for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help
  Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 7655 journals)
    - ALLERGOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY (196 journals)
    - ANAESTHESIOLOGY (110 journals)
    - CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (316 journals)
    - CHIROPRACTIC, HOMEOPATHY, OSTEOPATHY (21 journals)
    - COMMUNICABLE DISEASES, EPIDEMIOLOGY (207 journals)
    - DENTISTRY (258 journals)
    - DERMATOLOGY AND VENEREOLOGY (155 journals)
    - EMERGENCY AND INTENSIVE CRITICAL CARE (112 journals)
    - ENDOCRINOLOGY (143 journals)
    - FORENSIC SCIENCES (38 journals)
    - GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY (168 journals)
    - GERONTOLOGY AND GERIATRICS (123 journals)
    - HEMATOLOGY (140 journals)
    - HYPNOSIS (4 journals)
    - INTERNAL MEDICINE (144 journals)
    - LABORATORY AND EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE (95 journals)
    - MEDICAL GENETICS (59 journals)
    - MEDICAL SCIENCES (1946 journals)
    - NURSES AND NURSING (313 journals)
    - OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY (189 journals)
    - ONCOLOGY (363 journals)
    - OPHTHALMOLOGY AND OPTOMETRY (126 journals)
    - ORTHOPEDICS AND TRAUMATOLOGY (149 journals)
    - OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (80 journals)
    - PATHOLOGY (99 journals)
    - PEDIATRICS (250 journals)
    - PHYSICAL MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION (151 journals)
    - PSYCHIATRY AND NEUROLOGY (772 journals)
    - RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE (186 journals)
    - RESPIRATORY DISEASES (96 journals)
    - RHEUMATOLOGY (65 journals)
    - SPORTS MEDICINE (73 journals)
    - SURGERY (370 journals)
    - UROLOGY, NEPHROLOGY AND ANDROLOGY (138 journals)

