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Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access  
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Científica Estudiantil     Open Access  
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
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Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
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Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
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Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / Health Sciences Journal of Adıyaman University     Open Access  
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
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Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
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Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Skeletal Muscle Function Assessment     Open Access  
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
AJSP: Reviews & Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Althea Medical Journal     Open Access  
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Anatomica Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ankara Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası     Open Access  
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Hypertension     Open Access  
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Annals of Health Research     Open Access  
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives Medical Review Journal / Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi     Open Access  
Archives of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology     Open Access  
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access  
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASHA Leader     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine     Open Access  
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.616
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  

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ISSN (Print) 1513-7368 - ISSN (Online) 2476-762X
Published by Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Alcohol Consumption and Sexual Risk Behaviour among Jamaican Adolescents

    • Abstract: Alcohol consumption has significant health, social and economic implications. Alcohol is the most prevalentpsychoactive substance used by Jamaican adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine whether alcohol isassociated with sexual risk behaviour among Jamaican adolescents. Methods: The data from National SecondarySchool Survey (NSS) conducted in 2013 was analysed. Descriptive statistics consisting of frequencies, percentagesand Pearson’s Chi square was done. Multivariate analysis was done using binary logistic regression. Result: The meanage of alcohol initiation among the participants was 12.3years [SD: 2.74]. There were significant associations betweengender (X2= 14.56; p= 0.000), relationship with father/guardian (X2: 10.71; P= 0.03), relationship with mother(X2= 15.16; P= 0.004) and conversation with parents/ guardians about dangers of drug abuse (X2= 8.16; P=0.004).Adolescents who were males (AOR= 0.62, 95% CI= 0.43 - 0.88), in the 8th grade (AOR= 0.51, 95% CI= 0.26 - 0.98) orin the 10th grade (AOR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.32 - 0.85) were less likely to engage in sexual risk behaviour. Lifetime alcoholconsumption, past year alcohol consumption and past month alcohol consumption were not significantly associatedwith sexual risk behaviour (AOR= 0.35, 95% CI= 0.04 - 3.46; AOR= 1.75, 95% CI= 0.59 - 5.09, AOR= 0.78 95%CI= 0.56 - 1.11 respectively). Conclusion: Lifetime, past one year and past one month alcohol consumption amongthe students were not risk factors for sexual risk behavior (non-condom use) among Jamaican adolescents.
      PubDate: Sat, 14 Apr 2018 19:30:00 +010
  • A School-Based Study of the Influence of Students’ Relationship with
           Teachers on Their ...

    • Abstract: Background: Cigarette is one of the most widely used addictive substances and a leading cause of death. Prevalenceof cigarette smoking has been reported to be high in the Caribbean, including Jamaica. The aim of this study wasto determine whether students’ relationship with teachers influences their cigarette smoking behaviour in Jamaica.Methods: This was a statistical analysis of data based on a nationally representative sample of 3,365 secondary schoolstudents drawn from 8th to 12th grade across 38 secondary schools in Jamaica in 2013. Descriptive and inferentialstatistics were performed using SPSS. Results: There were significant differences in the past year and past monthcigarette smoking respectively among students who had very good, good, average, bad and very bad relationshipwith their teachers (X2 = 11.67, p = 0.02; X2 = 9.61, p = 0.04) respectively. Students with very good relationship withteachers, were significantly less likely to report smoking cigarette in the past month (AOR= 0.09, 95% CI= 0.01- 0.88).Students who were 2 - 10 years, had very good relationship with teacher and father, and whose parents knew friendsvery well, were 0.96, 0.69, 0.70 and 0.94 times as likely to report smoking cigarette in the past year. However, theseassociations were not significant after controlling for other factors. Conclusion: Students’ relationship with their teachershas a strong influence on cigarette smoking. Students with very good relationship with teachers were significantly lesslikely to report smoking cigarette in the past month.
      PubDate: Sat, 14 Apr 2018 19:30:00 +010
  • Does Risk Perception Affect Alcohol Consumption among Secondary School
           Students in Jamaica'

    • Abstract: Background: Alcohol consumption among young people is a major public health problem world-wide and inJamaica. A number of factors have been reported to affect alcohol use among high school students. The aim of this studywas to investigate the influence of perception of the harmfulness of alcohol on alcohol use among secondary schoolstudents in Jamaica. Methods: Data collected from a nationally representative sample of 3,365 students were analyzed.Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed using SPSS. Results: Students’ perception of risk of drinkingalcohol frequently and getting drunk respectively had positive and significant associations with past month alcohol use(AOR= 1.44, 95% CI= 1.09- 1.88 and AOR= 1.38, 95% CI= 1.02- 1.86, respectively) compared to students who feltthat drinking alcohol frequently and getting drunk were very harmful. Males, 12 years or younger were significantly lesslikely to use alcohol in the past month (AOR= 0.77, 95% CI=0.60- 0.97; AOR= 0.68, 95% CI= 0.53-0.97 respectively).Students with good relationship with their mothers were less likely to use alcohol in the past year and past month(AOR= 0.55, 95% CI= 0.35-0.87; AOR= 0.50, 95% CI= 0.32- 0.78). Conclusion: Risk perception of the harmfulnessof alcohol significantly affects alcohol use among secondary school students in Jamaica. Males, 12 years or younger,who had good relationship with mothers, were significantly less likely to use alcohol in past month
      PubDate: Sat, 14 Apr 2018 19:30:00 +010
  • Single Parent Family Structure as a Predictor of Alcohol Use among
           Secondary School Students: ...

    • Abstract: Background: In Jamaica, alcohol is the most commonly used substance among adolescents and young persons.The aim of this study was to examine the potential relationship between Jamaican secondary students’ alcohol drinkinghabits and their family structure. Methods: Data collected from a nationally representative survey of 3,365 studentswere analysed. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed. Results: Out of the 3,365 students, 1,044 (31.0%)were from single-parent families. Single-parent families, married-parent families and common law-parent families weresignificantly associated with lifetime use of alcohol (AOR= 1.72, 95% CI= 1.06 - 2.79; AOR= 1.73, 95% CI= 1.07- 2.81,AOR= 1.94, 95%CI= 1.17- 3.21 respectively). However, family structure was not significantly associated with pastyear and past month alcohol use. Students whose parents “sometimes” knew their whereabouts were significantly lesslikely to use alcohol in their lifetime compared to students whose parents “Always” knew where the students were.Conclusion: Family structure is an independent predictor of alcohol use among high school students in Jamaica.Being from single-parent families, married-parent and common- law parent families were significantly associated withincreased likelihood for lifetime alcohol use.
      PubDate: Sat, 14 Apr 2018 19:30:00 +010
  • Are Adolescents likely to Start Smoking Early if Their Parents are
           Smokers' A Study of Jamaican ...

    • Abstract: Background: The prevalence of cigarette smoking is high among adolescents in the Caribbean, including Jamaica.Age of initiation of cigarette smoking varies among adolescents. A number of factors has been reported to influenceearly age of initiation of cigarette smoking. The aim of this study was to determine if parental smoking status wasassociated with early age of onset of cigarette smoking among Jamaican adolescents. Methods: Data from the JamaicanNational School Survey (NSS) conducted in 2013 were analysed. The nationally representative sample comprisedof 3,365 students enrolled in 8th grade to 12th grade in 38 public and private secondary schools. Descriptive andinferential statistics were computed using SPSS. Results: The mean age of initiation of cigarette smoking among thesubjects was 12.4years [SD: 2.69]. There was no significant association between parental cigarette smoking status andthe age of initiation of cigarette smoking among the adolescents (female X2 = 0.753, P = 0.861; male X2 = 6.953, P =0.073). Logistic regression analysis showed that parental smoking status was not a predictor of early age of initiationof cigarette smoking among the adolescents (father/ guardian AOR= 0.81, 95% CI= 0.56- 1.11; mother/guardian AOR=0.96, 95% CI= 0.44 – 2.10; both parent AOR= 0.49, 95%CI= 0.22- 1.07). However, having a parent with secondaryeducation was a risk factor for early initiation of smoking (AOR= 1.71, 95%CI= 1.13-2.57), while being in 8thgrade was a protective factor against early age of initiation of cigarette smoking (AOR= 0.43, 95% CI= 0.23 - 0.80).Conclusion: Parental smoking cigarette smoking status was not a predictor of early age of cigarette smoking initiationamong Jamaican adolescents.
      PubDate: Sat, 14 Apr 2018 19:30:00 +010
  • A Population-based Analysis of the Influence of Religious Affiliation on
           Alcohol Consumption ...

    • Abstract: Background: Religion sometimes shapes behaviours and experiences of its members including alcohol consumption.The aim of this study was to examine the possible influence of religious affiliation on alcohol consumption in Jamaicasince they are predominantly Christians. Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, we analysed data from NationalHousehold Survey 2,016 of 4,623 participants. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed using SPSS.Results: Out of the 4,623 participants, majority 3,244 (70.2%) were above the age of 26 years and of Christian religion3,737 (80.8%). Christian religious affiliation was significantly associated with past year and past month use of alcohol(AOR= 1.44, 95% CI=1.14-1.82 and AOR =1.34, 95% CI=1.03- 1.74 respectively). Being a male (AOR= 2.95, 95%CI=2.51- 3.47), and employed (AOR= 2.11, 95% CI= 1.49- 2.98) were significant risk factors for lifetime alcoholconsumption. Age 12 – 17 years (AOR= 0.30, 95% CI=0.21- 0.43) and attaining primary education level (AOR=0.60,95% CI=0.45-0.80) were protective factors against lifetime alcohol consumption. Conclusion: Being of Christianreligion was significantly, positively associated with past year and past month alcohol consumption. Male gender andbeing employed were also risk factors for lifetime alcohol consumption.
      PubDate: Sat, 14 Apr 2018 19:30:00 +010
  • Risk Factors Associated with Frequent Alcohol Binge Drinking among
           Jamaicans: Does Gender Matter'

    • Abstract: Objective: Alcohol is one of the most commonly consumed substances in Jamaica, despite the many health problemsassociated with excessive alcohol use. The aim of this study was to identify potential risk factors for alcohol bingedrinking among Jamaicans, and determine if there were significant gender differences in the associations betweenidentified risk factors and frequent binge drinking. Methods: Data collected from the 2016 National HouseholdSurvey Jamaica were analysed. Descriptive and inferential statistics were computed using SPSS. Binary logisticregression analysis was used to determine factors associated with frequent binge drinking. Results: The total numberof respondents was 4623. Females were 2,535 (54.8%) compared to males 2088 (45.2%). In bivariate analysis, therewas a significant association between age and frequent binge drinking among males (X2 = 11.11, p =0.004), but notamong females (X2 = 2.03, p = 0.36). Similarly, there was a significant association between employment and frequentbinge drinking for males but not for females (X2= 12.85, p= 0.002; X2= 2.49, p= 0.29 respectively). In multivariateanalysis, age 12- 17 years was significantly, inversely associated with frequent binge drinking in the crude logit modelbut not in the adjusted logit model (crude odds ratio [COR] 0.21, 95%CI= 0.6- 0.66; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.51,95%CI= 0.12- 2.13 respectively). Employment was significantly, positively associated with frequent binge drinking inthe adjusted logit model (employed: AOR= 3.63, 95% CI= 1.05- 12.59) among males. Among females, age showed nosignificant association with frequent binge drinking. Only having primary/ lower education was significantly, positivelyassociated with frequent binge drinking among females (AOR= 5.17, 95%CI= 1.36- 19.65). Conclusion: Risk factorsfor frequent binge drinking differed by gender; being employed was a risk factor for males while having primary (orlower) education was a risk factor for females.
      PubDate: Sat, 14 Apr 2018 19:30:00 +010
  • Investigating the Role of Alcohol in Behavioural Problems at School among
           Secondary School ...

    • Abstract: Background: The prevalence of alcohol use is quite high in the Caribbean region, and specifically, in Barbados.Alcohol use has been documented to negatively affect the way students behave within and outside school. This studyset out to examine the role alcohol plays in students’ behavioural problems at school. Methods: An analysis of crosssectionaldata collected during the National Secondary Schools Survey was done. Mean (and standard deviation),frequencies and percentages were computed, and differences in proportions among the groups were assessed usingPearson’s Chi Square. Multivariate analysis using binary logistic regression was done to determine the associationbetween explanatory variables and outcome variables. Results: In bivariate analysis, behavioural problems at schoolwere significantly associated with age (p= 0.001), grade (p= 0.000), sense of belonging at school (p= 0.000), relationshipwith teachers (p= 0.000), and past month alcohol use (p= 0.007). In multivariate analysis, students’ having frequentbehavioural problems at school was significantly associated with neither past year nor past month alcohol use (AOR=1.13, 95% CI= 0.91- 1.40, AOR= 1.02, 95% CI= 0.83- 1.24 respectively). Significant inverse associations were foundbetween students’ behavioural problems and age (11- 14 years: AOR= 0.53, 95% CI= 0.33- 0.84; AOR= 0.51, 95%CI= 0.32- 0.82 for models 1 and 2 respectively), and relationship with teachers (very good: AOR= 0.10, 95% CI=0.07- 0.16; AOR= 0.13, 95% CI= 0.09- 0.20 for models 1 and 2 respectively). Conclusion: Neither past year nor pastmonth alcohol consumption by students was associated with frequent behavioural problems at school. Students whowere younger than 17 years, and who had a relationship with their teachers that was not very bad were significantlyless likely to engage in frequent behavioural problems.
      PubDate: Sat, 14 Apr 2018 19:30:00 +010
  • Alcohol Drinking among Primary School Children in Trinidad and Tobago:
           Prevalence and ...

