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MEDICAL SCIENCES (1808 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
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Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
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Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access  
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Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access  
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access  
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Fundeni Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access  
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Journal Khulna     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Research Council Bulletin     Open Access  
Basal Ganglia     Hybrid Journal  
Basic Sciences of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BC Medical Journal     Free  
Benha Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bijblijven     Hybrid Journal  
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biologics in Therapy     Open Access  
Biology of Sex Differences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Anatomical Science International
  [SJR: 0.301]   [H-I: 26]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1447-6959 - ISSN (Online) 1447-073X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2354 journals]
  • Clinical relevance of conus medullaris and dural sac termination level
           with special reference to sacral hiatus apex: anatomical and MRI
           radiologic study
    • Authors: Ashraf Youssef Nasr
      Pages: 456 - 467
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the vertebral level and variations in the position of the termination of both conus medullaris (CMT) and dural sac (DST) with special reference to the apex of the sacral hiatus (SHA) using magnetic resonance (MR) images and human cadavers. Different measurements were made on 200 MR sagittal T1- and T2-weighted lumbosacral images and 60 formalin-fixed adult human cadavers. The linear distances between the CMT, DST and SHA, the anteroposterior diameter at SHA, delete length and thickness of the sacrococcygeal membrane were also measured. These measurements were correlated with age and sex. In the MRI study, the mean vertebral level of CMT and its highest incidence were seen at the lower third of L1 (L1L) in male patients and at the L1-2 disc in female patients; that of DST was observed at the upper third of S2 (S2U) in male patients and the middle third of S2 (S2M) in female patients and the mean vertebral level of the SHA was noted at the middle third of S4 (S4M) in both males and females with no significant age or sex differences (P < 0.05). In the cadaveric specimens, the mean vertebral levels of CMT, DST and SHA were seen at L1L, S2M and S4U, respectively in both male and female specimens, with no sex difference. Also in the MRI study, all linear distances in the male patients were significantly different (P < 0.05) from those in female patients with exception of the thickness of SCM and the AP diameter at SHA. Accurate knowledge of these levels and the distances in-between are important for safe and successful spinal and caudal anaesthesia.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0343-0
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
  • Erratum to: Clinical relevance of conus medullaris and dural sac
           termination level with special reference to sacral hiatus apex: anatomical
           and MRI radiologic study
    • Authors: Ashraf Youssef Nasr
      Pages: 468 - 469
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0387-1
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
  • Histological and radiographic study of human edentulous and dentulous
    • Authors: Yukino Kamigaki; Iwao Sato; Takashi Yosue
      Pages: 470 - 482
      Abstract: Data on the bone trabecular structure and density of the edentulous regions of the first upper molars are important for designing successful dental treatments, especially dental implants. However, no detailed defined morphometric properties on the human maxilla are available at the immunohistochemical and radiographic levels. Cone-beam computed tomography analysis and immunohistochemical observation were applied to the maxillary first molar region of 91 cadavers (46 males and 45 females). The edentulous maxilla can be classified into the following three forms: fully edentulous (FE), partially edentulous (PE), and immediately edentulous (IE). Compared with the first molar dentulous (FMD) specimens, significant differences in cortical bone structure and bone density exist among IE, PE, and FE in maxilla (P < 0.001). According to histochemical observations, the positive CD31 reaction clearly described a large vessel of the PE and small vessels of FMD and IE in maxillary sinus connective tissue. These structural issues were clearly related to tooth extraction. These morphological and radiographic data describing the edentulous region of the maxillary first molar might be useful for improving dental treatments.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0344-z
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
  • Differences in osteon structure histomorphometry between puppyhood and
           adult stages in the Golden Retriever
