Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8679 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2410 journals)            First | 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 | Last

Showing 1001 - 1200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
ISBT Science Series     Hybrid Journal  
iScience     Open Access  
Isis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Islets     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Israel Journal of Health Policy Research     Open Access  
Israel Medical Association Journal IMAJ     Open Access  
İstanbul Bilim Üniversitesi Florence Nightingale Tıp Dergisi     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Itch : International Forum for the Study of Itch     Open Access  
JAAPA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
JAC-Antimicrobial Resistance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jaffna Medical Journal     Open Access  
JAMA Network Open     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2310)
Jambi Medical Journal : Jurnal Kedokteran Dan Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JAMIA Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Janaki Medical College Journal of Medical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Japanese Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
JBJS Case Connector     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
JBJS Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
JBMR Plus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JBN (Jurnal Bedah Nasional)     Open Access  
JCC Open : Journal de Cas Cliniques     Open Access  
JCI Insight     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
JCSM Clinical Reports     Open Access  
JCSM Rapid Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
JDDG     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
JDREAM : Journal of interDisciplinary REsearch Applied to Medicine     Open Access  
Jeugd en Co     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Jeugd en Co Kennis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
JGZ Tijdschrift voor jeugdgezondheidszorg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
JHEP Reports     Open Access  
JHN Journal     Open Access  
JMIR Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMIR Formative Research     Open Access  
JMIR Human Factors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMIR Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMIR Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
JMIR mHealth and uHealth     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMIR Perioperative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMIR Public Health and Surveillance     Open Access  
JMIR Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies     Open Access  
JMIR Research Protocols     Open Access  
JMIR Serious Games     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
JMV - Journal de Médecine Vasculaire     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
JNCI Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Joint Bone Spine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Joints     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JOP. Journal of the Pancreas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial     Open Access  
Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia     Open Access  
Jornal Brasileiro de TeleSSaúde     Open Access  
Jornal de Pneumologia     Open Access  
Jos Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal Club AINS     Hybrid Journal  
Journal Club Schmerzmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Journal de Mycologie Médicale / Journal of Medical Mycology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal des Maladies Vasculaires     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal for Vascular Ultrasound     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal Français d'Ophtalmologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal Health NPEPS     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal Marocain des Sciences Médicales     Open Access  
Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals     Open Access  
Journal of Bioanalysis & Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cytology & Histology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of 3D Printing in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Academy of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Acute Disease     Open Access  
Journal of Acute Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Addiction Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Addiction Medicine and Therapeutic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Addiction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Addictive Behaviors, Therapy & Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Advanced Academic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advancement in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Advances in Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Agromedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Anatolian Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Anatomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Andrology & Gynaecology     Open Access  
Journal of Angiogenesis Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Antibiotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Appalachian Health     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Applied Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Archives in Military Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Armed Forces Medical College, Bangladesh     Open Access  
Journal of Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Associated Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Attention Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bio-X Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biological Rhythms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biomaterials Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomedical Informatics     Partially Free   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Biomedical Informatics : X     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B : Applied Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biomedical Physics and Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biomedical Research and Health Economics     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Semantics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biomedicine and Translational Research     Open Access  
Journal of Biorepository Science for Applied Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology and Strategic Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Breast Imaging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Breath Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Caffeine Research: The International Multidisciplinary Journal of Caffeine Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cancer & Allied Specialties     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Carcinogenesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine and Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Cell Death     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Charoenkrung Pracharak Hospital     Open Access  
Journal of Chitwan Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Chromatography Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Circadian Rhythms     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Circulating Biomarkers     Open Access  
Journal of Cleft Lip Palate and Craniofacial Anomalies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Clinical & Developmental Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Clinical & Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Investigations     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical and Translational Science     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical Apheresis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Clinical Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Clinical Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical Densitometry     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Clinical Intensive Care and Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
Journal of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Clinical Medicine and Research     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Clinical Movement Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Clinical Neonatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Clinical Research & Bioethics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Clinical Research & Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Clinical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Clinical Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Clinical, Medical and Experimental Images     Open Access  
Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Compassionate Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Complexity in Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Concussion     Open Access  
Journal of Consciousness Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Contemporary Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Contemporary Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: formerly Journal of Cutaneous Laser Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Current Medical Research and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Current Research in Scientific Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Current Researches on Health Sector     Open Access  
Journal of Cutaneous Immunology and Allergy     Open Access  
Journal of Cystic Fibrosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Cytology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Cytology & Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences University     Open Access  
Journal of Dhaka Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Dhaka National Medical College & Hospital     Open Access  
Journal of Disease and Health Risk DPC.3     Open Access  
Journal of Disease Cause and Control     Open Access  
Journal of Disease Prevention and Control : DPC. 2 Phitsanulok     Open Access  
Journal of Dr. NTR University of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Eating Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of ECT     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Education, Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Electronic Resources in Medical Libraries     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Enam Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Endoluminal Endourology     Open Access  
Journal of Epileptology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of European CME     Open Access  
Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover
Journal of Gandaki Medical College-Nepal
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2070-4240 - ISSN (Online) 2070-4259
Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [129 journals]
  • Current Perspectives on Leishmaniasis

