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MEDICAL SCIENCES (1850 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access  
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access  
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access  
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access  
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Fundeni Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access  
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Journal Khulna     Open Access  
Basal Ganglia     Hybrid Journal  
Basic Sciences of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BC Medical Journal     Free  
Benha Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bijblijven     Hybrid Journal  
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biologics in Therapy     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Anatomical Science International
  [SJR: 0.301]   [H-I: 26]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1447-6959 - ISSN (Online) 1447-073X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • A review of functional heterogeneity among astrocytes and the
           CS56-specific antibody-mediated detection of a subpopulation of astrocytes
           in adult brains
    • Authors: Hiroaki Okuda
      Pages: 161 - 168
      Abstract: Astrocytes comprise the largest class of glial cells in the mammalian central nerve system (CNS). Although astrocytes were long considered to be a homogeneous population of neuron-supporting cells, recent decades have seen a shift toward the recognition that astrocytes exhibit morphological and functional heterogeneities and serve as essential modulators of brain functions. However, the mechanism underlying astrocyte diversity remains unclear, and the different subpopulations are difficult to identify due to a lack of specific cell markers. In this review, I discuss current knowledge regarding astrocyte heterogeneity and introduce a subpopulation that can be detected via labeling with a chondroitin sulfate-specific antibody (CS56). These CS56-positive astrocytes were found to selectively express tenascin-R (TNR) in the adult mouse cerebral cortex. Further research demonstrated significantly lower levels of glutamate uptake activity and glutamate aspartate transporter expression in TNR-knockdown astrocytes relative to controls, suggesting that the expression and secretion of Tnr by a subpopulation of astrocytes may contribute to region-specific neuron–astrocyte interactions. In summary, these results suggest that CS56-specific antibody and Tnr could be used as novel markers to detect an astrocyte subpopulation in the adult CNS.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0420-z
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
  • Oncostatin M in the development of metabolic syndrome and its potential as
           a novel therapeutic target
    • Authors: Tadasuke Komori; Yoshihiro Morikawa
      Pages: 169 - 176
      Abstract: Oncostatin M (OSM), a member of the IL-6 family of cytokines, plays an important role in various biologic actions, including cell growth, neuronal development, and inflammatory responses. Recently, we demonstrated the unique relationship between OSM and metabolic syndrome in mice. Mice lacking OSM receptor β subunit (OSMRβ−/− mice) exhibited late-onset obesity. Before the onset of obesity, adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance were observed in OSMRβ−/− mice. In addition, high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders, including obesity, adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis, were aggravated in OSMRβ−/− mice compared to those in wild-type mice. Consistent with these findings, OSM treatment dramatically improved these metabolic disorders in the mouse model of metabolic syndrome. Interestingly, OSM directly changed the phenotypes of adipose tissue macrophages toward anti-inflammatory M2 type. Furthermore, fatty acid content in the hepatocytes was decreased by OSM through expression regulation of several key enzymes of hepatic lipid metabolism. These findings suggest that OSM is a novel therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0421-y
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
  • Anatomical variation in the anterolateral ligament of the knee and a new
           dissection technique for embalmed cadaveric specimens
    • Authors: Matthew Parker; Heather F. Smith
      Pages: 177 - 187
      Abstract: Claes et al. recently documented and described the anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee, demonstrating its existence in 97% of their samples. Here, we further examined the anatomy of this ligament, documented its morphological variation, and assessed the feasibility of its dissection in preserved cadaveric specimens. To achieve this, we dissected 53 preserved cadaveric knees and documented their morphological variation in the anterolateral ligament. The originally described dissection technique for identifying and following the ALL requires flexion of the knee, a state which is often not possible in stiff, preserved cadavers. Here, we describe and confirm the feasibility of an alternate dissection technique in which the quadriceps femoris tendon is incised, for use on specimens in which flexion of the undissected knee is not possible. We also identify a novel technique for assessing whether the anterolateral ligament is absent from a specimen or has simply been obliterated or overlooked, using the lateral inferior genicular vasculature. These dissection techniques have great potential for the dissection of preserved cadavers used in gross anatomy laboratories, and we discuss the applications of such an approach in student-led dissections. Our dissections also uncovered noticeable variation in the anterolateral ligament course and position. Most notably, it often inserts significantly more laterally than the classical presentation (30.2%), or originates more proximally with superficial fibers extending superiorly and laterally over the distal femur (7.5%).