    • Authors: Korakot Nganvongpanit; Waranee Pradit; Tanita Pitakarnnop; Manussabhorn Phatsara; Siriwadee Chomdej
      Pages: 483 - 492
      Abstract: Osteon structure has been widely studied in mammals, but osteon structure in dogs has received relatively little attention, especially in terms of whether aging has any effect on osteon structure. The aim of this study was to compare the osteon structure of both flat (scapula and os coxae) and long bones (humerus, radius, ulna, metacarpus, femur and tibia) of male puppy and adult Golden Retrievers. We examined five parameters: Haversian canal diameter, Haversian canal area, osteon diameter, osteon area, and number of lacunae per osteon. Our results show that the values for Haversian canal diameter were significantly higher in the os coxae and tibia, but significantly lower in the femur of adult dogs as compared to those of puppies. The Haversian canal diameter of the other bones investigated did not show any significant differences between puppies and adult dogs. The Haversian canal area was significantly greater in the os coxae, radius and femur of adult dogs than in those of puppies. The osteon diameter and area of every bone examined were significantly smaller in puppies than in adult dogs. Lastly, the number of lacunae per osteon showed the same trend as osteon diameter and area. Plexiform bone could be found in three bones in puppies, i.e. the femur, humerus and tibia. Overall, the results of this study should provide basic knowledge on the microanatomy of cortical bone in dogs and on the possible influence age.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0345-y
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
  • Light and scanning electron microscopy of the tongue of a degu ( Octodon
           degus )
    • Authors: Petr Cizek; Pavla Hamouzova; Vladimir Jekl; Pavel Kvapil; Frantisek Tichy
      Pages: 493 - 499
      Abstract: The tongue of an adult degu was examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. It consists of an apex, corpus, and radix and contains a lingual prominence. The aim of this study was to describe the course of muscle fascicles of the proper lingual muscle, the presence and nature of the lingual salivary glands, and particularly the appearance and distribution of the lingual papillae. Three major types of papillae have been observed: filiform, conical, and vallate. The dorsal surface of the lingual apex extends in caudally bent filiform papillae with two spines. The lingual corpus bears long filiform papillae with a single tip. The lingual radix contains crown-like papillae in the region of the prominence and conical papillae in the remaining areas. Two oval vallate papillae were discovered caudally on the lingual radix. This first description of the lingual structures in a degu could be used for comparative studies or as basic data for differentiation of lingual morphology in this species.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0346-x
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
  • Palatine tonsil volume estimation using different methods after
    • Authors: Ayşe Sağıroğlu; Niyazi Acer; Hacı Okuducu; Tolga Ertekin; Mustafa Erkan; Esra Durmaz; Mesut Aydın; Seher Yılmaz; Gökmen Zararsız
      Pages: 500 - 508
      Abstract: This study was carried out to measure the volume of the palatine tonsil in otorhinolaryngology outpatients with complaints of adenotonsillar hypertrophy and chronic tonsillitis who had undergone tonsillectomy. To date, no study has investigated palatine tonsil volume using different methods and compared with subjective tonsil size in the literature. For this purpose, we used three different methods to measure palatine tonsil volume. The correlation of each parameter with tonsil size was assessed. After tonsillectomy, palatine tonsil volume was measured by Archimedes, Cavalieri and Ellipsoid methods. Mean right–left palatine tonsil volumes were calculated as 2.63 ± 1.34 cm3 and 2.72 ± 1.51 cm3 by the Archimedes method, 3.51 ± 1.48 cm3 and 3.37 ± 1.36 cm3 by the Cavalieri method, and 2.22 ± 1.22 cm3 and 2.29 ± 1.42 cm3 by the Ellipsoid method, respectively. Excellent agreement was found among the three methods of measuring volumetric techniques according to Bland–Altman plots. In addition, tonsil grade was correlated significantly with tonsil volume.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0350-1
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
  • A dermal equivalent developed from adipose-derived stem cells and
           electrospun polycaprolactone matrix: an in vitro and in vivo study
    • Authors: Vahid Bayati; Mohammad Reza Abbaspour; Fereshteh Negad Dehbashi; Niloofar Neisi; Mahmoud Hashemitabar
      Pages: 509 - 520
