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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2224 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
4 open     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access  
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Científica Estudiantil     Open Access  
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Herediana     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access  
Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)     Open Access  
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta Medica International     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acupuncture and Natural Medicine     Open Access  
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / Health Sciences Journal of Adıyaman University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Advances in Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access  
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Skeletal Muscle Function Assessment     Open Access  
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Thoracic and Critical Care Medicine     Open Access  
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
AJSP: Reviews & Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ALERTA : Revista Científica del Instituto Nacional de Salud     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Althea Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Anatomica Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ankara Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası     Open Access  
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Clinical Hypertension     Open Access  
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Annals of Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives Medical Review Journal / Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi     Open Access  
Archives of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology     Open Access  
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access  
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASHA Leader     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.177
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 3  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-7209 - ISSN (Online) 0969-6970
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2574 journals]
  • Angiotropism, pericytic mimicry and extravascular migratory metastasis: an
           embryogenesis-derived program of tumor spread
    • Abstract: Intravascular dissemination of tumor cells is the accepted mechanism of cancer metastasis. However, the phenomenon of angiotropism, pericyte mimicry (PM), and extravascular migratory metastasis (EVMM) has questioned the concept that tumor cells metastasize exclusively via circulation within vascular channels. This new paradigm of cancer spread and metastasis suggests that metastatic cells employ embryonic mechanisms for attachment to the abluminal surfaces of blood vessels (angiotropism) and spread via continuous migration, competing with and replacing pericytes, i.e., pericyte mimicry (PM). This is an entirely extravascular phenomenon (i.e., extravascular migratory metastasis or EVMM) without entry (intravasation) into vascular channels. PM and EVMM have mainly been studied in melanoma but also occur in other cancer types. PM and EVMM appear to be a reversion to an embryogenesis-derived program. There are many analogies between embryogenesis and cancer progression, including the important role of laminins, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, and the re-activation of embryonic signals by cancer cells. Furthermore, there is no circulation of blood during the first trimester of embryogenesis, despite the fact that there is extensive migration of cells to distant sites and formation of organs and tissues during this period. Embryonic migration therefore is a continuous extravascular migration as are PM and EVMM, supporting the concept that these embryonic migratory events appear to recur abnormally during the metastatic process. Finally, the perivascular location of tumor cells intrinsically links PM to vascular co-option. Taken together, these two new paradigms may greatly influence the development of new effective therapeutics for metastasis. In particular, targeting embryonic factors linked to migration that are detected during cancer metastasis may be particularly relevant to PM/EVMM.
      PubDate: 2019-11-12
  • Reconciling the distinct roles of angiogenic/anti-angiogenic factors in
           the placenta and maternal circulation of normal and pathological
    • Abstract: A branched vascular network is crucial to placental development and is dependent on factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor (PlGF), angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and soluble endoglin (sEng) to regulate blood vessel growth. Imbalances in these factors can lead to aberrant placental vascular development. Throughout pregnancy, these factors are also released into the maternal circulation to aid in adapting the maternal cardiovascular system to pregnancy. Increased secretion of anti-angiogenic factors can lead to the development of an anti-angiogenic state in the mother and contribute to the development of pregnancy pathologies such as pre-eclampsia and foetal growth restriction (FGR). Thus, what are commonly referred to as ‘angiogenic factors’ have distinct functions in the maternal and placental circulations making this a misnomer. Indeed, technical issues in this field such as assay methodology and lack of data considering different placental cell types mean that the physiological roles of these factors in the maternal and placental circulations are frequently muddled in the literature. This review aims to (1) unpick the distinct roles of factors that influence placental vascular development and separate these from the roles of the same factors within the maternal circulation in normal pregnancy and (2) critically assess how imbalances may contribute to the distinct pathophysiological mechanisms underlying pregnancy disorders. Together, this critical assessment of the field endeavours to improve our ability to accurately use these factors as predictive/diagnostic biomarkers in the future.
      PubDate: 2019-11-09
  • Vascular co-option in brain metastasis
    • Abstract: Vascular co-option by brain metastasis-initiating cells has been demonstrated as a critical step in organ colonization. The physical interaction between the cancer cell and the endothelial cell is mediated by integrins and L1CAM and could be involved in aggressive growth but also latency and immune evasion. The key involvement of vascular co-option in brain metastasis has created an emerging field that aims to identify critical targets as well as effective inhibitors with the goal of preventing brain metastases.