    • Authors: KR Reddy
      Abstract: No abstract available.
      PubDate: 2019-02-04
      DOI: 10.3126/jgmcn.v12i1.22598
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Pregnancy Outcome in Women Having Oligohydramnios in Gandaki Medical
           College Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal

    • Authors: Malati Tripathi, T Gurung, TM Ghale, B Gurung, C Pandit, R Shrestha, A Adhikari, K Sherchan
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: Background: Amniotic fluid index is one of the most commonly used methods of amniotic fluid volume assessment and is a predictor of adverse maternal and perinatal outcome. Objectives: To compare the maternal and perinatal outcome in women with singleton term pregnancies having amniotic fluid index (AFI) ≤5 cm to those having AFI ≥5 to 20 cm. Methods: This is a prospective, case-control study which was conducted at Gandaki Medical College Teaching Hospital over a period of one year from July 2017 to July 2018. It included 60 pregnant women at term pregnancy with amniotic fluid index ≤5 cm. The control group included 60 pregnant women at term pregnancy with amniotic fluid index ≥5 cm. The two groups were compared. Statistical analysis was done using the Chi-square test to calculate the P- value. Results: There was a significantly higher incidence of overall cesarean rates due to fetal distress, low birth weight babies and adverse neonatal outcome like 5 minute Apgar score ≤7, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission rates, and meconium aspiration syndrome in the group with oligohydramnios as compared to the group with normal liquor volume. Conclusion: Oligohydramnios adversely affects the perinatal outcome. However a favorable outcome can be expected by good antenatal and intrapartum surveillance and neonatal care.
      PubDate: 2019-02-04
      DOI: 10.3126/jgmcn.v12i1.22599
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Dry Eye among Medical Students of Gandaki Medical College, Pokhara, Nepal

    • Authors: S Tuladhar, B Poudel, D Shahi
      Pages: 5 - 8
      Abstract: Introduction: Dry eye disease results from decreased tear production, increased evaporation of tears and inflammation. Medical students of­ten have dry eyes due to use of projectors, computers for study and also due to use of mobiles. Objective: The present study was undertaken to find out dry eye by Schirmer 1 test with local anesthesia and measurement of wetting of Schirmer test strip. Methods: Schirmer 1 test with anesthesia was performed on 200 medi­cal students from June 1, 2017 to June 1, 2018 after obtaining informed consent and after applying some exclusion criteria. The test was per­formed by first applying 4% topical lignocaine and then using Whatman filter paper no 41 and wetting of the filter paper measured after five minutes and time noted. Results: 146 (73%) Among 200 Students, were males and 54 (27%) were females. Mean age of patients was 21.73 ±1.42 years. Mild dry eye was seen in 19.5%, moderate in 13% and severe dry eye in 13.5% of medical students Conclusion: Dry eye is one of common ocular disease among medical students.
      PubDate: 2019-02-04
      DOI: 10.3126/jgmcn.v12i1.22600
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Patterns of Cancer Occurrence in Nepal