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0386-2
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
  • Morphological, histological and immunohistochemical study of the area
           postrema in the dog
    • Authors: Maria Oliveira; Francisco Fernández; Jordi Solé; Martí Pumarola
      Pages: 188 - 196
      Abstract: Circumventricular organs are specialized brain structures that are located mainly at the midsagittal line, around the third and fourth ventricles, often protruding into the lumen. They are positioned at the interface between the neuroparenchyma and the ventricular system of the brain. These highly vascularized nervous tissue structures differ from the brain parenchyma, as they lack a blood–brain barrier. Circumventricular organs have specialized sensory and secretory functions. It is essential for any pathologist who evaluates brain sections to have a solid knowledge of microscopic neuroanatomy and to recognize these numerous specialized structures within the nervous system as normal and not mistake them for pathological changes. The purpose of this study was to provide, for the first time, a detailed and complete histological description of the healthy canine area postrema and to determine its resemblance to that of other mammalian species. Anatomical dissections with routine histological and immunohistochemical techniques were carried out on ten canine brains. The cellular composition of area postrema proved to be largely comparable to that of other mammal species.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0388-0
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
  • Unfolding of the myosin head by purealin in glycerol
    • Authors: Jiro Takito; Jun’ichi Kobayashi; Masanori Nakamura; Yasushi Ohizumi; Yoshiaki Nonomura
      Pages: 197 - 202
      Abstract: Purealin is a small bioactive compound obtained from the marine sponge. The compound modulates various types of ATPase activity of myosin from skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle. To elucidate the structural basis of these effects of purealin on myosin ATPases, we examined the effect of purealin on the conformation of skeletal muscle myosin in aqueous solution and in glycerol. Analysis of the circular dichroism spectrum of subfragment 1, a single-headed fragment of myosin, revealed that in 10% glycerol purealin decreased the β-sheet content of S1, but in aqueous solution it had little effect on the secondary structure of S1. A myosin monomer conforms to two pear-like globular heads attached to a long tail. Electron microscopy observations with rotary shadowing revealed that purealin unfolded each globular head to an extended single strand. The tips of the unfolded strand bound each other and formed a ring in one molecule. These results suggest that binding of purealin affects the critical parameters of myosin folding.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0389-7
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
  • A new superficial landmark for the odontoid process: a cadaveric study
    • Authors: Christian Fisahn; Michael J. Montalbano; Joe Iwanaga; Marc Moisi; Marios Loukas; Jens R. Chapman; Rod J. Oskouian; R. Shane Tubbs
      Pages: 203 - 206
      Abstract: When image guidance is not available or when there is a need to confirm the findings of such technology, superficial landmarks can still play a role in providing surgeons with estimations of the position of deeper anatomical structures. To our knowledge, surface landmarks for the position of the odontoid process have not been investigated. We have therefore performed an anatomical study to investigate such a landmark. One-centimeter metallic rods were placed on the philtrum of the upper lip of 20 cadaveric head specimens. To assess the position relative to the odontoid process, we took lateral and anteroposterior radiographs and recorded the measurements. Descriptive findings from radiographic observations indicated a reasonable approximation between the philtrum and the midpoint of the odontoid process. Based on our results, we suggest that the philtrum of the upper lip can serve as a first line estimation of the position of the odontoid process and can assist in verifying this bony structure following the use of image guidance.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0390-1
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
  • Computed tomographic analysis of the internal structure of the metacarpals
           and its implications for hand use, pathology, and surgical intervention
    • Authors: Alison L. Wong; Clifton G. Meals; Christopher B. Ruff
      Pages: 231 - 237