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
  • 13th International HHT Scientific Conference
    • PubDate: 2019-11-06
  • Vessel co-option in glioblastoma: emerging insights and opportunities
    • Abstract: Vessel co-option is the movement of cancer cells towards and along the pre-existing vasculature and is an alternative to angiogenesis to gain access to nutrients. Vessel co-option has been shown as a strategy employed by some glioblastoma (GBM) cells to invade further into the brain, leading to one of the greatest challenges in treating GBM. In GBM, vessel co-option may be an intrinsic feature or an acquired mechanism of resistance to anti-angiogenic treatment. Here, we describe the histological features and the dynamics visualized through intravital microscopy of vessel co-option in GBM, as well as the molecular players discovered until now. We also highlight key unanswered questions, as answering these is critical to improve understanding of GBM progression and for developing more effective approaches for GBM treatment.
      PubDate: 2019-11-02
  • Oxygen sensing decoded: a Nobel concept in biology
    • Abstract: Oxygen is essential to most organisms as it is a necessity for aerobic metabolism and energy production. Too much or too little oxygen can be deadly, such that mechanisms for fast and titrated response to changing oxygen levels are crucial. These mechanisms have evolved from the studies of Gregg L. Semenza, William G. Kaelin and Peter J. Ratcliffe. It is through the work of their three laboratories, performed in the 1990s, that the cellular oxygen sensing mechanisms have been decoded. Their discoveries have had major impact for innovation in medicine, especially in the field of angiogenesis research, where oxygen sensing and its consequences have led to enhanced insight in vascular development and strategies for combating angiogenic diseases. On October 7, the Nobel Assembly in Stockholm announced at the Karolinska Institute that the Nobel Prize for Medicine 2019 is jointly awarded to these three scientists for their seminal discoveries on how cells sense and respond to oxygen.
      PubDate: 2019-10-31
  • Cancer-associated fibroblast-derived WNT2 increases tumor angiogenesis in
           colon cancer
    • Abstract: WNT2 acts as a pro-angiogenic factor in placental vascularization and increases angiogenesis in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (ECs) and other ECs. Increased WNT2 expression is detectable in many carcinomas and participates in tumor progression. In human colorectal cancer (CRC), WNT2 is selectively elevated in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), leading to increased invasion and metastasis. However, if there is a role for WNT2 in colon cancer, angiogenesis was not addressed so far. We demonstrate that WNT2 enhances EC migration/invasion, while it induces canonical WNT signaling in a small subset of cells. Knockdown of WNT2 in CAFs significantly reduced angiogenesis in a physiologically relevant assay, which allows precise assessment of key angiogenic properties. In line with these results, expression of WNT2 in otherwise WNT2-devoid skin fibroblasts led to increased angiogenesis. In CRC xenografts, WNT2 overexpression resulted in enhanced vessel density and tumor volume. Moreover, WNT2 expression correlates with vessel markers in human CRC. Secretome profiling of CAFs by mass spectrometry and cytokine arrays revealed that proteins associated with pro-angiogenic functions are elevated by WNT2. These included extracellular matrix molecules, ANG-2, IL-6, G-CSF, and PGF. The latter three increased angiogenesis. Thus, stromal-derived WNT2 elevates angiogenesis in CRC by shifting the balance towards pro-angiogenic signals.
      PubDate: 2019-10-30
  • Pathological features of vessel co-option versus sprouting angiogenesis
    • Abstract: Cancer cells can use existing blood vessels to acquire a vasculature. This process is termed ‘vessel co-option’. Vessel co-option is an alternative to the growth of new blood vessels, or angiogenesis, and is adopted by a wide range of human tumour types growing within numerous tissues. A complementary aspect of this process is extravascular migratory tumour spread using the co-opted blood vessels as a trail. Vessel co-opting tumours can be discriminated from angiogenic tumours by specific morphological features. These features give rise to distinct histopathological growth patterns that reflect the interaction of cancer cells with the microenvironment of the organ in which they thrive. We will discuss the histopathological growth patterns of vessel co-option in the brain, the liver and the lungs. The review will also highlight evidence for the potential clinical value of the histopathological growth patterns of cancer. Vessel co-option can affect patient outcomes and resistance to cancer treatment. Insight into the biological drivers of this process of tumour vascularization will yield novel therapeutic strategies.