MEDICAL SCIENCES (1946 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access  
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)     Open Access  
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta Medica International     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access  
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acupuncture and Natural Medicine     Open Access  
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / Health Sciences Journal of Adıyaman University     Open Access  
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access  
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Skeletal Muscle Function Assessment     Open Access  
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
AJSP: Reviews & Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access  
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy     Open Access  
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ankara Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası     Open Access  
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Fundeni Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives Medical Review Journal / Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi     Open Access  
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access  
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASHA Leader     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine     Open Access  
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Medical Journal     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Angiogenesis
  [SJR: 2.212]   [H-I: 69]   [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-7209 - ISSN (Online) 0969-6970
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • miRNAs regulate the HIF switch during hypoxia: a novel therapeutic target
    • Authors: Marcin Serocki; Sylwia Bartoszewska; Anna Janaszak-Jasiecka; Renata J. Ochocka; James F. Collawn; Rafał Bartoszewski
      Pages: 183 - 202
      Abstract: The decline of oxygen tension in the tissues below the physiological demand leads to the hypoxic adaptive response. This physiological consequence enables cells to recover from this cellular insult. Understanding the cellular pathways that mediate recovery from hypoxia is therefore critical for developing novel therapeutic approaches for cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The master regulators of oxygen homeostasis that control angiogenesis during hypoxia are hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). HIF-1 and HIF-2 function as transcriptional regulators and have both unique and overlapping target genes, whereas the role of HIF-3 is less clear. HIF-1 governs the acute adaptation to hypoxia, whereas HIF-2 and HIF-3 expressions begin during chronic hypoxia in human endothelium. When HIF-1 levels decline, HIF-2 and HIF-3 increase. This switch from HIF-1 to HIF-2 and HIF-3 signaling is required in order to adapt the endothelium to prolonged hypoxia. During prolonged hypoxia, the HIF-1 levels and activity are reduced, despite the lack of oxygen-dependent protein degradation. Although numerous protein factors have been proposed to modulate the HIF pathways, their application for HIF-targeted therapy is rather limited. Recently, the miRNAs that endogenously regulate gene expression via the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway have been shown to play critical roles in the hypoxia response pathways. Furthermore, these classes of RNAs provide therapeutic possibilities to selectively target HIFs and thus modulate the HIF switch. Here, we review the significance of the microRNAs on the relationship between the HIFs under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9600-2
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Tip-cell behavior is regulated by transcription factor FoxO1 under hypoxic
           conditions in developing mouse retinas
    • Authors: Moe Fukumoto; Kanako Kondo; Kazumasa Uni; Tomoko Ishiguro; Mikiko Hayashi; Shinnosuke Ueda; Itsuki Mori; Kenta Niimi; Fumi Tashiro; Satsuki Miyazaki; Jun-Ichi Miyazaki; Shinobu Inagaki; Tatsuo Furuyama
      Pages: 203 - 214
      Abstract: Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) is a transcription factor and a critical regulator of angiogenesis. Various environmental stimuli, including growth factors, nutrients, shear stress, oxidative stress and hypoxia, affect FoxO1 subcellular localization and strongly influence its transcriptional activity; however, FoxO1-localization patterns in endothelial cells (ECs) during development have not been clarified in vivo. Here, we reported that FoxO1 expression was observed in three layers of angiogenic vessels in developing mouse retinas and that among these layers, the front layer showed high levels of FoxO1 expression in the nuclei of most tip ECs. Because tip ECs migrate toward the avascular hypoxic area, we focused on hypoxia as a major stimulus regulating FoxO1 subcellular localization in tip cells. In cultured ECs, FoxO1 accumulated into the nucleus under hypoxic conditions, with hypoxia also inducing expression of tip-cell-specific genes, including endothelial-specific molecule 1 (ESM1), which was suppressed by FoxO1 knockdown. Additionally, in murine models, EC-specific FoxO1 deletion resulted in reduced ESM1 expression and suppressed tip-cell migration during angiogenesis. These findings indicated roles for FoxO1 in tip-cell migration and that its transcriptional activity is regulated by hypoxia.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-017-9588-z
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • IL-11 facilitates a novel connection between RA joint fibroblasts and
           endothelial cells
    • Authors: Hatem A. Elshabrawy; Michael V. Volin; Abdul B. Essani; Zhenlong Chen; Iain B. McInnes; Katrien Van Raemdonck; Karol Palasiewicz; Shiva Arami; Mark Gonzalez; Hossam M. Ashour; Seung-jae Kim; Guofei Zhou; David A. Fox; Shiva Shahrara
      Pages: 215 - 228
      Abstract: IL-11 has been detected in inflamed joints; however, its role in the pathogenesis of arthritis is not yet clear. Studies were conducted to characterize the expression and functional significance of IL-11 and IL-11Rα in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). IL-11 levels were elevated in RA synovial fluid (SF) compared to osteoarthritis (OA) SF and plasma from RA, OA and normal individuals (NLs). Morphologic studies established that IL-11 was detected in lining fibroblasts and macrophages in addition to sublining endothelial cells and macrophages at higher levels in RA compared to NL synovial tissues. Since IL-11Rα was exclusively expressed in RA fibroblasts and endothelial cells, macrophages were not involved in IL-11 effector function. Ligation of IL-11 to IL-11Rα strongly provoked fibroblast infiltration into RA joint, while cell proliferation was unaffected by this process. Secretion of IL-8 and VEGF from IL-11 activated RA fibroblasts was responsible for the indirect effect of IL-11 on endothelial cell transmigration and tube formation. Moreover, IL-11 blockade impaired RA SF capacity to elicit endothelial cell transmigration and tube formation. We conclude that IL-11 binding to endothelial IL-11Rα can directly induce RA angiogenesis. In addition, secretion of proangiogenic factors from migrating fibroblasts potentiated by IL-11 can indirectly contribute to RA neovascularization.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-017-9589-y
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Oxidized phospholipids stimulate production of stem cell factor via
           NRF2-dependent mechanisms
    • Authors: Taras Afonyushkin; Olga V. Oskolkova; Valery N. Bochkov
      Pages: 229 - 236
      Abstract: Receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit and its ligand stem cell factor (SCF) regulate resident vascular wall cells and recruit circulating progenitors. We tested whether SCF may be induced by oxidized palmitoyl-arachidonoyl-phosphatidylcholine (OxPAPC) known to accumulate in atherosclerotic vessels. Gene expression analysis demonstrated OxPAPC-induced upregulation of SCF mRNA and protein in different types of endothelial cells (ECs). Elevated levels of SCF mRNA were observed in aortas of ApoE−/− knockout mice. ECs produced biologically active SCF because conditioned medium from OxPAPC-treated cells stimulated activation (phosphorylation) of c-Kit in naïve ECs. Induction of SCF by OxPAPC was inhibited by knocking down transcription factor NRF2. Inhibition or stimulation of NRF2 by pharmacological or molecular tools induced corresponding changes in SCF expression. Finally, we observed decreased levels of SCF mRNA in aortas of NRF2 knockout mice. We characterize OxPLs as a novel pathology-associated stimulus inducing expression of SCF in endothelial cells. Furthermore, our data point to transcription factor NRF2 as a major mediator of OxPL-induced upregulation of SCF. This mechanism may represent one of the facets of pleiotropic action of NRF2 in vascular wall.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-017-9590-5
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Soluble delta-like 1 homolog (DLK1) stimulates angiogenesis through
           Notch1/Akt/eNOS signaling in endothelial cells
    • Authors: Chao-Cheng Huang; Hsiao-Mei Kuo; Pei-Chang Wu; Shih-Hsuan Cheng; Tzu-Ting Chang; Yi-Chen Chang; Mei-Lang Kung; Deng-Chyang Wu; Jiin-Haur Chuang; Ming-Hong Tai
      Pages: 299 - 312
      Abstract: Aim Delta-like 1 homolog (DLK1) is a non-canonical ligand of Notch signaling, which plays a pivotal role in vascular development and tumor angiogenesis. This study aimed to elucidate the function and mechanism of DLK1 in angiogenesis. Methods and results By using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies, expression analysis revealed a unique vascular tropism of DLK1 in vasculature of neuroblastoma and vascular tumors. Thus, it was hypothesized that DLK1 may be cleaved and then bound to endothelial cells, thereby regulating the endothelial function. To test such hypothesis, soluble DLK1 encompassing DLK1 extracellular domain (DLK1-EC) was generated and validated by its inhibitory function in adipogenesis assay. Recombinant DLK1-EC exhibited the preferential binding capability toward endothelial cells and stimulated the microvessels sprouting in aorta rings. Above all, implantation of DLK1-EC dose-dependently elicited the cornea neovascularization in rats. By using various angiogenesis assays, it was delineated that DLK1-EC stimulated the angiogenesis by promoting the proliferation, motility and tube formation of endothelial cells. By immunoblot and luciferase analysis, it was elucidated that DLK1-EC enhanced the expression and activities of Notch1/Akt/eNOS/Hes-1 signaling in dose- and time-dependent manners. Pharmaceutical blockage of Notch signaling using γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT abrogated the DLK1-EC-induced endothelial migration and Hes-1-driven luciferase activities. Furthermore, Notch1 inactivation by neutralizing antibodies or RNA interference reversed the DLK1-EC-induced angiogenesis. Conclusions The present study unveils the pro-angiogenic function and mechanism of soluble DLK1 through activation of Notch1 signaling in endothelial cells.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9596-7
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Prion protein is essential for diabetic retinopathy-associated
           neovascularization
    • Abstract: Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a major complication of diabetes caused by vascular damage and pathological proliferation of retinal vessels, often progresses to vision loss. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling plays a pivotal role in the development of DR, but the exact underlying molecular mechanisms remain ill-defined. Cellular prion protein (PrPc) is a surface protein expressed by vascular endothelial cells, and the increased expression of PrPc is associated with physiological and pathological vascularization. Nevertheless, a role for PrPc in the development of DR has not been appreciated. Here, we addressed this question. We found that the development of streptozocin (STZ)-induced DR, but not the STZ-induced hyperglycemia/diabetes itself, was significantly attenuated in PrPc-KO mice, compared to control wildtype (WT) mice, evident by measurement of retinal vascular leakage, retinal neovascularization, a retinopathy score and visual acuity assessment. Moreover, the attenuation of DR severity seemingly resulted from attenuation of retinal neovascularization via VEGF/ras/rac signaling. Together, our study suggests a previously unappreciated role for PrPc in the development of DR.
      PubDate: 2018-05-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9619-4
       