    • Authors: A Dhungana, HP Ghimire
      Pages: 9 - 12
      Abstract: Background: Cancer is a public health problem throughout the world and Nepal is not an exception. Actual information on pattern of cancer morbidity and mortality is possible only from population-based registry, which unfortunately is lacking in Nepal. Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the pattern of cancer occurrence in Nepal with respect to different pertinent variables. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was done among 198 admitted patients from Bhaktapur Cancer Hospital using semi-structured interview schedule. Data entry and analysis was done on IBM SPSS V20. Descriptive statistical measures were employed. Results: This study showed that cancer was seen in advanced age group with no sex wise variations. Majority was married, literate, from rural area, of upper caste and upper lower socioeconomic status. Cancer of lung, rectum and bile duct were more frequent in males in contrary to that of breast, ovary and cervix in females. Malignant neoplasm of digestive organs in males and that of female genital organs in females were the commonest to occur according to ICD-10 classification. Conclusions: Cancer is rapidly emerging non-communicable disease throughout the world. Despite lack of population based disease registry, patterns of disease from this hospital study emphasize prioritizing the health promotive activities against cancer in the general population.
      PubDate: 2019-02-04
      DOI: 10.3126/jgmcn.v12i1.22601
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Etiological Profile and Management of Epistaxis in Tertiary Care Hospital

    • Authors: B Sigdel, R Nepali, Neeraj KC, T Dubey, B Neupane, D Sigdel
      Pages: 13 - 16
      Abstract: Introduction: Epistaxis is a common otolaryngological emergency condition. It occurs due to local and systemic cause. Local cause lies within the nose bleeding either anterior or posterior. Commonest site of bleeding anterior epistaxis is kiesselbach’s plexus. In posterior epistaxis, it is difficult to locate bleeding site. Epistaxis is controlled by simply pinching of nose, decongested nasal drop and abgel packing. Some cases become more challenging required nasal packing and arterial ligation. Objectives: To study the epidemiological pattern and management of epistaxis. Methods: This was a retrospective study on pattern of epistaxis man­aged at Gandaki Medical College Teaching Hospital over a period from April 2015 to April 2016. Information regarding demographic profile, presentation and management of epistaxis was obtained from the Hospital records, ENT Outpatient clinic, Emergency Department, ENT ward and operation theatre. Results: A total of 78 cases were managed during study period. There was a significant male preponderance with male to female ratio 1.78:1. Patients’ age varied from eight to 80 years with mean age 40.7 years. The peak age of incidence was 21 - 30 years group. Idiopathic nasal bleeding 27 (34.6%) was commonest followed by nasal trauma 23 (29.5%) cases and hypertension 16 (20.5%) cases. Seventeen (21.8%) cases managed in day care basis with decongested nasal drop, chemi­cal cautery and abgel packing. Remaining cases required nasal packing and bipolar cautery and other specific form of treatment. Five (6.4%) cases required sphenopalatine artery ligation with no recurrence of bleeding. Conclusions: Epistaxis is common ENT emergency. Most common causes are idiopathic followed by nasal trauma and hypertension. Prompt management is instituted according to cases. Most of the cas­es are managed by non-surgical method.
      PubDate: 2019-02-04
      DOI: 10.3126/jgmcn.v12i1.22603
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Measurement of Length of Styloid Process by Orthopantomography

