Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8690 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2415 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 601 - 800 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
Ebonyi Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
EClinicalMedicine     Open Access  
Educación Matemática     Open Access  
Educación Médica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Educación Médica Superior     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Educational Research in Medical Sciences Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
EDUMECENTRO     Open Access  
Eesti Arst     Open Access  
Ege Tıp Dergisi / Ege Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Egyptian Liver Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian Spine Journal     Open Access  
EIDON     Open Access  
Einstein (São Paulo)     Open Access  
EJNMMI Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EJNMMI Research     Open Access  
eJurnal Kedokteran Indonesia     Open Access  
EJVES Short Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
El Mednifico Journal     Open Access  
eLife     Open Access   (Followers: 91)
EMC - AKOS - Trattato di Medicina     Hybrid Journal  
EMC - Kinesiterapia - Medicina Física     Full-text available via subscription  
EMC - Podología     Full-text available via subscription  
EMC - Tratado de medicina     Full-text available via subscription  
Endo-Praxis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Enfermería : Cuidados Humanizados     Open Access  
Enfermeria Actual en Costa Rica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Epigenetic Diagnosis & Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Epilepsy & Behavior Reports     Open Access  
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Epileptic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Epileptology     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ Nonlinear Biomedical Physics     Open Access  
ESMO Open     Open Access  
Estima : Brazilian Journal of Enterestomal Therapy     Open Access  
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ethik in der Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment     Open Access  
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Cytokine Network     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
European Journal of Burn Care     Open Access  
European Journal of Cancer Supplements     Full-text available via subscription  
European Journal of Clinical Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European Journal of General Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European Journal of Hybrid Imaging     Open Access  
European Journal of Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Medıcıne and Natural Scıences     Open Access  
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine     Open Access  
European Journal of Podiatry / Revista Europea de Podología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Radiology Experimental     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Research in Telemedicine / La Recherche Européenne en Télémédecine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Surgical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Evidence & Policy : A Journal of Research, Debate and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Evidence-Based Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Evidence-based Preclinical Medicine     Open Access  
EXCLI Journal : Experimental and Clinical Sciences     Open Access  
Expert Evidence     Hybrid Journal  
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Expert Review of Medical Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
EXPLORE: The Journal of Science and Healing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ExRNA     Open Access  
Extreme Physiology & Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
F1000Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Medicine and Biology     Open Access  
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Family Practice & Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Family Practice Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Faridpur Medical College Journal     Open Access  
FEM : Revista de la Fundación Educación Médica     Open Access  
Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair     Open Access  
Finlay : Revista de Enfermedades no Transmisibles     Open Access  
Fisioterapia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Fisioterapia & Saúde Funcional     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fisioterapia e Pesquisa     Open Access  
Flugmedizin · Tropenmedizin · Reisemedizin - FTR     Hybrid Journal  
FMC - Formación Médica Continuada en Atención Primaria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Folia Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Facultatis Medicinae Universitatis Saraeviensis     Open Access  
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Folia Morphologica     Full-text available via subscription  
Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica     Full-text available via subscription  
Fontanus     Open Access  
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Foot & Ankle Specialist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Foot and Ankle Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Foot and Ankle Online Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Forensic Science International : Mind and Law     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Forum Medycyny Rodzinnej     Hybrid Journal  
Forum Zaburzeń Metabolicznych     Hybrid Journal  
Frontières     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Digital Health     Open Access  
Frontiers in Medical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers of Medical and Biological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Fuss & Sprunggelenk     Full-text available via subscription  
Future Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Future Prescriber     Hybrid Journal  
Future Science OA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gaceta Médica Boliviana     Open Access  
Gaceta Médica Espirituana     Open Access  
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Galician Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Galle Medical Journal     Open Access  
Gefäßmedizin Scan     Hybrid Journal  
Gender and the Genome     Open Access  
Gene Expression     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
General Reanimatology     Open Access  
Genes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Instability & Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geoforum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Gestão e Desenvolvimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ghana Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Gimbernat : Revista d’Història de la Medicina i de les Ciències de la Salut     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GISAP : Medical Science, Pharmacology     Open Access  
Glia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Global Advances in Health and Medicine     Open Access  