      PubDate: 2019-10-26
  • Role of melatonin in controlling angiogenesis under physiological and
           pathological conditions
    • Abstract: Angiogenesis depends on proangiogenic and anti-angiogenic molecules that regulate endothelial cell proliferation and migration. Well-regulated angiogenesis plays a pivotal role in many physiological conditions such as reproduction and embryonic development, while abnormal angiogenesis is also the basis of a variety of pathological processes including tumor metastasis and atherosclerotic plaque formation. Melatonin has a variety of biological effects, including inhibition of tumor metastasis, stabilizing atherosclerotic plaques, and the regulation of seasonal reproductive rhythms, etc. During certain pathophysiological processes, melatonin exerts different functions depending on its ability to regulate angiogenesis. This review reveals that melatonin has different effects on neovascularization under different physiological and pathological conditions. In tumors, in age-related ocular diseases, and in a hypoxic environment, melatonin inhibits neovascularization in tissues, while in gastric ulcers, skin lesions, and some physiologic processes, it promotes angiogenesis. We also speculate that melatonin may inhibit the neovascularization in atherosclerotic plaques, thus preventing the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. Most studies suggest that these effects are related to the role of melatonin in regulating of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors, but the specific regulatory mechanisms remain disparate, which may lead to the differential effects of melatonin on angiogenesis under different conditions. In this review, we thus summarize some seemingly contradictory mechanisms by which melatonin controls angiogenesis under different pathological and physiological conditions, and urge that the regulatory mechanisms be further studied.
      PubDate: 2019-10-24
  • The tumor vasculature an attractive CAR T cell target in solid tumors
    • Abstract: T cells armed with a chimeric antigen receptor, CAR T cells, have shown extraordinary activity against certain B lymphocyte malignancies, when targeted towards the CD19 B cell surface marker. These results have led to the regulatory approval of two CAR T cell approaches. Translation of this result to the solid tumor setting has been problematic until now. A number of differences between liquid and solid tumors are likely to cause this discrepancy. The main ones of these are undoubtedly the uncomplicated availability of the target cell within the blood compartment and the abundant expression of the target molecule on the cancerous cells in the case of hematological malignancies. Targets expressed by solid tumor cells are hard to engage due to the non-adhesive and abnormal vasculature, while conditions in the tumor microenvironment can be extremely immunosuppressive. Targets in the tumor vasculature are readily reachable by CAR T cells and reside outside the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. It is therefore hypothesized that targeting CAR T cells towards the tumor vasculature of solid tumors may share the excellent effects of CAR T cell therapy with that against hematological malignancies. A few reports have shown promising results. Suggestions are provided for further improvement.
      PubDate: 2019-10-18
  • Models and molecular mechanisms of blood vessel co-option by cancer cells
    • Abstract: Cancer cells have diverse mechanisms for utilizing the vasculature; they can initiate the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting ones (sprouting angiogenesis) or they can form cohesive interactions with the abluminal surface of preexisting vasculature in the absence of sprouting (co-option). The later process has received renewed attention due to the suggested role of blood vessel co-option in resistance to antiangiogenic therapies and the reported perivascular positioning and migratory patterns of cancer cells during tumor dormancy and invasion, respectively. However, only a few molecular mechanisms have been identified that contribute to the process of co-option and there has not been a formal survey of cell lines and laboratory models that can be used to study co-option in different organ microenvironments; thus, we have carried out a comprehensive literature review on this topic and have identified cell lines and described the laboratory models that are used to study blood vessel co-option in cancer. Put into practice, these models may help to shed new light on the molecular mechanisms that drive blood vessel co-option during tumor dormancy, invasion, and responses to different therapies.