      Abstract: Polycaprolactone (PCL) is used as a material of choice for surgical sutures, wound dressings, contraceptives, fixation devices and dentistry in paramedical sciences. In addition, adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been shown to be effective in the treatment of acute and chronic wounds. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of electrospun PCL fibers on keratinocyte differentiation of ASCs and wound healing. PCL solution was electrospun and characterized. Isolated and characterized ASCs were differentiated into keratinocyte-like cells on a tissue culture plate (TCP) and PCL matrices and compared. PCL nano-/microfibers cultured with ASCs (test group) or alone (control) were implanted as a dermal substitute for wound healing. There were significant increases in the proliferation rate and expression level of cytokeratin 14, filaggrin and involucrin in cells cultured on PCL matrices compared to TCP (p < 0.05). After histological and immunological evaluation of the reconstituted skin, a thick epidermal layer with several skin appendages was evidently observed in the ASC/PCL group, whereas no real and mature epidermis was formed, especially in the central area of the healing wound in the pure PCL group on day 14. Pure PCL, if possessing suitable properties including good adhesiveness, high proliferative capability, inductive elasticity and stiffness for migration and differentiation, could drive the keratinocyte differentiation of ASCs and act as an efficient dermal equivalent to promote wound healing.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0352-z
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
  • Mathematical modelling of the growth of human fetus anatomical structures
    • Authors: Krzysztof Dudek; Wojciech Kędzia; Emilia Kędzia; Alicja Kędzia; Wojciech Derkowski
      Pages: 521 - 529
      Abstract: The goal of this study was to present a procedure that would enable mathematical analysis of the increase of linear sizes of human anatomical structures, estimate mathematical model parameters and evaluate their adequacy. Section material consisted of 67 foetuses—rectus abdominis muscle and 75 foetuses- biceps femoris muscle. The following methods were incorporated to the study: preparation and anthropologic methods, image digital acquisition, Image J computer system measurements and statistical analysis method. We used an anthropologic method based on age determination with the use of crown-rump length—CRL (V–TUB) by Scammon and Calkins. The choice of mathematical function should be based on a real course of the curve presenting growth of anatomical structure linear size Ύ in subsequent weeks t of pregnancy. Size changes can be described with a segmental-linear model or one-function model with accuracy adequate enough for clinical purposes. The interdependence of size–age is described with many functions. However, the following functions are most often considered: linear, polynomial, spline, logarithmic, power, exponential, power-exponential, log-logistic I and II, Gompertz’s I and II and von Bertalanffy’s function. With the use of the procedures described above, mathematical models parameters were assessed for V-PL (the total length of body) and CRL body length increases, rectus abdominis total length h, its segments hI, hII, hIII, hIV, as well as biceps femoris length and width of long head (LHL and LHW) and of short head (SHL and SHW). The best adjustments to measurement results were observed in the exponential and Gompertz’s models.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0353-y
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
  • Degenerative changes of the sacroiliac auricular joint
           surface—validation of influential factors
    • Authors: Keita Nishi; Kazunobu Saiki; Takeshi Imamura; Keishi Okamoto; Tetsuaki Wakebe; Keiko Ogami; Takashi Hasegawa; Takefumi Moriuchi; Junya Sakamoto; Yoshitaka Manabe; Toshiyuki Tsurumoto
      Pages: 530 - 538
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to clarify the relevance of degenerative changes in the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) and the joints in the lower limb and lumbar spine using age estimation methods. We also examined the shape of the auricular surface to determine the effect of degenerative changes on each joint. A total of 200 iliac auricular surfaces from 100 Japanese male skeletons were examined macroscopically in accordance with conventional methods of age estimation. From the obtained estimated age, we calculated the deflection values, which represented the degree of degenerative changes of the joints. For comparison, we used osteophyte score data of the hip, knee, and zygapophyseal joints in lumbar spines from previous studies which had used the same bone specimens. As a quantitative indicator of auricular surface morphology, we defined the constriction ratio (CR) of the auricular surface and compared the CR values obtained with various measured values. Degenerative changes in the SIJ were positively correlated with those in both the hip joint and zygapophyseal joint, but a correlation with knee joints was found only on the left side. In skeletons from individuals aged ≥60 years as time of death, the CR was significantly different between the group with high scores and those with low scores in both the hip and sacroiliac joints. It has been suggested that degenerative changes in SIJs interact with those in the hip joint and zygapophyseal joint. In addition, the shape of the auricular surface may also be a relevant factor for degenerative changes in these joints.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0354-x
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
  • Anatomy, histology and elemental profile of long bones and ribs of the
           Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus )
    • Authors: Korakot Nganvongpanit; Puntita Siengdee; Kittisak Buddhachat; Janine L. Brown; Sarisa Klinhom; Tanita Pitakarnnop; Taweepoke Angkawanish; Chatchote Thitaram
      Pages: 554 - 568