    • Abstract: Background: Underage alcohol use is a pervasive problem with serious health, social and safety consequences.This study was undertaken to assess alcohol use by primary school children in Trinidad and Tobago, and to identifyassociated risk factors. Methods: We analysed data collected from 40 primary schools in Trinidad and Tobago bythe National Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Programme (NADAPP). The sample comprised of children aged 8-15 years old, in standards 3, 4 and 5. Result: Out of the 2052 children, 648 (31.6%) have consumed alcohol in theirlifetime, and same proportion reported ever being drunk (31.6%). Male gender was significantly associated with lifetimealcohol use (AOR =1.60, 95% CI= 1.25 - 2.05). Children not living with their father (AOR= 2.45, 95% CI=1.86- 3.24)and those whose fathers have either primary or secondary education (AOR = 1.88, 95%CI=1.07 - 3.31; AOR= 1.58,95%CI=1.12 - 2.23 respectively) were at higher risk for lifetime alcohol consumption. However, age group 8 – 11years was significantly inversely associated with lifetime alcohol consumption (AOR= 0.67, 95% CI=0.48 - 0.94).Conclusion: Being a male student, not living with father, and father attaining either primary or secondary educationlevel were significantly associated with increased likelihood for lifetime alcohol use. However, children between 8 – 11years were less likely to consume alcohol.
      PubDate: Sat, 14 Apr 2018 19:30:00 +010
  • Parental Alcohol Drinking Habit as a Predictor of Alcohol Use among
           Secondary School Students ...

    • Abstract: Background: In Barbados and the wider Caribbean region, alcohol is widely consumed by adolescents and youngpeople, including those in secondary schools. The high prevalence of alcohol use, and its potential adverse effects area source of concern to policy makers and the general population, which calls for better understanding of the drivers ofthis problem. This study thus aimed at investigating whether parental alcohol drinking habit is a predictor of alcoholuse among secondary school students in the country. Methods: The predictor variables and response variables in thestudy were categorical, and so descriptive, univariate analysis consisted of computation of frequencies and percentages.Bivariate analysis using Pearson’s Chi Square was done to test for significant differences in the response variablesamong groups. Logistic regression modeling was used in multivariate analysis to determine the predictor variablesthat were significantly associated with the response variables. Results: Significant associations were seen betweenstudents’ age, (P= 0.00), grade (P=0.00), fathers’ drinking habit (P=0.00), mothers’ drinking habit (P=0.00), and bothpast year and past month alcohol use, in bivariate analysis. Logit model shows that students whose fathers drink onlyon weekends, sometimes during the week, or every day, respectively, had significantly increased risk of alcohol use inthe past month (AOR= 2.62, 95%CI= 1.81- 3.77; AOR= 1.85, 95%CI= 1.19- 2.85; AOR= 2.18, 95%CI= 1.49- 3.18).Students whose mothers drink only on special occasion had significantly higher risk of alcohol use in the past year andpast month (AOR= 1.99, 95%CI= 1.06- 3.74; AOR= 2.30, 95%CI= 1.36- 3.89 respectively). Conclusion: Having fatherswho drink only on weekend, sometimes during the week and every day were significantly positively associated withalcohol use in the past month. Having mothers who drink only on special occasion was a risk factor for past year andpast month alcohol use. However, having mothers who drink every day was, counterintuitively, significantly inverselyassociated with alcohol use in past year and past month.
      PubDate: Sat, 14 Apr 2018 19:30:00 +010
  • Patient Reported Weight Loss Predicts Recurrence Rate in Renal Cell Cancer
           Cases after Nephrectomy

    • Abstract: Background: Recurrence of renal cell cancer (RCC) affects approximately one-third of patients after curativenephrectomy. However, studies from the Indian subcontinent have been scarce. We here ddetermine relapse ratesand patterns in an Indian cohort. Methods: This study included all patients with RCC who underwent nephrectomyfrom 2004 to 2013 at our centre. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) was calculated from the date of surgery to date ofrecurrence or death. The Cox regression model was applied to identify significant prognostic factors. Results: Overalla total of 292 patients were included. Median age was 50 years (range 19-84 years), with a male:female ratio of 3:1.Radical and partial nephrectomy were performed for 276 (94.5%) and 16 (5.5%) patients, respectively. Clear cell wasmost common histological subtype (71.2%) and T1, T2, T3 and T4 stages accounted for 89 (30.5%), 86 (29.5%), 105(36%) and 12 (4.1%) patients, respectively. One hundred and thirty-six patients (46.6%) demonstrated recurrence.Eighty-six (63.2%) relapsed at distant sites, 14 (10.3%) and at locoregional sites whereas 36(26.5%) had both distantand locoregional recurrence. Median time to recurrence was 18 months. Approximately 17.7% of cases had diseasereappearance after five years. Factors predicting shorter RFS on multivariate analysis were patient reported weightloss (p=0.004), Fuhrman grade 3 or 4 (p<0.0001), presence of necrosis (p<0.0001) and higher tumour stage (p=0.005).Conclusion: Compared to previous studies, our patients had higher rates of recurrence in general and locoregionalrecurrence in particular. However, except for weight loss, other predictive factors remain similar. Finding weight lossas the marker of recurrence emphasises the importance of the simple task of history taking.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2018 19:30:00 +010
  • Potential Impact of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene Variation
           (-2578C>A) on Breast ...

    • Abstract: Aim: VEGF gene polymorphisms can induce either increase or inhibition of VEGF secretion, with altered promoteractivity. The VEGF rs699947 SNP is located in the promoter region and is associated with susceptibility to breastcarcinoma development. Here, we investigated the association of the -2578C>A polymorphism in the VEGF gene withbreast cancer risk in Saudi women. Methodology: Genotyping of the VEGF-gene variation (-2578A>C) was performedusing the amplification refractory mutation system PCR. We investigated the association of VEGF gene variants withdifferent clinicopathological features of breast cancer patients. Results: A significant difference was observed ingenotype distribution among the breast cancer cases and sex matched healthy controls (p=0.03). The frequencies of thethree genotypes CC, CA, AA found in the patient samples were 37%, 45% and 18% and in the healthy controls were54%,37% ,and 09% respectively. An increased risk of developing breast cancer in Saudi women was associated withthe VEGF −2578 AA genotype (OR = 2.91, 95 % CI, 1.18-7.20; p = 0.01; RR 1.78 (1.01-3.11 p=0.01), the VEGF −2578A allele (OR = 1.79, 95 % CI, 1.17-2.73; p = 0.004: RR 1.35 1.07-1.71) and the VEGFR-(CA+ AA) (OR 1.99 1.13-3.51;RR 1.401.0-1.85). Thus the A allele increased the risk of BC when compared with C allele. When we stratified groupsof patients according to the status of tumor markers, stage, age and metastasis, statistically significant associationswith −2578 C/A SNP were revealed. Conclusion: Our data showed a significant association of the VEGF -2578C>Apolymorphism with BC susceptibility in Saudi women. The VEGF -2578AA homozygote significantly increases therisk and can be useful as a predisposing genetic marker. Further studies with larger sample sizes are necessary toconfirm our findings.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Apr 2018 19:30:00 +010
  • Circulating MicroRNA-21 Expression as a Novel Serum Biomarker for Oral
           Sub-Mucous Fibrosis and ...

    • Abstract: Background: Circulating miRNAs (miRs) in the biofluids such as serum and plasma act as potential biomarkersfor early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. In the present study, an attempt made to see the expression of miR-21in serum of 20 cases of Oral sub-mucous fibrosis (OSMF), 20 cases of Oral squamous cell carcinoma and 40 healthyvolunteers. The expression of miR-21 was evaluated in relation to different demographical and clinicopathologicalfeatures such as sex, tobacco, pan-masala, alcohol, smoking and clinical staging respectively with an aim to identifycorrelation with oral pre-cancer and cancer stages. Materials and Methods: The relative expression level of miR-21was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) in the sera of 20 OSCC, 20 OSMF patients and 40healthy subjects as a control. Association between expression of miR-21 and OSCC clinical stages and demographicalparameters such as sex, pan-masala, tobacco, smoking, alcohol have also been analyzed in detail. Results: The resultsobtained by t-test revealed significant increase in the expression level of miR-21 in OSCC as compared to OSMF. Thestudy also revealed the positive correlation between higher miR-21 expression and pan-masala chewers as shown byt-test. The statistical test, ANOVA has also indicated a positive correlation between up-regulation of miR-21 in theclinical stages of the OSCC. Conclusion: The results of present study indicated up-regulation of circulating miR-21 inserum of OSCC as compared to OSMF (p=0.001), this study also elucidated the positive correlation between miR-21expression in OSCC/OSMF patients, only one demographical parameter (Pan-masala) and negative correlation forother parameters such as sex, tobacco, smoking, alcohol etc. Other findings suggested a significant increase (p=0.000)in the expression of miR-21 in clinical staging (I-IV) of oral cancer. More studies are needed to validate it as potentialdiagnostic and prognostic biomarker for OSMF and OSCC for better management.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Mar 2018 19:30:00 +010
  • Impact of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Vitamin D on Transforming Growth
           Factor Beta Signaling ...

    • Abstract: Background: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling is recognized as being critical for carcinogenesis.Vitamin D has proved to exert numerous tumor suppressive effects. Effects of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stemcells (BM-MSCs) on tumor progression are still controversial. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effectsof BM-MSCs and vitamin D on TGF-β signaling in an experimental hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model in rats.Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on fifty female white albino rats divided equally into 5 groups:controls, HCC induced by diethyl-nitrosamine (DENA) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), HCC plus MSCs, HCC plusvitamin D and HCC plus both MSCs and vitamin D. The following parameters were assessed in rat liver tissues: TGF-βand Smad2 protein levels by ELISA and western blotting, respectively, gene expression of Smad3, Smad7, Snail,HNF4α and MMP-2 and histopathological lesions. Serum levels of alpha fetoprotein (AFP), ALT and albumin werealso assessed. Results: TGF-β protein levels and gene expression of its downstream effectors (Smad3 and Snail), inaddition to Smad2 protein levels were significantly higher in the HCC group than in the control group. On the otherhand, they were significantly down-regulated in all treated groups with most significant amelioration with both MSCsand vitamin D. Also, the serum levels of AFP were significantly increased in the untreated HCC group, and this wasagain reversed in all treated groups. Histopathological examination of liver tissue revealed that administration ofMSCs or vitamin D into HCC rat group improved the histopathological picture with residual tumor pathology, whileadministration of both MSCs and vitamin D showed better restoration of liver parenchyma. These data suggest thatthe TGF-β signaling pathway could be used as a therapeutic target in HCC.
      PubDate: Sun, 25 Mar 2018 19:30:00 +010
  • Serum CXCL12, but not CXCR4, Is Associated with Head and Neck Squamous
           Cell Carcinomas

    • Abstract: Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most frequent malignancy of the head and neck (HN) region.We here evaluated associations of stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1or CXCL12) and its receptor, CXCR4, withHNSCCs. Materials and Methods: Sixty newly diagnosed HNSCC patients were enrolled in the patient group, and 28healthy individuals in the control group. Plasma levels of CXCL12 and CXCR4 were measured using ELISA kits.Results: There was a significant difference in mean CXCL12, but not CXCR4, plasma levels between the patient andcontrol groups (P=0.0001). No significant associations were found between mean plasma levels of either CXCL12 orCXCR4 with age, gender, tumor site, tumor size, lymph-node involvement or tumor stage. Conclusion: For the firsttime, our findings demonstrate a significant association between serum CXCL12 but not CXCR4 levels and HNSCCs.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Mar 2018 19:30:00 +010
  • Prognostic Factors for Hormone Sensitive Metastatic Prostate Cancer:
           Impact of Disease Volume

    • Abstract: Background and Aim: The optimal management of metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer has beencontroversial in recent years with introduction of upfront chemohormonal treatment based on results of several Westernstudies. This changing landscape has renewed interest in the concept “disease volume”, the focus of the present studyis the Egyptian patients. Methods: Patients with hormone sensitive metastatic prostate cancer presenting at MenoufiaUniversity Hospital, Egypt, during the period from June 2013 to May 2016, were enrolled. All received hormonaltreatment. Radiologic images were evaluated and patients were stratified according to their disease volume into high orlow, other clinical and pathological data that could affect survival also being collected and analyzed. Results: A totalof 128 patients were included, with a median age of 70 years (53.9% ≥70). About 46% had co-morbidities, 62% havinghigh volume disease. During the median follow up period of 28 months about half of the patients progressed and onethird received chemotherapy. On univariate analysis, disease volume, performance status (PS), prostate specific antigenlevel (PSA) and presence of pain at presentation were identified as factors influencing overall survival. Multivariateanalysis revealed the independent predictor factors for survival to be PS, PSA and disease volume. The median overallsurvival with 27 months was high volume versus 49 with low volume disease (hazard ratio 2.1; 95% CI 1.2 - 4.4;P=0.02). Median progression free survival was 19 months in the high volume, as compared with 48 months in the lowvolume disease patients (hazard ratio, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.42 – 7.4; P=0.009). Conclusions: Disease volume is a reliablepredictor of survival which should be incorporated with other important factors as; patient performance status andcomorbidities in treatment decision-making.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Mar 2018 19:30:00 +010
  • Evaluating the Oncogenic and Tumor Suppressor Role of XPO5 in Different
           Tissue Tumor Types

    • Abstract: The miRNAs nuclear export protein XPO5 has been previously studied in several individual malignancies. In ourrecent study we have demonstrated that excess levels of XPO5 enhanced the proliferation of prostate cancer cells.Similarly, there are studies to support the inhibitory role of XPO5 in cancers. In order to evaluate discrepancies in theexpression levels of XPO5 in differential tumor types, we quantified the expression of XPO5 using gene expressionRNA-seq data for several tumor types which were independently confirmed by immunohistochemistry in multipleorgans cancer tissue microarray (TMAs) experiment. We found that while some tumors (Breast, Bladder, Lymph-node,Lung, Esophagus and Ovary) showed higher differences between normal and malignant tumors in XPO5 expression,there were tissues (Kidney and Brain) that have a significantly lower XPO5 expression in malignant tumors. We furtherstudies these observations of overexpression and down-regulation of XPO5 in breast and kidney cancer cell lines andfound that XPO5 might have a dual role in promoting or inhibiting tumor growth in different cancer tissue types.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Mar 2018 19:30:00 +010
  • Sirt1 Gene Expression and Gastric Epithelial Cells Tumor Stage in Patients
           with Helicobacter ...

