamel and dentin of human, bovine, porcine, and ovine species. Methods Dentine and enamel fragments extracted from sound human, bovine, porcine and ovine incisors and molars were mechanically ground up to a final particle size of <100μm. Samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results Human enamel (HE) and dentin (HD) showed a-axis and c-axis lengths of the carbonate apatite (CAP) crystal lattice nearer to synthetic hydroxyapatite (SHA), which had the smallest size. Enamel crystal sizes were always higher than those of dentin for all species. HE and HD had the largest crystal, followed by bovine samples. Hydroxyapatites (HAs) in enamel had a higher crystallinity index (CI), CIRietveld and CIFTIR, than the corresponding dentin of the same species. HE and HD had the highest CIs, followed by ovine enamel (OE). The changes in heat capacity that were nearest to values in human teeth during the glass transition (ΔCp) were in porcine specimens. There was a significant direct correlation between the size of the a-axis and the substitution by both type A and B carbonates. The size of the nanocrystals and the crystallinity (CIRietveld y CIFTIR) were significantly and negatively correlated with the proteic phase of all the substrates. There was a strongly positive correlation between the caloric capacity, the CIs and the crystal size and a strongly negative correlation between carbonates type A and B and proteins. Conclusions There are differences in the organic and inorganic content of human, bovine, porcine and ovine enamels and dentins which should be taken into account when interpreting the results of studies using animal substrates as substitutes for human material.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.12.012
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2018)
  • Cardiac telocytes. From basic science to cardiac diseases. II. Acute
           myocardial infarction
    • Authors: Sorin Hostiuc; Mihai Marinescu; Mihnea Costescu; Maria Aluaș; Ionut Negoi
      Pages: 18 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218
      Author(s): Sorin Hostiuc, Mihai Marinescu, Mihnea Costescu, Maria Aluaș, Ionut Negoi
      Introduction The purpose of this study was to evaluate the scientific evidence regarding a potential role of telocytes in myocardial infarction. Materials and methods To this purpose, we performed a systematic review of relevant scientific literature, indexed in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus. Results and discussions We found six articles containing relevant studies aimed at liking myocardial infarction and telocytes. The studies that were analysed in this review failed to show, beyond a reasonable doubt, that telocytes do actually have significant roles in myocardial regeneration after myocardial infarction. The main issues to be addressed in future studies are a correct characterization of telocytes, and a differentiation from other cell types that either have similar morphologies (using electron microscopy) or similar immunophenotypes, with emphasis on endothelial progenitors, which were previously shown to have similar morphology, and functions in cardiac regeneration after myocardial infarction.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2018)
  • Applications of inflammation-derived gingival stem cells for testing the
           biocompatibility of dental restorative biomaterials
    • Authors: A. Soancă; M. Lupse; M. Moldovan; E. Pall; M. Cenariu; A. Roman; O. Tudoran; P. Surlin; O. Șorițău
      Pages: 28 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218
      Author(s): A. Soancă, M. Lupse, M. Moldovan, E. Pall, M. Cenariu, A. Roman, O. Tudoran, P. Surlin, O. Șorițău
      Background Normal or inflamed gingival tissues are regarded as a source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) abundant and easily accessible through minimally invasive dental procedures. Due to the proximity of dental resin composites to gingival tissues and to the possible local cytotoxic effect of the eluted components, gingiva-derived MSCs could be used to investigate the biocompatibility of dental biomaterials. Purpose The present research aimed to isolate (MSCs) from inflamed and normal gingiva, to fully characterize them and to observe their behavior in relation with some commercial resin composite materials and one experimental material. Material and methods Following their isolation, putative MSCs from both gingival sources were grown under the same culture conditions and characterized by immunophenotyping of cell surface antigens by flow-cytometry and transcription factors by immunocytochemical staining. Moreover, stemness gene expression was evaluated by RT-PCR analysis. Multipotent mesenchymal differentiation potential was investigated. Osteogenic and neurogenic differentiated cells were highlighted by immunocytochemical staining, chondrogenic cells by cytochemical staining, and adipocytes by cytochemical staining and spectrophotometry, respectively. Resin composite cytotoxicity was evaluated by cell membrane fluorescent labeling with PKH 26 and MTT assay. The results of PKH labeling were statistically analysed using two-way RM ANOVA with Bonferroni post-tests. For MTT assay, two-way RM ANOVA with Bonferroni post-tests and unpaired t test with Welch’s correction were used. Results A similar expression pattern of surface markers was observed. The cells were positive for CD105, CD73, CD90, CD49e, CD29, CD44 and CD166 and negative for CD45, CD34, CD14, CD79, HLA-DR and CD117 indicating a mesenchymal stem cell phenotype. The qRT-PCR analysis revealed a low gene expression for NOG, BMP4 and Oct3/4 and an increased expression for Nanog in both cells lines. Immunocytochemical analysis highlighted a more intense protein expression for Nanog, Oct3/4 and Sox-2 in MSCs derived from normal gingiva than from inflamed gingiva. Multipotent differentiation capacity of MSCs isolated from both sources was highlighted. The tested materials had no hazardous effect on MSCs as the two cell lines developed well onto resin composite substrates. Cell counting revealed some significant differences in the number of PKH-labeled MSCs at some experimental moments. Also, some differences in cell viability were recorded indicating better developmental conditions offered by some of the tested biomaterials. Conclusions The experimental resin composite behaved like the most biocompatible commercial material. Inflamed gingiva-derived MSCs retain their stem cell properties and could be used as a valuable cell line for testing dental biomaterials.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2018)
  • William Hunter and lymphatics
    • Authors: Stuart W. McDonald; David Russell
      Pages: 40 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218
      Author(s): Stuart W. McDonald, David Russell
      William Hunter along with his brother, John, and their colleagues William Hewson, William Cruikshank and John Sheldon made a large contribution to understanding of lymphatic vessels. Hewson, Cruikshank and Sheldon all carried out mercury injections and made much progress in mapping the distribution of lymphatics in the human body. William Hunter appreciated that lymphatics absorbed fluid from the tissues of the body and that lacteals of the intestine and lymphatics are similar structures. John Hunter carried out an elegant series of experiments that proved that lacteals absorb products of digestion. The Hunters, however, were wrong in dismissing absorption by blood vessels and missed the importance of blood capillaries. William Hewson showed that lymphatics were not confined to mammals but that they are present in reptiles, birds and fish. Hewson also demonstrated that tracheobronchial glands are lymph nodes and not mucus-secreting glands as previously thought. Although William Hunter appreciated that tuberculosis and venereal diseases might involve the regional lymph nodes, he does not seem to have fully grasped that malignant disease might involve the local nodes or the concept that knowledge of lymph drainage could be used to define the likely site of a primary malignancy.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2018)
  • The influence of temporomandibular joint movement parameters on dental
    • Authors: Luminita Oancea; Roxana Stegaroiu; Corina Marilena Cristache
      Pages: 49 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218
      Author(s): Luminita Oancea, Roxana Stegaroiu, Corina Marilena Cristache
