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  Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 7268 journals)
    - ALLERGOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY (198 journals)
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    - CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (306 journals)
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    - INTERNAL MEDICINE (134 journals)
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    - MEDICAL GENETICS (59 journals)
    - MEDICAL SCIENCES (1810 journals)
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    - RHEUMATOLOGY (63 journals)
    - SPORTS MEDICINE (68 journals)
    - SURGERY (353 journals)
    - UROLOGY, NEPHROLOGY AND ANDROLOGY (135 journals)

MEDICAL SCIENCES (1810 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access  
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access  
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access  
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Fundeni Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access  
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Journal Khulna     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Research Council Bulletin     Open Access  
Basal Ganglia     Hybrid Journal  
Basic Sciences of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BC Medical Journal     Free  
Benha Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bijblijven     Hybrid Journal  
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biologics in Therapy     Open Access  
Biology of Sex Differences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomarker Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover American Journal of Medicine Supplements
  [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1548-2766
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • CME information
    • Abstract: April 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 118, Supplement 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Introduction
    • Abstract: April 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 118, Supplement 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus and associated cardiovascular risk
           factors: Focus on human immunodeficiency virus and psychiatric disorders
    • Abstract: April 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 118, Supplement 2

      Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in many developing and developed nations, leading to talk of the “twin epidemics.” The latest projections from the International Diabetes Federation suggest that 190 million people worldwide currently have type 2 diabetes. In addition, ≥300 million people worldwide have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). These statistics represent an epidemic of major proportions—possibly the largest epidemic in human history—in terms of glucose intolerance and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk because individuals with IGT are at substantially higher risk for diabetes and CVD than are members of the general population. Along with IGT, the metabolic syndrome comprises other major CVD risk factors, including insulin resistance, central obesity, and dyslipidemia; insulin resistance has been implicated as the single most common cause of the syndrome. Although the exact prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is unknown, the syndrome is widespread among adults in developed nations, becoming more prevalent with age. Epidemiologic data suggest that in patients with schizophrenia or affective disorders, both diabetes and obesity are 1.5 to 2.0 times more prevalent than in the general population. Furthermore, because adverse effects of certain therapies for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and psychiatric disorders increase the risk for developing diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome, such therapies should be carefully chosen, particularly considering CVD risk. Appropriate therapy may be determined via screening of patients for levels of fasting blood glucose and lipids, as well as other CVD risk factors, before initiating use of second-generation antipsychotic agents or highly active antiretroviral therapy.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Evaluation of the patient with diabetes mellitus and suspected coronary
           artery disease
    • Abstract: April 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 118, Supplement 2

      Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. In fact, patients with diabetes have the same risk of myocardial infarction as do nondiabetic subjects with a history of infarction. For this reason, diabetes has been designated by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) as a CAD equivalent. For women, data indicate a substantially elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) even before a clinical diagnosis of type 2 diabetes has been made. Identifying patients with diabetes who have CAD and who will benefit from medical and/or invasive intervention to prevent cardiovascular events is a challenge in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. The decision to evaluate patients with diabetes who are asymptomatic for CAD presents the greatest challenge; investigation will reveal 10% to 15% of these patients to have CAD. Current diagnostic tools include exercise tolerance testing, stress echocardiography, stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), and cardiac catheterization. Few guidelines are available to aid in the choice of testing modalities for a given patient. Although cardiac catheterization is useful, it is generally reserved for patients in whom invasive intervention is suitable. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends exercise tolerance testing alone in symptomatic patients with ≥2 CAD risk factors or an abnormal resting electrocardiogram (ECG). However, that recommendation is not based on data; it is the consensus of an expert panel. Stress echocardiography is a useful, noninvasive procedure; however, there is limited experience with this technology in the diabetic population. Recently accumulated data support both diagnostic and prognostic roles for stress MPI, particularly with ECG-gated single-photon emission computed tomographic imaging. In symptomatic patients with diabetes, the presence and extent of abnormal stress MPI findings have been found to be highly accurate independent predictors of subsequent cardiac events: 18% to 26% of asymptomatic patients with diabetes have perfusion defects consistent with CAD. However, CVD risk factors are not predictive of abnormal MPI findings even though duration of diabetes and abnormal ECGs are. The results of future studies may be helpful in guiding the selection of asymptomatic patients to undergo myocardial perfusion and function studies. In conclusion, MPI provides clinicians with an important diagnostic tool, because it offers perfusion as well as functional information for diagnosis and risk stratification in patients with diabetes. These capabilities facilitate decision making regarding the appropriateness of medical therapy or surgical intervention in these individuals.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Metabolic issues and cardiovascular disease in patients with psychiatric
           disorders
    • Abstract: April 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 118, Supplement 2

      Individuals with psychiatric disorders tend to have excessive morbidity. They typically have high rates of respiratory illnesses, infectious diseases, substance abuse (including smoking), obesity, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Persons with schizophrenia and affective disorders also have a high prevalence of risk factors for CVD, such as diabetes and obesity, which are on the order of 1.5 to 2.0 times higher than in the general population; this translates into increased mortality rates due to CVD. The use of certain psychotropics results in metabolic sequelae, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, glucose dysregulation, and the metabolic syndrome. These sequelae exacerbate the already elevated risk of CVD and diabetes in this group of people. Therefore, the use of psychotropic agents that result in, for example, excessive weight gain not only add another complication for physicians managing a patient with schizophrenia but also may have serious prognostic and cost implications with respect to treatment-related diabetes and coronary disease incidence. The recent American Diabetes Association (ADA) Consensus Panel concluded that some agents are associated with greater diabetes risk than others. The current review describes the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in people with affective disorders and schizophrenic populations, its prognostic relevance, and its exacerbation among patients treated with particular psychotropic agents, including certain atypical antipsychotics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and mood stabilizers. The costs associated with the treatment of the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and coronary heart disease in populations with schizophrenia are also described.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease in patients with human
           immunodeficiency virus
    • Abstract: April 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 118, Supplement 2

