Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8697 journals)
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    - SURGERY (406 journals)

MEDICAL SCIENCES (2419 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
4 open     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AAS Open Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AboutOpen     Open Access  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access  
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Científica Estudiantil     Open Access  
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Herediana     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)     Open Access  
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta Medica International     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acupuncture and Natural Medicine     Open Access  
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / Health Sciences Journal of Adıyaman University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell and Gene Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Clinical Radiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Advances in Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Skeletal Muscle Function Assessment     Open Access  
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Thoracic and Critical Care Medicine     Open Access  
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AJOB Empirical Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AJSP: Reviews & Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Al-Qadisiah Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alerta : Revista Científica del Instituto Nacional de Salud     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Althea Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Anatomica Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Androgens : Clinical Research and Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ankara Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası     Open Access  
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Clinical Hypertension     Open Access  
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery Protocols     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Musculoskeletal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of the RussianAacademy of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arabian Journal of Scientific Research / المجلة العربية للبحث العلمي     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives Medical Review Journal / Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi     Open Access  
Archives of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology     Open Access  
Archives of Clinical Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Organ Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Pulmonology and Respiratory Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Renal Diseases and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASHA Leader     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Anatomical Science International
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.367
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 3  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1447-6959 - ISSN (Online) 1447-073X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Correction to: Untreated incomplete isolated cleft palate: cadaveric
    • Abstract: In the original publication, the given name and family name of the last author was incorrectly published. The correct given name and family name should be “R. Shane” and “Tubbs”.
      PubDate: 2019-03-12
  • Chondroepitrochlearis and a supernumerary head of the biceps brachii
    • Abstract: Unique variants of the pectoralis major and biceps brachii were found during a routine student dissection of a 96-year-old Caucasian female’s axilla and brachium. The donor cadaver had bilateral presentation of a muscle originating from the pectoralis major, near the lateral lip of the intertubercular groove, extending obliquely to insert on the medial intermuscular septum and medial epicondyle of the humerus. This muscle variant is currently described as a rare presentation of the chondroepitrochlearis, potentially a remnant of the panniculus carnosus in man. Often considered to be a thin, slender muscle taking origin from the true ribs, the right-side chondroepitrochlearis described in this report was notably larger—to the authors’ knowledge—than all other published cases, measuring 38.1 mm at the widest point. Meanwhile, another small muscle originating on the posterior surface of the pectoralis major tendon was present. Due to its insertion, the muscle was identified as a supernumerary portion, or a third head, of the biceps brachii. The proximal attachment of both the chondroepitrochlearis and the third head of the biceps brachii could impose functional limitations on the pectoralis major.
      PubDate: 2019-03-12
  • Vertical bundles of the white matter fibers in the pons revisited:
           preliminary study utilizing the Klingler technique