      Association between tooth morphology, occlusal relations and mandibular condyle/glenoid fossa morphology is still a controversial issue in dentistry. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of three important articular parameters on the dental morphology and the crown volume, quantifying the variation for each tooth group: incisor, canine, premolar and molar. Materials and methods All maxillary teeth from a set of basic study models were prepared for zirconia single crowns. The models were scanned and then, using a computer aided design software, they were mounted in a virtual articulator and specific mandibular movements were defined. The crown morphology was designed and statically adapted. Ten models were obtained by dynamical adjustment of the basic model for successively modified articular parameters: sagittal condylar inclination (SCI)=30°, Bennett angle (BA)=10°, Immediate side shift (ISS)=0.5mm — for control and SCI: 40°, 50° and 60° with BA and ISS as control, BA: 15°, 20° and 25° with SCI and ISS as control, ISS: 1.5mm, 1.0mm and 0.0mm with SCI and BA as control — for the nine test models. The following measurements were performed three times on the right side of each model: volume for each tooth group, slope (S) for the central incisor, S and mesio-distal angle (MDA) for canine, S, MDA and vestibulo-oral angle (VOA) for the first premolar and molar. Results When SCI was varied, statistically significant changes as compared to the controls were found for incisor’s and premolar’s S, premolar’s VOA and, for 50° and 60°, MDA and molar’s MDA (for 50°) and VOA (for 60°). When BA was varied, significant changes were found for S (canine) and, in certain models, MDA (premolar, molar). Variations of ISS significantly changed mainly MDA for molars and, in two models, premolars. Conclusions Within the limits of this study, among the articular parameters, SCI mostly influenced the dynamic tooth morphology, but canine and molar morphology was stronger influenced by BA and/or ISS.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.02.013
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2018)
  • Craniofacial structure alterations of foetuses from folic acid deficient
           pregnant mice
    • Authors: Estela Maldonado; Yamila López; Manuel Herrera; Elena Martínez-Sanz; Concepción Martínez-Álvarez; Juliana Pérez-Miguelsanz
      Pages: 59 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 218
      Author(s): Estela Maldonado, Yamila López, Manuel Herrera, Elena Martínez-Sanz, Concepción Martínez-Álvarez, Juliana Pérez-Miguelsanz
      Introduction Craniofacial development in mammals is a complex process that involves a coordinated series of molecular and morphogenetic events. Folic acid (FA) deficiency has historically been associated with congenital spinal cord malformations, but the effect that a maternal diet deficient in FA has on the development of other structures has been poorly explored. In the present study, the objective was to describe and quantify the alterations of craniofacial structures presented in mouse foetuses from dams fed a FA deficient (FAD) diet compared with controls that were given a regular maternal diet. Material and methods E17 mouse foetuses were removed from dams that were fed with a control diet or with a FAD diet for several weeks. Foetuses with maternal FAD diets were selected for the study when they showed an altered tongue or mandible. Histological sections were used to quantify the dimensions of the head, tongue, mandibular bone and masseter muscle areas using ImageJ software. The muscles of the tongue, suprahyoid muscles, lingual septum, submandibular ducts, and lingual arteries were also analysed. Results The heads of malformed foetuses were smaller than the heads of the controls, and they showed different types of malformations: microglossia with micrognathia (some of which were combined with cleft palate) and aglossia with either micrognathia or agnathia. Lingual and suprahyoid muscles were affected in different forms and degrees. We also found alterations in the lingual arteries and in the ducts of the submandibular glands. Summarised we can state that pharyngeal arches-derived structures were affected, and the main malformations observed corroborate the vulnerability of cranial neural crest cells to FA deficiency. Conclusion The present study reveals alterations in the development of craniofacial structures in FAD foetuses. This study provides a new focus for the role of FA during embryological development.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2018)
  • Three-dimensional CAD/CAM imaging of the maxillary sinus in ageing process
    • Authors: Kvetuse Lovasova; David Kachlik; Mirela Rozpravkova; Maria Matusevska; Jana Ferkova; Darina Kluchova
      Pages: 69 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Kvetuse Lovasova, David Kachlik, Mirela Rozpravkova, Maria Matusevska, Jana Ferkova, Darina Kluchova
      Objectives During the physiological ageing process atrophy of the alveolar bone appears in vertical direction. This bone resorption causes pushing the limits of the maxillary sinus at the expense of a degraded bone. The sinus volume increases due to the facial development in children and adolescents or during the ageing process due to the loss of teeth and bone mass. The main aim of this study is to determine the sinus shape and sinus floor morphology related to age. Materials and Methods Human adult male and female cadaveric heads (aged 37 to 83 years) with different dental status were used. The three-dimensional CAD/CAM software was used to scan the solid impressions of the maxillary sinus to visualize the real sinus shape and sinus floor. Subsequently, other findings are shown in tables and evaluated graphically. Results The maxillary sinus morphology, its relationship to the nasal cavity, the sub sinus alveolar bone height, displacement of the lowest and highest points of sinus, and the sinus relationship to the roots of the upper teeth were studied and evaluated. Some septa, crests, and the prominent infraorbital canal were also found in the area of the sinus floor. Conclusions This paper provides a unique view on the maxillary sinus and its changes during the ageing process with preserved topographical relations in a representative sample of the Slovak population. The visualization of the maxillary sinus anatomy is necessary in the diagnosis and treatment plans for dental implants and during current surgical procedures.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2018)
  • Molecular phenotypes of the human kidney: Myoid stromal cells/telocytes
           and myoepithelial cells
    • Authors: M.C. Rusu; L. Mogoantă; F. Pop; M.A. Dobra
      Pages: 95 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): M.C. Rusu, L. Mogoantă, F. Pop, M.A. Dobra
      The connective stromal and epithelial compartments of the kidney have regenerative potential and phenotypic flexibility. A few studies have shown that cells appertaining to both compartments can exhibit myoid phenotypes. The purpose of our study was to investigate the myoid pattern of kidney and its association with the kidney niches containing stromal cells/telocytes (SC/TCs). We performed an immunohistochemical study using a panel of endothelial, myoid, mesenchymal and stem/progenitor markers, namely CD31, CD34, CD105 (endoglin), CD117/c-kit, nestin, desmin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and the heavy chain of smooth muscle myosin (SMM). We used histologically normal kidney samples, obtained after nephrectomy, from nine adult patients. The capsular SC/TCs had a strong CD34 and partial nestin and CD105 immunopositivity. Subcapsular and interstitial SC/TCs expressed c-kit, nestin, CD105, but also α-SMA and SMM, therefore having a myoid phenotype. The endothelial SC/TCs phenotype was CD31+/CD34+/CD105+/nestin±/SMM±/α-SMA±. All three myoid markers were expressed in periendothelial SC/TCs. We also found a scarce expression of nestin in parietal epithelial cells of Bowman’s capsule, and in podocytes. In epithelial cells, we found a positive expression for CD31, CD117/c-kit, desmin, CD34, SMM, and CD105. In epithelial tubular cells, we found a predominant basal expression of the myoid markers (SMM and desmin). In conclusion, myoepithelial tubular cells, myoid endothelial cells and myoid SC/TCs are normal constituents of the kidney.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.12.015
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2018)
  • The deep lymphatic anatomy of the hand
    • Authors: Chuan-Xiang Ma; Wei-Ren Pan; Zhi-An Liu; Fan-Qiang Zeng; Zhi-Qiang Qiu
      Pages: 105 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Chuan-Xiang Ma, Wei-Ren Pan, Zhi-An Liu, Fan-Qiang Zeng, Zhi-Qiang Qiu