  • Endothelial loss of Fzd5 stimulates PKC/Ets1-mediated transcription of
           Angpt2 and Flt1
    • Authors: Maarten M. Brandt; Christian G. M. van Dijk; Ihsan Chrifi; Heleen M. Kool; Petra E. Bürgisser; Laura Louzao-Martinez; Jiayi Pei; Robbert J. Rottier; Marianne C. Verhaar; Dirk J. Duncker; Caroline Cheng
      Abstract: Aims Formation of a functional vascular system is essential and its formation is a highly regulated process initiated during embryogenesis, which continues to play important roles throughout life in both health and disease. In previous studies, Fzd5 was shown to be critically involved in this process and here we investigated the molecular mechanism by which endothelial loss of this receptor attenuates angiogenesis. Methods and results Using short interference RNA-mediated loss-of-function assays, the function and mechanism of signaling via Fzd5 was studied in human endothelial cells (ECs). Our findings indicate that Fzd5 signaling promotes neovessel formation in vitro in a collagen matrix-based 3D co-culture of primary vascular cells. Silencing of Fzd5 reduced EC proliferation, as a result of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, and decreased cell migration. Furthermore, Fzd5 knockdown resulted in enhanced expression of the factors Angpt2 and Flt1, which are mainly known for their destabilizing effects on the vasculature. In Fzd5-silenced ECs, Angpt2 and Flt1 upregulation was induced by enhanced PKC signaling, without the involvement of canonical Wnt signaling, non-canonical Wnt/Ca2+-mediated activation of NFAT, and non-canonical Wnt/PCP-mediated activation of JNK. We demonstrated that PKC-induced transcription of Angpt2 and Flt1 involved the transcription factor Ets1. Conclusions The current study demonstrates a pro-angiogenic role of Fzd5, which was shown to be involved in endothelial tubule formation, cell cycle progression and migration, and partly does so by repression of PKC/Ets1-mediated transcription of Flt1 and Angpt2.
      PubDate: 2018-05-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9625-6
       