      Use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with the development of cardiovascular risk factors, including dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, fat redistribution, and hypertension. The results of the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study showed that HAART therapy is associated with a 26% relative risk increase in the rate of myocardial infarction per year of HAART exposure. A number of studies have shown that insulin resistance often precedes lipodystrophy, suggesting that insulin resistance may be a primary feature of the metabolic syndrome in this population. The rate-limiting step in the uptake of glucose is glucose transport, and the predominant glucose transporter (GLUT) in muscle and fat is GLUT-4. Specific protease inhibitors (PIs) have been associated with decreased GLUT-4-mediated glucose transport and insulin resistance both in vitro and in vivo, whereas newer protease inhibitors may have fewer effects on insulin sensitivity. Data also suggest that endothelial dysfunction, impaired fibrinolysis, and excess inflammation may contribute to increased cardiovascular risk in the population infected with HIV. Moreover, recent data suggest that evidence for coronary atherosclerotic disease can be revealed by means of carotid intimal medial thickness (IMT) assessments in specific groups of HIV patients. Pharmacologic strategies for the prevention and/or treatment of HAART-induced dyslipidemia and abnormal glucose homeostasis include 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins), resins, nicotinic acid, fibrates, and insulin-sensitizing agents. However, newer PIs such as atazanavir may result in less insulin resistance and dyslipidemia and, as part of a HAART regimen, use of atazanavir may reduce the metabolic complications associated with HAART.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • CME section
    • Abstract: April 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 118, Supplement 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Introduction
    • Abstract: March 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 118, Supplement 1



      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • The epidemiology of migraine
    • Abstract: March 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 118, Supplement 1

      This article provides a review of the epidemiology and risk factors for migraine in population studies, as well as patterns for healthcare use. The burden and costs of migraine, as well as risk factors for disease progression, are also discussed. Although migraine is a remarkably common cause of temporary disability, many persons with migraine, even those with disabling headache, have never consulted a physician for the problem. Prevalence is highest in women, in persons between the ages of 25 and 55 years, and, at least in the United States, in individuals from lower income households. However, prevalence is high in groups other than these high-risk groups. In a subgroup of patients, migraine may be a progressive disorder.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Identifying migraine in primary care settings
    • Abstract: March 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 118, Supplement 1

      Migraine disorders are largely unrecognized and untreated, despite the heavy burden they impose on individuals and society. Studies have shown that the symptom severity and disability associated with undiagnosed migraine are as burdensome as those associated with diagnosed migraine. Of those persons with migraine identified in population-based surveys, many were previously unaware that they had migraine. Furthermore, coexisting headache types and comorbid conditions contribute to misdiagnosis among those who consult a physician for headache. Patients who do seek medical attention for headaches usually visit their primary care providers. The purpose of this review is to highlight the distinguishing characteristics of migraine compared with other headache disorders, based on the new International Classification of Headache Disorders. To aid in diagnosis, simple screening tools, such as ID Migraine (Pfizer Inc., New York, NY), are recommended. The clinical interview and headache diary aid in refining the diagnosis or suggesting the need for further evaluation. Improved recognition of migraine in primary care will increase the rate of successful treatment with effective migraine-specific therapies. This will result in improved functionality and decreased pain, and may help prevent disease progression.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Initiating and optimizing acute therapy for migraine: The role of
           patient-centered stratified care
    • Abstract: March 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 118, Supplement 1

      Migraine is a chronic, intermittently disabling condition that affects physical, mental, and social aspects of health-related quality of life. Because patients seeking assistance with migraine most often present to primary care providers, these healthcare professionals play critical roles in the diagnosis and treatment process. A comprehensive migraine management plan involves a partnership between the patient and healthcare professional where treatment goals and strategies are established. Elements of such a plan should include preventive strategies to reduce the frequency and effects of future attacks as well as the use of acute treatments to address the immediate need for relief during an attack. Approaches to prevention include education, lifestyle modification, and, often, appropriate medication. Many medications have been used for acute treatment. Nonspecific agents include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), single or combination analgesics (sometimes including antiemetics or caffeine), and narcotics. Migraine-specific medications include ergot alkaloids and triptans (5-hydroxytryptamine1B/1D agonists). Various professional organizations have created guidelines to help providers in choosing appropriate management interventions. Clinical approaches to the patient with migraine include step care, whereby all patients begin on a simple or nonspecific treatment, stepping up to the next level of therapy if treatment is unsuccessful; or stratified care, whereby first-line therapy is tailored to the severity of the patient’s pattern of headache. Studies have demonstrated that for more disabled headache patients, the stratified-care approach results in more robust headache response with less disability and greater cost-effectiveness than step care. Patient satisfaction studies demonstrate that the use of migraine-specific abortive medications (triptans) is associated with a higher satisfaction rate than over-the-counter preparations, NSAIDs, and analgesic combinations. Patients who initially reported satisfaction with the latter medications also reported a preference for triptan therapy. Healthcare professionals can assist patients, not only by choosing the most appropriate medication but also by assessing whether the level of benefit the patient is currently receiving could be improved.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Evaluating the triptans
    • Abstract: March 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 118, Supplement 1

      The debilitating effect of migraine has fueled the search for more specific agents to treat its characteristic and associated symptoms. Second-generation oral triptans have shown an improved efficacy profile in comparison with the pioneer sumatriptan and with the over-the-counter medications and prescription analgesics that have been staples of migraine treatment. Although all triptans exert effects through the 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B/1D receptors, each triptan has distinctive pharmacokinetic properties that determine its efficacy and tolerability profile. Empirical findings based on clinical trials have led to associations between triptan pharmacology and efficacy. With the expanded treatment choices, the onus is on healthcare providers (especially primary care physicians, who see the majority of patients with migraine) to determine which treatment has an efficacy profile that best suits the individual patient’s needs. Patients prefer pharmacotherapy with a rapid onset of action that facilitates complete pain relief and no recurrence. Data from published comparator trials, based on commonly used efficacy end points and pharmacokinetic properties underlying patient-preferred outcomes, are reviewed in this article.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Evaluating the safety and tolerability profile of acute treatments for
           migraine
    • Abstract: March 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 118, Supplement 1