    • Authors: BR Sharma, S Singh, M Timilsina, P Sharma, K Sharma
      Pages: 17 - 21
      Abstract: Background: Styloid process (SP) is an anatomical structure whose elongation is not well understood. Proper clinical and radiological assessment is needed to detect an elongated SP. Anatomical variation is also common. SP is said to be elongated if longer than 30 mm. Orthopantomogram (OPG) is also an imaging modality by which we can view SP. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the SP on OPG and identify eagle syndrome. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on archived OPG radiographs available in the Department of Oral Radiology, Gandaki Medical College Teaching hospital and Research Centre. These radiographs were from patients who were subjected to radiographic examination for other dental problems. The length of SP was measured on both sides using the measurement tool bars on the accompanying analysis software. Results: Average length of SP on males was 26.5 mm ±14.4 mm in right and 25.5 mm ±6.19 mm in left; and on females was 23.78 mm ±5.93 mm on right and 24.7 mm ±10.44 mm in left. Elongated SP was more on males compared to females. Elongated styloid process (ESP) was more prevalent in 21 - 30 years of age group, similarly unilateral and bilateral elongation was also predominant on males compared to females. Conclusion: OPG is also useful for detection of an ESP in patients with or without symptoms and helps to avoid misdiagnosis of tonsillar pain or pain of dental, pharyngeal or muscular origin as well as Eagle syndrome (ES).
      PubDate: 2019-02-04
      DOI: 10.3126/jgmcn.v12i1.22606
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Profile of Hypertensive Retinopathy in a Tertiary Centre in Western Nepal

    • Authors: CB Pun, S Tuladhar
      Pages: 22 - 24
      Abstract: Objective: The present study was done to find out prevalence of hypertensive retinopathy among patients attending in OPD in GMC. Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was performed among 200 hypertensive patients visiting eye OPD from Dec 2016 to Dec 2017. Detailed eye examination including fundus evaluation under mydriasis was done on all subjects and hypertensive retinopathy was graded according to Keith, Wagner and Barker classification by ophthalmologist using 90 dioptre lens. Patient having diabetes and other retinal diseases were excluded from the study. Data analysis was done using spss software. Results: The mean age of the patients was 60.58 ±12.26 standard deviation. In our study 56.5% patients had hypertensive retinopathy. Of which 31% had grade I, 19% had grade II, 6% had grade III and 0.5% had grade IV hypertensive retinopathy. The ratio of hypertensive retinopathy among male and female was 1.7:1. Conclusion: Hypertensive retinopathy is common among hypertensives and males are more prone to retinopathy than females.
      PubDate: 2019-02-04
      DOI: 10.3126/jgmcn.v12i1.22607
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Histopathological Analysis of Endometrial Biopsy in Gandaki Medical
           College Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal

    • Authors: B Parajuli, G Pun, S Ranabhat, S Poudel
      Pages: 25 - 30
      Abstract: Objective: To study the spectrum of histopathological diagnosis of endometrial lesions and their distribution according to age. Methods: All the endometrium samples obtained by the procedure of dilatation and curettage and hysterectomy sent for histopathological examination at Pathology Department of Gandaki Medical College Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal. The study duration was total 12 months ranging from July 2016 to June 2017. All the endometrial samples were processed, sectioned at 4 - 6 μm and stained with routine H & E stain. Patient’s data including age, sex, procedure of the biopsy taken and histopathological diagnosis were noted. A pathologist, using Olympus microscope, reported the slides. Cases were reviewed by a second pathologist whenever necessary. Results: A total of 128 cases were studied. The most common histopathological diagnosis was proliferative endometrium (28.9%) followed by disorder proliferative endometrium (15.65%). Most of the patients were in age group 36 - 45 years comprising 32.03%. Hydatidiform mole comprised of 7.03% and among Hydatidiform mole, partial mole was more common. Dilatation and curettage (82.8%) was the common procedure in compare to hysterectomy for the evaluation of endometrial lesions. Conclusions: In this study, we observed a variety of endometrial lesions. Most of them are benign; among benign, proliferative endometrium was the common histopathological diagnosis followed by disorder proliferative endometrium. Most common presenting age group was found to be at 36 - 45 years. In evaluation of hydatidiform mole, partial mole was more frequent in compare to complete mole. Conventional dilatation and curettage is the preferred method in developing countries with limited resource to screen endometrial lesion and therefore biopsy should be sent for histopathological examination. Thus histopathological examination of routinely stained hematoxylin and eosin is readily available and widely accepted standard technique for evaluation of the endometrial lesions.
      PubDate: 2019-02-04
      DOI: 10.3126/jgmcn.v12i1.22608
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • An Overview of Fingerprint Patterns among Students of Gandaki Medical
           College, Pokhara, Nepal