  • Preclinical impact of high dose intermittent antiangiogenic tyrosine
           kinase inhibitor pazopanib in intrinsically resistant tumor models
    • Authors: Elaine Reguera-Nuñez; Shan Man; Ping Xu; Robert S. Kerbel
      Abstract: Antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) target vascular endothelial growth factor receptors and other receptor tyrosine kinases. As a result of toxicity, the clinical failures or the modest benefits associated with antiangiogenic TKI therapy may be related in some cases to suboptimal drug dosing and scheduling, thereby facilitating resistance. Most antiangiogenic TKIs, including pazopanib, are administered on a continuous daily basis. Here, instead, we evaluated the impact of increasing the dose and administering the drug intermittently. The rationale is that using such protocols, antitumor efficacy could be enhanced by direct tumor cell targeting effects in addition to inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. To test this, we employed two human tumor xenograft models, both of which manifest intrinsic resistance to pazopanib when it is administered continuously: the VHL-wildtype SN12-PM6-1 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and the metastatic MDA-MB-231/LM2-4 variant breast cancer cell line, when treated as distant metastases. We evaluated four different doses and schedules of pazopanib in the context of primary tumors and advanced metastatic disease, in both models. The RCC model was not converted to drug sensitivity using the intermittent protocol. Using these protocols did not enhance the efficacy when treating primary LM2-4 tumors. However, one of the high-dose intermittent pazopanib protocols increased median survival when treating advanced metastatic disease. In conclusion, these results overall suggest that primary tumors showing sensitivity to continuous pazopanib treatment may predict response to this drug when given at high doses intermittently in the context of advanced metastatic disease, that are otherwise resistant to the conventional protocol.
      PubDate: 2018-05-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9623-8
       
  • A xenograft model for venous malformation
    • Authors: Jillian Goines; Xian Li; Yuqi Cai; Paula Mobberley-Schuman; Megan Metcalf; Steven J. Fishman; Denise M. Adams; Adrienne M. Hammill; Elisa Boscolo
      Abstract: Vascular malformations are defects caused by the abnormal growth of the vasculature. Among them, venous malformation (VM) is an anomaly characterized by slow-flow vascular lesions with abnormally shaped veins, typically in sponge-like configuration. VMs can expand over years causing disfigurement, obstruction of vital structures, thrombosis, bleeding, and pain. Treatments have been very limited and primarily based on supportive care, compression garments, sclerotherapy, and/or surgical resection. Sirolimus treatment has recently shown efficacy in some patients with complicated vascular anomalies, including VMs. Activating somatic TIE2 gene mutations have been identified in up to 60% of VMs and PIK3CA mutations have been found in another 25%. Here, we report a xenograft model of VM that reflects the patients’ mutation heterogeneity. First, we established a protocol to isolate and expand in culture endothelial cells (VM–EC) from VM tissue or VM blood of nine patients. In these cells, we identified somatic mutations of TIE2, PIK3CA, or a combination of both. Both TIE2 and PIK3CA mutations induced constitutive AKT activation, while TIE2 mutations also showed high MAPK–ERK signaling. Finally, VM–EC implanted into immune-deficient mice generated lesions with ectatic blood-filled channels with scarce smooth muscle cell coverage, similar to patients’ VM. This VM xenograft model could be instrumental to test the therapeutic efficacy of Sirolimus in the presence of the different TIE2 or PIK3CA mutations or to test for efficacy of additional compounds in targeting the specific mutated protein(s), thus enabling development of personalized treatment options for VM patients.
      PubDate: 2018-05-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9624-7
       