    • Abstract: Introduction: The World Health Organization has categorized Helicobacter pylori as a carcinogen for gastriccancer, which causes human mortality worldwide. A number of studies have shown that H. pylori affects cell signalingin gastric epithelial cells and changes the expression of some proteins such as proinflammatory cytokines. Bacterialinfections may alter sirt1 and sirt2 genes expression in inflammatory tissues and cancer cells. In this study, sirt1 andsirt2 genes expression in gastric cancers was surveyed with reference to H. pylori status. Methods: Stomach biopsieswere collected from 50 gastric cancer patients, 25 H. pylori-positive and 25 H. pylori-negative as determined by theurea rapid test. Tumor grade was determined by a pathologist. After total RNA extraction from gastric cancer biopsysamples and cDNA synthesis, sirt1 and sirt2 genes expression levels were determined by Real Time PCR and ΔΔCTmethods. Results: There was no statistically significant link between H. pylori infection and sirt1 (P<0.899) and sirt2(P<0.169) genes expression in gastric epithelial cells. However, pathologic findings showed that there is a statisticallysignificant relationship between sirt1 gene expression and the tumor grade (P<0.024). Discussion: A statisticallysignificant association was found between sirt1 gene expression and tumor grade of gastric cancers that could be dueto effects on progression of cancer cells infected with H. pylori.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Mar 2018 19:30:00 +010
  • Family Intervention Based on the FOCUS Program Effects on Cancer Coping in
           Iranian Breast ...

    • Abstract: Background: Breast cancer affects patients’ lives. Many breast cancer patients have problems with coping andthey need support from their families. Family involvement based on the FOCUS program is designed to support breastcancer survivors within their families. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of family involvement basedon the FOCUS program on coping in breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy in academic centers in Urmiain 2016. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial study, sixty breast cancer survivors were randomly assignedinto intervention (N=30) and control (N=30) groups. The FOCUS program family-based intervention featured sixsessions covering subject areas of family involvement, optimism, cancer coping, uncertainty reduction and symptommanagement. The instruments used were demographic and cancer coping questionnaires. Data were analyzed withSPSS 20 software. Result: The findings revealed a significant improvement in total cancer coping scores (t= -12/39,p<0.001), in all subscales including individual (t= -11/52, p<0.001), positive focus (t= -7/03, p<0.001), coping (t=-7/28, p<0.001), diversion (t= -11/76, p<0.001), planning (t=-4/91, p<0.001) and in interpersonal (t=-11/14, p<0.001).No significant changes were observed for the control group. Conclusion: The results showed that family involvementbased on the FOCUS program increases the ability to cope in breast cancer survivors.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Mar 2018 19:30:00 +010
  • Diagnostic Yield of Transbronchial Biopsy in Comparison to High Resolution
           Computerized ...

    • Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic yield of fiberoptic bronchoscopic (FOB) transbronchial biopsy andits relation with quantitative findings of high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT). A total of 83 patients,19 males and 64 females with a mean age of 45.1 years diagnosed with sarcoidosis with complete records of highresolution computerized tomography were retrospectively recruited during the time period from Feb 2005 to Jan 2015.High resolution computerized tomography scans were retrospectively assessed in random order by an experiencedobserver without knowledge of the bronchoscopic results or lung function tests. According to the radiological stagingwith HRCT, 2.4% of the patients (n=2) were stage 0, 19.3% (n=16) were stage 1, 72.3% (n=60) were stage 2 and 6.0%(n=5) were stage 3. This study showed that transbronchial lung biopsy showed positive results in 39.7% of the stage Ior II sarcoidosis patients who were diagnosed by bronchoscopy. Different high resolution computerized tomographypatterns and different scores of involvement did make a difference in the diagnostic accuracy of transbronchial biopsy(p=0.007).
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Mar 2018 19:30:00 +010
  • Clausenidin Induces Caspase 8-Dependent Apoptosis and Suppresses
           Production of VEGF in Liver ...

    • Abstract: Clausena excavata Burm f. is used by traditional healers to treat cancer patients in South East Asia. The use of theplant and its compounds is based on Asian folklore with little or no scientific evidence supporting the therapeutic efficacyThe current study aimed to determine the effect of pure clausenidin isolated from C. excavata on caspase-8-induced celldeath as well as angiogenesis in the HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Caspase-8 and extrinsic death receptorprotein expression was determined using spectrophotometry and protein profile arrays, respectively. Ultrastructuralanalysis of clausenidin-treated cells was conducted using transmission electron microscopy. In addition, anti-angiogeniceffects of clausenidin were investigated by Western blot analysis. Clausenidin significantly (p<0.05) increased theactivity of caspase-8 and expression of protein components of the death inducing signaling complex (DISC) in HepG2cells. Ultrastructural analysis of the clausenidin-treated HepG2 cells revealed morphological abnormalities typical ofapoptosis. Furthermore, clausenidin significantly (p<0.05) decreased the expression of vascular endothelial growthfactor (VEGF). Therefore, clausenidin is a potential anti-angiogenic agent which may induce apoptosis of hepatocellularcarcinoma cells.
      PubDate: Sat, 17 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Inverse Association between Glucose‒6‒Phosphate Dehydrogenase
           Deficiency and Hepatocellular ...

    • Abstract: Background: Studies in experimental models and humans suggest that glucose‒6‒phosphate dehydrogenase(G6PD) deficiency, an inherited condition, may be inversely related to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We testedthis hypothesis in a large cohort of Sardinian patients. Methods: A case-control study was performed using datafrom 11,143 records of patients who underwent upper endoscopy between 2002 and 2017. Gender, age, G6PD statusand information regarding the presence of HCC, were recorded. Cases (HCC positive) and controls (HCC negative)were compared for the presence of G6PD deficiency adjusting for major HCC risk factors using logistic regression.Results: Overall, 114 HCC cases and 11,029 controls were identified. G6PD deficiency was detected in 11.5% ofstudy participants, and was associated with a reduced risk of HCC [odds ratio (OR); 0.451; 95% confidence interval(CI), 0.207−0.982] after adjusting for all covariates. Factors significantly associated with HCC were cirrhosis (OR,23.30; 95% CI, 11.48−47.25), diabetes (OR, 2.396; 95% CI, 1.449−3.963), among infection hepatitis HBV with anOR of 2.326, age ≥65 years (OR, 1.941; 95% CI, 1.234−2.581) and male gender (OR, 1.611; 95% CI, 1.006−3.081).Conclusions: Our study revealed a significant inverse association between G6PD deficiency and risk of HCC. Thesefindings need to be confirmed in further studies.
      PubDate: Sat, 17 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Early Detection of Breast Cancer and Barrier to Screening Programmes
           amongst Thai Migrant Women ...

    • Abstract: Background: Breast cancer screening programme is seen as the best practice to detect breast cancer early. However,there are circumstances that can prevent immigrant women from attending screening programmes. Little is knownabout Thai migrants and the barriers to their seeking breast cancer screening when living in a new homeland. This paperaimed to discuss the barriers to attending screening services among Thai migrant women living in Australia. Methods:This study adopted qualitative approach. Semi-structured in-depth interviewing and drawing methods were employedas data collection technique with 25 Thai migrant women who had not experienced breast cancer and were living inMetropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Thematic analysis method was employed to analyse the data. Results: Basing onthe Health Belief Model, most Thai migrant women did not perceive that they were at risk of breast cancer. Despiteseeing a breast cancer screening programme as important, the women rarely paid attention to breast cancer screeningand used the mammography services provided by the Australian health care system. The barriers included the locationof the services, unfamiliar patterns of health care provision, and language difficulties. Conclusions: There are manybarriers that that they encountered in Australia that prevent Thai migrant women living in Melbourne Australia to payattention to mammographic screening service provided by Australia health system. Our findings suggest that healthservices and interventions need to be designed more sensitive to the needs and socio-cultural context of migrant womenin general and Thai migrant women in particular.
      PubDate: Sat, 17 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Quality of Life of Nepalese Women Post Mastectomy

    • Abstract: Introduction: Worldwide breast cancer is the common invasive cancer among the females. The quality of life ofwomen after treatment, which is often a mastectomy, is frequently decreased. Objective: To determine the life qualityof Nepalese women post mastectomy. Materials and Methods: One hundred seven women after a mastectomy wereselected and interviewed by using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Quality of LifeQuestionnaire and its Breast Specific Module to assess women’s quality of life. Result: The study findings revealed agood score on global health status/quality of life. The respondents performed well on functional and symptom scales.In the Breast Specific Module, all respondents performed poor regarding sexual function and sexual enjoyment. GlobalHealth Status was found useful among the women involved in service/business/agriculture and the survivors usingbreast prosthesis. In Breast Specific Module, systemic therapy side effects showed strong statistical associations withage, marital status, occupation, education, use of breast prosthesis and co-morbidity. Body image was highly significantwith age, occupation, education, use of breast prosthesis and co-morbidity. Conclusion: Based on the study findings,counseling, and a structured educational programme is recommended to improve the QOL of women after a mastectomy.
      PubDate: Sat, 17 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Evaluation of Osteopontin as a Biomarker in Hepatocellular Carcinomas in
           Egyptian Patients with ...

    • Abstract: Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a high incidence disease in Egypt with a poor prognosis andsurvival. Biomarkers are important for diagnosis of HCC at an early stage. Osteopontin (OPN), a glycoprotein secreted bymacrophages, osteoblasts, and T cells, is also highly expressed in a variety of tumors, such as examples in the breast, colon,and stomach. The present study aimed to correlate the serum level of OPN in HCV-positive hepatocellular carcinomapatients, with OPN expression in tumor and non-tumor liver tissues in order to identify its efficacy as a biomarkerfor diagnosis. Material and Methods: Out of total of 146 patients, 80 were selected for inclusion in the study. Bloodsamples as well as specimens of tumor and non-tumor liver tissue were collected. In addition, blood samples from 20healthy volunteers were obtained as controls. Serum OPN and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were evaluated by ELISA forHCC and control groups. OPN and AFP gene expression were examined by real-time PCR, after homogenization andDNA extraction from serum samples and liver tissues. Results: It was found that serum OPN levels were significantlyhigher in the HCC group compared to normal group (P=0.009), with a strong positive correlation with AFP expression.However, there was no significant difference between OPN expression in tumor and non-tumor liver tissue. Conclusion:Serum OPN is highly suggested to be a professional candidate for HCC early diagnosis, with a diagnostic ability andaccuracy equal or higher than for AFP.
      PubDate: Sat, 17 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Psychometric Properties of the Farsi Version of “Spiritual Needs
           Questionnaire” for Cancer ...

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: Spiritual needs are very important requirements to cancer patients. A valid andreliable instrument is needed for evaluation. This study was conducted to psychometrically evaluate a Spiritual NeedsQuestionnaire (SpNQ) for cancer patients in Iran. Methods: In this study, the methodology and psychometric propertiesof the Farsi version of the SpNQ (Büssing et al., (2010)) were evaluated, based on the model proposed by Wilde et al.,(2005). The study population included cancer patients referred to the largest referral center in Iran. Some 400 subjectswere selected. Then, the content, face and construct validity, as well as the internal consistency and reliability of theFarsi version were assessed. Findings: In the confirmatory factor analysis, the original four-factor version with 19phrases was not confirmed. Subsequently, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was carried out in which phrases wereincluded in three dimensions (peace and active giving, religion, and existence) that explained 48.1% of the variance.Later, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted, which showed a good fit of the model (CFI=0.94, GFI=0.94,RMSEA=0.071, and AGFI=0.96). Cronbach’s alpha was α=0.91 for the whole SpNQ. Cronbach’s alpha values rangedfrom 0.76 to 0.86 for the three factors. The intra-class correlation coefficient was ICC=0.82 between two tests performedwith a two-week interval. Conclusion: The modified Farsi version of the SpNQ shows good psychometric propertiesfor patients and can be used to investigate the spiritual needs of Iranian cancer patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Identification of Key Candidate Genes and Pathways in Endometrial Cancer
           by Integrated ...

    • Abstract: Endometrial Cancer is the most common female genital tract malignancy, its pathogenesis is complex, not yetfully described. To identify key genes of Endometrial Cancer we downloaded the gene chip GSE17025 from the GeneExpression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified through the GEO2R analysistool. Functional and pathway enrichment analysis were performed for DEGs using DAVID database. The network ofprotein–protein-interaction (PPI) was established by STRING website and visualized by Cytoscape. Then, functionaland pathway enrichment analysis of DEGS were performed by DAVID database. A total of 1000 significant differencesgenes were obtained, contain 362 up-regulated genes and 638 down-regulated genes. PCDH10, SLC6A2, OGN,SFRP4, TRH, ANGPTL, FOSB are down-regulated genes. The gene of IGH, CCL20, ELF5, LTF, ASPM expressionlevel in tumor patients are up-regulated. Biological function of enrichment include metabolism of xenobiotics bycytochrome P450, MAPK signaling pathway, Serotonergic synapse, Protein digestion and absorption, IL-17 signalingpathway, Chemokine signaling pathway, HIF-1 signaling pathway, p53 signaling pathway. All in all, the current studyto determine endometrial differentially expressed genes and biological function, comprehensive analysis of intrauterinemembrane carcinoma pathogenesis mechanism, and might be used as molecular targets and diagnostic biomarkers forthe treatment of endometrial cancer.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Association between Helicobacter pylori Infection and Cardiovascular Risk
           Factors among ...