    • Authors: N Hirachan, R Shrestha, S Koju, D Limbu
      Pages: 31 - 33
      Abstract: Introduction: Fingerprint system of positive identification is based on the principle that the arrangement and distribution of fingerprint re­mains constant and persists throughout life and that the patterns of no two hands resemble each other. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out among 250 students (125 male and 125 female students), aged 17 - 40 years of age, of Gan­daki Medical College, Pokhara, Nepal from 15 March to 13 April, 2017 A.D. The fingertip patterns of both hands were collected and identified with the aid of a magnifying glass and documented as: Loops, Whorls, Arches and Composite type. The data were enrolled in SPSS version 16 and analyzed accordingly. Results: There was a preponderance of loop pattern (52.6%) followed by whorls (39.4%), arches (7.3%) and composite (0.6%). Whorls (41.7%) were more common in males compared to females (37.1%) and females had more arches (9.6%) compared to that of the male counter­parts (5.04%). There was no significant difference in fingerprint pat­terns among male and female students. Conclusion: The predominance of loops amongst other fingerprint patterns along with no significant gender differences in fingerprint pat­terns can be considered as a valuable research finding in the field of forensic science.
      PubDate: 2019-02-04
      DOI: 10.3126/jgmcn.v12i1.22609
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Fetal Outcome in Pregnancies Complicated with Polyhydraminos: Study Done
           in Pokhara, Nepal

    • Authors: SD Gurung, J Shrestha, A Shrestha, A Subedi, M Gyawali, A Nagila
      Pages: 34 - 38
      Abstract: Introduction: Amniotic fluid plays an important role in the development of fetus. Any abnormality in the production amniotic fluid may have adverse effect on the fetus and the mother. Polyhydraminos is one of the common complications occurring during pregnancy and complicates around 0.2 - 2% of pregnancies. Methods: It is a prospective study conducted in Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal from January 2013 to December 2015. All the pregnant ladies irrespective of gestational age with amniotic fluid index (AFI) 25 cm or more were enrolled for the study. According to the AFI, polyhydraminos was classified as mild (25 – 30 cm), moderate (30.1 - 35 cm) and severe (>35 cm). Fetal outcome, mode of delivery, presence of congenital anomalies, NICU admission and maternal glucose intolerance were recorded. Results: Out of 8232 deliveries, 24 were diagnosed and admitted with the diagnosis of polyhydraminos. Mild polyhydraminos, 50% (n=12) occurred after 37 weeks of gestation and 12.5% (n=3) had severe polyhydraminos. All pregnant ladies 50% (n=12), beyond 37 weeks gestation had cesarean section, whereas 25% (n=6) had vaginal deliveries. 33.3% (n=8) had preterm labor, 12.5% (n=3) had premature rupture of membrane, 25% (n=6) had congenital anomalies, one IUFD, one case of Rh isoimmunisation and one case of twin pregnancy. NICU admission needed in 20.5% (n=5). Pregnant ladies with impaired glucose intolerance were 8.3% (n=2). Conclusions: Polyhydraminos is associated with increased incidence of cesarean section, preterm labor, fetal malformation and NICU admission.
      PubDate: 2019-02-04
      DOI: 10.3126/jgmcn.v12i1.22610
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Mapping and Size Estimation of Key Populations on HIV Surveillance in