      PubDate: 2019-10-18
  • Highlights of the 13th International Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia
           Scientific conference
    • PubDate: 2019-10-12
  • The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPRJ/DEP-1 contributes to the regulation
           of the Notch-signaling pathway and sprouting angiogenesis
    • Abstract: The Dll4-Notch-signaling pathway regulates capillary sprouting via the specification of endothelial tip cells. While VEGF is a potent inducer of Dll4 expression, the intracellular mediators that stimulate its expression remain poorly defined. The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPRJ/DEP-1 is required for angiogenesis in normal or pathological contexts through its modulation of VEGF signaling. Here, we show that in DEP-1 KO mice, retinas at post-natal day 5 show enlarged blood vessels, as well as an increased number of tip cells and vessel branching points at the migrating front of the vascular plexus. Consistent with these observations, the proliferation of endothelial cells is increased in the retinas of DEP-1 KO mice, as revealed by phospho-histone H3 staining, and increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in HUVECs transfected with DEP-1 siRNA. The expression of Dll4 was decreased in retinas of DEP-1 KO mice and was associated with decreased Notch activation. Mechanistically, reduced Dll4 expression in the absence of DEP-1 was correlated with the inhibition of the Src/Akt/β-Catenin-signaling pathway in HUVECs. Conversely, overexpression of WT DEP-1 in cultured endothelial cells, but not of mutants unable to activate Src-dependent signaling, promoted Dll4 expression. Inhibition of Src, Akt, and β-catenin transcriptional activity, leading to the inhibition of Dll4 expression, further suggested that their activation through a DEP-1-dependent pathway was required to promote Dll4 expression in VEGF-stimulated endothelial cells. Altogether, these data demonstrate that DEP-1, via Akt and β-catenin, is a significant promoter of the VEGF-induced Dll4-Notch pathway, and can contribute to the regulation of the tip and stalk cell phenotypes of endothelial cells.
      PubDate: 2019-10-09
  • Stabilization of myeloid-derived HIFs promotes vascular regeneration in
           retinal ischemia
    • Abstract: The retinal vasculature is tightly organized in a structure that provides for the high metabolic demand of neurons while minimizing interference with incident light. The adverse impact of retinal vascular insufficiency is mitigated by adaptive vascular regeneration but exacerbated by pathological neovascularization. Aberrant growth of neovessels in the retina is responsible for impairment of sight in common blinding disorders including retinopathy of prematurity, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. Myeloid cells are key players in this process, with diverse roles that can either promote or protect against ocular neovascularization. We have previously demonstrated that myeloid-derived VEGF, HIF1, and HIF2 are not essential for pathological retinal neovascularization. Here, however, we show by cell-specific depletion of Vhl in a mouse model of retinal ischemia (oxygen-induced retinopathy, OIR) that myeloid-derived HIFs promote VEGF and bFGF expression and enhance vascular regeneration in association with improved density and organization of the astrocytic network.
      PubDate: 2019-10-03
  • Glucose withdrawal induces Endothelin 1 release with significant
           angiogenic effect from first trimester (FTM), but not term human umbilical
           cord perivascular cells (HUCPVC)
    • Abstract: Background Perivascular cells (PVC) and their “progeny,” mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), have high therapeutic potential for ischemic diseases. While hypoxia can increase their angiogenic properties, the other aspect of ischemic conditions—glucose shortage—is deleterious for MSC and limits their therapeutic applicability. Regenerative cells in developing vascular tissues, however, can adapt to varying glucose environment and react in a tissue-protective manner. Placental development and fetal insulin production generate different glucose fluxes in early and late extraembryonic tissues. We hypothesized that FTM HUCPVC, which are isolated from a developing vascular tissue with varying glucose availability react to low-glucose conditions in a pro-angiogenic manner in vitro. Methods Xeno-free (Human Platelet Lysate 2.5%) expanded FTM (n = 3) and term (n = 3) HUCPVC lines were cultured in low (2 mM) and regular (4 mM) glucose conditions. After 72 h, the expression (Next Generation Sequencing) and secretion (Proteome Profiler) of angiogenic factors and the functional angiogenic effect (rat aortic ring assay and Matrigel™ plug) of the conditioned media were quantified and statistically compared between all cultures. Results Low-glucose conditions had a significant post-transcriptional inductive effect on FTM HUCPVC angiogenic factor secretion, resulting in significantly higher VEGFc and Endothelin 1 release in 3 days compared to term counterparts. Conditioned media from low-glucose FTM HUCPVC cultures had a significantly higher endothelial network enhancing effect compared to all other experimental groups both in vitro aortic ring assay and in subcutan Matrigel™ plugs. Endothelin 1 depletion of the low-glucose FTM HUCPVC conditioned media significantly diminished its angiogenic effect Conclusions FTM HUCPVC isolated from an early extraembryonic tissue show significant pro-angiogenic paracrine reaction in low-glucose conditions at least in part through the excess release of Endothelin 1. This can be a substantial advantage in cell therapy applications for ischemic injuries.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Intramuscular fast-flow vascular anomaly contains somatic MAP2K1 and KRAS