  • Improved recovery from limb ischaemia by delivery of an affinity-isolated
           heparan sulphate
    • Authors: Selina Poon; Xiaohua Lu; Raymond A. A. Smith; Pei Ho; Kishore Bhakoo; Victor Nurcombe; Simon M. Cool
      Abstract: Peripheral arterial disease is a major cause of limb loss and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. As most standard-of-care therapies yield only unsatisfactory outcomes, more options are needed. Recent cell- and molecular-based therapies that have aimed to modulate vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (VEGF165) levels have not yet been approved for clinical use due to their uncertain side effects. We have previously reported a heparan sulphate (termed HS7) tuned to avidly bind VEGF165. Here, we investigated the ability of HS7 to promote vascular recovery in a murine hindlimb vascular ischaemia model. HS7 stabilised VEGF165 against thermal and enzyme degradation in vitro, and isolated VEGF165 from serum via affinity-chromatography. C57BL6 mice subjected to unilateral hindlimb ischaemia injury received daily intramuscular injections of respective treatments (n = 8) and were assessed over 3 weeks by laser Doppler perfusion, magnetic resonance angiography, histology and the regain of function. Mice receiving HS7 showed improved blood reperfusion in the footpad by day 7. In addition, they recovered hindlimb blood volume two- to fourfold faster compared to the saline group; the greatest rate of recovery was observed in the first week. Notably, 17% of HS7-treated animals recovered full hindlimb function by day 7, a number that grew to 58% and 100% by days 14 and 21, respectively. This was in contrast to only 38% in the control animals. These results highlight the potential of purified glycosaminoglycan fractions for clinical use following vascular insult, and confirm the importance of harnessing the activity of endogenous pro-healing factors generated at injury sites.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9622-9
       
  • Consensus guidelines for the use and interpretation of angiogenesis assays
    • Authors: Patrycja Nowak-Sliwinska; Kari Alitalo; Elizabeth Allen; Andrey Anisimov; Alfred C. Aplin; Robert Auerbach; Hellmut G. Augustin; David O. Bates; Judy R. van Beijnum; R. Hugh F. Bender; Gabriele Bergers; Andreas Bikfalvi; Joyce Bischoff; Barbara C. Böck; Peter C. Brooks; Federico Bussolino; Bertan Cakir; Peter Carmeliet; Daniel Castranova; Anca M. Cimpean; Ondine Cleaver; George Coukos; George E. Davis; Michele De Palma; Anna Dimberg; Ruud P. M. Dings; Valentin Djonov; Andrew C. Dudley; Neil P. Dufton; Sarah-Maria Fendt; Napoleone Ferrara; Marcus Fruttiger; Dai Fukumura; Bart Ghesquière; Yan Gong; Robert J. Griffin; Adrian L. Harris; Christopher C. W. Hughes; Nan W. Hultgren; M. Luisa Iruela-Arispe; Melita Irving; Rakesh K. Jain; Raghu Kalluri; Joanna Kalucka; Robert S. Kerbel; Jan Kitajewski; Ingeborg Klaassen; Hynda K. Kleinmann; Pieter Koolwijk; Elisabeth Kuczynski; Brenda R. Kwak; Koen Marien; Juan M. Melero-Martin; Lance L. Munn; Roberto F. Nicosia; Agnes Noel; Jussi Nurro; Anna-Karin Olsson; Tatiana V. Petrova; Kristian Pietras; Roberto Pili; Jeffrey W. Pollard; Mark J. Post; Paul H. A. Quax; Gabriel A. Rabinovich; Marius Raica; Anna M. Randi; Domenico Ribatti; Curzio Ruegg; Reinier O. Schlingemann; Stefan Schulte-Merker; Lois E. H. Smith; Jonathan W. Song; Steven A. Stacker; Jimmy Stalin; Amber N. Stratman; Maureen Van de Velde; Victor W. M. van Hinsbergh; Peter B. Vermeulen; Johannes Waltenberger; Brant M. Weinstein; Hong Xin; Bahar Yetkin-Arik; Seppo Yla-Herttuala; Mervin C. Yoder; Arjan W. Griffioen
      Abstract: The formation of new blood vessels, or angiogenesis, is a complex process that plays important roles in growth and development, tissue and organ regeneration, as well as numerous pathological conditions. Angiogenesis undergoes multiple discrete steps that can be individually evaluated and quantified by a large number of bioassays. These independent assessments hold advantages but also have limitations. This article describes in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro bioassays that are available for the evaluation of angiogenesis and highlights critical aspects that are relevant for their execution and proper interpretation. As such, this collaborative work is the first edition of consensus guidelines on angiogenesis bioassays to serve for current and future reference.
      PubDate: 2018-05-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9613-x
       