      Abstract: This study evaluated the morphology and elemental composition of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) bones (humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula and rib). Computerized tomography was used to image the intraosseous structure, compact bones were processed using histological techniques, and elemental profiling of compact bone was conducted using X-ray fluorescence. There was no clear evidence of an open marrow cavity in any of the bones; rather, dense trabecular bone was found in the bone interior. Compact bone contained double osteons in the radius, tibia and fibula. The osteon structure was comparatively large and similar in all bones, although the lacuna area was greater (P < 0.05) in the femur and ulna. Another finding was that nutrient foramina were clearly present in the humerus, ulna, femur, tibia and rib. Twenty elements were identified in elephant compact bone. Of these, ten differed significantly across the seven bones: Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Zr, Ag, Cd, Sn and Sb. Of particular interest was the finding of a significantly larger proportion of Fe in the humerus, radius, fibula and ribs, all bones without an open medullary cavity, which is traditionally associated with bone marrow for blood cell production. In conclusion, elephant bones present special characteristics, some of which may be important to hematopoiesis and bone strength for supporting a heavy body weight.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0361-y
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
  • Multiple muscular variations including tenuissimus and tensor fasciae
           suralis muscles in the posterior thigh of a human case
    • Authors: Takamitsu Arakawa; Takahiro Kondo; Masahiro Tsutsumi; Yuko Watanabe; Toshio Terashima; Akinori Miki
      Pages: 581 - 584
      Abstract: The posterior thigh muscles on the right side of an 81-year-old male cadaver had multiple variations, denoted muscles I–IV. Muscle I originated from the posteromedial surface of the greater trochanter and divided into two muscle bellies. These muscle bellies fused with the long head of the biceps femoris and were innervated by two branches from muscular branches of the semitendinosus and the long head of the biceps. Muscle II separated from the medial surface of the long head of the biceps in the proximal third and fused with the semitendinosus in the distal fourth. Muscle III was a biventer muscle. Its superior belly separated from the medial surface of the long head of the biceps in the distal third. The inferior belly of this muscle fused with the posterior surface of the crural fascia and was innervated by the tibial nerve. Muscle IV separated from the adductor magnus muscle, passed between the long and short heads of the biceps, fused with the inferior belly of muscle III, and was innervated by the muscular branch of the common fibular nerve to the short head of the biceps. Peeling off the epineurium of the muscular branches to the inferior belly of muscle III showed that this nerve fascicle divided from the common trunk with branches to the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. The inferior bellies of muscle III and muscle IV were thought to be equivalent to the tensor fasciae suralis and tenuissimus muscles, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0396-8
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
  • The effect of methamphetamine exposure during pregnancy and lactation on
    • Authors: Zahra Jalayeri-Darbandi; Aliakbar Rajabzadeh; Mahmoud Hosseini; Farimah Beheshti; Alireza Ebrahimzadeh-bideskan
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of methamphetamine (MA) exposure during pregnancy and lactation on doublecortin (DCX) expression in the hippocampus of rat offspring and also on learning/memory. Thirty-five pregnant Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups of 5 rats each: three experimental groups, each receiving 5 mg/kg body weight (BW) intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of MA during pregnancy or/and lactation; three sham groups, each receiving saline injections; one control group, receiving no injection. After the interventions, two male pups (1 and 22 days old) were randomly selected from each mother, sacrificed and their brains subjected to DCX immunohistochemistry. One additional male pup from each mother was randomly selected and maintained for 60 days for testing in the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. MA administration during pregnancy was found to have significantly decreased the number of DCX-positive cells in the CA1, CA3 and DG regions of the hippocampus in the 1-day pups (P ≤ 0.05) and to have significantly decreased the number of DCX-positive cells in only two regions of the hippocampus, the CA1 and DG regions, in 22-day old pups. In comparison, exposure to MA during lactation was only associated with a significant decrease in the number of DCX-positive cells in the DG. Exposure to MA during pregnancy had significant impact on the intensity of DCX expression in the hippocampus of 1- and 22-day pups (P ≤ 0.05). There was no significant difference in memory/learning among the study groups. Our results indicate the administration of MA during pregnancy had a greater effect that during the lactation period on DCX expression in the hippocampus of rat offspring.