Global Bioethics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Health Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Integrated Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Cancer Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Journal of Fertility and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global Journal of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Journal of Medical and Clinical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Journal of Obesity, Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Journal of Perioperative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Journal of Rare Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Reproductive Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Grande Medical Journal     Open Access  
Growth Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Growth Factors and Cytokines in Health and Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of Advances in Medical Research     Open Access  
Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Hamdan Medical Journal     Open Access  
Hämostaseologie     Open Access  
Hämostaseologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hand     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Hand Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Hand Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Hard Tissue     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Head & Face Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Head and Neck Cancer Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Head and Neck Tumors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health and Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Health Matrix : The Journal of Law-Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Notions     Open Access  
Health Outcomes Research in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Science Journal of Indonesia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Technology Letters     Open Access  
Hearing, Balance and Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
HEC Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Heighpubs Otolaryngology and Rhinology     Open Access  
Heilberufe     Hybrid Journal  
HeilberufeSCIENCE     Hybrid Journal  
Helicobacter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
HemaSphere     Open Access  
Hemoglobin     Hybrid Journal  
Hepatology, Medicine and Policy     Open Access  
HERALD of North-Western State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov     Open Access  
Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Herzschrittmachertherapie + Elektrophysiologie     Hybrid Journal  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hipertensión y Riesgo Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Homeopathy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Homoeopathic Links     Hybrid Journal  
Hong Kong Physiotherapy Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Horizonte Medico     Open Access  
Hormonal Studies     Open Access  
Hormones : International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal  
Hospital a Domicilio     Open Access  
Hospital Medicine Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Hospital Practices and Research     Open Access  
Hospital Topics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Hormones : International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Number of Followers: 0  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1109-3099 - ISSN (Online) 2520-8721
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Reduced Foxo3a, FoxL2, and p27 mRNA expression in human ovarian tissue in
           premature ovarian insufficiency
    • Abstract: Purpose Previous studies have suggested that deletion of Foxo3a, FoxL2, PTEN, p27, and AMH leads to early exhaustion of the primordial follicle pool and premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) in transgenic mice. Our aim was to assess for the first time, to our knowledge, messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of these genes and AMHR2 in human ovarian tissue from women with POI. We hypothesized that these genes would be underexpressed in POI women compared with healthy controls. Methods mRNA levels were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and real-time polymerase chain reaction in cortical ovarian tissue obtained by laparoscopy from Caucasian Greek women with POI (n = 5) and healthy women with normal menstruation (n = 6). Morphological analysis of the ovarian biopsies was also performed to assess the presence of primordial or other types of growing follicles. Results Ovarian tissue from POI patients showed lower Foxo3a, FoxL2, and p27 mRNA expression compared with controls (p = 0.017, p = 0.017, and p = 0.030, respectively). mRNA expression of AMH, PTEN, and AMHR2 was reduced in ovarian biopsies from POI patients as well. However, these differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.143, p = 0.247, and p = 0.662, respectively). Morphological analysis showed complete lack of follicular structures in all POI biopsies. Conclusions Our findings suggest a possible role of Foxo3a, FoxL2, and p27 in the pathogenesis of human POI, which may prove to be of great diagnostic-therapeutic value. Further larger studies are needed to identify a similar pattern for AMH, PTEN, and AMHR2 and to investigate gene expression at a protein level.
      PubDate: 2019-10-21
  • Portrait of the Countess Anastasia Spini (1842): acromegaly in art
    • PubDate: 2019-10-19
  • A year in type 2 diabetes mellitus: 2018 review based on the Endorama
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this article is to review and present the most important studies published in the field of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) during 2018. These studies were presented in a lecture given on this topic at the Endorama Meeting in Patras, Greece, in January 2019. In order to identify the most important and relevant articles, a search in the English language was conducted in PubMed for publications up to the end of December 2018, with special attention paid to publications in high impact factor journals. The highlights of the main Diabetes Meetings [ADA (American Diabetes Association) and EASD (European Association of Diabetes)], as well as Medscape, were also reviewed. Last but not least, press releases regarding advances in the diagnosis and treatment of T2DM were considered. We finally selected and discussed important studies concerning diagnosis, pathophysiology, and management of this very common clinical entity (19 studies). The majority of studies were clinical trials dealing with new therapeutic tools for treatment of the disease, with the greatest focus being on GLP-1RA. We also presented in brief the main points of new guidelines published for T2DM by various scientific societies (3 sets of guidelines). During 2018, not only leading diabetes associations published guidelines on the disease, but also societies belonging to other primary scientific fields. This is indicative of the awareness of physicians and scientists that T2DM constitutes today a major health problem and of the need for public health strategies for its treatment and prevention.