      Abstract: The variation of bone structure and biomechanics between the metacarpals is not well characterized. It was hypothesized that their structure would reflect their common patterns of use (i.e., patterns of hand grip), specifically that trabecular bone density would be greater on the volar aspect of all metacarpal bases, that this would be most pronounced in the thumb, and that the thumb diaphysis would have the greatest bending strength. Cross-sections at basal and mid-diaphyseal locations of 50 metacarpals from 10 human hands were obtained by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. The volar and dorsal trabecular densities of each base were measured and characterized using the volar/dorsal density ratio. The polar stress–strain index (SSIp), a surrogate measure of torsional/bending strength, was measured for each diaphysis and standardized for bone length and mass. Comparisons were made using mixed-model analyses of variance (ANOVAs) and post hoc tests. Volar/dorsal trabecular density ratios showed even distribution in all metacarpal bases except for the thumb, which showed greater values on the volar aspect. The thumb, second, and third metacarpals all had high bending strength (SSIp), but the thumb’s SSIp relative to its length and trabecular mass was much higher than those of the other metacarpals. Trabecular density of the metacarpal bases was evenly distributed except in the thumb, which also showed higher bending strength relative to its length and mass. Understanding of how these indicators of strength differ across metacarpals may improve both fracture diagnosis and treatment and lays the groundwork for investigating changes with age, hand dominance, and occupation.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0400-3
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
  • Dorsal metacarpal veins: anatomic variation and potential clinical
    • Authors: Sara S. Elmegarhi; Justin Z. Amarin; Maher T. Hadidi; Darwish H. Badran; Islam M. Massad; Amjad M. Bani-Hani; Amjad T. Shatarat
      Pages: 238 - 243
      Abstract: The dorsal metacarpal veins are frequently cannulated. Cannulation success is determined by several variable anatomic features. The objective of this study is to classify, for the first time, the anatomic variants of the dorsal metacarpal veins. In this cross-sectional study, 520 university students and staff were conveniently recruited. The dorsal metacarpal veins in 1040 hands were studied. Venous visibility was enhanced by either tourniquet application or near-infrared illumination. Variant patterns of the dorsal metacarpal veins were classified. The final analysis included 726 hands, for an exclusion rate of 30 %. Eight pattern types were identified. Three anatomic features informed the variation. Bilateral symmetry of the dorsal metacarpal veins was present in 352 participants (83 % of the total). The overall frequency distribution of variants in both hands was similar (P = 0.8). The frequency distribution of variants was subject to sexual dimorphism (P = 0.001), ethnic variation (P < 0.001), and technical variation (P < 0.001). The anatomic variants of the dorsal metacarpal veins were sorted into decreasingly frequent primary, secondary, and tertiary groups. The groups may signify a progressive increase in difficulty of peripheral cannulation, in the mentioned order. As such, primary patterns are the most common and likely the easiest to cannulate, while tertiary patterns are the least common and likely the most difficult to cannulate. The preceding premise, in tandem with the bilateral asymmetry of the veins, is clinically significant. With cannulation difficulty likely signifying an underlying tertiary pattern, the contralateral dorsal metacarpal veins are probabilistically characterized by a primary pattern and are, as such, the easier option for peripheral venous cannulation.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0403-0
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
  • Prevalence of cribra orbitalia in Pacopampa during the formative period in
    • Authors: Tomohito Nagaoka; Yuji Seki; Kazuhiro Uzawa; Mai Takigami; Daniel Morales Chocano
      Pages: 254 - 261
      Abstract: Cribra orbitalia is characterized by an aggregation of small apertures in the orbital roof in response to marrow hypertrophy. This pathological change is indicative of biological stress during youth. We examined the prevalence of this lesion in Pacopampa, a ceremonial center of the formative period, located in the northern highlands of Peru. Using this evaluation of cribra orbitalia, we reconstructed aspects of the population’s health and nutritional status during the formation of Andean civilization. We examined 41 orbits of 27 adult individuals (13 males, 14 females) and recorded the macroscopic presence or absence of cribra orbitalia. The presence or absence of cribra orbitalia was the same bilaterally for all 14 individuals having both orbits preserved. The pathology was present in two of the 13 males (15.4%), one of the 14 (7.1%) females, and three of 27 individuals (11.1%) for both sexes combined. There was no difference in the frequency between sexes. The prevalence of cribra orbitalia was found to be lower in Pacopampa than in the comparative data of coastal populations. It is reasonable to assume that the increase in social complexity in Pacopampa was probably unrelated to the decline in overall health of the people.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0404-z
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
  • Effect of ligamentum teres tear on the development of joint instability
           and articular cartilage damage: an in vivo rabbit study
    • Authors: Jong Hun Baek; Young Soo Chun; Kee Hyung Rhyu; Wan Keun Yoon; Yoon Je Cho
      Pages: 262 - 268