    • Abstract: The inner structure of the pons contains several layers of transverse and vertical fibers and many nuclei. The vertical bundles are described as fibers of the corticospinal tract, corticonuclear tract, frontopontine tract and parieto-temporopontine tract organized in three layers. The aim of this study was to investigate the structure of the vertical bundles in the ventral pons using the modified Klingler method. Ten brain stem specimens were investigated. Specimens were fixed in 10% formalin, frozen for 24 h to separate nerve fibers by ice crystals, and then unfrozen again in 10% formalin solution. Afterwards, the specimens were dissected using a sharpened spatula. Results point to the existence of three main layers of vertical bundles and a small, constant, and superficial fourth fascicle that is yet to be described in the literature. We propose the name fasciculus longitudinalis superficialis (superficial longitudinal fascicle) for this group of vertical fibers of the pons.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • The segmental branching of the hepatic arteries in the liver: a cadaveric
    • Abstract: The purpose of this work was to evaluate the sectorial and segmental arterial branching (second- and third-order branching) in the right and left hemilivers, as knowledge of this branching should lead to improved vascular mapping for various endovascular procedures in the liver. The study was conducted on 100 formalin-fixed adult cadaveric livers. The arterial anatomy of the liver was dissected from the origin of the hepatic arteries to their segmental branches. Conventional segmental branching of both the right and the left hepatic arteries was seen in only 25% of the livers. In the remaining livers, the segmental branching of one or both of the hepatic arteries was different from that given in anatomy texts. The branching of the right and left hepatic arteries was anatomically classified into seven and six patterns, respectively, mainly on the basis of their sectorial and segmental anatomy. The present study details the highly diverse segmental arterial anatomy of the liver. The information provided here has important implications for procedures that involve selective catheterization of segmental arteries.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Gross morphological and ultrastructural characterization of the
           oropharyngeal cavity of the Eurasian hoopoe captured from Egypt
    • Abstract: The present study aimed to give full morphological insight into the oropharyngeal cavity of Eurasian hoopoe at the level of gross morphology in addition to ultrastructural inspection including light- and scanning electron microscopy. The oropharyngeal cavity has a triangular appearance with a very long rostrally located beak, helping the bird achieve its feeding mechanism. The floor of the oropharyngeal cavity is divided into three parts; a pre-lingual part with a pre-lingual fold, a lingual part containing a rudimentary triangular tongue, and a laryngeal part, which contains a small elevated laryngeal mound. There are four giant papillae and numerous openings of lingual salivary glands on the root. The roof is divided into the pre-choanal and the choanal region. The pre-choanal region has two parallel palatine ridges, while the choanal region had an ovoid-shaped choanal cleft rostrally, followed caudally by a narrow infundibular slit. The mechanical papillae on the roof are arranged in two rows directed caudally; one row is located on the free border of rostral half of the choanal cleft, while the other row is located between the pharynx cavity and the esophagus. The histological study showed that the tongue was covered dorsally and ventrally by keratinized stratified squamous epithelium and supported centrally by entoglossum, which extends from the root until the rostral tip of the tongue. The entoglossum was mainly cartilaginous rostrally in the apex and ossified caudally in the lingual body and root. Numerous mucous glands scattered in the sub mucosa of the lingual root as well as in the palatine region convey their secretions to the surface through a duct guarded by diffuse lymphocytic infiltration.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Nisin, a food preservative produced by Lactococcus lactis , affects the
           localization pattern of intermediate filament protein in HaCaT cells
    • Abstract: Nisin is a food preservative produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. Previous blood biochemical research revealed that nisin has physiological effects in mammals; although the site of action has yet to be identified, keratinocytes have been proposed as a possible target. In this study, we investigated whether nisin affects keratinocytes by examining the effects on eukaryotic intermediate filaments in HaCaT human keratinocytes. Treatment with 93 μg/ml nisin for 24 h decreased the localization of the intermediate filament proteins cytokeratin (CK)5 and CK17 at the cell periphery, which were distributed in a limited area in a ring- or net-like shape. However, this was not observed upon treatment for 6 h. The results of a serial dilution assay revealed that the effect on CK17 localization depends on the nisin concentration and were observed at ≥47 μg/ml. Moreover, this effect was partially blocked by treatment with the calcium channel blocker bepridil. Thus, despite the long history of nisin as being safe for humans, it has measurable effects on the keratinocyte cytoskeleton. Our findings also indicate that CK5 and CK17 can serve as markers for evaluating the effects of nisin on keratinocytes.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Quick visualization of neurons in brain tissues using an optical clearing