      PubDate: 2019-10-19
  • Asporin levels are low in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
           and increase after vitamin E treatment
    • PubDate: 2019-10-18
  • The relationship between estimated glomerular filtration rate and urine
           m/creatinine ratio and parathyroid hormone in elderly Koreans
    • Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to assess the relationship between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urine microalbumin/creatinine ratio (uACR), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in elderly Korean men and women. Data were analyzed from 2880 adults (1262 men and 1618 women) aged ≥ 50 years from the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V-2 (KNHANES V-2). In men, after adjusting for related variables, the odds ratios (ORs) of the high PTH levels (PTH > 78.0 ng/L) were significantly higher in the decreased eGFR group [eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2; 1.353 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.989–1.851)], elevated uACR group [uACR ≥ 30 mg/g; 1.804 (95% CI, 1.004–3.239)], and decreased eGFR plus elevated uACR group [eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and uACR ≥ 30 mg/g; 2.158 (95% CI, 1.208–3.858)] relative to the normal group (eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and uACR < 30 mg/g). In women, after adjusting for related variables, the ORs of the high PTH levels were significantly higher in the decreased eGFR group [1.585 (95% CI, 0.911–2.760)], elevated uACR group [1.645 (95% CI, 1.127–2.400)], and decreased eGFR plus elevated uACR group [2.934 (95% CI, 1.267–6.795)] relative to the normal group. In conclusion, PTH was positively associated with an increase in uACR in elderly Korean men and women but was not associated with a decrease in eGFR. In addition, PTH increased greatly when both a decrease in eGFR and increase in uACR appeared simultaneously.
      PubDate: 2019-10-17
  • Neurocognitive impairment in type 2 diabetes mellitus
    • Abstract: Abstract There is emerging evidence that cognitive impairment could be a diabetes mellitus-related complication. It has been suggested that diabetic people are at increased risk of cognitive decline, since the metabolic and vascular disturbances of the disease affect brain function. Additionally, prolonged exposure to olther potential detrimental factors leads to irreversible cognitive decrements over time due to the aging process. Neurocognitive impairment signifies decreased performance in cognitive domains such as verbal and nonverbal memory, both immediate and delayed memory, executive function, attention, visuospatial and psychomotor performance, information processing speed, semantic knowledge, and language abilities. The aim of the present article is to review the existing literature on the issue of the neurocognitive decline in type 2 diabetes. A literature search of databases was performed, using as keywords “diabetes” and “cognitive impairment,” and the reference list of papers so identified were examined, with only English language papers being used. Understanding and preventing diabetes-associated cognitive deficits remains a key priority for future research. It is important to ascertain whether interventions to delay diabetes onset or better control of established disease could prevent some of its adverse effects on cognitive skills.
      PubDate: 2019-09-14
  • Swimming modifies the effect of noise stress on the HPG axis of male rats
    • Abstract: Background Few studies have examined the effect of noise pollution on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. In this study, the effects of noise pollution and swimming on the HPG hormone axis of male rats were investigated. Methods Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to four groups of equal size, including control (C), swimming (S), noise (N), and noise with swimming (NS). Serum levels of GnRH, LH, FSH, and testosterone were measured through blood samples taken 48 h following the last session of treatment. The main treatment programs of voluntary swimming and noise stress were performed 5 days per week over 7 weeks. Results Serum levels of GnRH, LH, FSH, and testosterone decreased after exposure to the noise compared with the S and C groups, while in the S group, all hormone levels were higher than those in the C and N groups. Hormone levels of the SN group were higher than those in the N group but lower than those in the C group. Conclusions Long-term exposure to noise is known to have a negative impact on male sex hormones, while submaximal swimming exercise is likely to reduce these effects and improve HPG axis hormones.