      Abstract: The contribution of the ligamentum teres to the stabilization of the hip joint and the clinical influence of a compromised ligamentum teres are not well known. This study aimed to investigate joint stability and cartilage damage in a rabbit model by surgically inducing a complete ligamentum teres tear. Twenty adult New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. Rabbits were divided into complete ligamentum teres tear with capsulotomy (n = 9, group I) and capsulotomy only (n = 10, group II) groups. Unilateral surgery was performed on the left hip. Joint instability was assessed by measuring the preoperative and postoperative acetabulofemoral (A-F) distances. Rabbits were euthanized to assess cartilage damage at 24 weeks postoperatively. The median postoperative A-F distance of the operated side in group I [0.68 cm (0.37–1.04 cm)] was larger than that in group II [0.50 cm (0.30–0.65 cm)] (p = 0.041). The median postoperative A-F distance was larger in the operated side [0.68 cm (0.37–1.04 cm)] compared to the nonoperated side [0.45 cm (0.30–0.75 cm)] in group I; it also was larger in the operated side [0.50 cm (0.30–0.65 cm)] compared to the nonoperated side [0.44 cm (0.32–0.67 cm)] in group II, but only group I showed a significant difference (p = 0.016 and 0.395, respectively). Articular cartilage damage was detected at the apex of the femoral head in two rabbits (22.2%) in group I only. Rabbits with a complete ligamentum teres tear showed significant instability at the hip joint and articular cartilage damage in our rabbit model, supporting the potential clinical importance of ligamentum teres as a hip joint stabilizer.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0406-x
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
  • Morphometric changes in the spinal cord during prenatal life: a
           stereological study in sheep
    • Authors: Javad Sadeghinezhad; Narges Zadsar; Beal Hasanzadeh
      Pages: 269 - 276
      Abstract: This study describes the volumetric changes in the spinal cord during prenatal life in sheep using quantitative stereological methods. Twenty healthy sheep fetuses were included in the present study, divided into four groups representing 9–11, 12–14, 15–17, and 18–20 weeks of gestation. In each group, the spinal cord was dissected out and sampled according to the unbiased systematic random sampling method then used for stereological estimations. The total volume of spinal cord, volume of gray matter (GM), volume of white matter (WM), ratio of GM volume to WM volume, and volume of central canal (CC) were estimated in the whole spinal cord and its various regions using Cavalieri’s principle. The total volume of the spinal cord increased 8 times from week 9 to week 20. The cervical region showed the greatest (9.7 times) and the sacral region the least (6.3 times) volumetric change. The CC volume of the whole spinal cord increased 5.8 times from week 9 to week 20. The cervical region developed faster (8.2 times) and the thoracic region slower (4.4 times) than the total spinal cord. During development, the volume ratio of GM to WM decreased from lower toward upper regions. The greatest volume changes occurred mostly in weeks 9–11 and 12–14. The cervical region showed the greatest volume changes in comparison with other regions of the spinal cord.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0407-9
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
  • Considering the inferior surface area of lower lumbar vertebrae:
           determining weight transmission pattern at the lumbosacral junction
    • Authors: Uchenna Kenneth Ezemagu; Chike P. Anibeze; Chinedu F. Akpuaka
      Pages: 277 - 283
      Abstract: The biomechanical function of the lumbosacral junction (LSJ) is obscure, but its medical significance is not, as it is the most common site of low back pain. In this study, we analyzed the difference between the mean values of the surface areas of the inferior body and total inferior facet areas of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae. We aimed to define the function of the LSJ during weight transmission and clarify its mechanical significance. Vertebral columns of 45 adult male human cadavers from five anatomy departments in Nigeria were cut at the L3–L4 intervertebral disc and macerated. Using the graph paper method, the mean values of the surface area of the inferior body and total facet area of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae were 1356 ± 26 and 329 ± 6 and 1277 ± 27 and 418 ± 8 mm2, respectively. The relationships between the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae paired variables were highly significant (P < 0.001). A sudden reduction in the surface area of the inferior body of the fifth lumbar vertebra was compensated for by a corresponding increase in its total inferior facet area, which indicated that corresponding weight was diverted from the anterior column to the posterior column at the LSJ. This pattern of weight transmission may be a beneficial functional adaptation in man to protect the relatively large intervertebral disc of the LSJ in bipedal posture, or it may predispose the LSJ synovial zygapophyseal joints to mechanical stress.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0409-7