    • Authors: T Poudel, S Gupta, Rajan Bhattarai, BB Rawal
      Pages: 39 - 42
      Abstract: Introduction: The HIV epidemic in Nepal is mainly concentrated among key populations, including people who inject drugs, gay men and other men who have sex with men, transgender people, female sex workers, and male labor migrants and their spouses. In countries with this type of concentrated HIV epidemic, the size of the key population estimation is important to address the national epidemic. Objectives: The study has been designed to estimate the district and national level size of key populations at risk of HIV infection and providing a foundation for policy and programing and to guide the national response to address HIV epidemic. Methods: This is a prospective mapping exercise study done in 44 districts of Nepal. Semi-structured interview were carried out among key populations members as well as non-key population key informants who were familiar with the local situation in and around the high prevalence areas. The study was conducted from August until November 2016. The collected data has been complied on Census and Survey Processing System and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Science software package 16 version. Results: The national estimates of key populations were FSW around 54,207, MSM/MSW/TG around 112,150 of which men having sex with men were 67,292. The PWID individuals range around 34,487. Conclusion: To fast track the response to achieve global 90-90-90 targets for the continuum of prevention to care, the country is updating its understanding of key population sizes and risk behaviors in different geographical area.
      PubDate: 2019-02-04
      DOI: 10.3126/jgmcn.v12i1.22611
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Association of the Level of Knowledge Regarding Effects of Alcoholism with
           Selected Demographic Variables of Rural Adults

    • Authors: I Sah
      Pages: 43 - 46
      Abstract: Background: Alcoholism is the most severe form of alcohol abuse and involves the inability to manage drinking habits. It is also commonly referred to as alcohol use disorder. Alcohol use disorder is organized into three categories: mild, moderate and severe. Each category has various symptoms and can cause harmful side effects. If left untreated, any type of alcohol abuse can spiral out of control. Objectives: To assess the demographic variables of rural adults, to associate the level of knowledge regarding effects of alcoholism with selected demographic variables of rural adults. Methods: A Quasi experimental one group pre-test post-test research design was used. The structured interview schedule was developed to collect data. The study was conducted at Challaghatta Village, Bangalore, Karnataka, India and the data collected was analyzed and interpreted based on descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The associated pre-test level of knowledge regarding the effects of alcoholism among rural adults with their demographic variables in the study is non significant with the demographic variables at p> 0.05 level. Conclusion: The present study found that there is no significant association between the demographic variables and level of knowledge among rural adults regarding effects of alcoholism.
      PubDate: 2019-02-04
      DOI: 10.3126/jgmcn.v12i1.22612
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Anxiety and Stress among B.Sc. Nursing First Year Students in a Selected
           Nursing College at Lekhnath, Pokhara, Nepal

    • Authors: M Silwal, R Gurung, A Gurung, I Sah, D Koirala, S Ojha
      Pages: 47 - 52
      Abstract: Background: Nursing students are important human resources in the field of health. Detection of potential anxiety and stress among nursing students is crucial since anxiety and stress can lead to low productivity, low quality of life, and suicidal ideas. Identifying factors affecting anxiety and stress in initial period of college among nursing students can help nursing educators to find ways to decrease anxiety and stress. Objectives: To assess the anxiety and stress among B.Sc. nursing first year students in their initial college life. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive research design was used for this study. Consecutive sampling technique was used to select the subjects. Total 13 students (100%) were taken as a sample and standardized Beck anxiety scale and modified scale for academic stress was used to collect data. Results: The study shows that majority of the students, 8 (61.5%) were in the age of 18 years old, follows Hindu religion, 10 (76.9%) belonged to upper caste, 11 (84.6%) stayed in urban area, 7 (53.8%) had no difficulty in this college. Out of 13, 2 (15.4%) students had moderate anxiety and 11 (84.60%) had low level of anxiety with 1.15 ±0.37 whereas 6 (46%) students had mild stress and 7 (54%) had moderate level of stress with 1.53 ±0.51. There were no significant association of anxiety score and stress score with age, ethnicity, residence, feeling difficulties in the college with p < 0.05; 6 (46%). There was low positive correlation between anxiety and academic stress with rp = 0.395. It was found that the cause of anxiety was due to college environment, seniors ragging, difficult subjects, delay session and can be reduced by stopping seniors ragging, providing transportation, starting session on time, counselling, providing lunch in canteen, friendly environment, free hours for library. Conclusions: Students who are newly taking admission to nursing profession will have mild form of psychological variation. Students are mainly faced with practical and academic stressors and anxiety. Hence the study strongly suggests that, starting session on time, time management, avoid ragging, student counselling are the most important factors to reduce anxiety and academic stress to the newly admitted students.
      PubDate: 2019-02-04
      DOI: 10.3126/jgmcn.v12i1.22613
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Epidemiology and Clinical Outcome of Snakebite in Western Nepal: A
           Retrospective Study