      PubDate: 2019-09-12
  • Selenium and selenoprotein P in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
    • Abstract: Abstract Conflicting data link nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a disease with no currently approved treatment, with selenium (Se) and selenoprotein P (SELENOP), a glycoprotein synthesized and primarily secreted by the hepatocytes, functioning as a Se transporter from the liver to other tissues. This review aims to summarize the evidence between Se, SELENOP, and NAFLD, which may hopefully clarify whether current data on Se and SELENOP in NAFLD warrant further investigation for their diagnostic and therapeutic potential. Most, albeit not all, experimental data show a favorable effect of Se on hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. It seems that Se may exert an antioxidant effect on the liver, at least partly via increasing the activity of glutathione peroxidase, whose depletion contributes to the pathogenesis of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Se may also affect metalloproteinases, cytokines, and growth factors participating in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and, most importantly, may induce the apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells, the key players in hepatic fibrosis. However, the association between Se or SELENOP and insulin resistance, which is a principal pathogenetic factor of NAFLD, remains inconclusive. Clinical studies on Se or SELENOP in NAFLD are conflicting, apart from those in advanced liver disease (cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma), in which lower circulating Se and SELENOP are constant findings. Existing data warrant further mechanistic studies in valid animal models of human NAFLD. Prospective cohort studies and possibly randomized controlled trials are also needed to elucidate the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of Se supplementation in selected NAFLD individuals with Se deficiency.
      PubDate: 2019-09-06
  • Mona Lisa is euthyroid: a modern-day diagnosis
    • Abstract: Abstract Making any medical diagnosis of an individual appearing in an old painting is risky. Throughout history, the famous painting of the Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci has challenged many scientists and physicians to scrutinize this striking and enigmatic female image for the purpose of potentially explaining the woman “behind the smile” and offering a medical diagnosis of her state of health. A recent proposal was that she suffered from severe hypothyroidism and that her asymmetric smile was due to psychomotor retardation. Today, in the twenty-first century, can Mona Lisa get “a second opinion'”
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • An unsuspicious thyroid nodule with fatal outcome
    • Abstract: Introduction Over the last few years, several scientific societies have introduced specific evaluation systems to stratify the risk of malignancy of thyroid nodules. Most of these classifications have been created on the basis of ultrasonographic features of the commonest thyroid carcinoma histotype. Herein, we report a case of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma presenting at ultrasound (US) examination as an unsuspicious thyroid nodule associated with distant metastases, which was followed by the patient’s death a short time later. Case report A 77-year-old woman, because of worsening weight loss and vague abdominal pain, underwent a whole-body computed tomography scan, which revealed a large mass adherent to the large bowel, multiple pulmonary nodules, and a solitary thyroid nodule of the left lobe. On US, a round, well-defined, mixed solid-cystic, isoechoic lesion with a maximum diameter of 45 mm and peripheral vascularity was confirmed. No microcalcifications, extrathyroidal extension, cervical lateral lymphadenopathy, tracheal deviation, or compression were found. The nodule was classified as low or very low risk according to six US malignancy risk classification systems. Although only two of these recommended fine-needle aspiration cytology, on the basis of a dimensional criterion, the procedure was performed, the cytology report suggesting anaplastic cancer. Following total thyroidectomy, the histological examination revealed the presence of a follicular thyroid carcinoma with diffuse areas of anaplastic dedifferentiation. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of defining the US characteristics of rare variants of thyroid neoplasms, since an early diagnosis is decisive in defining the patient’s prognosis.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Refractory hypoglycemia in an infant with isolated severe primary
    • PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Challenges in the treatment of parathyroid carcinoma: a case report