      Background the deep lymphatic anatomy of the hand still remains the least described in medical literature. Methods eight hands were harvested from four nonembalmed human cadavers amputated above the wrist. A small amount of 6% hydrogen peroxide was employed to detect the lymphatic vessels around the superficial and deep palmar vascular arches, in webs from the index to little fingers, the thenar and hypothenar areas. A 30-gauge needle was inserted into the vessels and injected with a barium sulphate compound. Each specimen was dissected, photographed and radiographed to demonstrate deep lymphatic distribution of the hand. Results five groups of deep collecting lymph vessels were found in the hand: superficial palmar arch lymph vessel (SPALV); deep palmar arch lymph vessel (DPALV); thenar lymph vessel (TLV); hypothenar lymph vessel (HTLV); deep finger web lymph vessel (DFWLV). Each group of vessels drained in different directions first, then all turned and ran towards the wrist in different layers. Conclusion the deep lymphatic drainage of the was been presented. The results will provide an anatomical basis for clinical management, educational reference and scientific research.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2018)
  • Review: Limb regeneration in humans: dream or reality'
    • Authors: Lorenzo Alibardi
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Lorenzo Alibardi
      Appendage regeneration occurs by a sequence of events resembling those that take place during development in the embryo. This requires embryonic conditions such as hydration and hyaluronate content where Wnt and other signaling pathways, together with non- coding RNAs, can be re-expressed. These conditions among vertebrates are fully met only in amputated limbs of amphibians, likely because they are neotenic and maintain larval characteristics, including immaturity of their immune system and permanence of numerous stem cells. Although some key genes orchestrating limb regeneration are also present in amniotes, including humans, these genes are not expressed after injury. In amniotes a key problem for regeneration derives from the efficient immune system, largely deficient in anamniotes. As a consequence, wounds and appendage loss tend to scar instead of regenerating. Efforts of regenerative medicine in the attempt to induce the regrowth of limbs in humans must produce outgrowths with high hydration and hyaluronate content in order to create the immune-suppressed conditions similar to those present during development. The induced blastema must be manipulated for long periods of time in order to maintain the same regions present during limb development, an apical epidermal ridge and a polarizing region that forms gradients of expression of Wnt, Shh, FGF, BMP and Hox-genes. Pharmacological treatments to direct the regenerating limb into normal growth without risk of inducing abnormal or tumorigenic growth must be monitored during the course of the regeneration process − a medical treatment lasting years to fully regain the size of the lost appendage.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:11:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.12.008
      Issue No: Vol. 217 (2018)
  • Reversal of drug-induced gingival overgrowth by UV-mediated apoptosis of
           gingival fibroblasts — an in vitro study.
    • Authors: Casey Ritchhart; Anita Joy
      Pages: 7 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 217
      Author(s): Casey Ritchhart, Anita Joy
      Gingival overgrowth (GO) is an undesirable result of certain drugs like Cyclosporine A (CsA). Histopathology of GO shows hyperplasia of gingival epithelium, expansion of connective tissue with increased collagen, or a combination. Factors such as age, gender, oral hygiene, duration, and dosage also influence onset and severity of GO. One of the mechanisms behind uncontrolled cell proliferation in drug-induced GO is inhibition of apoptotic pathways, with a consequent effect on normal cell turnover. Our objective was to determine if UV photo-treatment would activate apoptosis in the gingival fibroblast component. Human gingival fibroblast cells (HGF-1) were exposed to 200ng/ml or 400ng/ml CsA and maintained for 3, 6, and 9 days, followed by UV radiation for 2, 5, or 10min (N=6). Naïve (no CsA or UV), negative (UV, no CsA), and positive controls (CsA, no UV) were designated. Prior to UV treatment, growth media was replaced with 1M PBS to prevent absorption of UV radiation by serum proteins, and cells were incubated in growth media for 24h post-UV before processing for TUNEL assay, cell proliferation assays, or immunofluorescence. Data showed a temporal increase in proliferation of HGF-1 cells under the influence of CsA. The 200ng/ml dose was more effective in causing over-proliferation. UV treatment for 10min resulted in significant reduction in cell numbers, as evidenced by counts and proliferation assays. Our study is a first step to further evaluate UV-mediated apoptosis as a mechanism to control certain forms of GO.

      PubDate: 2018-02-16T03:52:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 217 (2018)
  • Advances in cryo-electron tomography for biology and medicine
    • Authors: Roman I. Koning; Abraham J. Koster; Thomas H. Sharp
      Pages: 82 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Roman I. Koning, Abraham J. Koster, Thomas H. Sharp
      Cryo-electron tomography (CET) utilizes a combination of specimen cryo-fixation and multi-angle electron microscopy imaging to produce three-dimensional (3D) volume reconstructions of native-state macromolecular and subcellular biological structures with nanometer-scale resolution. In recent years, cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) has experienced a dramatic increase in the attainable resolution of 3D reconstructions, resulting from technical improvements of electron microscopes, improved detector sensitivity, the implementation of phase plates, automated data acquisition schemes, and improved image reconstruction software and hardware. These developments also greatly increased the usability and applicability of CET as a diagnostic and research tool, which is now enabling structural biologists to determine the structure of proteins in their native cellular environment to sub-nanometer resolution. These recent technical developments have stimulated us to update on our previous review (Koning, R.I., Koster, A.J., 2009. Cryo-electron tomography in biology and medicine. Ann Anat 191, 427-445) in which we described the fundamentals of CET. In this follow-up, we extend this basic description in order to explain the aforementioned recent advances, and describe related 3D techniques that can be applied to the anatomy of biological systems that are relevant for medicine.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T09:23:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 217 (2018)
  • Morphological analysis and three-dimensional reconstruction of the SMAS
           surrounding the nasolabial fold
    • Authors: T. Sandulescu; L. Spilker; D. Rauscher; E.A. Naumova; W.H. Arnold
      Pages: 111 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 217
      Author(s): T. Sandulescu, L. Spilker, D. Rauscher, E.A. Naumova, W.H. Arnold
      Background The superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS), a structure that has been discussed with some controversy, has a complex morphological architecture. Material and methods Histological analysis was performed on tissue blocks of the nasolabial fold (NLF) collected postmortem from formalin-fixed bodies of one male and one female donor. Serial histological sections were made, stained and digitized. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the histological structures were performed. Specimen- and location-specific differences were determined. SEM analysis of the NLF tissue block was performed. Results The NLF SMAS is a fibro-muscular, three-dimensional meshwork bolstered with fat cells. Two SMAS structure types were identified adjacent to the NLF. The cheek SMAS structure showed a regular, vertical and parallel alignment of the fibrous septa, building a three-dimensional meshwork of intercommunicating compartments. It changed its morphology, condensing while transiting the NLF and passing over to form an irregular structure in the upper lip region. SEM analysis demonstrated the connection between the fibrous meshwork and the fat cells. SMAS blood circulation expanded subcutaneously without perforating the fibro-muscular septa. Conclusions The NLF has a recognizable condensed cheek SMAS structure and represents the transition zone between the two SMAS types. Specimen-specific morphological differences necessitate individual planning and area-specific surgical procedures.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 217 (2018)
  • Ultrasound assessment of soft tissue augmentation around implants in the
           aesthetic zone using a connective tissue graft and xenogeneic collagen
           matrix – 1-year randomised follow-up
    • Authors: Monika Puzio; Artur Błaszczyszyn; Jakub Hadzik; Marzena Dominiak
      Pages: 129 - 141
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 217
      Author(s): Monika Puzio, Artur Błaszczyszyn, Jakub Hadzik, Marzena Dominiak