    • Abstract: Background The term “intramuscular hemangioma capillary type” (IHCT) refers to a fast-flow vascular lesion that is classified as a tumor, although its phenotype overlaps with arteriovenous malformation (AVM). The purpose of this study was to identify somatic mutations in IHCT. Methods Affected tissue specimens were obtained during a clinically indicated procedure. The diagnosis of IHCT was based on history, physical examination, imaging and histopathology. Because somatic mutations in cancer-associated genes can cause vascular malformations, we sequenced exons from 446 cancer-related genes in DNA from 7 IHCT specimens. We then performed mutation-specific droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to independently test for the presence of a somatic mutation found by sequencing and to screen one additional IHCT sample. Results We detected somatic mutations in 6 of 8 IHCT specimens. Four specimens had a mutation in MAP2K1 (p.Q58_E62del, p.P105_I107delinsL, p.Q56P) and 2 specimens had mutations in KRAS (p.K5E and p.G12D, p.G12D and p.Q22R). Mutant allele frequencies detected by sequencing and confirmed by ddPCR ranged from 2 to 15%. Conclusions IHCT lesions are phenotypically similar to AVMs and contain the same somatic MAP2K1 or KRAS mutations, suggesting that IHCT is on the AVM spectrum. We propose calling this lesion “intramuscular fast-flow vascular anomaly.”
      PubDate: 2019-09-05
  • Revascularization after angiogenesis inhibition favors new sprouting over
           abandoned vessel reuse
    • Abstract: Inhibiting pathologic angiogenesis can halt disease progression, but such inhibition may offer only a temporary benefit, followed by tissue revascularization after treatment stoppage. This revascularization, however, occurs by largely unknown phenotypic changes in pathologic vessels. To investigate the dynamics of vessel reconfiguration during revascularization, we developed a model of reversible murine corneal angiogenesis permitting longitudinal examination of the same vasculature. Following 30 days of angiogenesis inhibition, two types of vascular structure were evident: partially regressed persistent vessels that were degenerate and barely functional, and fully regressed, non-functional empty basement membrane sleeves (ebms). While persistent vessels maintained a limited flow and retained collagen IV+ basement membrane, CD31+ endothelial cells (EC), and α-SMA+ pericytes, ebms were acellular and expressed only collagen IV. Upon terminating angiogenesis inhibition, transmission electron microscopy and live imaging revealed that revascularization ensued by a rapid reversal of EC degeneracy in persistent vessels, facilitating their phenotypic normalization, vasodilation, increased flow, and subsequent new angiogenic sprouting. Conversely, ebms were irreversibly sealed from the circulation by excess collagen IV deposition that inhibited EC migration and prevented their reuse. Fully and partially regressed vessels therefore have opposing roles during revascularization, where fully regressed vessels inhibit new sprouting while partially regressed persistent vessels rapidly reactivate and serve as the source of continued pathologic angiogenesis.
      PubDate: 2019-09-04
  • Mitochondrial fission protein 1 up-regulation ameliorates
           senescence-related endothelial dysfunction of human endothelial progenitor
    • Abstract: Background We investigated the contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction to the senescence of human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) expanded in vitro and the underlying molecular mechanism. Methods and results Serial passage increased cell doubling time and those cells reaching the doubling time for more than 100% were defined as senescent EPCs, of which the activity of therapeutic angiogenesis was attenuated in mouse ischemic hindlimbs. The senescent cells, in medium free of glucose and bicarbonate, showed impaired activity in migration and tube formation. Flow cytometry indicated increased content of reactive oxygen species, mitochondria, and calcium, while bioenergetic analysis showed increased oxygen consumption and reduced ATP content. Examination of mitochondrial network showed that senescence increased the length of the network and ultrastructure analysis exhibited elongated mitochondria. Immunoblotting of the senescent EPCs demonstrated decreased expression level of fission protein1 (Fis1). In rat EPCs, the Fis1 level was decreased in the animals aged 24 months or older, compared to those of 3 months. Silencing of Fis1 in the young EPCs using Fis1-specific siRNA leads to appearance of phenotype resembling those of senescent cells, including elevated oxidative stress, disturbed mitochondrial network, reduced mitochondria membrane potential, decreasing ATP content, lower proliferation activity, and loss of therapeutic potential in ischemic hindlimbs. Fis1 over-expression in senescent EPCs reduced the oxidative stress, increased the proliferation, and restored the cobble stone-like morphology, senescence, bioenergetics, angiogenic potential, and therapeutic activity. Conclusion In human EPCs, down-regulation of Fis1 is involved in mitochondrial dysfunction and contributes to the impaired activity of EPCs during the senescence process. Enhanced expression of Fis1 in senescent EPCs restores the youthful phenotype.