      PubDate: 2017-11-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0419-5
  • The malaris muscle: its morphological significance for sustaining the
           intraorbital structures
    • Authors: Natnicha Kampan; Masahiro Tsutsumi; Itsuko Okuda; Hisayo Nasu; Mi-Sun Hur; Kumiko Yamaguchi; Keiichi Akita
      Abstract: The orbicularis oculi muscle, an important mimetic muscle, was investigated to ascertain its anatomical relation to facial aging—especially its orbital part (Oo). Previous studies of the distinct muscle bundles frequently found inferior to the Oo have provided various definitions, including that of the malaris muscle. This study aimed to examine these muscle bundles and clarify their function in facial aging. Twelve heads of Japanese cadavers (average age: 82.5 years old) were dissected to observe the muscles, focusing in particular on those in the periorbital region. Six specimens were further dissected from the inner surfaces to examine the patterns of facial nerve branches under the operating microscope. Histological examinations of two head halves were carried out to investigate the relationship between the muscle bundles and the intraorbital structures. Muscle bundles consisting of lateral, medial, and U-shaped suspending bundles were observed in the region inferior to the Oo. Lateral and suspending bundles were found in all specimens, while the medial bundles were noted in only 9 of 22 specimens. Some branches of the facial nerve penetrated through the lateral, medial, and suspending bundles. The relationship between the suspending bundles and the protruding orbital fat was assessed. The muscle bundles found in this study were regarded as the malaris muscle—a transitional muscle between the superficial and deep facial layers. The suspending bundle may play a role in sustaining the intraorbital structures.
      PubDate: 2017-11-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0422-x
  • Oncostatin M in the development of metabolic syndrome and its potential as
           a novel therapeutic target
    • Authors: Tadasuke Komori; Yoshihiro Morikawa
      Abstract: Oncostatin M (OSM), a member of the IL-6 family of cytokines, plays an important role in various biologic actions, including cell growth, neuronal development, and inflammatory responses. Recently, we demonstrated the unique relationship between OSM and metabolic syndrome in mice. Mice lacking OSM receptor β subunit (OSMRβ−/− mice) exhibited late-onset obesity. Before the onset of obesity, adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance were observed in OSMRβ−/− mice. In addition, high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders, including obesity, adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis, were aggravated in OSMRβ−/− mice compared to those in wild-type mice. Consistent with these findings, OSM treatment dramatically improved these metabolic disorders in the mouse model of metabolic syndrome. Interestingly, OSM directly changed the phenotypes of adipose tissue macrophages toward anti-inflammatory M2 type. Furthermore, fatty acid content in the hepatocytes was decreased by OSM through expression regulation of several key enzymes of hepatic lipid metabolism. These findings suggest that OSM is a novel therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome.