      Purpose A comparative, ultrasound evaluation of the thickness of keratinized mucosa (TKT) around implants one year after gingival augmentation (GA) by means of a connective tissue graft (CTG) and the xenogeneic collagen matrix (CMX). Materials and methods A total of 75 bone level tapered implants (Conelog® Camlog) were inserted in 57 patients in the aesthetic area of both jaws. The patients were divided into 3 groups: control group I- without GA; group II- GA 3 months before implantation, and group III- GA 3 months after implantation. Groups II and III were divided into two subgroups depends on type of material used for GA: (a) CMX (Mucograft®, Geistlich Pharma AG) and (b) CTG. The patients underwent a clinical and ultrasound examination before, then after 3 and 12 months following GA respectively to evaluate TKT at two points using ultrasound equipment (Pirop®, Echoson). Point 1 was considered to be in the middle of the line connecting the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) to the adjacent teeth, and point 2 on the mucogingival junction (MGJ). Results Three months after GA, the highest increase in gingival thickness was noted in group IIIb (point 1 – 0.95mm, 2 – 1.01mm). However, 12 months after GA the highest gingival thickness was observed in group IIb (point 1 – 1.76mm, 2 – 1.36m) and next IIIb (point 1 – 1.52mm, 2 – 1.15mm). Conclusions Both CTG and Geistlich Mucograft® increased TKT, but higher values were noted using CTG augmentation before implantation. An ultrasonic device can be used as a non-invasive, reliable, and reproducible method for evaluating TKT.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 217 (2018)
  • Erratum to “Neurotrophins and specific receptors in the oviduct tracts
           of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)” [AANAT 210C (2017)
    • Authors: L. Maruccio; L. Castaldo; L. D’Angelo; C. Gatta; C. Lucini; C. Cotea; C. Solcan; E.L. Nechita
      First page: 142
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 217
      Author(s): L. Maruccio, L. Castaldo, L. D’Angelo, C. Gatta, C. Lucini, C. Cotea, C. Solcan, E.L. Nechita

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 217 (2018)
  • Effect of ageing on the myosin heavy chain composition of the human
           sternocleidomastoid muscle
    • Authors: M. Meznaric; I. Eržen; P. Karen; E. Cvetko
      Pages: 95 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 216
      Author(s): M. Meznaric, I. Eržen, P. Karen, E. Cvetko
      The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition of ageing limb muscles is transformed into a slower phenotype and expresses fast-twitch fibre type atrophy, presumably due to age-related motor unit remodelling and a change in the patterns of physical activity. It is not known if ageing affects the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) in a similar way. The goal of the study was to analyze the MyHC composition and the size of muscle fibres in the ageing SCM by immunohistochemical methods and quantitative analysis and stereology using our own software for morphometry. We hypothesize that with ageing the MyHC composition of SCM transforms similarly as in ageing limb muscles, but the size of the muscle fibres is less effected as in limb muscles. The study was performed on the autopsy samples of the SCM in 12 older males. The results were compared with those published in our previous study on 15 young adult males. An ageing SCM transforms into a slower MyHC profile: the percentage of slow-twitch fibres is enhanced (numerical proportion 44.6 vs. 31.5%, P<0.05; area proportion 57.2 vs. 38.4%, P<0.05). The share of hybrid 2a/2x fibres is diminished (numerical proportion 14.1 vs. 26.8%, P<0.05), the area proportion of all fast-twitch fibres expressing MyHC-2a and 2x is smaller (50.6 vs. 63.5%, P<0.05), and the area proportion of fibres expressing the fastest myosin isoform MyHC-2x is smaller too (19.0 vs. 34.5%, P<0.05). The slower phenotype with the preferential reduction of the fibres expressing the fastest MyHC-2x provide circumstantial evidence for: (i) more fast-twitch than slow-twitch motor units being lost; and (ii) reinnervation by the surviving motor units. There appears to be no significant influence on muscle fibre size, which is congruent with relatively unchanged SCM activity during life.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2018)
  • Massa adiposa ligamenti falciformis or anterior abdominal fat pad — Its
           dimension and relation to body weight
    • Authors: Friedemann Strobel; Eckart Schirg; Martin Schlaud; Thomas Tschernig
      Pages: 100 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 216
      Author(s): Friedemann Strobel, Eckart Schirg, Martin Schlaud, Thomas Tschernig
      The anterior abdominal fat pad is associated with the falciform ligament in the upper middle/right abdomen and is frequently seen there in diagnostic imaging. It varies greatly in size and has often been described as an incidental finding in adults and has hitherto rarely been regarded as being illness-relevant. The aim of this study has been to assess whether the dimension of the corpus adiposum may be associated with body mass index. Ultrasound findings of 26 patients from birth until adolescence were analyzed for this purpose. In addition, an example from a recent dissection course has been included. The structure is constantly found with its smallest dimension in newborns, with a slight increase in infancy. The average dimensions were 7.6 by 3.5 by 0.7cm. The cubic volume correlated with age, weight and body mass index, whereas the latter association was strongest. Our data suggest that routinely determined dimension of falciform fat may be a surrogate parameter of relative body weight in childhood.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2018)
    • Authors: C.E. Petrea; M.C. Rusu; V.S. Mănoiu; A.D. Vrapciu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): C.E. Petrea, M.C. Rusu, V.S. Mănoiu, A.D. Vrapciu
      Telocytes (TCs) are cells with long, thin and moniliform processes called telopodes. These cells have been found in numerous tissues, including the eye choroid and sclera. Lamina fusca (LF), an anatomical structure located at the sclera-choroid junction, has outer fibroblastic lamellae containing cells with long telopodes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, via transmission electron microscopy, the LF for the presence of endothelial-specific ultrastructural features, such as Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs), in the residing TCs. We found that the outer fibroblastic layer of LF lacked pigmented cells but contained numerous cells with telopodes. These cells had incomplete or absent basal laminae, were united by focal adhesions and close contacts, and displayed scarce caveolae and shedding vesicles. Within the stromal cells of LF, numerous WPBs in various stages of maturation and vesicular structures, as secretory pods that ensure the exocytosis of WPBs content, were observed. The WPBs content of the cells with telopodes in the LF could indicate either their involvement in vasculogenesis and/or lymphangiogenesis or that they are the P-selectin- and CD63-containing pools that play roles in scleral or choroidal inflammation.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.03.003
  • Cardiac telocytes. From basic science to cardiac diseases. I. Atrial
    • Authors: Sorin Hostiuc; Ionuț Negoi; Catalin Dogaroiu; Eduard Drima; Cristian Bogdan Iancu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Sorin Hostiuc, Ionuț Negoi, Catalin Dogaroiu, Eduard Drima, Cristian Bogdan Iancu
      Introduction Atrial fibrillation (AF) is nowadays considered to be one of the most important causes of heart failure, stroke, cognitive decline, vascular dementia, sudden death and overall cardiovascular morbidity. Recently were published a few articles suggesting a possible involvement of telocytes in the development of atrial fibrillation. The purpose of this article is to analyze the results obtained in the field systematically, and to see if there is enough data to support a possible involvement of telocytes in arrhythmogenesis. Materials and methods To this end, we performed a systematic review of the relevant scientific literature, indexed in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus. Results and discussions Our systematic review of the published data identified five articles containing original data, based on which the association between telocytes and atrial fibrillation was inferred in later studies. We analyzed the usefulness of the information contained in the original articles to support this association, showing a lack of definite proofs correlating telocytes with atrial fibrillation. Conclusions Even if a few articles implied a potential association between AF and telocytes, the current data is not enough to support it. Moreover, even an association between the morphology, characteristics, or density of the telocytes in the atrium/pulmonary veins and AF is potentially speculative, and more studies should be performed before implying it with a reasonable degree of certainty.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.12.014