    • Abstract: Introduction Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare neoplasm with a high rate of recurrence and an indolent course. It is frequently functional, causing nearly 1% of the cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT), and in some cases, it may be complicated by brown tumors, mimicking bone metastases. Synchronous parathyroid and papillary thyroid carcinomas are rare. Case report We present a patient with HPT due to PC, misdiagnosed at first evaluation, which exhibited multiple hypermetabolic lytic lesions in the skeleton, suggesting bone metastases. Their regression after PTH reduction suggested the diagnosis of brown tumors due to severe HPT. Given the persistence of HPT, the patient underwent a number of neck surgeries, and a papillary thyroid microcarcinoma with a nodal metastasis was diagnosed. A genetic test discovered a previously unreported mutation of the CDC73 (HRPT2) gene, codifying for parafibromin and resulting in a premature stop codon (c.580A>Tp.Arg194). Because of the persistence of HPT, cinacalcet therapy was started in order to control hypercalcemia. Conclusion This is a very unusual patient with a newly discovered variant of the CDC73 gene and a phenotype characterized by recurrent PC, brown tumors, and N1a metastasized thyroid carcinoma. The present case confirms that PC may not exhibit clear malignant properties at first assessment, contributing to inadequate initial surgical treatment. Although infrequently, PC can be associated with papillary thyroid cancer. The diagnosis of brown tumor should be considered in patients with severe HPT and multiple destructive bone lesions mimicking metastases on PET/CT imaging.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Alterations in hearing function of patients with glucose disorders
    • Abstract: Objective To study the prevalence of hearing impairment in patients with various glucose disorders. Patients and methods A total of 499 individuals were studied, 51 patients with type 1 (TIDM), 188 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 39 patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and 221 controls. Measurements were performed, blood was drawn, and a relevant questionnaire was completed. Ηearing function was assessed by pure-tone audiometry (PTA) and distortion product otoacustic emissions (DPOAEs). Results Patients with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM: T2DM or IFG) compared to controls had a higher percentage of abnormal PTA and DPOAEs for both the right (70.2 vs. 56.9% and 40.4 vs. 24.2%, respectively, p < 0.001) and the left (74.1 vs. 59.3% and 47.5 vs. 25.4%, respectively, p < 0.001) ear. Patients with TIDM had similar levels for the left ear (54.9 vs. 59.3% and 27.5 vs. 25.4%, respectively, p > 0.05) and lower levels for the right ear (35.3 vs. 56.9% and 13.7 vs. 24.2%, respectively, p < 0.001 and p = 0.044) percentages of abnormal PTA and DPOAEs compared to controls. Logistic regression analysis indicated that independent parameters for abnormal DPOAEs in one or both ears are age, male gender, exposure to noisy environments, and the presence of IGM. Conclusions Hearing impairment was more prevalent in patients with IGM compared to healthy controls, as assessed by PTA and DPOAEs. Age, male gender, and exposure to noise are other factors that can independently affect hearing ability. Physicians should bear in mind possible defects in hearing ability when dealing with such patients.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis in a familial case with a rare mutation
           in the desert hedgehog (DHH) gene
    • Abstract: Purpose Disorders of sex development (DSD) have been linked to gene defects that lead to gonadal dysgenesis. Herein, we aimed to identify the genetic cause of gonadal dysgenesis in a patient with primary amenorrhoea tracing it to a phenotypic female carrying a 46,XY karyotype of a consanguineous family. Methods and results Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed and revealed in homozygosity the rare and only once reported p.Arg164Pro missense mutation in exon 2 of the desert hedgehog (DHH) gene. Sanger sequencing was used to validate this candidate variant both in the patient, the parents, and two siblings. Both brother and sister of the index patient were found negative for the p.Arg164Pro mutation, while the consanguineous parents were found to carry the mutation in the heterozygous state. Neither the parents nor the unaffected siblings showed any reproductive malformations. Conclusions Defects in the DHH gene have been reported as a very rare cause of DSD, and this report increases the number of 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis cases. Additionally, the present study highlights the importance of genetic validation of patients with DSD, since this is likely to alleviate the considerable psychological distress experienced by both the patient and the parents.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Radiosensitivity-related postirradiation hypothyroidism in Graves’
           disease patients