      PubDate: 2017-11-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0421-y
  • Molecular insights into the mechanisms of M-cell differentiation and
           transcytosis in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues
    • Authors: Shunsuke Kimura
      Abstract: Microfold cells (M cells), which are located in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) covering mucosal lymphoid follicles, are specialized epithelial cells that initiate mucosal immune responses. These cells take luminal antigens and transport them via transcytosis across the FAE to the antigen-presenting cells underneath. Several intestinal pathogens exploit M cells as their portal for entry to invade the host and cause disease conditions. Recent studies have revealed that the uptake of antigens by M cells is essential for efficient antigen-specific IgA production and that this process likely maintains the homeostasis of mucosal tissues. The present article reviews recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanism of M-cell differentiation and describes the molecules expressed by M cells that are associated with antigen uptake and/or the transcytosis process. Current efforts to augment M-cell-mediated uptake for use in the development of effective mucosal vaccines are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0418-6
  • A review of functional heterogeneity among astrocytes and the
           CS56-specific antibody-mediated detection of a subpopulation of astrocytes
           in adult brains
    • Authors: Hiroaki Okuda
      Abstract: Astrocytes comprise the largest class of glial cells in the mammalian central nerve system (CNS). Although astrocytes were long considered to be a homogeneous population of neuron-supporting cells, recent decades have seen a shift toward the recognition that astrocytes exhibit morphological and functional heterogeneities and serve as essential modulators of brain functions. However, the mechanism underlying astrocyte diversity remains unclear, and the different subpopulations are difficult to identify due to a lack of specific cell markers. In this review, I discuss current knowledge regarding astrocyte heterogeneity and introduce a subpopulation that can be detected via labeling with a chondroitin sulfate-specific antibody (CS56). These CS56-positive astrocytes were found to selectively express tenascin-R (TNR) in the adult mouse cerebral cortex. Further research demonstrated significantly lower levels of glutamate uptake activity and glutamate aspartate transporter expression in TNR-knockdown astrocytes relative to controls, suggesting that the expression and secretion of Tnr by a subpopulation of astrocytes may contribute to region-specific neuron–astrocyte interactions. In summary, these results suggest that CS56-specific antibody and Tnr could be used as novel markers to detect an astrocyte subpopulation in the adult CNS.
      PubDate: 2017-10-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0420-z
  • Transparent model of temporal bone and vestibulocochlear organ made by 3D
    • Authors: Ryoji Suzuki; Naoto Taniguchi; Fujio Uchida; Akimitsu Ishizawa; Yoshinori Kanatsu; Ming Zhou; Kodai Funakoshi; Hideo Akashi; Hiroshi Abe
      Abstract: The vestibulocochlear organ is composed of tiny complex structures embedded in the petrous part of the temporal bone. Landmarks on the temporal bone surface provide the only orientation guide for dissection, but these need to be removed during the course of dissection, making it difficult to grasp the underlying three-dimensional structures, especially for beginners during gross anatomy classes. We report herein an attempt to produce a transparent three-dimensional-printed model of the human ear. En bloc samples of the temporal bone from donated cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT) scanning, and on the basis of the data, the surface temporal bone was reconstructed with transparent resin and the vestibulocochlear organ with white resin to create a 1:1.5 scale model. The carotid canal was stuffed with red cotton, and the sigmoid sinus and internal jugular vein were filled with blue clay. In the inner ear, the internal acoustic meatus, cochlea, and semicircular canals were well reconstructed in detail with white resin. The three-dimensional relationships of the semicircular canals, spiral turns of the cochlea, and internal acoustic meatus were well recognizable from every direction through the transparent surface resin. The anterior semicircular canal was obvious immediately beneath the arcuate eminence, and the topographical relationships of the vestibulocochlear organ and adjacent great vessels were easily discernible. We consider that this transparent temporal bone model will be a very useful aid for better understanding of the gross anatomy of the vestibulocochlear organ.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0417-7
  • Morphological characteristics of the tongue and lingual papillae of the