    • Abstract: Neurons are classified into several morphological types according to the locations of their somata and the branching patterns of their axons and dendrites. Recent studies suggest that these morphological features are related to their physiological properties, including firing characteristics, responses to neuromodulators, and wiring patterns. Therefore, rapid morphological identification of electrophysiologically recorded neurons promises to advance our understanding of neuronal circuits. One of the most common anatomical cell identification methods is neuronal reconstruction with biocytin delivered through whole-cell patch-clamp pipettes. However, conventional reconstruction methods usually take longer than 24 h and limit the throughput of electrophysiological experiments. Here, we developed a quick, simple cell reconstruction method by optimizing the tissue clearing protocol ScaleSQ. We found that adding 200 mM NaCl almost entirely prevented tissue swelling without compromising optical clearing ability. This solution, termed IsoScaleSQ, allowed us to increase the transparency of the gray matter of 500-µm-thick slices within 30 min, meaning that the total time required to reconstruct whole-cell recorded neurons was reduced to 1 h. This novel method will improve the efficacy and effectiveness of electrophysiological experiments linked to cell morphology.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Spraying urea solution reduces formaldehyde levels during gross anatomy
    • Abstract: Formaldehyde (FA) is frequently used to embalm human cadavers that are employed to teach gross anatomy to medical and dental students. However, exposure to FA is harmful to both students and educators. The aim of this study was to reduce the FA levels in the anatomy dissection hall by spraying an FA scavenger solution. We measured the changes in FA levels after administering FA scavenger solutions to liquid, wet paper towels, organs, and cadavers containing FA. Among l-cysteine, N-ethyl urea, and urea, the latter was found to have the strongest scavenging power towards the FA in the liquid. The molar concentration of urea that most efficiently reduced the levels of volatilized FA from the wet paper towels was the same as that of the FA. After spraying the urea solution, the volatilized FA levels immediately decreased, reaching their minimum at 60 min, and remained low even after 240 min. Spraying the urea solution onto the organs reduced the levels of FA volatilized from the surfaces of organs but not those from the insides of the organs. In the dissection hall used for the gross anatomy course at Tokyo Medical University, the FA levels were significantly decreased after spraying the urea solution onto the cadavers. Moreover, dissection could be performed without the cadavers putrefying during the 4-month course. These results indicate that various institutes could use urea solution spray to effectively reduce the FA levels in the dissection hall and thus ensure the safety of students and educators.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Ontogenic development of the digestive tract in larval and juvenile Vimba
           bream, Vimba vimba
    • Abstract: In this study we examined the ontogenic development of the digestive tract of Vimba bream (Vimba vimba, Family: Cyprinidae) during the first 60 days of life (hatching to 60 days after hatching [DAH]). Samples of developing Vimba bream were randomly selected at various stages of development: 1–8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, and 60 DAH. For the histological and histochemical studies on the development of the alimentary canal, tissue sections prepared from the sampled hatchlings were stained with hematoxylin–eosin and periodic acid–Schiff and observed under a light microscope. The histological structures of both the mouth and esophagus were fully developed at 5 and 7 DAH, respectively. Intestinal differentiation was observed at 2 DAH, while mucosal folds appeared on the intestinal bulb at 7 DAH. At 5 DAH, with the appearance of goblet cells in the epithelium of the mouth, pharynx, and esophagus, the larvae showed secretion activity in these organs. At 6 DAH, secretion was observed in the intestine; at this stage of development, the surface of the gastrointestinal tract was covered in a neutral mucous-like layer of polysaccharide. The histological observations indicate that the early development of the digestive tract in Vimba vimba enables larvae to efficiently ingest and digest exogenous feed very quickly after hatching.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Existence and features of the myodural bridge in Gallus domesticus :
           indication of its important physiological function
    • Abstract: The myodural bridge (MDB) is a dense connective tissue that connects muscles with the cervical spinal dura mater via the posterior atlanto-occipital and atlato-axial interspaces. To date, the physiological function of the MDB has not been fully elucidated. Recent studies have identified the presence of the MDB in mammals, but very little information is available on the existence of the MDB in avifauna. We selected Gallus domesticus to explore the existence and the fiber property of the MDB in avifauna. We found that in this species, fibers originating from the ventral aspect of the rectus capitis dorsal minor are fused with the dorsal atlanto-occipital membrane and that numerous trabeculae connect the dorsal atlanto-occipital membrane with the cervical spinal dura mater. Furthermore, the occipital venous sinus is located between the trabeculae. The MDB is mainly composed of collagen type I fibers. Our results show that the MDB is present in G. domesticus and lead us to infer that the MDB is a highly conservative evolutionary structure which may play essential physiological roles.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Incidence of vertebral artery of aortic arch origin, its level of entry