      PubDate: 2019-09-03
  • Variable impact of three different antiangiogenic drugs alone or in
           combination with chemotherapy on multiple bone marrow-derived cell
           populations involved in angiogenesis and immunity
    • Abstract: In contrast to VEGF pathway-targeting antibodies, antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have failed to meet primary endpoints in almost all phase III clinical trials when combined with conventional chemotherapy. One exception is the combination of nintedanib and docetaxel as a second-line therapy for rapidly progressing advanced NSCLC. In addition to increased toxicity caused by this type of combination, thus necessitating drug dose reductions or treatment breaks, such phase III trial failures may also be related to the differential impact of host-mediated responses involving mobilization and tumor infiltration of bone marrow-derived cell populations (BMDCs), comprising both pro-angiogenic as well as immune effector cells. Herein, we evaluated two different antiangiogenic TKIs (sunitinib or nintedanib) and a VEGFR-2 antibody (DC101) either alone or combined with maximum tolerated dose paclitaxel for their differential impact on the BMDC host response, evaluating four different cell types. TKIs (in particular sunitinib) induced myelosuppression similar to paclitaxel, whereas DC101 had no such effect. Sunitinib also significantly decreased the number of tumor-infiltrating CD8 + T and B cells, MDSCs, and macrophages. In contrast, the effect of nintedanib on these BMDC populations was less marked, behaving closer to the VEGFR-2 antibody effects than sunitinib. The results raise the possibility that differences observed between antiangiogenic antibodies and TKIs in increasing chemotherapy efficacy could be related, at least in part, to differential effects on cells associated with local immunity within the tumor microenvironment.
      PubDate: 2019-08-28
  • A new prognostic model for survival in second line for metastatic renal
           cell carcinoma: development and external validation
    • Abstract: Background In patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), the oncologic benefit of second-line treatment for high volume tumors or presence of more than five risk factors remain to be defined. Our aim was to develop and externally validate a new model most likely to correctly predict overall survival (OS) categories in second line. Method mRCC patients treated within clinical trials at Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus (GRCC) formed the discovery set. Patients from two phase III trials from Pfizer database (PFIZERDB), AXIS (NCT00678392), and INTORSECT (NCT00474786), formed the external validation set. New prognostic factors were analyzed using a multivariable Cox model with a backward selection procedure. Performance of the GRCC model and the prognostic classification scheme derived from it, measuring by R2, c-index, and calibration, was evaluated on the validation set and compared to MSKCC and IMDC models. Results Two hundred and twenty-one patients were included in the GRCC cohort and 855 patients in the PFIZERDB. Median OS was similar in the discovery and validation cohorts (16.8 [95% CI 12.9–21.7] and 15.3 [13.6–17.2] months, respectively). Backward selection procedure identified time from first to second-line treatment and tumor burden as new independent prognostic factors significantly associated to OS after adjusting for IMDC prognostic factors (HR 1.68 [1.23–2.31] and 1.43 [1.03–1.99], respectively). Dividing patients into four risk groups, based on the number of factors selected in GRCC model, median OS from the start of second line in the validation cohort was not reached (NE) [95% CI 24.9–NE] in the favorable risk group (n = 20), 21.8 months [18.6–28.2] in the intermediate-risk group (n = 367), 12.7 months [11.0–15.8] in the low poor-risk group (n = 347), and 5.5 months [4.7–6.4] in the high poor-risk group (n = 121). Finally, this model and its prognostic classification scheme provided the better fit, with higher R2 and higher c-index compared to other possible classification schemes. Conclusion A new prognostic model was developed and validated to estimate overall survival of patients with previously treated mRCC. This model is an easy-to-use tool that allows accurate estimation of patient survival to inform decision making and follow-up after first line for mRCC.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
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