    • Authors: Maria-Giuliana Vannucchi; Chiara Traini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 April 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Maria-Giuliana Vannucchi, Chiara Traini
      Several connective tissue cells are present in the human bladder wall; among them, the myofibroblasts (MyF) and the so-called interstitial cells (IC) are a matter of investigation either by basic researchers or clinicians. The interest derives from the possibility that these two cell types could regulate the organ function forming a special sensory system in the bladder mucosa. Whereas attention for the myofibroblasts was mainly focused on understanding their role, the so-called IC are debatable starting from their nomenclature. Indeed, the IC should correspond to the previously called fibroblasts-like cells/interstitial Cajal-like cells (ICLC)/interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) or PDGFRα positive cells, or CD34 positive cells. Recently a proper name was proposed to give them an identity, i.e. telocyte (TC). To date, this nomenclature is a better term than IC that is quite vague and can be used for all the cells that reside in the connective tissue. Noteworthy, in the bladder mucosa, TC and MyF form a hetero-cellular 3-D network. The detrusor overactivity/overactive bladder (DO/OAB) are pathological conditions characterized by hypersensitivity to filling. It has been hypothesized that erroneous afferent inputs generated in the mucosa affect the efferent pathways and, consequently, the detrusor response. Presently, we review the literature regarding the presence and the potential role of TC and MyF in control conditions and in DO/OAB. On the possibility that the 3D-network made up by these two cell types might play a major role in the genesis of anomalous afferent stimuli will be given attention.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.01.009
  • Salivary biomarkers of inflammation in systemic lupus erythematosus
    • Authors: Iulia-Ioana Stanescu; Bogdan Calenic; Alina Dima; Livia Alexandra Gugoasa; Eugenia Balanescu; Raluca-Ioana Stefan van Staden; Cristian Baicus; Daniela Gabriela Badita; Maria Greabu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Iulia-Ioana Stanescu, Bogdan Calenic, Alina Dima, Livia Alexandra Gugoasa, Eugenia Balanescu, Raluca-Ioana Stefan van Staden, Cristian Baicus, Daniela Gabriela Badita, Maria Greabu
      Saliva is currently used as a reliable diagnostic fluid in a wide range of local and systemic diseases. However, the link between salivary diagnosis and the inflammatory process in autoimmune diseases has not yet been explored. The aim of our study is to assess possible correlations between salivary inflammatory markers and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients fulfilling the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) diagnosis criteria were included. Salivary and serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were determined using stochastic sensors. Serum leptin and IL-6 had significantly higher levels in SLE patients compared to non-SLE. Also, salivary IL-6 levels highly correlated with the serum IL-6 levels. A positive correlation was found between salivary and serum levels of IL-6, signaling salivary IL-6 as a reliable marker for assessing the inflammation process in SLE.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.02.012
    • Authors: Mehmet Erkut Kara; Figen Sevil-Kilimci; Ömer Gürkan Dilek; Vedat Onar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Mehmet Erkut Kara, Figen Sevil-Kilimci, Ömer Gürkan Dilek, Vedat Onar
      Many researchers are interested in femoral conformation because most orthopaedic problems of the long bones occur in the femur and its joints. The neck-shaft (NSA) and the anteversion (AVA) angles are good predictors for understanding the orientation of the proximal end of the femur. The varus (aLDFA) and procurvatum (CDFA) angles have also been used to understand the orientation of the distal end of the femur. The purposes of this study were to investigate the relationship between the proximal and distal angles of the femur and to compare the distal femoral angles in male and female dogs in order to investigate the sexual dimorphism. The measurements of normal CDFAs, which have not been previously reported, may also provide a database of canine distal femoral morphology. A total of 75 cleaned healthy femora from different breeds or mixed breed of dogs were used. The three-dimensional images were reconstructed from computed tomographic images. The AVA, NSA, aLDFA and CDFA were measured on the 3D images. The correlation coefficients were calculated among the measured angles. The distal femoral angles were also compared between male and female femora. The 95% confidence intervals of the AVA and the NSA were calculated to be 24.22°–29.50° and 144.97°–147.50°, respectively. The 95% confidence intervals of the aLDFA and the CDFA for all studied dogs were 92.62°–94.08° and 89.09°–91.94°, respectively. The NSA showed no correlation with either the aLDFA or CDFA. There was a weak inverse correlation between the AVA and CDFA and a weak positive correlation between the AVA and aLDFA. The differences in the aLDFA and CDFA measurements between male and female dog were not significant. In conclusion, femoral version, regardless of the plane, might have little influence on distal femoral morphology in normal dogs. Besides this, there is no evidence of a sexual dimorphism in the varus and procurvatum angles of the dog distal femur. The data from this study may be used in both orthopaedic studies and for clinical applications related to the distal femur of dogs.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T09:23:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.02.006
  • Elongated styloid process in patients with temporomandibular disorders
           — Is there a link'
    • Authors: Sebastian Krohn; Phillipp Brockmeyer; Dietmar Kubein-Meesenburg; Christian Kirschneck; Ralf Buergers
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Sebastian Krohn, Phillipp Brockmeyer, Dietmar Kubein-Meesenburg, Christian Kirschneck, Ralf Buergers
      Background Elongated styloid processes may display clinical signs that can easily be confused with symptoms associated with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Thus, the present study aimed to investigate alterations of the styloid process in patients with TMD. Methods Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) X-ray images of 192 patients with RDC/TMD diagnoses were examined retrospectively. On each side, the styloid process and mandibular ramus were evaluated regarding length as well as sagittal angulation. Data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA, Pearson’s r and Kruskal-Wallis test. In order to confirm the accuracy of the obtained X-ray measurements, the available cone-beam-computed tomographies (CBCT) of the subjects were also examined as reference standard and compared with the X-ray TMJ data by using Bland-Altman analysis. Results In a group of TMD patients we assessed a mean styloid length of 40.8mm over both genders. In female subjects the means of length and angulation of the styloid process were 40.4mm and 54.9degree, male subjects showed means of 42.1mm and 63.4degree. The mean height of the mandibular ramus in males was significantly higher than the same measurement in females (66.8mm vs 59.7mm). Styloid length in relation to ramus height (relative styloid length) was significantly larger in females. No significant correlations between RDC/TMD diagnoses and process length as well as process angle were found. A Bland-Altman analysis revealed conformity of CBCT and digital X-ray results. Conclusion The mean styloid length measured in a group of TMD patients is referred to as elongated, whereas females showed longer styloid in relation to body height. However, it appears that alterations of the styloid are not related to TMD diagnoses.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T09:23:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.01.007
  • Gender as an underestimated factor in mental health of medical students
    • Authors: P.H.M. Burger; M. Scholz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): P.H.M. Burger, M. Scholz