    • Authors: D Karki, B Sharma, R Koirala, A Nagila
      Pages: 53 - 57
      Abstract: Introduction: Snakebite is an environmental hazard associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It is an important medical emergency and cause of significant numbers of hospital admissions in many parts of the Asian region. In this study, we assess the epidemiology and clinical outcome of snake bite. Methods: This was a retrospective study of all patients with snake bites admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine, Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, kaski, Nepal. A total numbers of 265 snake bite cases in the period of 2013 to 2016 were enrolled in this study. Snake bite cases by person, place and time along with month of snake bite and time of bite, were analyzed. We also identified the types of snake and site of the bite. Sign and symptoms were clinically observed and the management of the snake bite cases was clinically done. Prothrombin time (PT) test along with INR value was performed by Medical Technologist at the Department of Laboratory, Manipal Teaching Hospital. Data was entered in to the Microsoft excel and analyzed by SPPS version 21.0. Percentages were applied to find the results. Results: Total numbers of snake bite cases were 265. More than half, 60.4% of the snake bite cases were females. Regarding the age group, nearly half, 47.9% were in the age group of 20 - 40 years and 9.8% cases were in the age group of 60 years and above. In this study, 50.6% bite cases were held at the day time and most of the bites were reported/ observed in the limb, 53.6% in lower limb, and 43.4% in the upper limb. Very few bites were in the head, neck and trunk. Our result shows 49.1% were green snake and 30.9% snake were unidentified. When we observed the sign and symptoms, 153 (57.7%) cases showed local swelling, 83 (31.3%) showed fang mark. Hematological manifestation were 144 (54.3%) cases and complication observed in 145 (54.7%) cases. Snake bite cases were managed after PT/INR test, INR. Antibiotic were prescribed in 154 cases and in 135 (50.9%) cases blood was transfused. There were no fetal cases noticed among hospital admitted snake bite cases. Conclusion: There is gross disparity in the management and outcomes of snake bite in different hospitals. Snake bite cases should manage in tertiary care hospital as early as possible.
      PubDate: 2019-02-05
      DOI: 10.3126/jgmcn.v12i1.22618
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Correlation of Ultrasound Parameters with Serum Creatinine in Renal
           Parenchymal Disease

    • Authors: H. Khadka, B Shrestha, S Sharma, A Shrestha, S Regmi, A Ismail, G Thapa, S Pathak
      Pages: 58 - 64
      Abstract: Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common cause of renal failure. It involves a progressive loss in the structure and function of the kidneys over the course of months, with or without decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR). CKD can be diagnosed by its pathological abnormalities, changes in the levels of renal function markers in the blood or urine, or by imaging investigations (E.g. USG etc). Objectives: The purpose of our study is 1) To correlate renal echogenicity with serum creatinine in order to determine the significance of renal echogenicity for identifying the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and for the sonographic grading of CKD, 2) To study association of blood pressure, renal cortical cysts and renal size with grade of chronic renal disease. Methods: This hospital based cross sectional study was carried out at National Kidney Centre, Banasthali Kathmandu. Two hundred patients above 20 years, diagnosed with CKD according to the guidelines of the National Kidney Foundation and referred for USG, were included in the study. Patients with kidney transplant, on dialysis, with liver disease and renal tumors were excluded. Ultrasound of kidneys was performed by senior consultant radiologist who was blind to the patients’ serum creatinine levels. The relationship between grade of CKD with serum creatinine, kidney size, blood pressure and cortical cysts were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal wallis test using SPSS version 17. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Mean serum creatinine was 1.7 mg/dl for Grade 1 (range: 1.1- 4.7 mg/dl, STD 0.44), 2.38 mg/dl for Grade 2 (range: 1.8-3.9 mg/dl STD 0.40), 4.18 mg/dl for Grade 3 (range: 2.6-6.0 mg/dl, STD 0.88), and 5.65 mg/dl for Grade 4 (range: 3.1-12 mg/dl, STD 2.0. Conclusion: Renal echogenicity and its grading correlates better with serum creatinine in CKD than other sonographic parameters. Hence, renal echogenicity is a better parameter than serum creatinine for estimating renal function in CKD, and has the added advantage of irreversibility.
      PubDate: 2019-02-05
      DOI: 10.3126/jgmcn.v12i1.22619
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Teaching How to Teach: Microteaching (A Way to Build up Teaching Skills)