      Among the medications that have been used as acute treatments for migraine are nonspecific agents, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), analgesics (either single or combination), and narcotics, as well as migraine-specific medications, including ergot alkaloids and triptans (5-hydroxytryptamine 1B/1D agonists). All of these drugs have side effects that vary in type and severity. Side effects of nonspecific medications, including gastrointestinal (GI) and renal effects with NSAIDs and cognitive effects and the potential for abuse with narcotics and butalbital-containing medications, have been documented over time, as these medications have been used for various indications. Side effects of the migraine-specific medications include GI and vascular symptoms with the ergots; for the triptans, they include chest and neurologic symptoms. Although adverse events are reported fairly frequently in patients receiving triptans, they are usually mild, and few patients discontinue therapy because of them. The most serious adverse events are cardiovascular. Because of potential vasoconstrictor effects—mild and transient increases in blood pressure and mild and transient effects on coronary artery tone—triptans as a class are contraindicated in patients with established or clinically suspected cardiovascular disease, specifically ischemic heart disease and uncontrolled hypertension. Other adverse events, including the potential for drug-drug interactions, are less common. Therefore, consideration should be given to the tolerability and safety of medications before their use as abortive medications for the treatment of migraine headache.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Conclusion: How primary care physicians can help their patients with
           migraine
    • Abstract: March 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 118, Supplement 1



      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Introduction
    • Abstract: 20 December 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 12, Supplement 1



      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Is there a case for early
           intervention'
    • Abstract: 20 December 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 12, Supplement 1

      Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a highly prevalent condition that represents a significant economic burden to society. Early diagnosis of COPD offers the best opportunity to slow the progression of the disease through smoking cessation. Aggressive medical management of COPD for patients diagnosed at a moderate or severe stage is likely to be attractive from an economic standpoint, although prospective studies are needed to validate current evidence. Poor adherence to smoking cessation and pharmacologic therapy suggests that patient education is critical to successful intervention at all stages of illness. The economic value of aggressive pharmacotherapy for early-stage COPD is less certain, but the burden of illness and potential pharmacoeconomic benefits in such patients is a strong rationale for combined clinical and economic trials.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • The pathophysiology of airway dysfunction
    • Abstract: 20 December 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 12, Supplement 1

      Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are distinct inflammatory disorders with differing pathophysiologic mechanisms, different clinical courses, and, therefore, distinct treatment strategies. Whereas in asthma airflow limitation is typically episodic and reversible, airflow limitation in COPD is progressive and only partially reversible. In contrast to asthma, which is characterized by an elevated number of eosinophils in the blood and the accumulation of elevated numbers of activated eosinophils, mast cells, and CD4+ TH2-lymphocytes in the lungs, the primary inflammatory cells present in the lungs of patients with stable COPD are neutrophils, macrophages, and CD8+ lymphocytes. Bronchoconstriction in COPD is largely regulated by cholinergically mediated vagal tone, and the pathologic processes of COPD further reduce airway patency. Bronchodilators, most notably anticholinergics, are recommended as first-line pharmacologic therapy for COPD. Proper use of inhaled anticholinergic medications has been shown to lead to significant reversibility of acetylcholine-mediated bronchoconstriction during both stable disease and exacerbations of COPD. For patients with asthma, current guidelines recommend anti-inflammatory medications, specifically inhaled corticosteroids and leukotriene-modifiers, as first-line therapy, making these agents the mainstay of asthma therapy. In contrast, the current guidelines for COPD management recommend that inhaled anti-inflammatory agents be tried in patients with COPD only as second-line therapy for patients who have severe to very severe airflow obstruction with frequent exacerbations and who remain symptomatic despite maximized bronchodilation with multiple inhaled bronchodilators. Hence, it is extremely important to understand the differences between the underlying pathogenesis and pathophysiology of COPD and those of asthma, as these differences dictate the implementation of distinctly different treatment options for these 2 diseases.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • The role of anticholinergics in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    • Abstract: 20 December 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 12, Supplement 1

      Anticholinergics are the bronchodilators of choice in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). They work by blocking muscarinic receptors in airway smooth muscle. Cholinergic tone appears to be the only reversible component of COPD. With the discovery of different muscarinic receptor subtypes, the development of more selective anticholinergics is possible. A major advance in this therapeutic area has been the discovery of tiotropium bromide, which has kinetic selectivity for M3 receptors as well as a duration of action of >24 hours. Once-daily administration of tiotropium is well tolerated and has shown significant advantages over ipratropium bromide, given 4 times daily, in the control of COPD.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Lung function improvements with once-daily tiotropium in chronic
           obstructive pulmonary disease
    • Abstract: 20 December 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 12, Supplement 1

      The defining feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is progressive deterioration in lung function. Measures of lung function are used to confirm the diagnosis, assess the severity of disease, and evaluate the efficacy of interventions. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), determined by spirometry, is the best known of these measures; however, it does not correlate well with dyspnea or exercise capacity, which are important targets for improvement in COPD management. Airflow obstruction in COPD often causes lung hyperinflation, which further inhibits the patient’s ability to breathe. The degree of hyperinflation has been shown to correlate well with dyspnea and exercise capacity, but it is less convenient to measure than FEV1. This article briefly reviews the key lung function measurements used in monitoring patients with COPD. To illustrate how these measurements can be used to demonstrate the improvements in lung function elicited by effective bronchodilator therapy, the changes associated with the once-daily, long-acting bronchodilator tiotropium are presented.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Interventions to prevent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
           exacerbations
    • Abstract: 20 December 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 12, Supplement 1

      Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have a profound effect on the patient’s health status and decline in lung function; they also impose a significant burden on healthcare resource utilization. Prevention and treatment of exacerbations is listed by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) as among the major objectives of COPD management, and it is therefore an important outcome measure when studying any new agent. This article discusses pharmacologic therapy and other measures for preventing exacerbations and hospitalizations due to exacerbations of COPD.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Clinically meaningful outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive
           pulmonary disease
    • Abstract: 20 December 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 12, Supplement 1

      Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic airflow limitation, gas exchange abnormalities, hyperinflation, and other pathophysiologic events. However, patients are usually unaware of these physical changes and only seek medical attention when distressing symptoms, such as dyspnea and exercise limitation, begin to appear. Therefore, it is reasonable to directly assess these clinical areas of importance to the patient, both as determinants of the impact of the disease process and as outcomes following intervention. Although many of the physiologic abnormalities of COPD are only partially or poorly reversible with treatment, dyspnea, exercise performance, and health status often show impressive gains with therapy. Incorporating clinically relevant outcome assessments complements traditional physiologic measurements and provides the clinician with a yardstick to determine whether a particular intervention is causing a meaningful improvement in the patient. This article discusses these clinical assessments and provides specific examples of their applicability and usefulness in treating patients with COPD.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Introduction
    • Abstract: 8 November 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 9, Supplement 1



      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Immunomodulatory properties of macrolides: Overview and historical
           perspective
    • Abstract: 8 November 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 9, Supplement 1



      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Clinical implications of the immunomodulatory effects of macrolides
    • Abstract: 8 November 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 9, Supplement 1

      Macrolide antibiotics are known for their efficacy in treating acute airway infections, but just as importantly, they are also effective anti-inflammatory agents. Their anti-inflammatory properties have been studied most thoroughly in chronic inflammatory airway diseases, particularly diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB). Erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin inhibit chemotaxis and infiltration of neutrophils into the airway and, subsequently, decrease mucus secretion. Mucus formation, a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic airway inflammation, is directly inhibited by macrolides and suppressed by decreased inflammation in the airway. The mechanisms of action for the anti-inflammatory properties of the macrolides are still being investigated, but they are clearly multifactorial. Macrolides inhibit the production of many proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor–α, perhaps by suppressing the transcription factor nuclear factor–κB or activator protein–1. Inhibition of cytokine production has been seen in vitro and also in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which contains less IL-8 and fewer neutrophils after treatment with macrolides. Macrolides also inhibit formation of leukotriene B4, which attracts neutrophils, and inhibit the release of superoxide anion by neutrophils that may be present in the airway. An important aspect of inflammation is extravasation of neutrophils into the tissues. Macrolides block formation of adhesion molecules necessary for neutrophil migration. Together, these anti-inflammatory effects result in improved pulmonary functions and fewer airway infections. In patients with DPB, the anti-inflammatory effects lead to a significant increase in survival. Further work is needed to characterize the clinical benefits of macrolides in patients with other chronic inflammatory airway diseases.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Applying lessons learned in the treatment of diffuse panbronchiolitis to
           other chronic inflammatory diseases
    • Abstract: 8 November 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 9, Supplement 1

      In addition to having antibacterial effects, macrolides modulate inflammatory responses. Their effectiveness in treating chronic inflammatory airway disease is well documented in patients with diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB), a chronic condition characterized by inflammation of the airways that, if left untreated, progressively leads to respiratory failure and death. Long-term treatment with certain macrolides has dramatically improved the survival of patients with DPB. The mechanisms of action for the anti-inflammatory properties of macrolides are still being studied. The effects of macrolides on inflammation include decreasing chemotaxis of neutrophils to the respiratory tract and inhibiting the expression of adhesion molecules, with decreased infiltration of neutrophils into the respiratory epithelium. Macrolides also inhibit expression of transcription factors and formation of proinflammatory cytokines, and directly and indirectly block mucus secretion. Even with long-term use, macrolides are safe and well tolerated. The effectiveness of macrolides for treating DPB has led to interest in their use in treating other chronic inflammatory airway diseases. As discussed in this article, because of the similarities between the clinical presentation of cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchitis and DPB, the effects of macrolides in patients with these diseases are currently being studied with particular interest.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Clinical implications of the immunomodulatory effects of macrolides on
           sinusitis
    • Abstract: 8 November 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 9, Supplement 1

      This article reviews the treatment of chronic sinusitis with macrolides. Chronic sinusitis is often the result of bacterial infections that lead to chronic inflammation with thickening of the sinus mucosa and hypersecretion of mucus. In addition to their anti-infective properties, some macrolides possess immunomodulatory effects. These macrolides have been used successfully to treat diffuse panbronchiolitis, a progressive inflammatory lung disease, and may be useful for treatment of asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic sinusitis, cystic fibrosis, and bronchiectasis. The clinical benefits of macrolides in patients with chronic sinusitis include decreased nasal secretions and postnasal drip, with improvement in nasal obstruction. In vivo and in vitro studies show that some macrolides affect neutrophil chemotaxis and infiltration, inflammatory cytokine production, mucus production, and the transportability of airway secretions. These findings indicate that macrolides are promising agents for treating chronic inflammation of the airways.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Immunomodulatory effects of macrolides: Implications for practicing
           clinicians
    • Abstract: 8 November 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 9, Supplement 1

      Macrolides are regarded as the drugs of choice for the treatment of diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) due to their favorable effects on patient outcomes. These drugs decrease sputum production, thereby improving pulmonary function. Moreover, these effects are independent of dosing with respect to clarithromycin, erythromycin, and roxithromycin. The marked success of macrolides in this disease is a direct effect of impeding the inflammatory cascade. With their abilities to reduce the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, ameliorate the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the airways, and reduce mucus secretion, macrolides are able to improve pulmonary function and quality of life in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases of the airways. Although prolonged use of macrolides raises concerns of increased adverse effects, data do not support such occurrences. With respect to concerns of resistance, it should be noted that in Japan, where macrolides are part of the treatment for DPB, these agents continue to be used effectively as antimicrobial agents. Therefore, the potential benefits of the immunomodulatory effects of macrolides in other conditions such as cystic fibrosis, chronic sinusitis, asthma, and chronic bronchitis are under investigation.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • CME-front
    • Abstract: 6 September 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 5, Supplement 1