  • Targeting glioblastoma-derived pericytes improves chemotherapeutic outcome
    • Authors: Daniel A. P. Guerra; Ana E. Paiva; Isadora F. G. Sena; Patrick O. Azevedo; Walison N. Silva; Akiva Mintz; Alexander Birbrair
      Abstract: Glioblastoma is the most common malignant brain cancer in adults, with poor prognosis. The blood–brain barrier limits the arrival of several promising anti-glioblastoma drugs, and restricts the design of efficient therapies. Recently, by using state-of-the-art technologies, including thymidine kinase targeting system in combination with glioblastoma xenograft mouse models, it was revealed that targeting glioblastoma-derived pericytes improves chemotherapy efficiency. Strikingly, ibrutinib treatment enhances chemotherapeutic effectiveness, by targeting pericytes, improving blood–brain barrier permeability, and prolonging survival. This study identifies glioblastoma-derived pericyte as a novel target in the brain tumor microenvironment during carcinogenesis. Here, we summarize and evaluate recent advances in the understanding of pericyte’s role in the glioblastoma microenvironment.
      PubDate: 2018-05-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9621-x
       
  • Correction to: Soluble delta-like 1 homolog (DLK1) stimulates angiogenesis
           through Notch1/Akt/eNOS signaling in endothelial cells
    • Authors: Chao-Cheng Huang; Hsiao-Mei Kuo; Pei-Chang Wu; Shih-Hsuan Cheng; Tzu-Ting Chang; Yi-Chen Chang; Mei-Lang Kung; Deng-Chyang Wu; Jiin-Haur Chuang; Ming-Hong Tai
      Abstract: In the original publication of the article, there is an error in one of the citations in the Discussion section.
      PubDate: 2018-05-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9615-8
       
  • eNOS expression and NO release during hypoxia is inhibited by miR-200b in
           human endothelial cells
    • Authors: Anna Janaszak-Jasiecka; Anna Siekierzycka; Sylwia Bartoszewska; Marcin Serocki; Lawrence W. Dobrucki; James F. Collawn; Leszek Kalinowski; Rafal Bartoszewski
      Abstract: The nitric oxide (NO) secreted by vascular endothelium is required for the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. Diminished release of NO generated by endothelial NO synthase contributes to endothelial dysfunction. Hypoxia and ischemia reduce endothelial eNOS expression via posttranscriptional mechanisms that result in NOS3 transcript destabilization. Here, we examine whether microRNAs contribute to this mechanism. We followed the kinetics of hypoxia-induced changes in NOS3 mRNA and eNOS protein levels in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Utilizing in silico predictive protocols to identify potential miRNAs that regulate eNOS expression, we identified miR-200b as a candidate. We established the functional miR-200b target sequence within the NOS3 3′UTR, and demonstrated that manipulation of the miRNA levels during hypoxia using miR-200b mimics and antagomirs regulates eNOS levels, and established that miR-200b physiologically limits eNOS expression during hypoxia. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the specific ablation of the hypoxic induction of miR-200b in HUVECs restored eNOS-driven hypoxic NO release to the normoxic levels. To determine whether miR-200b might be the only miRNA that had this effect, we utilized Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) to follow hypoxia-induced changes in the miRNA levels in HUVECS and found 83 novel hypoxamiRs, with two candidate miRNAs besides miR-200b that could potentially influence eNOS levels. Taken together, the data establish miR-200b-eNOS regulation as a first hypoxamiR-based mechanism that limits NO bioavailability during hypoxia in endothelial cells, and show that hypoxamiRs could become useful therapeutic targets for cardiovascular diseases and other hypoxic-related diseases including various types of cancer.
      PubDate: 2018-05-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9620-y
       
  • Gene therapy knockdown of VEGFR2 in retinal endothelial cells to treat
           retinopathy
    • Authors: Aaron B. Simmons; Colin A. Bretz; Haibo Wang; Eric Kunz; Kassem Hajj; Carson Kennedy; Zhihong Yang; Thipparat Suwanmanee; Tal Kafri; M. Elizabeth Hartnett
      Abstract: Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) raises concerns for premature infants because VEGF is essential for retinovascular development as well as neuronal and glial health. This study tested the hypothesis that endothelial cell-specific knockdown of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), or downstream STAT3, would inhibit VEGF-induced retinopathy without delaying physiologic retinal vascular development. We developed an endothelial cell-specific lentiviral vector that delivered shRNAs to VEGFR2 or STAT3 and a green fluorescent protein reporter under control of the VE-cadherin promoter. The specificity and efficacy of the lentiviral vector-driven shRNAs were validated in vitro and in vivo. In the rat oxygen-induced retinopathy model highly representative of human ROP, the effects of endothelial cell knockdown of VEGFR2 or STAT3 were determined on intravitreal neovascularization (IVNV), physiologic retinal vascular development [assessed as area of peripheral avascular/total retina (AVA)], retinal structure, and retinal function. Targeted knockdown of VEGFR2 or STAT3 specifically in retinal endothelial cells by subretinal injection of lentiviral vectors into postnatal day 8 rat pup eyes efficiently inhibited IVNV, and knockdown of VEGFR2 also reduced AVA and increased retinal thickness without altering retinal function. Taken together, our results support specific knockdown of VEGFR2 in retinal endothelial cells as a novel therapeutic method to treat retinopathy.
      PubDate: 2018-05-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9618-5
       