      Background In Germany, currently two out of three medical students are female. Several studies corroborate that medical students show a significantly higher prevalence of stress-related mental disorders than the population in general. Aims We aimed to evaluate, if gender has an influence on the distribution of mental stress parameters and learning style among male and female medical students. Methods We investigated a total of 758 students of the medical faculty at the University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Germany, using standardized and validated psychological questionnaires on depressive symptoms (BDI-II), burnout (BOSS-II) and quality of life (SF-12). In addition, we screened the students for their learning styles according to Kolb. Results Out of 723 participants who declared their gender, 57,8% were female and 37,6% were male. Female students showed significantly higher values for depressiveness as well as for emotional and cognitive burnout, whereas the mental quality of life was significantly lower. A considerably higher percentage of male students with a converging or an accommodating learning style were found in comparison to their female fellows. Conclusions We postulate that an adaptation of the medical curriculum content to the investigated factors may contribute to a higher mental stability and less stress-related symptoms in medical students.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T09:23:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.02.005
  • Three-step monitoring of glycan and galectin profiles in the anterior
           segment of the adult chicken eye
    • Authors: Joachim C. Manning; Gabriel García Caballero; Clemens Knospe; Herbert Kaltner; Hans-Joachim Gabius
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Joachim C. Manning, Gabriel García Caballero, Clemens Knospe, Herbert Kaltner, Hans-Joachim Gabius
      A histochemical three-step approach is applied for processing a panel of sections that covers the different regions of fixed anterior segment of the adult chicken eye. This analysis gains insight into the presence of binding partners for functional pairing by galectin/lectin recognition in situ. Glycophenotyping with 11 fungal and plant lectins (step 1) revealed a complex pattern of reactivity with regional as well as glycan- and cell-type-dependent differences. When characterizing expression of the complete set of the seven adhesion/growth-regulatory chicken galectins immunohistochemically (step 2), the same holds true, clearly demonstrating profiles with individual properties, even for the CG1A/B paralogue pair. Testing this set of labeled tissue lectins as probes (step 3) detected binding sites in a galectin-type-dependent manner. The results of steps 2 and 3 reflect the divergence of sequences and argue against functional redundancy among the galectins. These data shape the concept of an in situ network of galectins. As consequence, experimental in vitro studies will need to be performed from the level of testing a single protein to work with mixtures that mimic the (patho)physiological situation, – a key message of this report.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T08:22:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.02.002
  • Effects of in-office bleaching on human enamel and dentin. Morphological
           and mineral changes
    • Authors: Carmen Llena; Irene Esteve; Leopoldo Forner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Carmen Llena, Irene Esteve, Leopoldo Forner
      Background the effects of HP-based products upon dental enamel and dentin are inconclusive. Aim to evaluate changes in micromorphology and composition of calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) in enamel and dentin after the application of 37,5% hydrogen peroxide (HP) and 35% carbamide peroxide (CP) Methods crowns of 20 human teeth were divided in two halves. One half was used as control specimen and the other as experimental specimen. The control specimens were kept in artificial saliva, and the experimental specimens were divided into four groups (n=5 each): group 1 (enamel HP for 45minutes); group 2 (dentin HP for 45minutes); group 3 (enamel CP for 90minutes); and group 4 (dentin CP for 90minutes). The morphological changes were evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), while the changes in the composition of Ca and P were assessed using environmental scanning electron microscopy combined with a microanalysis system (ESEM+EDX). The results within each group and between groups were compared using the Wilcoxon test and Mann Whitney U-test, respectively (p <0.05). Results similar morphological changes in the enamel and no changes in dentin were assessed with both products. Ca and P decreased in enamel and dentin, without significant differences between them or with respect to their control specimens (p >0.05). Conclusions when bleaching products with a neutral pH are used in clinical practice, both, the concentration and the application time should be taken into account in order to avoid possible structural and mineral changes in enamel and dentin.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T08:22:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.01.003
  • Medical Students’ Perspective on Current and Future Training in
    • Authors: C.P.R. Triepels; D.M Koppes; S.M.J. Van Kuijk; H.E. Popeijus; W.H. Lamers; T. van Gorp; J.J. Futterer; R.F.P.M Kruitwagen; K.J.B Notten
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): C.P.R. Triepels, D.M Koppes, S.M.J. Van Kuijk, H.E. Popeijus, W.H. Lamers, T. van Gorp, J.J. Futterer, R.F.P.M Kruitwagen, K.J.B Notten
      Gaining sufficient knowledge of anatomy is an important part of medical education. Factors that influence how well students learn anatomical structures include available sources, learning time and study assistance. This study explores the attitude of medical students with regard to studying anatomy and evaluates possibilities for improvement of training in anatomy. Twenty medical students participated in a focus group meeting. Based on this focus group, an online survey consisting of 27 questions was developed and distributed amongst medical students of Maastricht University, the Netherlands. A total of 495 medical students (both Bachelor and Master level) participated in this survey. Master students found studying anatomy less attractive than Bachelor students (36.8% of the Master students vs. 47.9% of the Bachelor students (p=0.024)). Although most students responded that they thought it is important to study anatomy, 48% of all students studied anatomy less than 10hours per study block of 8 weeks. Only 47.9% of the students rated their knowledge of anatomy as adequate. Students suggested that three-dimensional techniques would help improve their knowledge of anatomy. Therefore investing in three-dimensional tools could prove beneficial in the future.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T08:22:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.01.006
  • Reaching the sellar region endonasally − one or both nostrils' A
           pilot study in body donors
    • Authors: Stefan Linsler; David Breuskin; Thomas Tschernig; Joachim Oertel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Stefan Linsler, David Breuskin, Thomas Tschernig, Joachim Oertel
      Introduction The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of posterior septectomy size on surgical exposure and surgical freedom during the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach to the sellar and parasellar region. Methods A mononostril and binostril approach to the sellar region was performed on 4 formalin-fixed cadaveric heads. Predefined anatomical structures were identified. Additionally, a millimeter gauge was introduced into the surgical site and the extent of dorsal septectomy was analyzed for both approaches. Surgical freedom was defined as the distance between the ipsilateral and contralateral limit of opening of the sphenoid sinus. Results The mean extent of dorsal septectomy was 15.7±5.7mm using a binostril approach to achieve adequate visualization of all relevant anatomical structures. Superior results were obtained via binostril technique with respect to the ability to identify the contralateral internal carotid artery or opticocarotid recessus. No such advantage was found for all other landmarks. Surgical freedom between the ipsilateral and contralateral limit of exposure of the sphenoid sinus was measured with 15±0.8mm in the mononostril and 19.2±0.9mm in the binostril group. Conclusions The surgical exposure increased significantly with progressively larger posterior septectomy in binostril approaches until a 20-mm posterior septectomy. Bilateral lateral opticocarotid recesses were accessible with a mean of 15mm for posterior septectomy. In the mononostril group no dorsal septectomy was necessary. Thus, the nasal mucosa is more preserved by this technique. However, the lateral exposure is partially limited and the use of angled endoscopes is recommended when adopting a mononostril approach to the sellar region.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T08:22:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.01.005
  • The anatomy of the thoracic duct at the level of the diaphragm: a cadaver
    • Authors: Ingmar L. Defize; Bernadette Schurink; Teus J. Weijs; Tom A.P. Roeling; Jelle P. Ruurda; Richard van Hillegersberg; Ronald L.A.W. Bleys