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
  • Analysis of dural sac thickness in the human cervical spine
    • Authors: Soonwook Kwon; Seung-Woo Suh; Dasom Kim; Im Joo Rhyu; Hyunung Yu; Seung Woo Han; Jae-Young Hong
      Pages: 284 - 290
      Abstract: The thickness of the dura mater in the human cervical spine can vary between individuals and by vertebral level; these differences can result in various clinical outcomes. The purpose was to measure and analyze cervical dura mater thickness. Microscopic measurements were made of tissue from human cadavers. The subjects were nine human cadavers with no previous history of spinal deformity or surgery. Fourteen segments of both anterior and posterior dura mater from the C1 to C7 cervical vertebrae were obtained. Dura mater thickness was measured using an infrared laser-based confocal microscope. Statistical analyses were performed to examine the relationships of cervical dura mater thickness with vertebral level, age, and sex. The overall average cervical dura mater thickness was 379.3 × 10−3 mm. Statistically significant differences in thickness were found between the anterior and posterior segments (P < 0.0001). Moreover, the thickness at each vertebral level was significantly different from the thicknesses at the other levels (P < 0.05). The posterior dura mater thickness was highest at C1 and lowest at C5/6. Posterior dura mater thickness was significantly different at the axial, sub-axial, and lower cervical levels, whereas anterior dura mater thickness was relatively constant among levels. A significant correlation was found between thickness and age (P < 0.05); however, the average dura mater thickness was not significantly different between males and females. This study shows anatomical differences in cervical dura mater thickness with respect to vertebral level and age. These results provide anatomical information that will inform basic research and clinical approaches.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0412-z
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
  • Macroscopic anatomical study of the distribution of the cranial mesenteric
           artery to the intestine in the rabbit
    • Authors: Tetsuhito Kigata; Reona Ikegami; Hideshi Shibata
      Pages: 291 - 298
      Abstract: Intestinal surgery is commonly performed to cure bowel obstruction in rabbits, but detailed descriptions of the arterial supply to the intestine are incomplete. We investigated anatomical variations of the distribution of the cranial mesenteric artery to the intestine in 33 New Zealand White rabbits by injecting colored latex into the arteries. The cranial mesenteric artery arose independently from the abdominal aorta at about 2.0 cm caudal to the celiac artery and branched off the pancreaticoduodenal, middle colic, ileocecocolic, jejunal and ileal arteries. One or occasionally two caudal pancreaticoduodenal arteries supplied the distal duodenum, and one to three middle colic arteries supplied the transverse colon and the initial portion of the descending colon. The ileocecocolic artery arose distal to the middle colic arteries and provided the right colic, ileocecal and appendicular arteries, and branches to the proximal colon, with various branching patterns, which were grouped into four major types. These arteries and branches supplied the ileum, cecum, appendix and proximal colon. The cranial mesenteric artery also provided the jejunal arteries (predominantly 17; range 11–21) and one ileal artery supplying the jejunum and proximal ileum, respectively. The results show that the distribution patterns of the cranial mesenteric artery to the intestine in the rabbit are highly specialized to this species. Such specialization should always be considered when performing intestinal surgery in rabbits.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0411-0
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
  • Anatomical variations of the pronator teres muscle in a Central European
           population and its clinical significance
    • Authors: Łukasz Olewnik; Michał Podgórski; Michał Polguj; Grzegorz Wysiadecki; Mirosław Topol
      Pages: 299 - 306
      Abstract: The pronator teres (PT) muscle is a forearm flexor with radial and ulnar heads. It is innervated by the median nerve (MN), which passes between these heads. Nerve entrapment, known as “PT syndrome”, may occur in this passage. Anatomical variations in this region may be potential risk factors of this pathology. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the relationship between morphologic variations of the PT and the MN. In 50 isolated, formalin-fixed upper limbs, the cubital region and the forearm were dissected. The following measurements were taken: origin of the PT muscle heads, the length of these heads, the length of the forearm, diameter of the MN and the number of its muscular branches to the pronator teres muscle. The forearms with the humeral head originating from the medial humeral epicondyle and medial intermuscular septum (72%) were significantly shorter (p = 0.0088) than those where the humeral head originated only from the medial humeral epicondyle. Moreover, in these specimens, the MN was significantly thinner (p = 0.003). The ulnar head was present in 43 limbs (86%). The MN passed between the heads of the PT muscle (74%) or under the muscle (26%). In the majority of cases, it provided two motor branches (66%). There is an association between the morphologic variation of the PT muscle heads and the course and branching pattern of the MN. Both are related to differences in forearm length. This may have an impact on the risk of PT syndrome and the performance of MN electrostimulation.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0413-y