           into transverse foramen, length, diameter and clinical significance
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to show the incidence of vertebral artery of aortic arch origin, its level of entry into transverse foramen, including extra- and intracranial morphometry, and clinical significance. A total of 266 embalmed cadavers were studied. We found 14 left vertebral arteries (5.3%) emerging from aortic arch. Most of the left vertebral arteries of aortic arch origin (78.6%) entered the fifth cervical transverse foramina, whereas most of the vertebral arteries of subclavian origin (94.7% left and 99.2% right) entered the sixth cervical transverse foramina. Their average prevertebral length was 8.24 ± 1.09 cm ,which was about twice as long as the right vertebral artery (3.88 ± 1.14 cm). The average outer diameters of the prevertebral part and ensuing intracranial part of the left vertebral artery of aortic arch origin were 4.36 ± 0.93 and 3.62 ± 0.62 mm, respectively. The mean corresponding diameters of the vertebral artery of subclavian origin were 5.06 ± 1.04 and 3.87 ± 0.83 mm, respectively. All of the vertebral arteries decreased significantly in size after entering the cranial cavity. The reduction in caliber of the intracranial part of the vertebral artery compared with the prevertebral part of its own vessel has never been reported elsewhere. Knowledge of such anatomical variations is important in interpreting CT angiography, anterior cervical decompression and aortic arch surgery to prevent iatrogenic injury of the vertebral artery.
      PubDate: 2019-02-26
  • Cone-beam computed tomographic evaluation of accessory mental foramen in a
           Turkish population
    • Abstract: Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and location of accessory mental foramen (AMF) in a Turkish population using cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT). Method CBCT images of 1005 patients were retrospectively reviewed from the archive of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Izmir Katip Celebi University. The prevalence, size, and localization of AMFs were assessed according to gender and age. In addition, the vertical and horizontal dimension of the mental foramen (MF) with and without AMF was measured to investigate the relationship between MF dimensions and the presence and absence of AMF. The average distance between the MF and AMF was also calculated. All measurements were then analyzed statistically. Results A total of 149 AMFs in 123 (12.23%) patients were identified on the CBCT images of the 1005 patients reviewed. There was no significant correlation between presence of AMF and gender (p  = 0.152). The most common localization of an AMF with respect to the MF was posterio-inferior (n = 52; 34.89%). A statistically significant difference was also found between the vertical and horizontal dimensions of the MF with and without AMF (p  < 0.05). Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate the high prevalence of AMF in the studied Turkish population. Considering the high prevalence and the structures passing through it, recognition of AMF and its detection using CBCT is important to prevent complications that may occur during and after surgical procedures.
      PubDate: 2019-02-21
  • A rare variation of the hemiazygos vein draining into the persistent left
           superior vena cava
    • Abstract: During an educational dissection of a 72-year-old Chinese male cadaver, the hemiazygos vein (HAV) coursing the left side that drains into the persistent left superior vena cava was observed. The HAV was formed at the junction of the 9th to 11th right posterior intercostal veins, right subcostal vein, 5th to 11th left posterior intercostal veins, and left subcostal vein; it then ascended posteriorly to the thoracic aorta. After collecting the accessory hemiazygos vein, it crossed over the aorta and the pedicle of the left lung via the hemiazygos arch, then converged with a communicative branch (vein of Marshall) that emerged from the left brachiocephalic vein to form the persistent left superior vena cava and entered the pericardium at the level of the sixth thoracic vertebra. Upon opening the pericardium of our cadaver, the persistent left superior vena cava was found to drain directly into the significantly dilated coronary sinus at the level of the eighth thoracic vertebra. The azygos vein was formed by the union of the first to eighth right posterior intercostal veins and appeared to be finer and shorter than the HAV. The persistent left superior vena cava might be the result of incomplete degeneration of the left posterior cardinal vein. Knowledge of such variations could be of great value to surgeons placing peripherally inserted central catheters because incorrect placement of the azygos venous system can be detrimental to the patient. In addition, during heart surgery, awareness of such variations may prevent major complications, such as hemorrhage or damage to vascular structures, and possibly also provide new insights and perspectives to cardiovascular surgeries.