  • Assessment of the direct effects of DDAH I on tumour angiogenesis in vivo
    • Authors: Efthymia Papaevangelou; Jessica K. R. Boult; Guy S. Whitley; Simon P. Robinson; Franklyn A. Howe
      Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO) has been strongly implicated in glioma progression and angiogenesis. The endogenous inhibitors of NO synthesis, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and N-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA), are metabolized by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH), and hence, DDAH is an intracellular factor that regulates NO. However, DDAH may also have an NO-independent action. We aimed to investigate whether DDAH I has any direct role in tumour vascular development and growth independent of its NO-mediated effects, in order to establish the future potential of DDAH inhibition as an anti-angiogenic treatment strategy. A clone of rat C6 glioma cells deficient in NO production expressing a pTet Off regulatable element was identified and engineered to overexpress DDAH I in the absence of doxycycline. Xenografts derived from these cells were propagated in the presence or absence of doxycycline and susceptibility magnetic resonance imaging used to assess functional vasculature in vivo. Pathological correlates of tumour vascular density, maturation and function were also sought. In the absence of doxycycline, tumours exhibited high DDAH I expression and activity, which was suppressed in its presence. However, overexpression of DDAH I had no measurable effect on tumour growth, vessel density, function or maturation. These data suggest that in C6 gliomas DDAH has no NO-independent effects on tumour growth and angiogenesis, and that the therapeutic potential of targeting DDAH in gliomas should only be considered in the context of NO regulation.
      PubDate: 2018-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9617-6
       
  • Platelet function is disturbed by the angiogenesis inhibitors sunitinib
           and sorafenib, but unaffected by bevacizumab
    • Authors: Maudy Walraven; Marjolein Y. V. Homs; Astrid A. M. van der Veldt; Henk Dekker; Jose Koldenhof; Richard Honeywell; Arjan Barendrecht; Silvie A. E. Sebastian; Naomi Parr; Arnold C. Koekman; Emile E. Voest; Mark Roest; Suzanne J. A. Korporaal; Henk M. W. Verheul
      Abstract: Introduction At the clinical introduction of antiangiogenic agents as anticancer agents, no major toxicities were expected as merely just endothelial cells (ECs) in tumors would be affected. However, several (serious) toxicities became apparent, of which underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We investigated to what extent sunitinib (multitargeted antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)), sorafenib (TKI) and bevacizumab [specific antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)] may impair platelet function, which might explain treatment-related bleedings. Materials and methods In vitro, the influence of sunitinib, sorafenib, and bevacizumab on platelet aggregation, P-selectin expression and fibrinogen binding, platelet–EC interaction, and tyrosine phosphorylation of c-Src was studied by optical aggregation, flow cytometry, real-time perfusion, and western blotting. Ex vivo, platelet aggregation was analyzed in 25 patients upon sunitinib or bevacizumab treatment. Concentrations of sunitinib, VEGF, and platelet and EC activation markers were measured by LC–MS/MS and ELISA. Results In vitro, sunitinib and sorafenib significantly inhibited platelet aggregation (20 μM sunitinib: 71.3%, p < 0.001; 25 μM sorafenib: 55.8%, p = 0.042). Sorafenib and sunitinib significantly inhibited P-selectin expression on platelets. Exposure to both TKIs resulted in a reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of c-Src. Ex vivo, within 24 h sunitinib impaired platelet aggregation (83.0%, p = 0.001, N = 8). Plasma concentrations of sunitinib, VEGF, and platelet/EC activation markers were not correlated with disturbed aggregation. In contrast, bevacizumab only significantly impaired platelet aggregation in vitro at high concentrations, but not ex vivo. Conclusion Sunitinib significantly inhibits platelet aggregation in patients already after 24 h of first administration, whereas bevacizumab had no effect on aggregation. These findings may explain the clinically observed bleedings during treatment with antiangiogenic TKIs.
      PubDate: 2018-03-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9598-5
       
  • Serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 as a novel transcriptional target
           of bone morphogenetic protein-ALK1 receptor signaling in vascular
           endothelial cells
    • Authors: Mutsumi Araki; Takashi Hisamitsu; Yumi Kinugasa-Katayama; Toru Tanaka; Yukihiro Harada; Shu Nakao; Sanshiro Hanada; Shuhei Ishii; Masahide Fujita; Teruhisa Kawamura; Yoshihiko Saito; Koichi Nishiyama; Yusuke Watanabe; Osamu Nakagawa
      Abstract: Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9)/BMP10-ALK1 receptor signaling is essential for endothelial differentiation and vascular morphogenesis. Mutations in ALK1/ACVRL1 and other signal-related genes are implicated in human vascular diseases, and the Alk1/Acvrl1 deletion in mice causes severe impairment of vascular formation and embryonic lethality. In the microarray screen to search for novel downstream genes of ALK1 signaling, we found that the mRNA and protein expression of serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) was rapidly up-regulated by the BMP9 stimulation of cultured human endothelial cells. The increase in SGK1 mRNA was completely blocked by the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D and significantly suppressed by the siRNA treatment against the co-SMAD transcription factor SMAD4. Upon the BMP9 treatment of endothelial cells, phosphorylated SMAD1/5/9 bound to a consensus site upstream of the SGK1 gene, which was necessary for BMP9-dependent increment of the luciferase reporter activity driven by the SGK1 proximal enhancer. The Sgk1 mRNA expression in mouse embryos was enriched in vascular endothelial cells at embryonic day 9.0–9.5, at which Sgk1 null mice showed embryonic lethality due to abnormal vascular formation, and its mRNA as well as protein expression was clearly reduced in Alk1/Acvrl1 null embryos. These results indicate that SGK1 is a novel target gene of BMP9/BMP10-ALK1 signaling in endothelial cells and further suggest a possibility that down-regulation of the Sgk1 expression may be involved in the mechanisms of vascular defects by the ALK1 signaling deficiency.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9605-x
       
  • Vascular deficiency of Smad4 causes arteriovenous malformations: a mouse
           model of Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia
    • Authors: Angela M. Crist; Amanda R. Lee; Nehal R. Patel; Dawn E. Westhoff; Stryder M. Meadows
      Abstract: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant vascular disorder that leads to abnormal connections between arteries and veins termed arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Mutations in TGFβ pathway members ALK1, ENG and SMAD4 lead to HHT. However, a Smad4 mouse model of HHT does not currently exist. We aimed to create and characterize a Smad4 endothelial cell (EC)-specific, inducible knockout mouse (Smad4f/f;Cdh5-CreERT2) that could be used to study AVM development in HHT. We found that postnatal ablation of Smad4 caused various vascular defects, including the formation of distinct AVMs in the neonate retina. Our analyses demonstrated that increased EC proliferation and size, altered mural cell coverage and distorted artery–vein gene expression are associated with Smad4 deficiency in the vasculature. Furthermore, we show that depletion of Smad4 leads to decreased Vegfr2 expression, and concurrent loss of endothelial Smad4 and Vegfr2 in vivo leads to AVM enlargement. Our work provides a new model in which to study HHT-associated phenotypes and links the TGFβ and VEGF signaling pathways in AVM pathogenesis.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9602-0
       
  • Somatic NRAS mutation in patient with generalized lymphatic anomaly
    • Authors: Eugenia Manevitz-Mendelson; Gil S. Leichner; Ortal Barel; Inbal Davidi-Avrahami; Limor Ziv-Strasser; Eran Eyal; Itai Pessach; Uri Rimon; Aviv Barzilai; Abraham Hirshberg; Keren Chechekes; Ninette Amariglio; Gideon Rechavi; Karina Yaniv; Shoshana Greenberger
      Abstract: Generalized lymphatic anomaly (GLA or lymphangiomatosis) is a rare disease characterized by a diffuse proliferation of lymphatic vessels in skin and internal organs. It often leads to progressive respiratory failure and death, but its etiology is unknown. Here, we isolated lymphangiomatosis endothelial cells from GLA tissue. These cells were characterized by high proliferation and survival rates, but displayed impaired capacities for migration and tube formation. We employed whole exome sequencing to search for disease-causing genes and identified a somatic mutation in NRAS. We used mouse and zebrafish model systems to initially evaluate the role of this mutation in the development of the lymphatic system, and we studied the effect of drugs blocking the downstream effectors, mTOR and ERK, on this disease.
      PubDate: 2018-02-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9595-8
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 54.162.224.176
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-