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
  • Association of high carotid bifurcation and thyrolinguofacial trunk: a
           rare variation
    • Authors: Suresh Narayanan; Senthil Murugan
      Pages: 307 - 310
      Abstract: Variations in the origins and the branching pattern of the carotid system of arteries are not uncommon. Here we report a rare case of higher bifurcation of the common carotid artery (CCA) (at the level of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone), thyrolinguofacial trunk (TLFT) originating from the CCA, superior laryngeal artery (SLA) arising from the external carotid artery (ECA) on the left side, and linguofacial trunk arising from the ECA on the right side. In the present case, the CCA and carotid bifurcation may have arisen from the second aortic arch. The ECA bud could have developed from parts of the first aortic arch and ventral aorta. Thus, the altered blood flow through these vessels due to high carotid bifurcation could have caused disproportionate growth and shift in the origins of the branches of the ECA. An understanding of the bifurcation of the CCA and the branching pattern of the ECA should prove useful to surgeons performing selective intra-arterial chemotherapy for head and neck cancer.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0405-y
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
  • Rare muscular variations identified in a single cadaveric upper limb: a
           four-headed biceps brachii and muscular elevator of the latissimus dorsi
    • Authors: Colin W. Moore; Charles L. Rice
      Pages: 311 - 316
      Abstract: Supernumerary or accessory heads of the biceps brachii are persistent muscular structures which can vary in number and location in the arm. Variations in other arm muscles, such as the coracobrachialis, can accompany supernumerary biceps brachii musculature in the upper limb. In this case report, we describe two rare muscular variants in a single adult male: a four-headed biceps brachii and the muscular elevator of the latissimus dorsi tendon. Additionally, accessory muscles of the brachialis and flexor digiti minimi brevis were identified in the upper limb. To our knowledge, the muscular variants identified here are considered rare, and their co-occurrence in a single upper limb has not been described previously. Also, a four-headed biceps brachii consisting of both the infero-medial and infero-lateral humeral heads has not been described previously to our knowledge. We postulate that the simultaneous appearance of several muscular variations may indicate a signaling disruption in embryogenesis during muscle patterning of the ventral limb bud. Knowledge of variant musculature in the arm is important for surgeons and clinicians as these muscles and their aberrant innervation patterns can complicate surgical procedures and may compress arteries and nerves producing upper limb pain and paresthesia. The clinical, functional and embryological implications of the upper limb variants are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0408-8
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
  • Mash1-expressing cells could differentiate to type III cells in adult
           mouse taste buds
    • Authors: Hiroki Takagi; Yuji Seta; Shinji Kataoka; Mitsushiro Nakatomi; Takashi Toyono; Tatsuo Kawamoto
      Abstract: The gustatory cells in taste buds have been identified as paraneuronal; they possess characteristics of both neuronal and epithelial cells. Like neurons, they form synapses, store and release transmitters, and are capable of generating an action potential. Like epithelial cells, taste cells have a limited life span and are regularly replaced throughout life. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate taste cell genesis and differentiation. In the present study, to begin to understand these mechanisms, we investigated the role of Mash1-positive cells in regulating adult taste bud cell differentiation through the loss of Mash1-positive cells using the Cre-loxP system. We found that the cells expressing type III cell markers—aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), carbonic anhydrase 4 (CA4), glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25)—were significantly reduced in the circumvallate taste buds after the administration of tamoxifen. However, gustducin and phospholipase C beta2 (PLC beta2)—markers of type II taste bud cells—were not significantly changed in the circumvallate taste buds after the administration of tamoxifen. These results suggest that Mash1-positive cells could be differentiated to type III cells, not type II cells in the taste buds.