      PubDate: 2019-02-18
  • Can feline ( Felis catus ) flat and long bone morphometry predict sex or
           skull shape'
    • Abstract: This study demonstrates sexual dimorphism in feline bones based on morphometric analysis of dried flat bones (scapula and os coxa) and long bones (humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, and fibula) of 92 felines (50 male, 42 female). A total of 58 parameters (flat bones: scapula = 4 and os coxa = 7; long bones: humerus = 8, radius = 9, ulna = 10, femur = 9, tibia = 7, and fibula = 4) were measured using a digital vernier caliper. Twenty-three parameters were found to be significantly different between cats of different sexes and skull shapes. The correlation between the cephalic index and most parameters was negative. Analysis of bone morphometry enabled us to estimate both sex and skull shape with accuracy of up to 96 % and 71 %, respectively, through a stepwise logistic regression model and a stepwise discriminative analysis model. The stepwise logistic regression model was determined to be most suitable for classifying two categories of data and had higher prediction accuracy rate.
      PubDate: 2019-02-15
  • Comparative morphology of the lingual papillae and their connective tissue
           cores in the tongue of the Abyssinian black-and-white colobus ( Colobus
           guereza )
    • Abstract: We observed the morphology of the lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, foliate, and vallate) and their underlying connective tissue cores (CTCs) in Abyssinian black-and-white colobus monkeys using light and scanning electron microscopy. The tongues of both juvenile and senescent individuals were relatively short in the rostro-caudal direction, with a rounded apex. Lingual tori were absent. Numerous filiform papillae were distributed over the entire tongue, except at the lingual root. A pair of foliate papillae was present on both the lateral and caudal margins of the corpus. Three vallate papillae were distributed on the boundary between the caudal part of the body and the root in both juvenile and senescent individuals. Based on scanning electron microscopy observations, the morphologies of the filiform papillae differed between juvenile and senescent individuals. The epithelial surface of juvenile filiform papillae had a main process, but the associated processes were weak and the underlying CTCs displayed immature morphology. In contrast, the epithelial surface of senescent filiform papillae was associated with several accessory processes, and their underlying CTCs consisted of several auxiliary cores that nearly encircled the main core, forming a concavity in the papilla. CTCs of the filiform papillae showed variable morphology. Juvenile filiform CTCs exhibited a rather primitive morphology, resembling those of the hamster, mole, and Cape hyrax while, conversely, despite the basically folivorous diet of the Abyssinian black-and-white colobus, senescent filiform CTCs resembled those found in omnivorous primates, including members of the Callitrichinae and Homoidea, and also those in Carnivora (e.g., Canidae and Felidae).