    • Abstract: Background: The association between Helicobacter pylori infection and cardiovascular risk factors remainscontroversial. The high prevalence of H. pylori infection among Afghan patients warranted the investigation of thisassociation. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between H. pylori infection and cardiovascularrisk factors among patients visiting an outpatient clinic in Andkhoy, Afghanistan. Methods: We performed across-sectional study of 271 consecutive patients in an outpatient clinic in Andkhoy, Afghanistan from April 2017 toJune 2017. The diagnosis of H. pylori infection was achieved using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. Thepatients were divided into H. pylori positive (n=189) and H. pylori negative (n=82) groups. The association between H.pylori infection and cardiovascular risk factors was analyzed. Results: Of the total 271 study participants, 102 (37.6%)were male and 169 (62.4%) female. The mean age ± standard deviation of the patients who were H. pylori-positiveand H. pylori-negative was 51.0 ± 17.6 years and 51.6 ± 17.6 years, respectively. In multivariate logistic regressionanalyses, H. pylori infection was significantly associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) (odds ratio [OR] 3.16, 95%confidence interval [CI] 1.31-7.62, P = 0.011), and body mass index (BMI) levels (OR 1.17, 95% CI 108-1.26, P <0.001). Conclusions: Our study indicated that H. pylori infection was significantly associated with DM and elevatedBMI levels in patients from an outpatient clinic in Andkhoy, Afghanistan. More aggressive measures, including DM,obesity control, and H. pylori eradication are needed.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Tobacco Cessation Scenarios Among Healthcare Profession Students: A
           Multidisciplinary Study

    • Abstract: Background: It is acknowledged that the most effective means to contain the tobacco epidemic is to involvehealthcare providers across various disciplines. The present study was undertaken to gain a comprehensive insightinto various factors that determine the efficacy of multidisciplinary approaches in tobacco control. Methods: A crosssectional study design using a structured, pretested and self-administered questionnaire was employed in the present study,conducted among medical and dental interns and final year nursing students. Respondent demographics, knowledge,attitude, behaviour, perceived effectiveness and barriers, and willingness to participate in tobacco cessation were assessed.Results: A total of 268 subjects participated, with mean knowledge, attitude, behaviour, perceived effectiveness andbarrier scores of 69. 7%, 89.0%, 72.0%, 80.6% and 88.6% respectively. There were significant differences among themean scores of the study domains across the 3 disciplines. The majority (92.91%) of the respondents were willing toparticipate in tobacco cessation activities, but only 14.2% had previously received relevant training. Regression analysisrevealed that the significant predictors of behaviour scores were gender, course, attitude and perceived effectiveness;those for willingness to undertake tobacco cessation activities were course, attitude, behaviour and perceived barriers.Conclusions: The study highlighted the willingness but low previous training among the participants and also identifiedfactors that determine t behaviour and willingness to undertake tobacco cessation activities. The study emphasizes theneed for modification in the policies pertaining to curricula of medical, dental and nursing training programs.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Effecst of Patho- Biological Factors on the Survival of Recurrent Breast
           Cancer Cases

    • Abstract: Background: Recurrence of breast cancer after treatment is generally due to loco-regional invasion or distantmetastasis. Although patients with metastasis are considered incurable, existing treatments might prolong a patient’s lifewhile also improving its quality. Choice of approach for individual patients requires identification of relevant survivalfactors. This study concerns factors influencing survival after recurrence in Iranian breast cancer patients. Methods: Thisstudy was performed on 442 recurrent breast cancer patients referred to the Cancer Research Center of Shahid BeheshtiUniversity between 1985 and 2015. After confirming recurrence as a distant metastasis or loco-regional invasion, theeffects of demographic, clinic-pathologic, biological, type of surgery and type of adjuvant treatment on survival wereevaluated using univariate and multivariate stratified Cox models. Results: The mean survival after recurrence was18 months (5 days to 13 years), 219 patients (70.42%) survived two years, 75 patients (24.12%) survived from 2 to 5years, and 17 patients (5.47%) survived more than 5 years. In this study, it was found through univariate analysis that thefactors of age, lymph node status, DFI, place of recurrence and nodal ratio demonstrated greatest influence on survivalafter recurrence. On multivariate analysis, the most important factors influencing survival were the place of recurrenceand the lymph node status. Conclusion: The results of this study enhance our knowledge of effects of different factorson survival of patients after breast cancer recurrence. Thus, they may be used to inform treatment choice.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Metagenomics of Microbial Communities in Gallbladder Bile from Patients
           with Gallbladder Cancer ...

    • Abstract: Salmonella typhi and Helicobacter infections have been shown to increase risk of gallbladder cancer (GBC), butfindings have been inconsistent. Other bacterial infections may also be associated with GBC. However, information onmicrobial pathogens in gallbladder bile of GBC patients is scarce. We aimed to investigate the microbial communities ingallbladder bile of patients with GBC and cholelithiasis (CL). Seven GBC patients and 30 CL patients were enrolled inthis study. Genomic DNA was extracted from bile and the V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA was amplified. The sequencingresults were compared with the 16S database, and the bacteria were identified by homology searches and phylogeneticanalysis. DNA was detected in the bile of three GBC (42.9%; Bolivia, 1; Chile, 2) and four CL patients (13.3%; Bolivia,1; Chile, 3). Of the 37 patients, 30 (81.1%) were negative and unable to analyze. Salmonella typhi and Helicobacter sp.were not detected in bile from any GBC patients. As the predominant species, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Escherichiacoli, and Enetrobacter sp. were detected in bile from GBC patients. Those in bile from CL patients were Escherichiacoli, Salmonella sp., and Enerococcus gallinarum. Escherichia coli was detected in bile samples from both GBC andCL patients. Whether the bacteria detected in bile from GBC patients would associated with the development of GBCwarrant further investigation.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Significant Association of the MDM2 T309G Polymorphism with Breast Cancer
           Risk in a Turkish ...

    • Abstract: Background: Breast cancer is a leading cause of death in women worldwide. Genetic polymorphisms have beenreported to be important etiological factors. Murine double minute 2 (MDM2) T309G interacts with p53 and mutationsin p53 are present in approximately 50% of all cancers. However, it has been reported that effect of the polymorphismon breast cancer risk may vary in different populations. Here, we therefore investigated whether there is an associationbetween MDM2 T309G (rs2279744) polymorphism and breast cancer in a Turkish population. Materials and Methods:We analysed 110 patients with breast cancer and 138 matched' controls. For genotyping, polymerase chain reactionand restriction length fragment polymorphism methods were used. Results: A significant difference was observedbetween case and control groups with regard to the distribution of the MDM2 T309G polymorphism (p<0.05). Therewas a significantly higher frequency of the TT genotype in the control group (p=0.028; OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.09-5.37).However, we did not find any relationships among tumor grade and metastasis status and this polymorphism. Conclusion:This study indicates that the MDM2 T309G polymorphism GG genotype and the TG+GG combination may be riskfactors for breast cancer in our Turkish population.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Prevalence, Cognitive and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Prostate
           Cancer Screening

    • Abstract: Screening may be effective for reducing deaths due to prostate cancer. The aim of this study was determine the prevalenceand determinants influencing prostate cancer early detection behaviors based on the theory planned behavior (TPB).In this cross-sectional study, conducted in the west of Iran, a total of 250 men aged 50 to 70 years old were randomlyselected to participate. Of these, 200 (80%) signed the consent form and voluntarily agreed to take part. A structuredquestionnaire based on TPB constructs was applied for collecting data by interview. Analyses were conducted withSPSS version 16 using bivariate correlations, and logistic and linear regression. Some 26.5% of the participantsdemonstrated prostate cancer early detection behavior. Age higher than 60 (OR: 5.969), academic education (OR: 2.904),number of family members more than four (OR: 3.144), and knowledge about prostate cancer (OR: 3.693) were themost influential predictive factors for early detection behavior. Furthermore, among the TPB constructs, attitude(OR=1.090) and subjective norms (OR=1.280) were the most influential predictors. Attitude, subjective norms, andperceived behavioral control accounted for 43% of the variation in the outcome measure of the intention to screenfor prostate cancer (adjusted R squared= 0.43, F= 49.270 and P < 0.001). Designing and implementation programs toincrease positive attitudes and encourage subjective norms towards prostate cancer screening behavior may be usefulfor promotion of early detection.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Socio-Cognitive Determinants of the Mammography Screening Uptake among
           Iranian Women

    • Abstract: Background: Mammography screening uptake is the most effective method in breast cancer screening. The aimof this study was to determine the determinants related to mammography screening uptake among Iranian womenbased on the theory of planned behavior. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among408 women who referred to health centers in Kermanshah city, the western of Iran, during 2016. Participants filledout a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 using Pearson correlation, linear andlogistic regression statistical tests at 95% significant level. Results: The mean age of participants was 39.61 years[SD: 8.28], ranged from 30 to 60 years. Almost 13% of the participants had already mammography screening uptakeat least once. Perceived behavioral control (OR=1.229) and behavioral intention (OR=1.283) were the more influentialpredictors on mammography screening uptake. Conclusions: Based on result, it seems increase perceived behaviorcontrol toward mammography screening uptake may be usefulness in promotion of mammography screening uptakeamong Iranian women.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • The Impact of Perceived Barriers on Self-Efficacy for HPV Preventive

    • Abstract: Background: Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers found among women. Many studies have focusedon factors associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) preventive behavior and early detection using models such asthe health belief model (HBM). Despite a growing body of knowledge regarding HPV preventive behavior, few studieshave examined how self-efficacy affects this behavior in foreign women living in South Korea. This study identifiedfactors affecting the self-efficacy of foreign women living in South Korea and the impact on HPV preventive behavior.Methods: A total of 171 participants consisting of international school parents who voluntarily participated in HPVpreventive behavior were selected. A multivariate regression analysis included key variables such as demographics,cervical cancer knowledge, perceived susceptibility, and perceived barriers. Results: Self-efficacy for HPV preventivebehavior was significantly associated with perceived barriers. That is, women with lower perceived barriers were likelyto have higher self-efficacy scores. However, demographics, cervical cancer knowledge, and perceived susceptibilitydid not show any association with self-efficacy. The final model was significant and accounted for 14.4% of thevariance in self-efficacy. Conclusion: This study showed the importance of considering perceived barriers of HPVpreventive behavior related to self-efficacy. However, different from HBM, modifying factors, such as knowledge,perceived susceptibility, and individual demographics were not related to self-efficacy. Based on these findings, futureresearch should investigate self-efficacy and HPV preventive behavior among individuals who do not participate inHPV preventive behavior.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Digital Cervicography by Simply Portable Device as an Alternative Test for
           Cervical Cancer ...

    • Abstract: Objective: Various screening methods for cervical cancer are proved to be effective in reducing such type of cancer.We aims to introduce a new portable device as an alternative method for cervical cancer screening. The performanceof device was tested on the assessment of cervical lesions using cervicograph score with the cervical cytology.Methods: 325 non-pregnant women were tested from March 2013 to August 2015. The cervical and vaginal cellsfrom the sample were collected for cytology, then all of them received the digital cervicography conducted with ournew device and scored using cervicograph score. Small pieces of cervical tissues were also collected for histologicexamination. SPSS software version 18.0 was used for the statistical analysis. Results: We grouped cytology resultsand cervicograph scores to 2 subgroups, ≤ ASC-US and ≥ LSIL, and 0-3 points and 4-6 points, respectively. The datathen correlated with histology results which sub-grouped to ≤ CIN 1 and ≥ CIN 2. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity,and positive predictive value (PPV) of cervicograph scores 4-6 points to detect CIN 2+ were 92%, 72.41%, 97%, and84%, respectively which were not inferior to Pap smear did. Conclusion: The digital cervicography device providessimilar accuracy to Pap cytology screening and is suitable to use in the area that lacks cytoscreeners. Large scale useand generalization are required for this new device.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Determinants of Breast Cancer Screening by Mammography in Women Referred
           to Health Centers of ...

    • Abstract: Background: In women, breast cancer accounts for 30 percent of all cancers and it is the second leading cause ofmortality. Mammography is considered an effective procedure to detect early breast cancer recommended by WorldHealth Organization. This study was aimed to evaluate breast cancer screening determinants in women referred tohealth centers of Urmia for mammography in 2017. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytic cross-sectionalstudy, 348 women referred to health centers of Urmia were selected using multistage sampling. Data were collectedusing a standard questionnaire for mammography screening determinants, with a checklist including demographiccharacteristics, family, social and economic factors and midwifery background. Analysis was with SPSS softwareversion 20for descriptive and inferential statistic tests, P<0.05 being considered significant. Results: The proportionperforming mammography was 12%. Significant relationships were noted with income, menopause status, a history ofbreast cancer in close relatives, beliefs, inaccessibility, knowledge, cues to action, emotions, self-care, and life priorities(P<0.05). There were no significant links with age at marriage, first age of delivery, number of children, duration ofbreastfeeding, status of residency, education, marital status, occupation, history of breastfeeding, and previous breastproblems (P>0.05). Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that the status of breast cancer screening inparticipating women was not satisfactory. Therefore, promotion of screening methods by health policy makers in Iranis necessary and given that reliance solely on education is not sufficient, it is essential to pay attention to barriers andeliminate them.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Proliferative Index (Ki67) for Prediction in Breast Duct Carcinomas

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: To date, many tumor markers have been used to predict prognosis and therapeuticresponse in patients with breast cancer. The well established and routinely applied tumor markers are the estrogen-receptor,progesterone-receptor and Her2/neu-receptor. In the current study, we aimed to highlight any association of theproliferation index (Ki67) in breast infiltrative duct carcinoma with the tumor grade, tumor size and nodal status inaddition to hormone receptor status. Tissue sections were stained immunohistochemically for Ki67 nuclear antigen,estrogen, progesterone and Her2/neu receptors using an automated Dako machine (Dako Denmark. There was asignificant inverse relationship of Ki67 levels with ER and PR, while values were directly proportional to the tumorgrade and Her2/neu status. No significant association was found between Ki67 and size of tumor or nodal status. Ki67immunoexpression may offer an independent predictive tumor marker and for routine application in cases of breast cancer.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Educational Interventions for Cervical Cancer Screening Behavior of Women:
           A Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide; early detection can playa key role in reducing the associated morbidity. The objective of this study was to systematically assess the effects ofeducational interventions on cervical cancer screening (CCS) behavior of women. Methods: In this review the Cochranelibrary, Web of Science, Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus and search engine of Google scholar were searched for allinterventional studies (trails, pre- and post-test or quasi-experimental) published in 2000-2017 for a systematic review,The search was based on the following keywords: cervix cancer, uterine cervical neoplasms, screening, prevention andcontrol, Papanicolaou Test, pap test, pap smear, education, intervention, systematic review. Due to the heterogeneityof the data, a qualitative analysis was performed. Results: Thirty seven articles with 15,658 female participants indifferent parts of world were included in the review. About three quarters of the articles covered behavior changeinterventions. About one fourth of the articles were based on health education methods. The heath belief model isthe most popular used framework for cervical cancer screening interventions. The results of our study showed thatdifferent health education methods (such as calls, mailed postcards, mother/daughter education. consultation sessions,picture books, videos, PowerPoint slides, small group discussions, educational brochures, radio broadcast education,lecture presentations, tailored counseling and a fact sheet, Self-learning package, face-to- face interviews and etc) areeffective in modifying cervical cancer screening behavior of women. Conclusions: Our results showed that the differentinterventions and health behavior change frameworks provide an effective base for cervical cancer prevention. Heathproviders can chose educational methods based on the particular client situations.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Association of Calorie and Carbohydrate Intake with Tumor Grade in Early
           Diagnosis of Breast ...