      PubDate: 2018-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-018-0431-4
  • Gene expression of A6-like subgroup of ATP-binding cassette transporters
           in mouse brain parenchyma and microvessels
    • Authors: Masanori Tachikawa; Hidetoh Toki; Masahiko Watanabe; Masatoshi Tomi; Ken-ichi Hosoya; Tetsuya Terasaki
      Abstract: The A-subclass of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is a highly conserved superfamily of potent lipid transporters. Although the ABCA1-like subgroup of ABCA1-4, and A7 have been shown to mediate the transport of endogenous lipids, the roles of the ABCA6-like subgroup transporters, which have been identified as a unique gene cluster on human chromosome 17q24 (ABCA5, A6, A8, A9, and A10) and mouse chromosome 11 (Abca5, a6, a8a, a8b, and a9), remains largely unknown. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the spatial and temporal expression profiles of Abca6-like subgroup transporters in embryonic and postnatal mouse brains by a combination of in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using magnetically isolated brain vascular endothelial cells. In embryonic brains, the transcripts of Abca5, a8a and a8b were detected predominantly in the mantle zone, where postmitotic neurons differentiate. At the postnatal stages, they were expressed in various nuclei and neuronal layers. Abca9 mRNA was detected diffusely in the embryonic and postnatal brains and sequential and/or strong spotted signals were detected in the leptomeninges on the brain surface. PCR detected expression of Abca8a and Abca9 mRNAs in isolated vascular endothelial cells. Expression signals for Abca6 mRNA were hardly observed at any stages examined. These distinct spatio-temporal expression patterns of Abca6-like subgroup transporters may reflect their functional significance and diversity to regulate lipid transport, particularly in neurons, leptomeningeal cells, and vascular endothelial cells.
      PubDate: 2018-03-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-018-0435-0
  • Clinical significance of understanding lateral and medial circumflex
           femoral artery origin variability
    • Authors: Aleksandra Vuksanović-Božarić; Marija Abramović; Ljiljana Vučković; Mileta Golubović; Batrić Vukčević; Miroslav Radunović
      Abstract: The common femoral artery (CFA) divides into the superficial femoral artery (SFA) and deep femoral artery (DFA). The lateral circumflex femoral artery (LCFA) and medial circumflex femoral artery (MCFA) are most often branches of the DFA, although a large number of different variations in their origin has been described. We performed microdissection on both lower limbs of 30 fetuses, gestational age from 7 to 10 lunar months. Our results show that the LCFA and MCFA usually arise from the DFA. In 78.3% of cases, the MCFA originated from the DFA. In 11.7% of cases, the MCFA originated from the CFA, and in 5% of cases from the SFA. One case showed a common trunk with the DFA. Also, the MCFA was missing in one case, and it had a common trunk with the LCFA in one case. In 83.3% of cases, the LCFA arose from the DFA and in 6.7% of cases from the CFA. In one case, it had a common trunk with the DFA, and in one case with the MCFA. In 3.3% of cases, the LCFA was missing. In 66.7% of cases, both arteries originated from the DFA, in 15% of cases one originated from the DFA and the other from the CFA or SFA. Our results are in accordance with some published studies but also differ from the outcomes of other studies. Comprehensive knowledge of different variation types is imperative in order to prevent complications during surgical and orthopedic interventions.
      PubDate: 2018-03-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-018-0434-1
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