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Ingmar L. Defize, Bernadette Schurink, Teus J. Weijs, Tom A.P. Roeling, Jelle P. Ruurda, Richard van Hillegersberg, Ronald L.A.W. Bleys
      Background Injury and subsequent leakage of unrecognized thoracic duct tributaries during transthoracic esophagectomy may lead to chylothorax. Therefore, we hypothesized that thoracic duct anatomy at the diaphragm is more complex than currently recognized and aimed to provide a detailed description of the anatomy of the thoracic duct at the diaphragm. Basic procedures The thoracic duct and its tributaries were dissected in 7 (2 male and 5 female) embalmed human cadavers. The level of origin of the thoracic duct and the points where tributaries entered the thoracic duct were measured using landmarks easily identified during surgery: the aortic and esophageal hiatus and the arch of the azygos vein. Main findings The thoracic duct was formed in the thoracic cavity by the union of multiple abdominal tributaries in 6 cadavers. In 3 cadavers partially duplicated systems were present that communicated with interductal branches. The thoracic duct was formed by a median of 3 (IQR: 3–5) abdominal tributaries merging 8.3 centimeters (IQR: 7.3–9.3cm) above the aortic hiatus, 1.8 centimeters (IQR: −0.4–2.4cm) above the esophageal hiatus, and 12.3 centimeters (IQR: 14.0–−11.0cm) below the arch of the azygos vein. Conclusion This study challenges the paradigm that abdominal lymphatics join in the abdomen to pass the diaphragm as a single thoracic duct. In this study, this occurred in 1/7 cadavers. Although small, the results of this series suggest that the formation of the thoracic duct above the diaphragm is more common than previously thought. This knowledge may be vital to prevent and treat post-operative chyle leakage.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T08:22:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.02.003
  • Electrochemical testing of a novel alloy in natural and artificial body
    • Authors: Ioana Bunoiu; Mihaela Mindroiu; Claudiu Constantin Manole; Mihai Andrei; Adrian Nicoara; Ecaterina Vasilescu; Monica Popa; Andreea Cristiana Didilescu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Ioana Bunoiu, Mihaela Mindroiu, Claudiu Constantin Manole, Mihai Andrei, Adrian Nicoara, Ecaterina Vasilescu, Monica Popa, Andreea Cristiana Didilescu
      There is a recent trend in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine to use nanotechnology and bionanomaterials to obtain materials that mimic the surface properties of a natural tissue. From this perspective, nanolevel tissue engineering can be viewed as a novel anatomy of the future. In this paper, a novel titanium-based alloy is studied following this strategy. The alloy nanostructuration is proposed as an improved alternative for restorative prosthodontics or an implantable biomaterial. Tests in i) standard solution of simulated body fluid (SBF) and ii) natural saliva were performed to investigate the alloy’s electrochemical stability. The results show that nanochannel growth on the alloy surface confers a higher stability than that of the untreated one in both natural and simulated environments.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T08:22:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.12.011
  • Sectioned images and 3D models of a cadaver head with reference to dermal
           filler injection
    • Authors: Dong Sun Shin; YoungJoo Shim; Bong Chul Kim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Dong Sun Shin, YoungJoo Shim, Bong Chul Kim
      The purpose of this study was to describe anatomical consideration with reference to dermal filler injection on sectioned images and three dimensional (3D) models using Visible Korean for medical education and clinical training purposes in the field of facial surgery. Serially sectioned images of the head were acquired from a cadaver. Anatomic structures related to dermal filler injection were 3D-reconstructed based on sectioned images, and additional structures were built on the basis of the established ones using a semi-automatic method. The anatomical 3D models were assembled and converted to a PDF file (66MB), which can be downloaded and used for free. In the PDF file, noticeable anatomical structures related with dermal filler injection can be identified on the 3D models as well as on the sectioned anatomical images. The 3D models in PDF were optimized and displayed in real time. These state-of-the-art sectioned images, outlined images, and 3D models will aid students and trainees to acquire a better understanding of the anatomy related to dermal filler injection, and will also improve medical understanding of patients and the general public. The 3D models in PDF files also can be used on dermal filler injection simulations.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T08:22:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.02.001
  • Porcine heart interatrial septum anatomy
    • Authors: Mateusz K. Hołda; Mateusz Koziej; Katarzyna Piątek; Wiesława Klimek-Piotrowska
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Mateusz K. Hołda, Mateusz Koziej, Katarzyna Piątek, Wiesława Klimek-Piotrowska
      Background The left-sided atrial septal pouch (SP), a recently re-discovered anatomical structure within the human interatrial septum, has emerged as a possible source of thrombi formation and a trigger for atrial fibrillation, thereby potentially increasing the risk for ischemic stroke. In many studies, the swine interatrial septum has been used as model of the human heart. Also, possible new strategies and devices for management of the SPs may first be tested in this pig model. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to evaluate swine interatrial septum morphology and to compare it with the human analog, especially in the light of SP occurrence. Methods A total of 75 swine (Sus scrofa f. domestica) hearts were examined. The interatrial septum morphology was assessed, and SPs were measured. Results The most common variant of the interatrial septum was smooth septum (26.6%) followed by the patent foramen ovale channel and right SP (both 22.7%). No left or double SPs were observed. In 28.0% of all cases the fold of tissue (left septal ridge) was observed on the left side of the interatrial septum in the location where the left-sided SP should be expected. The mean length of the patent foramen ovale channel was 7.1±1.5mm. The mean right SP depth was 6.3±2.2mm, and its ostium width and height were 5.8±1.2 and 5.3±1.6mm, respectively. Conclusions There are significant differences between human and porcine interatrial septum morphology that should be taken into account during experimental studies. The absence of the left SP in swine results in the inability to use porcine heart as an experimental model for left-sided SP management.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T05:05:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.01.002
  • Changes In Anatomic Position Of Root Canal Orifices In Pluriradicular
           Teeth Following Re-Location During Endodontic Treatment
    • Authors: Darian Rusu; Petra Surlin; Stefan-Ioan Stratul; Marius Boariu; Horia Calniceanu; Adrian Kasaj; Cosmin Sinescu; Andreea Didilescu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Darian Rusu, Petra Surlin, Stefan-Ioan Stratul, Marius Boariu, Horia Calniceanu, Adrian Kasaj, Cosmin Sinescu, Andreea Didilescu
      Direct access to the root canals in posterior teeth for endodontic treatment is most frequently facilitated by the straightening of the coronal parts of the root canals, having as a consequence the relocation of the canal orifices on the map of the floor of the pulp chamber (Christie & Thompson, 1994). This procedure intentionally moves the coronal aspect of a canal away from the center of the chamber, while simultaneously removing internal dentin from the pulp chamber walls. The aim of this study was to evaluate the displacement resulting from the relocation of root canal orifices during the initial phase of rotary root canal treatment in molars using the dental operating microscope (DOM) and digital image processing. Forty-three molars (17 maxillary and 26 mandibular) belonging to 43 patients (aged 18 to 62 years) with indications for root canal treatment were endodontically treated. The differences between the initial perimeter and the perimeter of the root canal orifices polygon after relocation varied between 2.7 and 3.4 microns (mean 3.0 microns), while the differences between the initial area and the area after relocation varied between 2,448,456.8 and 3,249,306.6 square microns (mean 2,848,881.7). The increase in access to the cavities and the alterations of the pulp chambers can be satisfactorily approximated by the variations of the perimeters and areas of the pulp floor polygons during root canal treatment. From a clinical perspective, these results indicate that there is a significant decrease in tooth substance in molars (except MB2).