    • Abstract: Background: Evidence has not been able to prove the role of carbohydrates in the control and treatment of breast cancer. This study aimed to investigate the association of calorie and carbohydrate intake with tumor grade in early detection of breast cancer in Iranian women. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 62 women with high grade breast cancer were included in the study as the case group and control group included 93 women with low breast cancer grade. Information about confounding variables was collected through a questionnaire. Dietary intake of calorie and macronutrient was assessed by a valid 122-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The subjects were categorized according to quartiles of calorie and carbohydrate intake. Results: Individuals with high grade breast cancer had significantly more calorie (0.16, 0.04-0.61) and carbohydrate intake (4.02; 1.28-12.63) compared with those with low grade breast cancer after controlling for age. This correlation remained significant after adjusting for confounding factors including body mass index, age at menarche, Physical activity, smoking, family history, and taking contraceptives and estrogen. Conclusion: Our results showed that high intakes of dietary calorie and carbohydrate are directly related to the high grade of tumor in people with breast cancer after modifying a wide range of confounding factors. Further studies in this area may help to provide appropriate nutritional advice to cancer patients.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Dietary Carbohydrate Promotes Cell Survival in Cancer via the
           up-Regulation of Fat Mass and ...

    • Abstract: Objective: Cancer cells are mainly dependent on glycolysis for their growth and survival. Dietary carbohydrates play a critical role in the growth and proliferation of cancer and a low-carbohydrate diet can help slow down the growth of breast tumors. However, the exact mechanisms behind this effect are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of gene polymorphisms in the association between dietary carbohydrates in cancer via the up-regulation of FTO gene expression level.Method: This review study was carried out using keywords such as polymorphism and/or Cancer and/or dietary carbohydrate and/or FTO gene. PubMed and Science Direct Databases were used to collect all related articles published from 1990 to 2017.Results: Recent studies showed that the FTO gene expression level in cancer cells is dramatically increased and may play a role in the growth of these cells through the regulation of the cellular metabolic pathways, including the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Dietary carbohydrate may influence the FTO gene expression by eliminating the inhibitory effect of AMPK on the FTO gene expression.Conclusion: This review summarizes what has been recently discovered about the effects of dietary carbohydrate on cancer cells and tries to determine the mediating role of the FTO gene in these effects.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Preoperative Monocyte Count as a Mirror of Tumor Characteristics and
           Likelihood of Recurrence ...

    • Abstract: Background: Recently preoperative hematologic parameters have attracted attention for their capacity to predicttumor characteristics and recurrence. Considering the established role of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) in thetumor microenvironment, we evaluated the role of the preoperative monocyte count as a surrogate for TAM. Methods:We retrospectively reviewed 166 patients with histopathologically proven endometrial cancers from January 2011 toMarch 2015 and assessed any association of preoperative monocyte count with tumor characteristics and recurrence.Results: The majority of patients had tumors with the following characteristics: endometrioid histology (83.1%), lowgrade (grade I-II, 71.7%) and stage I disease (68.1%). The mean ± SD monocyte, neutrophil and platelet counts were 8.23x 109/L ± 3.56 x 109/L, 64.0 x 109/L ± 11.3 x 109/L and 261.6 x 109/L ± 74.6 x 109. Statistically significant associationswere noted with between preoperative monocyte count and tumor stage (p value=0.044), recurrence (p value<0.001) andomentum involvement (p value< 0.001) but not with tumor grade (p value=0.897), depth of myometrium involvement(p value=0.479), lymphovascular space invasion (p value=0.269) and lymph node involvement (p value=0.377).Conclusion: An elevated preoperative monocyte count is related to more aggressive tumors and a higher recurrencerate in patients with endometrial cancer.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Screening and Identification of Peptides Specifically Targeted to Gastric
           Cancer Cells from a ...

    • Abstract: Background: Gastric cancer is the second most common cancer among the malign cancer types. Inefficiency oftraditional techniques both in diagnosis and therapy of the disease makes the development of alternative and noveltechniques indispensable. As an alternative to traditional methods, tumor specific targeting small peptides can be usedto increase the efficiency of the treatment and reduce the side effects related to traditional techniques. The aim of thisstudy is screening and identification of individual peptides specifically targeted to human gastric cancer cells usinga phage-displayed peptide library and designing specific peptide sequences by using experimentally-eluted peptidesequences. Methods: Here, MKN-45 human gastric cancer cells and HFE-145 human normal gastric epithelial cellswere used as the target and control cells, respectively. 5 rounds of biopannning with a phage display 12-peptide librarywere applied following subtraction biopanning with HFE-145 control cells. The selected phage clones were establishedby enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence detection. We first obtain random phage clonesafter five biopanning rounds, determine the binding levels of each individual clone. Then, we analyze the frequenciesof each amino acid in best binding clones to determine positively overexpressed amino acids for designing novelpeptide sequences. Results: DE532 (VETSQYFRGTLS) phage clone was screened positive, showing specific bindingon MKN-45 gastric cancer cells. DE-Obs (HNDLFPSWYHNY) peptide, which was designed by using amino acidfrequencies of experimentally selected peptides in the 5th round of biopanning, showed specific binding in MKN-45cells. Conclusion: Selection and characterization of individual clones may give us specifically binding peptides, butmore importantly, data extracted from eluted phage clones may be used to design theoretical peptides with betterbinding properties than even experimentally selected ones. Both peptides, experimental and designed, may be potentialcandidates to be developed as useful diagnostic or therapeutic ligand molecules in gastric cancer research.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Contrast-Enhanced Perfusion MR Imaging to Differentiate Between
           Recurrent/Residual Brain ...

    • Abstract: Purpose: To determine the value of dynamic susceptibility contrast enhanced (DSC) MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)perfusion in the characterization of newly developed/enlarging lesions within irradiated regions after treatment of braintumors. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study covered 23 patients, 12 females and 11 males. All casesinitially presented with histologically proven malignant brain tumors and underwent surgical intervention followed byradiotherapy (+/- chemotherapy). On follow up imaging, they presented with newly developed/progressively enhancingmass lesions at the sites of the primary tumors. All patients then underwent conventional MRI, DSC MRI perfusionand MR spectroscopy. Results: In our study, we found DSC MR perfusion to be a useful non-invasive method fordifferentiating recurrent brain tumors from radiation necrosis. This approach allows hemodynamic measurements tobe obtained within the brain as the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) to complement the anatomic informationobtained with conventional contrast enhanced MR imaging. The sensitivity and specificity of DSC MR perfusionfor differentiation were found to be 77.8% and 80.0%, respectively. Conclusion: DSC MR perfusion is a promisingtechnique in differentiating recurrent brain tumors from radiation necrosis as it has acceptable spatial resolution andcan be routinely performed in the same settings after conventional MRI.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Comparative Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Two Different Two-Dose Human
           Papillomavirus Vaccines ...

    • Abstract: Purpose: To comparatively evaluate the results of a 2-dose human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programmewith the AS04-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccine (AS04-HPV-16/18v) or HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (4vHPVv), in additionto cervical cancer (CC) screening, in Malaysia. Methods: A lifetime Markov model replicating the natural history ofHPV in 13-year-old girls was adapted to Malaysia to assess the impact of vaccination on pre-cancerous lesions, genitalwarts and CC cases, CC deaths, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and costs from the perspective of the MalaysianMinistry of Health. Vaccine effectiveness was based on efficacy and HPV type distribution. Both vaccines were assumedto have equal efficacy against vaccine-type HPV but differed for protection against non-vaccine types. Vaccine priceparity was used and health and cost outcomes were discounted at 3%/annum. Sensitivity analyses tested the robustnessof the results. Results: The model predicted that AS04-HPV-16/18v would result in 361 fewer CC cases and 115 fewerCC deaths than 4vHPVv, whereas 4vHPVv averted 4,241 cases of genital warts over the cohort’s lifetime. Discountedtotal costs showed savings of 18.50 million Malaysian Ringgits and 246 QALYs in favour of AS04-HPV-16/18v. Inone-way sensitivity analyses, the discount rate was the most influential variable for costs and QALYs, but AS04-HPV-16/18v remained dominant throughout. A two-way sensitivity analysis to assess the longevity of cross-protection for bothvaccines confirmed the base-case. Conclusions: In Malaysia, the use of AS04-HPV-16/18v, in addition to screening,was modelled to be dominant over 4vHPVv, with greater estimated CC benefits and lower costs.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Ecballium Elaterium for Gastrointestinal Cancer

    • Abstract: Dear EditorI read with great interest the article by Jafargholizadeh et al., (2016) for the possible cytotoxic effects of Ecballium elaterium (L.) A. Richard fruit on gastric cancer cells due to its cucurbitacins. Although this toxicherb has been known since antiquity and was mentioned by ancient writers (as Hippocrates, Theophrastus Pliny,Dioscorides, Avicenna and others), Hippocrates was the first who suggested the administration of Ecballiumelaterium for the management of gastrointestinal cancer. Particularly, in the Book of Εpidemics II, Hippocratesof Kos (c. 460 - c. 370 BC) wrote the following: “Ἀπό γαστρός ταραχῆς ἤ ἀπό βηχός καρκίνου γινομένου, τόστόμα πικραίνεται∙ διδόναι δέ πίνειν ἐλατήριον δίς ἤ τρίς, ἤν μή ψιλός ᾖ” (If you develop cancer after a digestivedisorder or a cough, your mouth becomes bitter. The patient is given elaterium two or three times, unless thepatient is thin) (6,22). The administration of elaterium in this text was probably related to its laxative properties. Itis worth mentioning that the name Ecballium elaterium originates from the Greek words “ἐκβάλλω” (ekvállo)which means discharge and “ἐλατήριον” (elatírion) which means spring, because of a specific characteristic of theseeds of the plant, which are ejected like springs, even by the lightest touch of the surface of the fruit, when it is ripe.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Significant SNPs Related to Telomere Length and Hepatocellular Carcinoma
           Risk in Chronic ...

    • Abstract: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection increases the risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) with suspected interactions between virus replication and host immune responses. A number of reports havesuggested that telomerase function may be involved in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) pathogenesis, but positive or negativeassociations with HCC risk remain for discussion. Mean telomere length is an indicator of biological aging and it hasbeen reported that reduction in NBV carriers compared to normal individuals. In somatic cells, telomeres containsimple, tandemly repeated G-rich sequences that frequently are reduced by 50 to 200 base pairs at each cell division.Several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in diverse ethnic populations have revealed eleven single nucleotidepolymorphisms (SNPs) linked to telomere length. Two of these, rs398652 and rs621559, have prognostic value and couldbe used as genetic markers. This review describes current knowledge concerning telomerase activity and telomere lengthas well as significant polymorphisms in HBV-related HCC patients. In particular, to cast light on genotype-phenotypeinteractions, we used SNPnexus to evaluate effects of the two SNPs on risk of disease and complex disorders.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Risk Factors for Gastric Cancer: A Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Objective: Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, with many influences contributing to thedisease. The aim of this study was to identify the most important risk factors. Methods: This study was conducted in2017 with a structured overview in the Science Directe, Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science (ISI) databases.In the first step, articles were extracted based on their titles and abstracts; the quality of 43 articles was evaluatedusing the STORBE tool. Inclusion criteria were studies carried out on human, English language (first step), year ofthe study and the study type (second step). Results: Finally, 1,381 articles were found, of which 1,269 were excludedin primary and secondary screening. In reviewing the references of the remaining 44 papers, 4 studies were added.Finally, 43 articles were selected for the quality assessment process. A total of 52 risk factors for gastric cancer wereidentified and classified into nine important categories: diet, lifestyle, genetic predisposition, family history, treatmentand medical conditions, infections, demographic characteristics, occupational exposures and ionizing radiation’.Conclusion: Several environmental and genetic factors are involved in the development of gastric cancer. Regardingthe role of changes in ‘diet and lifestyle’, considering appropriate nutrition and improving the level of education andawareness of people is vital for early diagnosis and timely treatment of this disease, especially in people with a familyhistory and genetic predisposition.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Risk Factors for Cholangiocarcinoma in Thailand: A Systematic Review and

    • Abstract: Background and objective: Cholangiocarcinoma remains a serious public health concern in Thailand. While manyof the risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma in western countries are well-recognized, it remains unclear whether theyare the same in Thailand. We set out to investigate the risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma in Thailand. Methods:Starting March 4, 2016, we reviewed studies found using pre-specified keywords on SCOPUS, Pro Quest ScienceDirect, PubMed, and online public access catalog of Khon Kaen University. Two review authors independently screenedstudies for inclusion criteria, extracted data, and assessed the studied Risk of Bias. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and theJoanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tools were used to assess the quality of included studies. The risk effects offactors were estimated as a pooled adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval. The heterogeneity of results wasconsidered using the I-square, Tau-square and Chi-square statistics. Results: A strong association was found betweencholangiocarcinoma and age, Opisthorchis viverrini infection, eating raw cyprinoid fish, family history of cancer, liquorconsumption, and taking praziquantel. There was only a mild association found between eating nitrite-containing foods,fresh vegetables, education, smoking behavior, and sex. No association was found between cholangiocarcinoma andeating fermented fish (Pla-ra), northeastern Thai or Chinese sausage, sticky rice, meat, chewing betel nut, or eatingfruit. There were two protective factors including fresh vegetables consumption and education attainment. Conclusion:There are unique risk factors of cholangiocarcinoma in Thailand, including age, Opisthorchis
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Osteopontin b and c Splice isoforms in Leukemias and Solid Tumors:
           Angiogenesis Alongside ...