           large bamboo rat ( Rhizomys sumatrensis )
    • Authors: Thanakul Wannaprasert
      Abstract: The large bamboo rat (Rhizomys sumatrensis) is a fossorial rodent found throughout Indochina that has a distinct habitat dominated by bamboo thickets. In the study reported here, the lingual biology of this rodent is described in detail, based on characteristic features of the tongue and lingual papillae as determined by light and scanning electron microscopy studies. The tongue was found to be elongated with a rounded apex and possessed a median groove and a well-developed intermolar prominence. Three types of the papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface: filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae. The most abundant papillae were the filiform papillae, the majority of which had a wide base and fork-like processes. Rounded fungiform papillae with one to four taste buds were randomly distributed among the filiform papillae, with a high density found at the anterior tongue, particularly the apex. Two oval vallate papillae were observed on the posterior part of the tongue, surrounded by a circumferential groove into which their numerous gustatory pores opened. The lingual radix had no papillae but contained mucus-secreting Weber’s salivary glands. Structural adaptations of the tongue to meet the functional demands of food ingestion and food manipulation in the oral cavity are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-09-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0414-x
  • Anatomical variations of the recurrent artery of Heubner: number, origin,
           and course
    • Authors: Wakoto Matsuda; Takahiro Sonomura; Satoru Honma; Sachi Ohno; Tetsuya Goto; Shuichi Hirai; Masahiro Itoh; Yoshiko Honda; Hiroki Fujieda; Jun Udagawa; Shuichi Ueda
      Abstract: The clinical anatomy of the recurrent artery of Heubner (RAH) was examined, focusing on its number, origin, and course, in a large number of brain specimens. We studied 724 RAH in total from 357 brain specimens (714 hemispheres). In 98.74 % of 714 cases there were one or more RAHs, while it was absent in 1.26 % of cases. There was a single RAH in 96.22 % of cases, double in 2.38 % of cases, and triple in 0.14 % of cases. In this study, three origin types of the RAH were defined. We defined A1 and A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) as the artery from the origin of the ACA to the junction of the anterior communicating artery (AComA) and the artery from the junction of the AComA to the anterior border of the corpus callosum, respectively. In 76.2 % of 724 arteries, the RAH originated from the junction of the A1 and A2 segment of the ACA. In 16.3 %, the RAH originated from the A2 segment of the ACA. In 7.5 %, the RAH originated from the A1 segment of the ACA. The course of the RAH was superior to the A1 segment of the ACA in 30.1 % of 724 arteries, anterior in 62.2 %, and posterior in 7.7 %. It is of great importance for neurosurgeons to understand the detailed anatomical variations of the RAH before operating to prevent operative complications resulting in neurological deficits.
      PubDate: 2017-09-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0415-9
  • Age-related behavioral, morphological and physiological changes in the
           hippocampus of zitter rats
    • Authors: Ayuka Ehara; Masao Maekawa; Yuuichi Hori; Kazuhiko Nakadate; Shiuchi Ueda
      Abstract: Convulsive seizure is known to be associated with hippocampal abnormalities, such as hilar cell degeneration, abnormal mossy fiber sprouting in the dentate gyrus (DG) and abnormal expression of immediate early genes. However, whether these morphological changes are a cause or consequence of convulsive seizures has remained contentious. Zitter (zi/zi) rats carry a mutation of the attractin gene and display spongiform degeneration of the brain. Spontaneous convulsive seizures in zi/zi rats over 8 months (M) old were demonstrated using 24-h video monitoring. Spontaneous convulsive seizures did not occur before this age. The present study examined structural changes in the hippocampus of zi/zi rats at different ages. Fluoro-Jade B-positive cells first appeared in the hilus of 1-M zi/zi rats, indicating hilar cell degeneration. After 2 M, mossy fiber sprouting was observed in granular cell layers and in the inner molecular layer. After 10 M, granule cells showed Fos expression. In the hippocampal slices from 12-M zi/zi rats, abnormal population spikes in the DG were observed in the presence of bicuculline and strychnine. Conversely, Sprague-Dawley rats showed no aberrant zinc distribution, few Fos-positive cells, no Fluoro-Jade B-positive cells in the hippocampus and no abnormal population spikes in the DG. These data indicate that morphological changes in the hippocampus might contribute to epileptogenesis in this mutant rat.
      PubDate: 2017-09-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0416-8
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