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T05:05:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.01.004
  • The Meckel Collections (Die Meckelschen Sammlungen), Rüdiger Schultka
    • Authors: Friedrich Paulsen
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger, Volume 217
      Author(s): Friedrich Paulsen

      PubDate: 2018-02-16T03:52:13Z
  • A new procedure for processing extracted teeth for immediate grafting in
    • Authors: José Luis Calvo Guirado; Pilar Cegarra del Pino; Lari Sapoznikov; Rafael Arcesio Delgado Ruíz; Manuel Fernández Dominguez; Sérgio Alexandre Gehrke
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): José Luis Calvo Guirado, Pilar Cegarra del Pino, Lari Sapoznikov, Rafael Arcesio Delgado Ruíz, Manuel Fernández Dominguez, Sérgio Alexandre Gehrke
      Objectives To investigate freshly extracted dental particulate used to graft post-extraction sockets in dogs, comparing new bone formation at experimental and control sites. Material and Methods Bilateral premolars P2, P3, P4 and first mandibular molars were extracted atraumatically from six American Fox Hound dogs. The teeth were ground immediately using a ‘Smart Dentin Grinder.’ The dentin particulate was sieved to ensure a grain size of 300-1200μm and immersed in an alcohol cleanser to dissolve organic debris and bacteria, followed by washing in sterile saline buffer solution. The animals were divided into two groups randomly: group ‘A’ (control) samples were left to heal without any extraction socket grafting procedure; group ‘B’ (experimental) sockets were filled with the autogenous dentin particulate graft. The rate of tissue healing and the quantity of bone formation were evaluated using histological and histomorphometric analyses at 60 and 90 days post-grafting. The type of bone generated was categorized as woven (immature bone) or lamellar bone (mature bone). Results Substantially more bone formation was found in Group B (experimental) than Group A (control) at 60 and 90 days (p<0.05). Less immature bone was identified in the dentin grafted group (25.7%) than the control group (5.9%). Similar differences were also observed at 90 days post grafting. Conclusion Autogenous dentin particulate grafted immediately after extractions may be considered a useful biomaterial for socket preservation, protecting both buccal and lingual plates, generating large amounts of new woven bone formation after 60 days, and small amounts of lamellar bone after 90 days healing.

      PubDate: 2018-02-16T03:52:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.12.010
  • Anatomists’ perceptions of the skills and attributes required of
           newly-recruited medical students
    • Authors: Bernard J. Moxham; Odile Plaisant; Baptiste Lignier; Feisal Brahim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2018
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Bernard J. Moxham, Odile Plaisant, Baptiste Lignier, Feisal Brahim
      Background and purpose Admission procedures for recruiting students to medical school vary considerably across the world. Notwithstanding such variability, it is important to know what skills and attributes are required of the students by their teachers on entering medical school. Procedures Anatomists are often the teachers who first meet the students as they enter medical school and this report analyses, by means of a questionnaire, the putative skills required of their medical students by anatomists from the U.S.A. and Europe. Findings The findings from a questionnaire suggest that there are few differences between anatomists in the U.S.A. and Europe, even though medical students are postgraduates in the U.S.A. but undergraduates in Europe. Furthermore, the skill requirements expected of the students differed only slightly according to the gender and age of the anatomists and to whether or not they had clinical qualifications. The most important skills and attributes required of the students were found to be: good study skills and abilities to study independently, understanding of biology (but not chemistry, physics, mathematics, statistics, or understanding of the scientific method), memory/factual retention, communication and teamwork skills, problem-solving abilities, and attributes related to life-long learning, readiness to be challenged, and emotional stability and conscientiousness. Conclusions Anatomists within the U.S.A. and Europe essentially agree on the skills and attributes initially required of their medical students, as well as those not deemed initially important. These findings are presented with the view of enhancing admission policies and procedures for admitting students into medical schools.

      PubDate: 2018-02-16T03:52:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.12.009
  • Fetal sigmoid colon mesentery − in relevance in fetal ultrasound
           application. A pilot study
    • Authors: Slawomir Wozniak; Jerzy Florjanski; Henryk Kordecki; Marzena Podhorska-Okolow; Zygmunt Domagala
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 December 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Slawomir Wozniak, Jerzy Florjanski, Henryk Kordecki, Marzena Podhorska-Okolow, Zygmunt Domagala
      Introduction Ultrasound examinations during pregnancy are routine procedures used to detect fetal congenital malformations. Ultrasound monitoring of sigmoid colon mesenterial development could be useful for early detection of subjects at risk of sigmoid colon volvulus. Objective The aim of our paper was to assess the sigmoid colon length, and sigmoid colon mesentery width and height in the late fetal period, and, using the results, to estimate the surface area of the mesocolon (in mm2) in living fetuses. Moreover, we attempted to repeat some of these measurements in living fetuses using ultrasound imaging. Methods The study was carried out on 209 formalin fixed human fetuses (100 female and 109 male) aged from 4th to 7th gestational months (102–203 days), with a crown-rump length of 132–342mm. The length of the sigmoid colon, as well as the height and width of its mesentery were measured. The surface area of the mesocolon was estimated. Correction for formalin induced shrinkage was applied. Pilot ultrasound examinations of live fetuses were performed. Results Mean values of sigmoid colon length, mesenteric width and height (formalin fixed fetuses) for respective gestational ages were: month 4: 21.46±6.7mm, 6.80±2.1mm, 5.5±1.49mm; month 5: 27.32±1.2mm, 7.62±2.01mm, 7.33±2.17mm; month 6: 47.56±9.57mm, 11.68±3.8mm, 10.3±3.05mm; month 7: 56.92±17.48mm. 15.32±8 mm, 12.81±3.16mm. The surface area ranges of the sigmoid colon mesentery found for respective gestational months (intrauterine fetuses) were as follows: month 4: 33.24 − 51.95mm2; month 5: 49.63 − 77.6mm2; month 6: 106.89 − 167.15mm2 and month 7: 145.69 − 272.53mm2. Conclusion The surface area of the sigmoid colon mesentery can be used as a simple parameter applied in fetal ultrasonographic evaluation. The development of the sigmoid colon accelerates in the 6th gestational month, and decelerates in the 7th gestational month. The sigmoid colon mesentery width was larger than its height between the 4th and 7th gestational months.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.12.003
  • Lipopolysaccharide induces tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 independent
           relocation of lymphocytes from the red pulp of the mouse spleen
    • Authors: Ivana M. Lalić; Rudolf Bichele; Anja Repar; Sanja Z. Despotović; Saša Petričević; Martti Laan; Pärt Peterson; Jürgen Westermann; Živana Milićević; Ivana Mirkov; Novica M. Milićević
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2017
      Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
      Author(s): Ivana M. Lalić, Rudolf Bichele, Anja Repar, Sanja Z. Despotović, Saša Petričević, Martti Laan, Pärt Peterson, Jürgen Westermann, Živana Milićević, Ivana Mirkov, Novica M. Milićević
      It is well known that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces migration of several cellular populations within the spleen. However, there are no data about the impact of LPS on B and T lymphocytes present in the red pulp. Therefore, we used an experimental model in which we tested the effects of intravenously injected LPS on the molecular, cellular and structural changes of the spleen, with special reference to the red pulp lymphocytes. We discovered that LPS induced a massive relocation of B and T lymphocytes from the splenic red pulp, which was independent of the tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 signaling axis. Early after LPS treatment, quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed the elevated levels of mRNA encoding numerous chemokines and proinflammatory cytokines (XCL1, CXCL9, CXCL10, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL17, CCL20, CCL22, TNFα and LTα) which affect the navigation and activities of B and T lymphocytes in the lymphoid tissues. An extreme increase in mRNA levels for CCL20 was detected in the white pulp of the LPS-treated mice. The CCL20-expressing cells were localized in the PALS. Some smaller CCL20-expressing cells were evenly dispersed in the B cell zone. Thus, our study provides new knowledge of how microbial products could be involved in shaping the structure of lymphatic organs.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2017.12.002
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