    • Abstract: Osteopontin (OPN) is a glycoprotein involved in regulation of various influences on tumor progression, such ascellular proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a secretedmolecule supporting angiogenesis in various cancers through activation of the PI3K/AKT/ERK1/2 pathway. OPN andVEGF have a number of isoforms with various activities. In spite of the well-defined association between OPN andVEGF isoform expression and cure rate for solid tumors, there is a scarcity of information as to any association inleukemia. Based on the critical role of OPN in cell survival, it seems reasonable to hypothesize that OPN and VEGFisoform expression levels may impact on chemoresistance and relapse in leukemia the same as in solid tumors. Hence,the aim of our review was to explain relationships between OPN and VEGF isoforms and angiogenesis and relatedpathways in chemoresistance of leukemia and solid tumors. Our findings demonstrated that OPNb and OPNc alongsidewith VEGF isoforms and other gene pathways are involved in angiogenesis and also might promote chemoresistanceand even recurrence in leukemia and solid tumors. To sum up, targeting OPN isoforms, particularly b and c, might bea novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of leukemia as well as solid tumors.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Regarding Breast Cancer amongst
           Lebanese Females in Beirut

    • Abstract: Objectives: Regular screening for breast cancer is associated with better survival, but compliance with guidelinesdepends on good knowledge and attitudes. This study aimed to assess the level of breast cancer knowledge, attitudesand screening practices in Lebanese females, and identify their socio-demographic determinants as well as barriers tomammography use. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 371 Lebanese females residing in Beirutaged 18-65 with no history of breast cancer. The questionnaire applied was adapted from Stager and Champion.The overall knowledge score was determined with sections on general knowledge, curability, symptoms, and screening;the overall attitude score concerned attitudes towards breast cancer, screening, and barriers; and the overall practicesscore was for breast self examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography. Bivariate andmultivariate analyses of socioeconomic determinants were performed for each score. Results: The mean knowledgescore was 55.5±17.1% and that for attitudes was 71.9±8.3%. For self-examination, mammography and clinicalexamination practices, individual means were 45.7±42.3%, 77.9±36.5% and 29.1±45.5%, respectively. Knowledge,attitudes and practices correlated positively with each other (p<0.0001). The highest average was the knowledgeof symptoms (72.8±24.7%), and the lowest that of curability (49.6±25.7%). Most frequent barriers to mammographywere fear of learning bad news, pain, costs, and staff unpleasantness. Higher education was associated with betterknowledge (p=0.002) and smoking with lower levels (p=0.003). Older age (p=0.002), higher education (p=0.02),and taking exercise (p=0.02) were associated with better attitudes. Higher education (p=0.02) and having children(p=0.003) were associated with better practices. Conclusion: More emphasis should be placed on educating femaleson the curability of breast cancer and specific targeting of the barriers identified.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Effects of an Educational Program for Prostate Cancer Prevention on
           knowledge and PSA Testing ...

    • Abstract: Background and Objectives: Prostate cancer was reported to be the second cause of cancer death in men in 2013.Studies have shown that those with higher knowledge levels are much more likely to undergo prostate cancer screening.The present study was aimed to determinate the effect of an educational program for prostate cancer prevention onknowledge and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing in men over 50 years old in community areas of Shiraz. Methods:This clinical trial was conducted among 93 men over 50 years old who were randomly divided into an intervention(n=48) and a control (n=45) group. The intervention group took part in an educational program focusing on theimportance of prostate cancer prevention with emphasis on cultural and economic issues. Data were collected usinga demographic information form, the Weinrich questionnaire for measuring the knowledge level about prostate cancerand screening, and also a researcher-made questionnaire covering reasons for not doing the test, before and 3 monthsafter the intervention. Additionally, participation in PSA testing was evaluated 3 months after the intervention. All datawere entered into the SPSS statistical software (version 14) and pFindings: The results showed that the intervention group’s participation in PSA testing increased from 6.12% to 36.4%three months after the intervention. However, no significant change was observed in the control group. In addition,the intervention group’s mean score of knowledge increased by about 2.69 points after the intervention, and a significantdifference was observed between the two groups in this regard (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results of the current studyrevealed effectiveness of the educational program in increasing the knowledge about prostate cancer and participationin PSA testing in men over 50 years of age. Hence, managers and authorities should execute plans to educate menregarding prostate cancer screening and promote their health status.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Comparative Evaluation of a 6MV Flattened Beam and a Flattening Filter
           Free Beam for Carcinoma ...

    • Abstract: Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plan quality, beam on time and integral dose were compared using6MV FB (Flattened Beam) and FFFB (Flattening filter free beam) for carcinoma of cervix. Materials and Methods:Ten patients with stage II–IIIB cervix cancer (Ca.Cx) were retrospectively identified from the department database.Target volume (TV) and organ at risk (OAR) were delineated as per Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) cancerguidelines. Dose prescribed to planning target volume (PTV) was 50.4Gy in 28 fractions. Two plans (6MV FB IMRTand 6MV FFFB IMRT) were generated to achieve 95% of prescription dose to PTV and sparing OAR as per normaltissue guidelines. Numbers of beams and their orientations were the same for all plans. The homogeneity index (HI),conformity index (CI), treatment monitor unit (MU), beam on time (BOT) and non-tumor integral dose (NTID) werechosen for comparison. Results: FFFB generated plans were clinically acceptable. There was a statistically significantdifference among the FB IMRT and FFFB IMRT plans with respect to CI, HI, D50%, D2% in PTV coverage, bladderV50Gy, MU, mean NTID and non-tumor low dose volume. Conclusions: 6MV flattened and flattening filter free photonbeams produce comparable plans by IMRT . FFF beams allow time efficient treatment delivery and may help reducethe risk of secondary malignances in carcinoma cervix cases.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Evaluation the Anti-Cancer Effect of PEGylated Nano-Niosomal Gingerol, on
           Breast Cancer Cell ...

    • Abstract: Background: Cancer is a significant problem in modern medicine, also is the most common cause of death aftercardiovascular diseases, and in need of targeted drug release. Although, chemotherapy is an important candidate incancer treatment, but it has many side effects on healthy tissues of the body. Therefore, Nano technology is usedfor specific function, by the least side effects and damage to normal cells. Materials and method: In this study, thepharmacological properties of PEGylated Nano-niosomal Gingerol was examined. Noisome were prepared using reversephase evaporation method, which contains specific proportion of cholesterol, span60 and polyethylene glycol. Then,PEGylated the prepared formulation by PEG6600. The amount of release and encapsulation of the drug was investigated.The percentage of remains of cancer cell line T47D treated with PEGylated niosomal Gingerol. Results: The averagediameter of the nanoparticles, size distribution and zeta potential were reported for PEGylated niosomal sample 35.65nm, 0.17 and 21 mv, and for PEGylated niosomal drug sample 256.9 nm, 0.23 and 28 mv, respectively. The amountof OD for encapsulated drug was 0.198, also the amount of concentration of the drug which is not encapsulated, was0.77947 μl of the drug per ml. This value of encapsulated drug was 76.38 percent. Conclusion: The results showed thatIC50 of the formulation of PEGylated nanoniosomal Gingerol is less than the standard drug. It seems, the cause of thisphenomenon is due to the effect of Polyethylene glycol, in more stability and slower drug release, in the formulationof PEGylated niosome. Also, Polyethylene glycol makes increase in the drug dealing and its greater influence with thetarget cell. In this study, more than 76% of the Gingerol drug in PEGylated nanoniosomal formulation were enclose.Also, we could reduce the amount of drug release, as much as possible.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Risk Factors, Biomarkers, Etiology, Outcome and Prognosis of Ischemic
           Stroke in Cancer Patients

    • Abstract: Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease is the second most common complication in individuals with tumours.The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors, biomarkers, etiology and prognosis of ischemic stroke in cancerpatients (ISCPs). Methods: The medical records of 619 consecutive patients who were admitted with acute ischemicstroke from January 2012 to November 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. The patients were divided into two groups(group 1, patients with an active cancer prior to the onset of ischemic stroke; group 2, patients without an active cancerhistory). The demographic data, risk factors, NIHSS scores, thrombocyte count, D-dimer, fibrinogen and C reactiveprotein (CRP) level at admission, modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores in the follow-up period and location of lesionson DWI were recorded. The Mann-Whitney U test, chi-squared test and logistic regression was used for analyzing data,pwas significantly lower in the ISCP group (p=0.001). Elevated thrombocyte counts, D-dimer, fibrinogen and CRP levelsat admission, acute multiple ischemic lesions, other causes, mortality in hospital and worse outcome were significantlyrelated to ISCP (p<0.05). On logistic regression analysis, follow up mRS>3, acute multiple ischemic lesions locatedin more than one vascular territory (AMIMCT) and other causes were significantly associated with ISCP (p<0.001).Conclusion: In our study, other causes, AMIMCT and mRS>3 were more common in the ISCP group. We consider thatCCS could be more suitable for detecting other causes than TOAST. Biomarkers could be important in the ISCP group.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) for Differential Diagnosis of
           Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    • Abstract: Introduction:Soft tissue sarcomas are rare tumors comprising 1 percent of solid malignancies. The latest editionof WHO soft tissue pathology lists 94 benign and malignant soft tissue tumors. Many of these show a large degreeof morphological overlap. Immunohistochemistry has been shown to be reliable in many cases for differential diagnosisof lesions, although cytogenetic tests are considered the gold standard for many entities.Fluorescence in-situ hybridization(FISH) is a cytogenetic technique that uses fluorescent probes that bind to only those parts of the chromosome whichhave a high degree of sequence complementarity. Many soft tissue tumors show recurrent genetic mutations that arenow being used as diagnostic markers. Knowledge of the molecular identity allows prediction of behavior, prognosisand treatment response. Objective:The aim of this study was to identify genetic mutations in soft tissue sarcomas usingFISH testing and to assess correlations with histological diagnosis. Material and methods:A total of 25 cases of differentsoft tissue sarcomas diagnosed on histology with the help of immunohistochemical staining and for which FISH studieswere requested were included in this study. Three pathologists with a special interest in soft tissue sarcomas reviewedthe cases. FISH tests for EWS, the X:18 translocation, FOXO1 and MDM2 were respectively applied for 8 cases ofEwing sarcoma, 8 cases of synovial sarcoma, 2 cases of rhabdomyosarcoma and 7 cases of dedifferentiated liposarcomaand atypical lipomatous tumors/well differentiated liposarcomas. Results:EWS gene fusion was detected in 7 out of8 cases of Ewing sarcoma and the X:18 translocation was positive in 3 of the 8 cases of synovial sarcoma. FOXO1was not detected in either of the two rhabdomyosarcomas. MDM2 by FISH was detected in only one out of 5 cases ofatypical lipomatous tumors and 1 out of 2 dedifferentiated liposarcomas. Conclusion: FISH is a useful adjunct in thediagnostic assessment of different types of soft tissue sarcomas. It is easy to set up, is relatively inexpensive and hasthe ability to diagnose sarcomas with great accuracy, especially in cases which can not be accurately classified evenafter thorough histological and immunohistochemical evaluation. It may play a very important role in the accuratediagnosis and correct management of patients.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Analysis of the Expression of Surface Receptors on NK Cells and NKG2D on
           Immunocytes in ...

    • Abstract: Background: The aberrant expression of surface receptors on immunocytes may represent potential markers of tumorescape for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of representativereceptors on natural killer (NK) cells and NK group 2, member D (NKG2D) on immunocytes in the peripheral bloodof patients with NPC. Methods: Patients (n = 64) with NPC prior to initiation of treatment were defined as the studygroup. Healthy volunteers (n = 31) served as the control group. The expression of NK cells and NKT cells; the triggeringreceptors NKp30, NKp44, and NKp46 on NK cells; the activating receptor NKG2D on NK cells, CD4+ T cells, andCD8+ T cells; and the inhibitory receptors CD158b and CD159a on NK cells were analyzed by flow cytometry in thetwo groups. Results: Here, our study showed that no differences were observed in terms of the numbers of NK cells orNKT cells, or the expression of CD158b and CD159a on the surface of NK cells between the two groups. Nevertheless,the expression levels of NKp30 and NKp46 on NK cells in the NPC patients were significantly lower than in the healthyindividuals (P < 0.05). No differences existed in the expression of NKG2D on NK cells, but NKG2D on CD8+ T cellsshowed a markedly lower expression in the study group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Our findings may reflect a possiblemechanism of immune evasion for NPC. The enhancement of immunotherapy concerning NKp30, NKp46, and NKG2Dmay be an innovative treatment strategy for patients with NPC.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Epigenetic Downregulation and Growth Inhibition of IGFBP7 in Gastric

    • Abstract: Background: Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) has been found to be a tumor suppressorin several human cancers, but the role of IGFBP7 in gastric cancer has not yet been fully investigated. Herein, weexamined the epigenetic downregulation of IGFBP7 expression in gastric cancer. Methods: Expression and methylationof IGFBP7 in gastric cancer cells and primary gastric cancer patients were determined using qRT-PCR, western blot,immunohistochemistry, and methylation specific-PCR, respectively. The effects of IGFBP7 on gastric cancer cellswere investigated by various experimental conditions, such as proliferation, colony formation, apoptosis, invasion,and migration assay. Results: IGFBP7 methylation was inversely correlated with IGFBP7 expression in gastriccancer. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that IGFBP7 expression and tumor stage were independentprognostic factors. IGFBP7 knockdown increased gastric cancer cell growth, invasion, and migration, whereas IGFBP7overexpression in gastric cancer cells induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Conclusion: Our data suggest thatIGFBP7 functions as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer via an epigenetic pathway.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Impact of Parents and Peers Smoking on Tobacco Consumption Behavior of
           University Students

    • Abstract: Introduction: In the United Arab Emirates, smoking prevalence has increased in both sexes, especially amongyoung adults. Various factors have led to this catastrophe; examples include coverage on TV and social media, as wellas market availability. One major influence is smoking by parents and peers. A lot of students may start smoking becauseof the behavior of their family and friends, and therefore it is necessary to quantify adverse contributions. The aim ofthis project was to study to what degree parents and peers smoking habits may impact on smoking behavior of studentsat the University of Sharjah. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study with a non-probability convenient typeof sampling, was conducted with university students aged 18 to 23. Information was collected using a self-administeredquestionnaire, comprising 23 questions, developed by ourselves. Results: A total of 400 University of Sharjah students(50% males and 50% females) were included.Some 15.8% of the smoking students had smoking parents, and 17.1%of them had smoking peers. The respective figures were 22.2% and 21.7% for males and 10% and 7.8% for females.Conclusions: Peers had a stronger impact than parents and both parents and peers had greater influence on males thanon females. Interestingly, almost 80% of the smoking students did not have smoking parents or peers, which leavesthe question unanswered of why they started smoking in the first place. Actions at a societal level should be taken intoconsideration to prevent smoking and thus help create a non-smoking generation.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Adverse Effects of Vincristine Chemotherapy on Cell Changes in
           Seminiferous Tubules and ...