    • Authors: KR Reddy
      Pages: 65 - 71
      Abstract: Microteaching is one of the most recent innovations in teacher training program which is used as a professional developmental tool in pre-service or in-service teacher training programs. Microteaching helps teachers to better understand the processes of teaching and learning and provides the opportunity to learn teaching skills, to study their own teaching, and to study the teaching of others. Microteaching is an organized, scaled-down teacher training program where a trainee teacher plans a short lesson, teaches it to a reduced group of students (Three to ten) in a 5 to 20 minute lesson, and then reflects on their teaching afterwards. The lesson is video recorded for either individual or peer review. The trainee teacher’s micro-lesson is reviewed, discussed, analyzed, and evaluated to give a feedback. Based on this feedback, the trainee teacher re-teaches the micro-lesson, incorporating those points raised during the discussion and analysis. The main objective of this article is to address and emphasize that microteaching has the potential to improve the teachers’ pedagogic skills, competencies, self-confidence, beliefs, and attitudes with minimum available facilities and to provide students with valuable teaching experiences and make them aware of the benefits and relationships between theory and practice.
      PubDate: 2019-02-05
      DOI: 10.3126/jgmcn.v12i1.22621
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Light Weight Complete Denture Prosthesis - A Case Report

    • Authors: A Khanal, IK Limbu, PK Parajuli, P Suwal, RK Singh
      Pages: 72 - 74
      Abstract: Retention, stability and support are the basic principles on which the success of a complete denture relies on. Extreme resorption of the maxillary denture-bearing area leads to a narrower, constricted residual ridge with decreased supporting tissues and a larger restorative space between the maxillary and mandibular residual ridge. Rehabilitation in such cases may result in increased weight and height of the prosthesis further compromising its retention, support and stability. So, to prevent further resorption of ridges, the weight of the prosthesis needs to be reduced which can be achieved by making hollow prosthesis. This case report describes a novel technique of fabricating maxillary hollow maxillary complete denture.
      PubDate: 2019-02-05
      DOI: 10.3126/jgmcn.v12i1.22622
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • District Health Service Management

    • Authors: SK Poudel, S Subedi, S Khadka, S Timilsina, S Sharma, SK Roy, S Gaire, S Poudel, S Shrestha, V Jha, V Yadav, Y Thapa
      Pages: 75 - 78
      Abstract: District Health System Management is a comprehensive study of the health system of the district as a unit of national health system. The report of District Health System Management has been prepared as per the MBBS 4th year (Third phase) curriculum of Tribhuvan University (TU), Institute of Medicine (IOM), Nepal after the field placement of our group in Gorkha and Kaski districts. We prepared regional health directorate profile, regional tuberculosis center profile, district profile, district health profile of Kaski, hospital profile of Western Regional Hospital, Kaski, and critical analysis on human resources of the Aampipal hospital. We prepared five year plan on ICU services of Gorkha District Hospital and conducted epidemiological study on COPD in WRH, Pokhara. The techniques used in this study were observation, interviews, interactions, participation, secondary data retrieval, analysis and presentation using specific tools and guidelines devised for the same. The field practice proved to be a milestone in enabling the students to develop aptitude in the fields of management, administration and communication in different health set-ups of the country. It is in fact once-in-a lifetime opportunity for the medical students to imbibe the practicality of management skills at various levels.
      PubDate: 2019-02-05
      DOI: 10.3126/jgmcn.v12i1.22623
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
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