    • Abstract: Purpose The cumulative incidence of hypothyroidism, in 131I-treated patients with hyperthyroidism caused by Graves’ disease, has been gradually increasing each year. Meanwhile, the role of the genes that control radiation sensitivity (GCRS) involved in 131I therapy is yet to be defined. The main purpose of the present study is to find GCRS that could indicate hypothyroidism in Graves’ disease patients treated with 131I. Methods Thyroid tissue was collected from 59 patients who were diagnosed with Graves’ disease. GCRS (including Bcl-2, NF-κB, Survivin, Ku-70, Tob1, EGFR, Egr-1, TP-53, BRCA-1, and ATM) mRNA levels were analyzed with qRT-PCR before radioiodine therapy. Patients were followed up and then grouped by end-point outcomes. The association of the variation of target genes with susceptibility to hypothyroidism was analyzed. Results Altogether 44 patients were enrolled, including 11 men and 33 women with an average age of 44.79 ± 12.94 years. Based on their clinical outcomes after at least 2-year follow-up, 59% (26/44) patients were evaluated as hypothyroid, while the remaining 41% (18/44) patients were non-hypothyroid, including 18% (8/44) with persistent hyperthyroidism. The hypothyroid group showed significantly lower Ku-70 mRNA expression levels than the non-hypothyroid group (p = 0.022), whereas no significance was detected regarding other target genes (p > 0.1). Multivariate analysis showed that Ku-70 was significantly correlated with hypothyroidism after 131I treatment (p = 0.033). Conclusions The opposing changes in mRNA expression levels of Ku-70 in patients with hypothyroidism indicate its potential as a prognostic marker for hypothyroidism induced by 131I treatment.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Reactive C cell hyperplasia as an incidental finding after thyroidectomy
           for papillary carcinoma
    • Abstract: Abstract The biologic and clinical significance of reactive C cell hyperplasia (CCH), adjacent to differentiated thyroid cancers, remains unknown. Our aim was to investigate the presence of CCH in thyroidectomy specimens with papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) and discuss its epidemiology and histology. In total, 413 patients were prospectively included in the study (189 benign goiters, 224 PTC). Reactive CCH was observed in 9.8% of PTC cases (32% males, 68% females, mean age 48.3 ± 16.4 years) and usually ipsilateral to the primary tumor (91%). Histologically, CCH was either focal (91%) or diffuse (9%) and almost always (92%) found in the middle or upper thirds of the thyroid lobes. Patients with PTC/CCH were generally younger than patients with benign goiters (0.027). On the other hand, patients with PTC and with PTC/CCH did not differ in terms of age, gender, basal calcitonin levels, primary tumor size, multifocality, extrathyroidal invasion, or lymph node metastasis. Thyroiditis, however, was more frequent in cases with PTC/CCH compared to PTC alone. Reactive CCH is considered a physiological response of the C cells to various stimuli, differentiated thyroid cancer among others. It bears no malignant potential and requires no additional treatment, following thyroidectomy.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Decreased adipocyte glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and aquaglyceroporin-7
           (AQP7) in adults with morbid obesity: possible early markers of metabolic
    • Abstract: Purpose Morbid obesity (BMI > 40) is often accompanied by metabolic disorders. In adipose tissue, serine/threonine kinase PKBβ/AktΙΙ plays a role in glucose uptake, mediated by glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). The insulin pathway also affects aquaglyceroporin-7 (AQP7), which mediates lipolysis-derived glycerol efflux into the bloodstream. The aim of our study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms in adipocytes of adults with morbid obesity that may lead to insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) in morbid obesity. Methods Primary in vitro adipocyte cultures were developed from surgical biopsies from visceral (Visc), abdominal (Sub), and gluteal subcutaneous (Glut) fat depots, from 20 lean adults and 36 adults with morbid obesity (OB), divided into two groups: 20 without (MOW) and 16 with DM2 (MODM). mRNA and protein expression (PE) of AktΙΙ, AQP7, and GLUT4 were studied with RT-PCR and Western immunoblotting (WI), respectively. Results The PE of (1) AktII and basal phosphorylated AktII (pAktII) showed no difference within the groups, (2) the 37 kDa and 34 kDa isoforms of AQP7 were decreased in Visc/Sub from OB/MOW/MODM, (3) GLUT4 was decreased in Visc/Sub from OB/MOW/MODM, and (4) the 34 kDa isoform of AQP7 was decreased in Sub of MODM compared with MOW. Conclusions Decreased 37 kDa (presented in this study as a novel isoform) and 34 kDa isoforms of AQP7 in MOW and MODM may cause reduced lipolysis, enhancement of adipocyte hypertrophy, and impairment of insulin, signaling possibly reflected by low GLUT4 expression. This may potentially cause systemic IR, since decreased adipose GLUT4 expression may affect whole-body insulin sensitivity, increasing the risk for DM2. Furthermore, decreased subcutaneous AQP7 34 kDa could represent an early marker of IR.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver infiltration in children: an underdiagnosed