    • Abstract: The present study was designed to determine changes in spermatogenesis in adult mice after an intraperitoneal injectionof vincristine. The effect of a GnRH antagonist synchronous to chemotherapy, which might protect spermatogenesisby halting cell division in spermatogenic cells, was also investigated. Method and Materials: A total of 30 adult malemice were studied in three equal groups of ten. In the V group, a single dose of the chemotherapy drug vincristine wasinjected intraperitonally at 1.5 mg/kg. In the V+C, group, the injection of Cetrorelix was started, and one week beforeto one week after vincristine injection continued ( for 3 weeks). Controls received no treatment. Samples were takenfrom the testicles, and fixed in Boueins fixative for light microscopy. Results: Comparing the mean number of Sertoliand spermatogony cells and the rate of spermatogenesis index (SI) in the V group with controls showed significantdifferences,which were not evident in the V+C group. Conclusion: According to the results, the cetrorelix antagonist(GnRH) could largely prevent side effects of vincristine administration regarding seminiferous tubules.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Galectin-3 Serum Levels Could Help Clinicians Screen for Salivary Gland
           Tumor Patients

    • Abstract: analysis was performed on serum specimens from 105 patients with salivary gland cancer and 56 healthy persons.Methods: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure levels of galectin-3 (GAL-3). Serumlevels were compared between patients with salivary gland tumors and healthy control. A total of 105 patients wereenrolled in the study (55 men, 50 women). Result: Mean age was45.5 years. Thirty-nine patients with malignant and66 cases with benign tumors were compared with 56 healthy participants with a mean age of 51.7. No statisticallysignificant differences were observed when comparing GAL-3 serum levels between malignant and benign salivary glandtumor patients, but a statistically significant difference was found between case and control patients with p-values of0.02. Serum levels of galectin-3 protein were elevated in patients with salivary gland cancer compared with the healthypopulation. Conclusion: The difference between benign and malignant tumor patients was significant, but revealedno clinic pathological characteristics in malignant tumors. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first timea study suggests that GAL-3 serum levels could help clinicians screen for salivary gland cancer.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Associations of ICOS and PD.1 Gene Variants with Colon Cancer Risk in The
           Iranian Population

    • Abstract: Background: Positive and negative co-stimulatory molecules are important factors determining the outcomeof immune responses to the presence of tumors. Since co-stimulatory molecule expression may be affected by genepolymorphisms, we aimed to investigate associations between variants of PD.1 and ICOS and susceptibility to coloncancer. Material and methods: ICOS (-693A/G), ICOS (+1720C/T) and PD.1 (-538G/A) gene polymorphisms wereevaluated by the PCR-RFLP method in 76 colon cancer patients and 73 healthy controls. Results: The frequenciesof the GG genotype and the G allele at position -693 of the ICOS gene were significantly higher in the patient group(P=0.014 and p=0.0002), while the AA genotype was significantly more common in controls (P=0.0016). At position-538 of PD.1, GG genotype and G allele frequencies were higher in the patient group (PAA and also AG genotypes significantly predominated in controls (Pand alleles of ICOS at position +1720. Frequencies of GCG and GTG haplotypes were higher in patients comparedto those of controls (P=0.016 and P<0.0001), while, frequencies of GTA, ATA and ATG haplotypes were higher incontrols (P=0.0017, Ppatients compared to controls (P=0.0147 and P=0.0071). Conclusion: Our study clarified that PD.1 (-538G/A) andICOS (-693A/G) gene polymorphisms can be considered as genetic risk factors for the development of colon canceramong Iranian patients.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Prostate Specific Antigen, Mean Platelet Volume, and Platelet Distribution
           Width in Combination ...

    • Abstract: Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) represents the second most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the sixthleading cause for cancer related death among men worldwide. Although use of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) asa diagnostic marker has improved the detection and management of PCa, low specificity and sensitivity has limited itsclinical efficacy. Moreover, elevated PSA is frequently observed in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Mean plateletvolume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW) are commonly used indicators of platelet activation. The purposeof current study was to investigate the ability of PSA, MPV, and PDW individually or in combination, to differentiatePCa from BPH. Materials and Methods: This study included 100 patients with PCa and 108 patients with BPH. Wecollected all participants’ clinical and laboratory characteristics. The benefit of adding MPV and PDW to a modelwith only PSA was evaluated as an increased in the area under the curve (AUC) obtained by receiver operating curve(ROC). Results: PCa patients had reduced MPV and elevated PSA and PDW levels compared to BPH patients. Singlebiomarkers had AUC values ranging from 0.683 for PDW to 0.865 for PSA. Moreover, the combination of PSA, MPV,and PDW increased the AUC to 0.935 (0.892-0.964) (p<0.0001), significantly higher than those of any single marker.Conclusions: The combined use of PSA, MPV, and PDW may be clinically useful in distinguishing between PCa andBPH.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Alcohol Consumption as a Risk Factor for Breast Cancer Development: A
           Case-Control Study in Brazil

    • Abstract: Background: Alcohol consumption is a well-established risk factor for breast cancer, but the evidence is mostlyfrom developed countries. Brazil is going through a rapid demographic expansion, and studies of this relationship arealso needed in such unexplored settings. Methods: We assessed the relationship between alcohol consumption andbreast cancer risk among 1,506 Brazilian women (406 cases and 1,100 controls). Regression models were used tocalculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). All statistical tests were two-tailed. Results: The meanage of the 1,506 women was 42.0 (standard deviation, ±15.0) years. There was a significant association between breastcancer and age, body mass index, age at menarche, menstrual flow and menstrual cycle. Multivariate analysis showedan increased risk of invasive breast cancer in regular alcohol consumers (years old: OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.2–13.4) compared with abstainers or occasional drinkers. Women with a regular alcoholintake for 10 years or more who were less than 50 years old had a threefold higher risk of developing breast cancer(OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.2–7.6). Conclusion: Regular alcohol consumption increases the risk of breast cancer mainly amongwomen less than 50 years old.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Thirty Years Cancer Incidence Data for Lahore, Pakistan: Trends and
           Patterns 1984-2014

    • Abstract: This research was conducted to generate trends and patterns of most common male and female cancers from1984-2014 for the city population of Lahore Pakistan. Cancer incidence data gathered for different organs wereprocessed through cleaning, integration, transformation, reduction and mining for ultimate representation. Risk ofcancer appeared to be continuously increasing among both males and females. Overall, lymphomas and breast cancerare the most common neoplasm in males and females, respectively, in Lahore with almost the highest rates in the AsianPacific region. The incidence of head and neck, brain, and lung cancers, as well as leukemia have rapidly increasedamong males, whereas, ovarian, cervix, head and neck and lymphomas have become more common among females.The present communication should be helpful for adequate strategic planning, identification of risk factors and takingappropriate prevention and control measures at the national level.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Gender Differences in the Recurrence Timing of Patients Undergoing
           Resection for Non-Small Cell ...

    • Abstract: Objective: This study was designed to visually represent postoperative recurrence patterns using event dynamicsand to assess sex-based differences in the timing of recurrence for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: We studied829 patients (538 men, 291 women) with NSCLC who underwent complete pulmonary resection in 9 hospitals. Eventdynamics with the use of life-table methods were evaluated, and only first events (distant metastases or local recurrence)were considered. The effects of sex, histological type, pathological stage, and smoking history were studied. Result:The resulting smoothed hazard rate curves indicated that the recurrence risk pattern definitely correlated with sex, witha sharp peak in the first year in men and a broad peak during the first 2 to 3 years in women. These findings were alsoconfirmed by analyses according to pathological stage, histological type, and smoking history. Conclusion: The peaktimes of recurrence differed considerably between men and women. The delayed time of peak recurrence in women,associated with a longer disease-free interval within subsets of patients with similar disease stage, histological type,and smoking status, might account for the better survival in women.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • ADH1B, ALDH2, GSTM1 and GSTT1 Gene Polymorphic Frequencies among
           Alcoholics and Controls in the ...

    • Abstract: Background: Epidemiological research has highlighted the global burden of primary liver cancer cases due toalcohol consumption, even in a low consumption country like India. Alcohol detoxification is governed by ADH1B,ALDH2, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes that encode functional enzymes which are coordinated with each other to removehighly toxic metabolites i.e. acetaldehyde as well as reactive oxygen species generated through detoxification processes.Some communities in the population appears to be at greater risk for development of the liver cancer due to geneticpredispositions. Methods: The aim of this study was to screen the arcadian population of central India in order toinvestigate and compare the genotype distribution and allele frequencies of alcohol metabolizing genes (ADH1B,ALDH2, GSTM1 and GSTT1) in both alcoholic (N=121) and control (N=145) healthy subjects. The gene polymorphismanalysis was conducted using PCR and RFLP methods. Results: The allele frequency of ALDH2 *1 was 0.79 and ofALDH2*2 was 0.21 (OR:1.12; CI (95%): 0.74-1.71). The null allele frequency for GSTM1 was 0.28 (OR:0.85; CI(95%): 0.50-1.46) and for GSTT1 was 0.20 (OR:1.93; CI (95%): 1.05-3.55). No gene polymorphism for ADH1B wasnot observed. The total prevalence of polymorphisms was 3.38% for ALDH2, GSTM1 and GSTT1. Conclusion: Theresults of this study suggested that individuals of the Central India population under study are at risk for liver disordersdue to ALDH2, GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms. This results may have significance for prevention of alcoholdependence, alcoholic liver disorders and the likelihood of liver cancer.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Self-Confidence and Quality of Life in Women Undergoing Treatment for
           Breast Cancer

    • Abstract: Introduction: Quality of life is an important topic in the study of chronic diseases, especially cancer which can havea major effect on patient self-confidence. This study was conducted to determine quality of life and its relationship withself-confidence in women undergoing treatment for breast cancer. Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive, analyticalstudy was conducted in 2016 on 166 women with breast cancer undergoing treatment at Ghazi, Al-Zahra, Internationaland/or Shams hospitals in Tabriz. The subjects were selected through convenience sampling. A personal-demographicquestionnaire, the Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) werecompleted for each patient. The data obtained were analyzed using independent t-tests, one-way ANOVA, multivariatelinear regression and Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Findings: The mean total score of quality of life was 59.1±17.4,ranging from 0 to 100. The highest mean score was obtained in the cognitive subscale (74.9±23.8) and the lowest in theemotional subscale (51.4±21.1). The mean score for self-confidence was 0.3 with a standard deviation of 0.1, rangingfrom -1 to +1. There was a significant positive relationship between self-confidence and quality of life, except in threesymptom subscales for diarrhea, constipation and loss of appetite (P<0.05). Self-confidence, disease duration, lifestyle,marital satisfaction and caregiver status were among the predictors of quality of life. Discussion: Given the significantrelationship between quality of life and self-confidence, health care providers may need to pay special attention towomen undergoing treatment for breast cancer and perform timely measures to maintain their belief in themselves.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Urinary Metabolomic Profiling in Chronic Hepatitis B Viral Infection Using
           Gas ...

    • Abstract: Background: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The metabolomicprofiling has been shown to be associated with pathogenic mechanisms in many medical conditions includingCHB. The purpose of this study was to investigate the urine metabolomic profiles in CHB patients by gaschromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Methods: Urine samples were collected from CHB patients (n = 20)and normal control subjects (n = 20). Metabolite profiles were assessed using GC/MS in conjunction with multivariatestatistical analysis, in order to identify biomarker metabolites. Pathway analysis was performed by MetaboAnalyst3.0 and KEGG database.Results: Twelve out of 377 metabolites were shown to be significantly different between theCHB and normal control groups (p < 0.05). These include palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, benzoic acid, butanoicacid, cholesterol, glycine, 3-heptanone, 4-heptanone, hexanal, 1-tetradecanol and naphthalene. Multivariate statisticalanalysis constructed using these expressed metabolites showed CHB patients can be discriminated from healthy controlswith high sensitivity (95%) and specificity (85%). All the metabolic perturbations in this disease are associated withpathways of fatty acid, amino acid, bile acid and gut microbial metabolism. Conclusion: CHB patients have a specificurinary metabolomic profile. The abnormalities of fatty acid, amino acid, bile acid, and gut microbial metabolism leadto the development of disease progression. GC/MS-based assay is a promising tool for the metabolomic study in CHB.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Comparison of Survival Models for Analyzing Prognostic Factors in Gastric
           Cancer Patients

    • Abstract: Objective: There are a number of models for determining risk factors for survival of patients with gastric cancer.This study was conducted to select the model showing the best fit with available data. Methods: Cox regression andparametric models (Exponential, Weibull, Gompertz, Log normal, Log logistic and Generalized Gamma) were utilized inunadjusted and adjusted forms to detect factors influencing mortality of patients. Comparisons were made with AkaikeInformation Criterion (AIC) by using STATA 13 and R 3.1.3 softwares. Results: The results of this study indicated thatall parametric models outperform the Cox regression model. The Log normal, Log logistic and Generalized Gammaprovided the best performance in terms of AIC values (179.2, 179.4 and 181.1, respectively). On unadjusted analysis,the results of the Cox regression and parametric models indicated stage, grade, largest diameter of metastatic nest,largest diameter of LM, number of involved lymph nodes and the largest ratio of metastatic nests to lymph nodes,to be variables influencing the survival of patients with gastric cancer. On adjusted analysis, according to the best model(log normal), grade was found as the significant variable. Conclusion: The results suggested that all parametric modelsoutperform the Cox model. The log normal model provides the best fit and is a good substitute for Cox regression.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Effect of an Educational Intervention Based on Protection Motivation
           Theory on Preventing ...