      PubDate: 2019-02-14
  • Effect of advanced platelet-rich fibrin on accelerating alveolar bone
           formation in dogs: a histological and immunofluorescence evaluation
    • Abstract: Several methods have been developed to regenerate lost alveolar bone. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a useful adjunct for new bone formation in dentistry. To elucidate the effect of advanced PRF (A-PRF) on bone formation, we inserted A-PRF clots in sockets after tooth extraction. Premolars were extracted from beagle dogs, and A-PRF was applied to the socket. New bone formation was assessed using histological and immunofluorescence examinations, and the bone formation ratio was evaluated 14 and 30 days postoperatively. Histological examination revealed newly formed bone filling the sockets up to the center in the A-PRF group at 14 days postoperatively, while thick and regular bone trabeculae were arranged in porous bone after 30 days. Higher expressions of osteocalcin and osteopontin were observed in newly formed bone in the A-PRF group, compared to the control group. The bone formation ratio was also higher in the A-PRF group than in the control group. Thus, A-PRF application may result in enhanced new bone formation and may aid in accelerating bone formation. A-PRF was more rapid than a self-limiting process during induction of bone formation by enhancing osteoblast activity and may be useful for bone formation in clinical medicine.
      PubDate: 2019-02-12
  • Nerve to mylohyoid branched from the lingual nerve: previously undescribed
    • Abstract: The lingual nerve is a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. It descends medial and anterior to the inferior alveolar nerve through the pterygomandibular space, runs by the lingual plate and lingual crest at the lower third molar closely, and supplies sensory fibers to the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. Therefore, injury of this nerve is occasionally induced by wisdom tooth extraction and could lead to paralysis of the tongue. The inferior alveolar nerve gives rise to the nerve to mylohyoid just before entering the mandibular foramen, which supplies the mylohyoid and anterior belly of the digastric muscle. We present an extremely rare anatomical variation where the nerve to mylohyoid arose from the lingual nerve near the submandibular duct during routine oral dissection.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Correction to: Prevalence of wormian bones in dried adult human skulls: an
           osteo-morphometric study in Nepal
    • Abstract: In the original publication of the article, the affiliation of the coauthor Subash Sapkota and the formula of the cranial index were published incorrectly. The correct affiliation is provided in this correction.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01
  • A Gantzer muscle arising from the brachialis and flexor digitorum
           superficialis: embryological considerations and implications for median
           nerve entrapment
    • Abstract: Gantzer muscles are variant muscles in the anterior forearm inserting into the flexor pollicis longus or, less often, the flexor digitorum profundus. The presence of Gantzer muscles can cause a compressive neuropathy affecting the anterior interosseous nerve (Kiloh–Nevin syndrome). These muscles must also be considered when anterior forearm fasciotomies are performed for the management of acute compartment syndrome. In this case report, a novel Gantzer muscle originated from the flexor digitorum superficialis as well as the investing fascia of the brachialis muscle; the latter site is a novel proximal attachment not previously reported. In addition, the Gantzer muscle possessed rare characteristics because it (1) possessed a split tendinous distal insertion into both the flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus, (2) exhibited a triangular morphology, and (3) was innervated by the median nerve. Most importantly, the dual origin of this Gantzer muscle formed a tunnel containing branches of the median nerve; therefore, this report documents a unique anatomical scenario in which the Gantzer muscle may compress and cause entrapment of aspects of the median nerve.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01
  • Untreated incomplete isolated cleft palate: cadaveric findings
    • Abstract: Isolated cleft palate without cleft lip is a rare deformity. Cleft lip and cleft palate can sometimes develop in combination with a syndrome due to genetic causes. Affected patients have morbidity through life from birth and experience comprehensive treatment for such clefts including surgery. It is extremely rare that the untreated clefts are found during routine cadaveric dissection, since many patients have treatment for clefts in developed countries. Herein, we present a case of an untreated incomplete isolated cleft palate on the right side of the maxilla. An oronasal fistula was found in the same location as the missing right maxillary lateral incisor, and the soft palate was considerably intruding into the hard palate but without penetration into the nasal cavity. The right incisivus labii superioris muscle forming the oral vestibule was incompletely torn with two fistulae. An incomplete bony defect was found on the right maxilla without oronasal or oroantral fistula. This paper may contribute to evaluating the disturbed site of the incomplete isolated cleft palate with no treatment.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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