           evolving disease
    • Abstract: Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) constitutes the most common liver disease, one that is still underdiagnosed in pediatric populations (as well as in the general population), this due to the progressive increase in childhood obesity observed both in developed and developing countries during the last few decades. The pathophysiology of the disease has not been thoroughly clarified yet. The condition displays common pathways in adults and children; however, there are age-related differences. Unlike adults, children with NAFLD require extensive laboratory analysis, because underlying pathologies other than obesity may contribute to the evolution of the disease. Despite the presence of several serum markers and imaging techniques that contribute to NAFLD diagnosis, liver biopsy remains the gold standard diagnostic procedure. Early intervention and obesity prevention are mandatory, as NAFLD is reversible at an early stage. If left undiagnosed and untreated, NAFLD can progress to steatohepatitis (NASH) and subsequent liver failure, a potentially lethal complication. Of note, there are no treatment options when advanced liver fibrosis occurs. This review summarizes literature data on NAFLD in childhood indicating that this is an evolving disease and a significant component of the metabolic syndrome. Pediatricians should be aware of this entity, screening children at high risk and providing appropriate early management, in collaboration with pediatric subspecialists.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Double adenomas of the pituitary: an imaging, pathological, and clinical
           diagnostic challenge
    • Abstract: Abstract Double and multiple adenomas of the pituitary are composed of two or more distinct tumors located in the same gland. They represent uncommon lesions measuring less than 1 cm, reported as having a low incidence in autopsies and occurring even more infrequently in surgical series. The histological diagnosis of double adenomas in surgical material is often extremely difficult, and confirmation requires immunohistochemistry and, occasionally, electron microscopy. Fragmented tissue material submitted for histology after transsphenoidal resection complicates the diagnosis. Difficulties in demonstrating double or multiple adenomas by imaging techniques contribute to diagnostic failure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques may disclose two separate adenomas located in the same pituitary gland. Intraoperative MRI and imaging ultrasonography, together with positron emission computed tomography, more accurately identify sites of residual tumors. These techniques might also detect postoperatively a residual tumor belonging to the second component of double adenoma. Double adenomas may also create extreme clinical diagnostic challenges. It is almost impossible to suspect functioning double adenomas with combined hormone secretion, each one secreting a different hormone, and distinguish them from an isolated plurihormonal adenoma, simultaneously secreting more than one hormone. Double adenomas may underlie surgical failure when one adenoma is removed while the other is left behind. Despite the low frequency of double adenomas, identification and resection of both of them is of major importance for the achievement of biochemical cure.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • From gut microbiota dysfunction to obesity: could short-chain fatty acids
           stop this dangerous course'
    • Abstract: Abstract Study of the interactions between the gut microbiota and brain-gut axis represents a very appealing approach to increasing our knowledge about the mechanisms leading to obesity and obesity-related diseases. The aim of this review is to focus on the effects of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are the main products of gut microbial fermentation from non-digestible carbohydrates in the colon, on the gut-brain axis. Evidence is accumulating regarding the role of SCFAs in the fine-tuning of the gut-brain axis, a feedback system which is vital not only for the proper maintenance of gastrointestinal and metabolic functions, but also for the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. SCFAs are thought to play a key role in increasing the host capacity to harvest excess energy from the diet. SCFAs, however, can exert their effects on the host metabolism via multiple complementary pathways. Metabolic, inflammatory, and neural pathways can be regulated by SCFAs, which can act by sensing nutritional status, thereby maintaining body energy homeostasis. SCFA production from prebiotic consumption is the rationale for targeting intestinal mechanisms to increase energy expenditure and thereby reduce obesity risk.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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