      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Introduction
    • Abstract: 6 September 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 5, Supplement 1



      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Measurement and expression of risk: Optimizing decision strategies
    • Abstract: 6 September 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 5, Supplement 1

      A significant proportion of the >6 million articles published annually present data in terms of risk and risk reduction. While the measurement of risk and risk reduction is often straightforward, there are a variety of ways that risk may be expressed. Risk is defined as the rate of an occurrence of a particular disease or adverse event and is determined by the number of events divided by the person-years or number of individuals in the at-risk population. The portrayal of risk can be achieved using different techniques but is typically provided in demographic maps, time-trend charts, or incidence bar graphs. Risk can be expressed in relative terms such as relative risk or absolute measures such as attributable risk or number needed to treat. Understanding risk determination as well as the differences in risk depiction and expression is necessary to ascertain the relevance of the data to one's clinical practice as well as to make optimal clinical and pharmacoeconomic treatment decisions. A review of terms, together with examples, is presented, such that clinicians evaluating the medical literature will be able to identify differences in the way that risk-related results are expressed and optimize the application of such evidence to their practice.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Aging, the gastrointestinal tract, and risk of acid-related disease
    • Abstract: 6 September 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 5, Supplement 1

      It is estimated that by 2020, >16% of people in the United States will be ≥65 years of age and that nearly 20 million will be >85 years of age. Aging imparts a variety of physiologic changes in the oropharynx, esophagus, and stomach that increase the risk for esophageal and gastrointestinal disorders. Older individuals also tend to have a higher prevalence of comorbid factors, such as Helicobacter pylori infection, smoking, presence of other diseases, or use of medications (e.g., nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs]) that increase their risk for acid-related disorders. Given these physiologic and comorbidity factors, the elderly are at higher risk for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), pill-induced esophagitis, peptic ulcer disease, and complications related to the use of NSAIDs. Unfortunately, in the elderly patient with these disorders—even those with severe disease or complications—symptom presentation may be subtle or atypical, resulting in a delayed diagnosis. Endoscopy remains the “gold standard” for the identification of mucosal disease and should be performed in all patients with “new-onset” or persistent symptoms who are >45 years of age, as well as in individuals of any age who present with alarm symptoms, such as weight loss, vomiting, anemia, dysphagia, or evidence of gastrointestinal bleeding. In general, the treatment of older individuals with peptic ulcer or GERD and its complications is similar to that of younger individuals. Proton pump inhibitors are the mainstay of therapy for symptom relief, healing of erosive esophagitis, resolution of peptic ulceration, reduction of the risk for NSAID-induced mucosal damage, and prevention of disease recurrence.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Therapeutic choices in reflux disease: Defining the criteria for selecting
           a proton pump inhibitor
    • Abstract: 6 September 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 5, Supplement 1

      Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is among the most common disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, with symptoms affecting a substantial proportion of the US population on a daily basis. Heartburn and related symptoms arise from a number of pathophysiologic mechanisms, including dilated intercellular spaces, increased duration of acid reflux, greater proximal extent of reflux, and esophageal sensitivity. Chronic reflux may result in serious complications, such as esophageal erosions or ulceration, stricture, and Barrett esophagus. The goals of GERD therapy are to relieve patients' symptoms and prevent complications. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) represent the most effective treatment option for GERD, relieving symptoms, healing erosions, and maintaining a healed mucosa. Differences in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics among the PPIs may result in differences in intragastric pH holding time as well as the onset of symptom relief. Lansoprazole and esomeprazole produce similar degrees and onset of symptom relief, with both providing greater symptom relief as compared with omeprazole. Although manufactured as capsules containing enteric-coated granules, lansoprazole, omeprazole, and esomeprazole maintain their high level of pharmacologic efficacy when the capsule contents are emptied into soft foods or various liquids. Lansoprazole and pantoprazole also are manufactured as intravenous formulations, and lansoprazole is available as strawberry-flavored granules for oral suspension and as an orally disintegrating tablet. These alternative routes of administration are particularly beneficial in the management of acid-related disorders in infants, children, the elderly, and patients of all ages who have difficulty swallowing or are unable to swallow intact capsules or tablets and those in the critical care setting.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease: Could intervention in childhood reduce
           the risk of later complications'
    • Abstract: 6 September 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 5, Supplement 1

      Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a ubiquitous disorder in infants. Whereas infants typically outgrow regurgitation by 1 year of age, the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms in those aged 3 to >18 years ranges from 1.8% to 22%. The pathophysiology of GERD in children is similar to that in adults. However, children may present with gastroesophageal and extraesophageal symptoms distinct from classic heartburn. In addition to a growing awareness of the high prevalence of the disorder, increasing evidence supports GERD being a lifelong condition in some individuals that begins in childhood. Although the diagnostic workup in children compared with adults may differ, studies suggest that the early detection and treatment of GERD in childhood may result in better adult disease outcomes, improved quality of life, and decreased overall healthcare burden. Studies of proton pump inhibitor therapy in children confirm high rates of mucosal healing and GER symptom resolution, even in children whose symptoms did not respond to H2-receptor therapy or fundoplication procedures. Omeprazole, lansoprazole, and esomeprazole are formulated as capsules containing enteric-coated granules that can be sprinkled onto applesauce or other soft foods. Lansoprazole is also formulated as strawberry-flavored granules for suspension. These as well as other alternative dosing formulations expand the ability to administer these agents to children. Moreover, long-term studies in adults and in children demonstrate that these agents are safe and well tolerated, even at the higher milligram per kilogram doses that are often required in pediatric patients because of their greater hepatic metabolic capacity.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Appropriate strategies for testing and treating Helicobacter pylori in
           children: When and how'
    • Abstract: 6 September 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 5, Supplement 1

      Helicobacter pylori infection is acquired primarily during childhood and carries a significant lifetime risk for morbidity. In developing countries, approximately 70% of children are infected with the bacterium by their 15th birthday. In the United States, the rate of H pylori infection among children varies widely—approximately 10% of all 10-year-olds are infected; however, this figure is substantially higher among populations of immigrant children and children born of recent immigrants to the United States. H pylori transmission is primarily “person-to-person” via fecal-oral, gastric-oral, or oral-oral routes, with evidence suggesting contaminated water as a potential source of infection. Risk factors for infection in childhood include an infected family member, having ≥2 siblings, crowded living conditions, lower socioeconomic means, and attendance at a daycare facility. The natural history of H pylori infection includes an increased lifetime risk for peptic ulcer and gastric adenocarcinoma or lymphoma. In children and adults who develop H pylori–related peptic ulcer, cure of the infection is associated with a
      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Endoscopy-negative reflux disease: Concepts and clinical practice
    • Abstract: 6 September 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 5, Supplement 1

      Endoscopy-negative reflux disease is used to describe a heterogeneous group of disorders with symptoms that mimic those of gastroesophageal reflux disease in the absence of visible esophageal injury at endoscopy. Compared with patients who have gastroesophageal reflux–related erosive esophagitis, those with endoscopy-negative disease are more likely to be younger, female, of lower body weight, and without a hiatal hernia. Approximately 50% of those with endoscopy-negative reflux have abnormal intraesophageal acid exposure and are considered to have nonerosive acid reflux disease. Those with symptoms of >12 consecutive or intermittent weeks' duration during the prior year, with normal acid exposure and without achalasia or other motility disorder with a recognized pathologic basis, are considered to have functional heartburn. In the absence of pathologic reflux, a number of etiologies may contribute to the symptoms of heartburn, including motor events, reflux of nonacidic gastric contents, minute changes in intraesophageal pH (pH
      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Management of acid-related disorders in patients with dysphagia
    • Abstract: 6 September 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 5, Supplement 1

      Dysphagia affects a large and growing number of individuals in the United States, particularly the elderly and those who are neurologically impaired. Swallowing difficulties may be due to age-related changes in oropharyngeal and esophageal functioning as well as central nervous system diseases such as stroke, Parkinson disease, and dementia. Among institutionalized individuals, dysphagia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. An appreciation of the physiology of swallowing and the pathophysiology of dysphagia is necessary for proper patient management. Careful history, physical examination, and evaluation of radiologic and endoscopic studies should differentiate oropharyngeal and esophageal etiologies of dysphagia and distinguish mechanical (anatomic) disorders from functional (motor) disorders. A significant percentage of patients with dysphagia have concomitant acid-related disorders that are managed best with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. Three of the currently available PPIs are manufactured as capsules containing enteric-coated granules that may be mixed with soft foods or fruit juices before oral administration to those with swallowing difficulties. In addition, omeprazole and lansoprazole may be administered via gastrostomy or nasogastric feeding tubes as suspensions in sodium bicarbonate. Novel dosage formulations of lansoprazole that may be appropriate for patients with dysphagia include the commercially manufactured lansoprazole strawberry-flavored enteric-coated granules for suspension and lansoprazole orally disintegrating tablets.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Managing gastroesophageal reflux disease for the lifetime of the patient:
           Evaluating the long-term options
    • Abstract: 6 September 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 5, Supplement 1

      Lifetime management goals of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are to control esophageal as well as extraesophageal symptoms, maintain a stable noninflamed esophageal mucosa, and prevent complications. Large randomized clinical trials and >16 years of worldwide experience have confirmed the high rate of efficacy and excellent safety profile of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy in individuals with all grades of GERD, making these agents the mainstay of treatment. Despite these outcomes, some individuals may desire an alternative to pharmacologic therapy. In such patients, laparoscopic fundoplication may produce symptom relief and healing of esophagitis, but its invasiveness, cost, and inherent surgical risks have created an interest in a variety of endoscopic therapies for reflux disease. Several short-term uncontrolled trials of these endoscopic therapies have reported encouraging preliminary results; however, careful patient selection as well as clinician experience is critical for their success. In addition to clinician expertise with the procedure, success has been observed only in patients with nonerosive GERD and a hiatal hernia
      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Extraesophageal symptoms: What role for the proton pump inhibitors'
    • Abstract: 6 September 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 5, Supplement 1

      The esophageal complications of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are well described and include erosive esophagitis, stricture, Barrett esophagus, and adenocarcinoma. Primary care physicians often encounter patients with “extraesophageal” manifestations of GERD in the absence of heartburn. Patients may present with symptoms involving the pulmonary system, noncardiac chest pain, and ear, nose, and throat disorders. The diagnosis of reflux disease in these individuals may be challenging because, in addition to the absence of heartburn, endoscopy is often negative. Laryngoscopy and 24-hour dual-channel intraesophageal pH-metry may have greater diagnostic yields, but they are costly, invasive, and time-consuming. A trial of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy is increasingly being considered a first-line diagnostic test in those with suspected reflux-related extraesophageal symptoms. The duration as well as dose of PPI should be based on the presenting symptoms, with patients having pulmonary manifestations often requiring twice-daily therapy for 2 to 3 months. In contrast, symptoms of reflux-related noncardiac chest pain may be relieved with a 1-week, standard-dose treatment trial. Patients who fail to experience symptom resolution or improvement should undergo further diagnostic evaluations including 24-hour esophageal pH studies while continuing their PPI therapy to establish persistent versus absent acid reflux. The role of fundoplication or other surgical/laparoscopic procedures in these patients has yet to be determined.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Prevention of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug–associated
           gastrointestinal symptoms and ulcer complications
    • Abstract: 6 September 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 5, Supplement 1

      Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) produce symptoms of dyspepsia and peptic ulcer disease in up to 50% and up to 20%, respectively, of individuals taking them. Risk factors for NSAID-related gastric injury include age >70 years, history of ulcer disease, use of multiple agents (e.g., ≥2 NSAIDs, or an NSAID plus aspirin—even at cardioprotective doses), high doses of an NSAID, and concurrent use of corticosteroids or anticoagulants. In NSAID users, infection with Helicobacter pylori can produce additive or synergistic gastric mucosal injury. Several clinical strategies can decrease the risk for dyspepsia, ulceration, and the more serious complications in NSAID users. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) co-therapy has been shown to lower the incidence of dyspepsia in those taking NSAIDs. In those with an active ulcer, PPI therapy produces ulcer healing even in “tough-to-treat” individuals who require ongoing NSAID therapy. Maintenance of ulcer healing is significantly greater in those who receive ongoing PPI treatment compared with placebo, and adverse events and treatment withdrawals are fewer compared with their occurrence in persons treated with misoprostol. In those not receiving aspirin therapy, the use of an NSAID that is a selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 may result in fewer gastrointestinal symptoms compared with a traditional agent; however, studies have failed to show any decrease in healthcare resource utilization (including outpatient or emergency room visits, hospitalization rate, or use of any resource) with COX-2–selective therapy.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Cardioprotective effects and gastrointestinal risks of aspirin:
           Maintaining the delicate balance
    • Abstract: 6 September 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 5, Supplement 1

      Aspirin is a very useful medication for the prevention of cardiovascular thrombotic events in patients with or those at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Aspirin, however, carries an increased risk for gastrointestinal (GI) injury (e.g., ulceration) and its complications (e.g., hemorrhage), which may be caused by its antiplatelet and gastric mucosal effects. In those with established CVD, aspirin use has been documented to decrease the risk of a first myocardial infarction (MI). Its effects on stroke and vascular death are less conclusive. The use of aspirin in these individuals is recommended only for those whose risk for cardiovascular events (based on coronary risk assessment tools) is sufficiently high that it outweighs the risk for GI complications. Secondary prevention refers to the use of aspirin to prevent cardiovascular events in patients with established CVD such as an MI, stroke, or angina. The use of aspirin in these individuals is recommended based on a documented decrease in future cardiovascular events and mortality. The risk for GI events with aspirin is at least additive to the risk for these events in those who also are receiving therapy with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Patients being treated with aspirin, even at 81 mg/day for cardioprotection, should be assessed for factors that increase the risk for GI injury. Studies have confirmed that co-therapy with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) or misoprostol decreases the risk for GI injury and complications. Although both classes of such gastroprotective agents are effective, treatment with a PPI is tolerated better, with fewer patients discontinuing the drug because of side effects such as diarrhea.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Barrett esophagus: Will effective treatment prevent the risk of
           progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma'
    • Abstract: 6 September 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 5, Supplement 1

      Barrett esophagus is a complication of long-standing gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and is the well-recognized premalignant condition for the majority of esophageal and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinomas. Although duration of gastroesophageal reflux (GER), male sex, and, possibly, a strong family history are directly related to risk of Barrett esophagus, the role of screening in those with GERD and surveillance in those with confirmed Barrett syndrome remains controversial. Acid suppression with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy plays a pivotal role in the management of symptoms in persons with chronic GER and Barrett esophagus. Although there is no conclusive evidence for the role of PPIs in regression of Barrett epithelium or prevention of dysplasia, longer-term studies that titrate the dose to normalization of esophageal pH may proffer different data in the future. Although highly touted in the literature, surgical and endoscopic ablation therapies are limited by several factors, including high rates of symptom recurrence, persistently abnormal pH values, need for repeat surgery, and, in the case of endoscopic therapy, residual Barrett metaplasia that can progress to high-grade dysplasia or cancer. These invasive interventions should only be considered after consultation with a gastroenterologist. Cancer chemoprevention strategies are just emerging, and their roles as direct chemoprotectants remain to be determined.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Will eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection influence the risk of
           gastric cancer'
    • Abstract: 6 September 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 5, Supplement 1

      Gastric adenocarcinoma is a disease of high mortality and poor prognosis that is second only to lung cancer as a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although gastric cancer has a multifactorial etiology, infection with Helicobacter pylori is highly associated with its development. New information on bacterial and host genetics and results of epidemiologic studies suggest that better identification of individuals at high risk for gastric malignancy may be possible. Studies suggest that cure of H pylori infection may be associated with retardation of glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia but not reversal of dysplasia. Theoretically, it is attractive to believe that eradication of H pylori infection might prevent gastric cancer; however, studies supporting this hypothesis are not yet available. Public policy strategies for the identification of patients at risk for H pylori–related gastric malignancy are likely to be complex, but testing and treating for the infection earlier rather than later in life is anticipated to be the more beneficial approach.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • CME-back
    • Abstract: 6 September 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 5, Supplement 1



      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Introduction
    • Abstract: 2 August 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 3, Supplement 1



      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae: Epidemiology and patterns of resistance
    • Abstract: 2 August 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 3, Supplement 1

      Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, meningitis, otitis media, and sinusitis; it results in significant morbidity and mortality in patients with pneumonia and meningitis. The pneumococcus is a common colonizing bacterium in the respiratory tract; it is especially common in the respiratory tracts of children, where it is frequently exposed to antimicrobial agents. This exposure can lead to resistance. Penicillin nonsusceptibility is found in nearly 40% of strains causing disease in adults, although often these cases are treatable with appropriate dosing regimens of many oral and parenteral β-lactam agents. In the United States resistance to macrolides is widespread—averaging approximately 28%—but geographically variable, ranging from 23% in the northwest to 30% in the northeast. Resistance to tetracyclines and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are reported in approximately 20% and 35% of isolates, respectively, and resistance to multiple classes of agents is increasingly common. Amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, respiratory fluoroquinolones, and clindamycin are currently the most effective agents for treatment of respiratory tract infections caused by S pneumoniae, with >90% of isolates in the United States being susceptible. Vancomycin is the only agent against which resistance has not emerged. Patient groups that are at increased risk for developing resistant pneumococcal infections have been identified and include patients with malignancies, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and sickle-cell disease. Judicious use of antimicrobials is the key to preventing the emergence of further resistance, particularly as few new classes of agents are likely to become available for clinical use in the short term.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Overview of newer antimicrobial formulations for overcoming pneumococcal
           resistance
    • Abstract: 2 August 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 3, Supplement 1

      The pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profile of an antimicrobial agent provides important information that can be used to maximize bacteriologic and clinical efficacy, minimize selective pressure for the development of antimicrobial resistance, and determine an optimal dosing regimen. Judicious selection of an antimicrobial based on local susceptibility data and PK and PD parameters is imperative in this era of increasing resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae, a leading cause of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. The β-lactam antimicrobials display time-dependent bacterial killing with minimal to no persistent effects. Ketolides and fluoroquinolones display concentration-dependent bacterial killing, and tetracyclines and macrolides display time-dependent killing. All have prolonged persistent effects (e.g., postantibiotic effect) that retard or prevent bacterial regrowth when free drug levels fall below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). New high-dose and/or extended-release formulations of traditional antimicrobials have been added to the current armamentarium for treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. These formulations include amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium powder for oral suspension 90/6.4 mg/kg per day divided every 12 hours (Augmentin ES-600; GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC), amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium extended-release tablets 2 × 1,000 mg/62.5 mg every 12 hours (Augmentin XR; GlaxoSmithKline), clarithromycin extended-release tablets 2 × 500 mg once daily (Biaxin XL; Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, IL), and cefaclor extended-release tablets 375 mg or 500 mg every 12 hours (Ceclor CD; Eli Lilly Pharmaceuticals, Indianapolis, IN). Of these agents, only amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium powder for oral suspension and amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium extended-release tablets were designed to treat infections caused by penicillin-resistant pneumococci (penicillin MIC ≤2 μg/mL). Extended-release clarithromycin does not provide higher daily doses than its immediate-release counterpart; rather, it allows for once-daily dosing of this agent because of its slower absorption following oral administration. Extended-release cefaclor is considered clinically equivalent to 250 mg of immediate-release cefaclor pulvules administered 3 times daily; it cannot be used interchangeably with 500 mg 3-times-daily dosages of other cefaclor formulations. Thus, despite providing a similar or higher total daily dose than its immediate-release counterpart, extended-release cefaclor is indicated only for the treatment of patients with mild to moderate infections caused by susceptible strains of certain organisms.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Treatment of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis caused by
           antimicrobial-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • Abstract: 2 August 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 3, Supplement 1

      Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) is a secondary bacterial infection of the nose and paranasal sinuses, usually preceded by a viral upper respiratory infection or allergy, with symptoms that have not improved after 10 days or that have worsened after 5 to 7 days. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are the most common causes of ABRS in adults. Increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance among S pneumoniae and β-lactamase production among H influenzae are formidable challenges to the successful treatment of infections caused by these organisms. To this end, various formulations of amoxicillin-clavulanate have been developed, the most recent of which is pharmacokinetically enhanced and provides a total daily dose of 4,000 mg of amoxicillin and 250 mg of clavulanate. This formulation has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of infections caused by penicillin-resistant S pneumoniae (minimum inhibitory concentration 2 μg/mL); the clavulanate component provides adequate coverage of β-lactamase–producing pathogens.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis: Clinical impact of resistance and
           susceptibility
    • Abstract: 2 August 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 3, Supplement 1

      Sinusitis is a common disorder associated with notable direct and indirect economic costs. Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) is a relatively poorly defined clinical syndrome characterized by a high spontaneous resolution rate, wide variations in presenting symptoms, and an incomplete understanding of the pathogenesis and clinical course of the disease. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are the most common causative pathogens in adult ABRS. A relative lack of bacteriological eradication data compared with other respiratory illnesses, uncertainty on the part of many clinicians as to when to treat, and increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance hamper logical treatment strategies. Because it is impossible to know which cases of ABRS will spontaneously resolve and which will not, antimicrobials are recommended. In general, antimicrobial treatment for ABRS should cover both S pneumoniae and H influenzae while considering the risk of infection with resistant organisms. Treatment guidelines for ABRS were developed by the Sinus and Allergy Health Partnership in 2000 and were updated in 2004. This article discusses a Sinusitis Therapeutic Outcome Model, a data-driven model used in the development of the treatment guidelines, with respect to different scenarios involving ABRS to illustrate the implications of antimicrobial selection on therapeutic outcome.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae and community-acquired pneumonia: A cause for
           concern
    • Abstract: 2 August 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 3, Supplement 1

      Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the sixth most common cause of death in the United States and the leading cause of death from infectious diseases. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and poses a major economic burden to the healthcare system. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of CAP. Other common bacterial causes include Haemophilus influenzae as well as atypical bacteria (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Legionella species). Increasing resistance to a variety of antimicrobial agents has been documented in S pneumoniae and is common in H influenzae as well. Successful empiric therapy is paramount to the management of CAP to avoid treatment failure and subsequent associated costs. Given that resistance is increasing among respiratory pathogens, and S pneumoniae is the most common etiologic agent identified in CAP, strategies for antimicrobial therapy should be based on the likely causative pathogen, the presence of risk factors for infection with resistant bacteria, and local resistance patterns.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
  • Review of treatment guidelines for community-acquired pneumonia
    • Abstract: 2 August 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 117, Issue 3, Supplement 1

      Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a costly disease that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The growing prevalence of this disease has resulted in various advances in diagnosis and treatment. The most common pathogens of CAP include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and atypical pathogens; however, the underlying pathogen often is unknown. Treatment of CAP has evolved because of changing etiologic patterns and increasing antimicrobial resistance among common respiratory pathogens. Among the groups that have established treatment guidelines for CAP are the American Thoracic Society (ATS), the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). These guidelines establish risk factors associated with drug resistance or infection with specific pathogens. In addition, each guideline provides unique recommendations that are similar in some ways, yet different in others. By understanding the various risk factors for drug resistance and the treatment options endorsed by these guidelines, physicians can treat patients with the most appropriate antimicrobial available.

      PubDate: 2012-12-16T09:05:04Z
       
 
 
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