    • Abstract: Objective: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an educational intervention to prevent cervical canceramong marginalized Iranianwomen based on the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) as a theoretical framework.Methods: This quasi-experimental study was carried out on 143 women of Kermanshah City in western Iran during2017. Participants were recruited through cluster and simple random sampling and randomly divided into experimental(n=72) and control groups (n=71). All completed a self-administered questionnaire including PMT constructs anddemographic variables. An intervention over six sessions was then applied to the experimental group. Reassessmentwas conducted three months after the intervention, with data was analyzed with SPSS-16 using chi-square, McNemar,paired T- and independent T-tests. Results: The mean scores for the constructs of PMT, and cervical cancer screeningbehavior showed no significant differences between the two groups before the intervention (P>0.05). The educationalmanipulation had significant effects on the experimental groups’ average response for perceived vulnerability, perceivedseverity, perceived reward, self-efficacy, response efficacy, response cost and protection motivation (all p < 0.001).Also, the prevalence of regular Pap smear testing and referral to health centers were significantly increased after 3months in the experimental (P=0.048), but notthe control group (P>0.05). Conclusions: The results show that applyingan educational intervention based on PMT might help prevent cervical cancer and improve regular Pap smear testing.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Accuracy of Specimen Radiography in Assessing Complete Local Excision with
           Breast-Conservation ...

    • Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of “X- ray examination of surgicallyresected specimen‘‘ in assessing complete local excision (CLE). Materials and Methods: In this retrospective crosssectional study, data were collected for all female breast cancer cases who underwent breast-conserving surgery afterneedle localization of mammographically visible disease. Males, patients with mammographically invisible diseaseand cases with benign or inconclusive histopathology, those undergoing modified radical mastectomy and individualswith dense breast parenchyma were excluded. We evaluated radiography of resected specimens to assess marginspiculation, distance of mass/microcalcification from the excised margin, presence of a mass, and presence of anyadjacent microcalcification, Other features including mass size, nuclear grade and patient’s age were also recorded andall were analyzed for any association with CLE. Results: Absence of adjacent microcalcification and the presence of amass on radiographs showed significant associations with CLE, but no links were evident with other features. Specimenradiography was found to be a sufficient tool to predict CLE with a positive predictive value of 83.3%, a sensitivity of80.7% and a specificity of 81%. Conclusion: Specimen radiography is an important and sensitive tool to predict CLE.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Cancer-Related Pain: Prevalence, Severity and Management in a Tertiary
           Care Center in the ...

    • Abstract: Background: Despite pain awareness and the development of treatment guidelines, cancer-related pain assessmentand management remain suboptimal. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence and severity of pain and itsinterference with daily activities, and evaluate adequacy of treatment in cancer patients in Lebanon. Methods: Atotal of 400 cancer patients aged 18 and above were interviewed at the American University of Beirut Medical Centersurgical and medical oncology floors, outpatient clinics and chemotherapy units from March 2016-February 2017. Thesubjects covered were socio-demographics, clinical data, and presence of pain in the past month with use of the BriefPain Inventory questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were conducted using t-test, chi-square and Fischer’s exact tests.Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to examine relationships between pain severity and pain interference.Logistic regression was employed to determine risk factors for pain. Results: The majority of participants were Lebanese(76.0%), females (62.7%), married (80.2%), of Muslim faith (64.2%), of urban residence (85.8%), and with insuranceplans (81.3%). Most had breast cancer (38.8%), were stage 4 (52.7%) and underwent a combination of surgery andsystemic therapy (55.1%). The prevalence of pain in the past month was 29.8%. Among patients with pain, the highestproportion had moderate pain (37.8%) and around 46% received inadequate treatment. Conclusion: More awarenessabout cancer-related pain is needed to improve pain management and encourage referral to palliative care and painspecialists early-on in diagnosis of disease.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Characterization of Apoptosis in a Breast Cancer Cell Line after IL-10

    • Abstract: Background: Breast cancer is affected by the immune system in that different cytokines play roles in its initiationand progression. Interleukin-10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, is an immunosuppressive factor involved intumorigenesis. The present study was conducted to investigate the gene silencing effect of a small interference RNA(siRNA) targeting IL-10 on the apoptotic pathway in breast cancer cell line. Methods: The siRNA targeting IL-10 anda glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) clone were introduced into MDA-MB-231 cells. Real-timePCR assays were used to determine IL-10 and GAPDH gene expression levels, in addition to those for protein kinaseB (AKT), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2), caspase-3 and caspase-9 genes related toapoptosis. Results: Inhibition of IL-10 by the siRNA accelerated apoptosis and was accompanied by significantincrease in caspase-3 and caspase-9 and a significant decrease in PI3K, AKT and Bcl2 expression levels compared tothe non-transfected case. Conclusions: In conclusion, the production of IL-10 may represent a new escape mechanismby breast cancer cells to evade destruction by the immune system. IL-10 gene silencing causes down regulation of bothPI3K/AKT and Bcl2 gene expression and also increases the Bbc3, BAX caspase3, and caspase 3 cleavage expressionlevels. IL–10 might represent a promising new target for therapeutic strategies.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Possible Synergistic Interactions Among Multiple HPV Genotypes in Women
           Suffering from Genital ...

    • Abstract: Objective: Persistence of HPV infection is the true cause of cervical disorders. It is reported that competitionmay exist among HPV genotypes for colonization. This survey was designed to establish the multiple HPV genotypestatus in our community and the probability of multiple HPV infections involvement. Methods: All multiple HPVinfections were selected for investigation in women suffering from genital infections referred to private laboratoriesin Tehran, Iran. A total of 160 multi HPV positive specimens from cervical scraping were identified by the HPVgenotyping methods, “INNO-LiPA and Geno Array”. Result: In present study, HPV 6 (LR), 16 (HR), 53 (pHR), 31(HR) and 11 (LR) were included in 48.8% of detected infections as the most five dominant genotypes. HPV 16 wasdetected at the highest rate with genotypes 53, 31 and 52, while HPV 53 appeared linked with HPV 16, 51 and 56in concurrent infections. It appears that HPV 16 and 53 may have significant tendencies to associate with each otherrather than with other genotypes. Analysis of the data revealed there may be some synergistic interactions with a fewparticular genotypes such as “HPV 53”. Conclusion: Multiple HPV genotypes appear more likely to be linked withdevelopment of cervical abnormalities especially in patients with genital infections. Since, there are various patternsof dominant HPV genotypes in different regions of world, more investigations of this type should be performed forcareHPV programs in individual countries.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Individual and Integrated Effects of Potential Risk Factors for Oral
           Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A ...

    • Abstract: Background: Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world, with a high prevalence reported in Jazanprovince of Saudi Arabia. The objectives of this study were to check individual and integrated effects of potential riskfactors for oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and methods: A case control study was designed with a sampleof 210 subjects, in which histopathologically confirmed incident cases (n=70) and controls (n=140) matched for age,gender and referral route, were recruited. Differences in exposure to potential risk factors between cases and controlswere assessed using chi-square and McNemar analyses. A logistic regression model with interactions was applied to checkindividual and integrated effects. Results: Mean age of the sample was 55 years (+ 20 years). Shammah (O.R = 33.01;C.I = 3.22 – 39.88), shisha (O.R = 3.96; C.I = 0.24 – 63.38), and cigarette (O.R = 1.58; C.I = 0.13, 2.50) consumptionwas significantly associated (P<0.05) with oral squamous cell carcinoma development. In contrast, Khat chewing (O.R= 0.67; C.I = 0.19-2.36) was without significant effect. An increase in odds ratios was observed when combinationsof shammah and shisha (O.R = 35.03; C.I = 11.50-65.66), shisha and cigarettes (O.R = 10.52; C.I = 1.03 – 33.90) orshamma and cigarettes (O.R = 10.10; C.I = 0.50 - 20.40) were used. Conclusion: Combined exposure to risk-factorshas serious implications and policies on oral cancer prevention should be designed with attention to this aspect.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Swallowing Exercises: Will They Really Help Head and Neck Cancer

    • Abstract: Purpose: The work was a comparative study, the aim of which is to evaluate the impact of swallowing exercises onswallowing problems among head and neck cancer patients (HNCPs) after CRT. Methods: The sample of 60 HNCPswas equally divided into control and study groups. The investigators met all patients 3 times (before, during and afterCRT); swallowing ability was assessed using the Sydney Swallowing Questionnaire (SSQ). The University of Texas,MD Anderson Cancer Center Swallowing Exercise Protocol was explained and demonstrated by the investigators tothe study group. All tools used were translated into Arabic. Data analyses were carried out using the statistical packagefor social sciences (SPSS), program version 20. Results: Most of the patients from both groups experienced milddysphagia during the 1st visit. By the 3rd visit, severe dysphagia (to thin and thick liquids, and soft and hard food)was higher in the control group (73.3%) compared to the study group (26.7%). By the third visit there was statisticallysignificant difference between both groups in swallowing thin liquids (p = 0.01), as well as thick liquids (p = 0.01).At the 1st visit, there was no significant difference regarding swallowing soft food (p = 0.24), hard food (p = 0.17),dry food (p = 0.89) and swallowing Saliva (p = 0.28). While by the 3rd visit, there was significant difference betweencontrol and study groups in all parameters. Conclusions: Adequate prevention and treatment of dysphagia, with useof swallowing programs, is essential to plan a complete therapeutic programme.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Extraction and Characterization of Chick PEA (Cicer arietinum) Extract
           with Immunostimulant ...

    • Abstract: Traditional plant medicines are used for a range of cancer conditions. The chickpea is highly proteinaceous andconsumed as a staple in many parts of the world. An evaluation of chemoprotective and immunomodulatory activitiesof Cicer arietinum (CE) in cisplatin-induced immunosuppressed mice was here performed. Cisplatin was givenat 100mg/kg, intraperitoneally, and after induction of immunosuppression mice were treated with Cicer arietinum(0.5 mg/dose/animal/IP) for a period of 10-day. The influence of the extract on lymphoid organ weight, bone marrowcellularity, alpha esterase activity and on enzyme levels such as (SGOT,SGPT, Urea, Creatinine was assessed toidentify any chemoprotective influence. Administration of CE to cisplatin-treated mice alleviated the drastic reductionin bone marrow cellularity and α- esterase positive cells seen with cisplatin. Thus myelosuppression was reversed orinhibited. Cisplatin bids to DNA and causes damage resulting in chromosome breaks, micronucleus formation and celldeath. CE is comprised of numerous middle-chain aliphatic alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, in addition to compoundslike 7-hydroxy-1-methoxy-6-methylanthraquinone, cyclohexadecane (CAS) and 6-(amino methyl)-2-naphthol. Theselatter are thought to contribute to the characteristic aroma of C. arietimnum. In conclusion, administration of CEin cisplatin-treated mice, boosted bone marrow cellularity and increased α- esterase positive cells, thus reversingmyelosupproession.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Diagnostic Value of Glypican-3 for Hepatocellular Carcinomas

    • Abstract: Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common and dangerous malignancy in many parts of the world,and especially in Egypt. Early diagnosis is the most important step in successful HCC management. However mostcases are detected at late stage making effective intervention impossible. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluatethe potential of Glypican-3 (GPC-3) to aid in diagnosis of HCC, especially in patients with low serum alpha-fetoprotein(AFP). Subjects and methods: Serum GPC-3 was assessed by flow-cytometry and serum AFP by enzyme-linkedimmunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 40 HCC patients with AFP< 400ugl. (GI), 40 HCC patients with AFP> 400ugl.(GII) and 20 healthy controls (GIII). Results: GPC-3 was found to be significantly elevated in HCC as compared tohealthy subjects (GI 38.2±22. 5, GII 50.2±22.6, and GIII 2.24±1.19), with sensitivities of 85% for GI and 84% for GIIand specificities of 95% for GI and 92% for GII. AFP showed respective sensitivities of 50% and 79%, and specificitiesof 80% and 90%, for HCC diagnosis. The combination of GPC-3 with AFP achieved the highest sensitivity (98.5%) andspecificity (97.8%). Conclusion: Serum GPC-3 has a better sensitivity than AFP for the diagnosis of HCC. Combinationof two markers appears warranted for greatest accuracy
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Effectiveness of a Mass Media Campaign on Oral Carcinogens and Their
           Effects on the Oral Cavity

    • Abstract: Objective: To develop a mass media campaign on oral carcinogens and their effects on the oral cavity in orderto increase awareness among the general population. Methods: Documentary and public service announcementshighlighting the effects of tobacco and its products were designed and developed based on principles of behavior change. Aquestionnaire, designed to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of people regarding oral carcinogens, was usedto conduct a baseline survey at various sites in eastern Nepal. Local television channels and radio stations broadcastedthe documentary and public service announcements. An evaluation survey was then performed to assess the effectivenessof the campaign. Results: Baseline and evaluation surveys covered 1,972 and 2,140 individuals, respectively. A thirdof the baseline population consumed quid, 22% chewing tobacco, 16% gutka (commercial preparation of arecanut,tobacco, lime and chemicals) and 25% cigarettes. Tobacco consumption differed significantly between 3 ecologic regionswith greater use in the Terai region. The knowledge prevalence regarding the oral carcinogens quid (70%), chewingtobacco (82%), gutka (58%) and cigarettes (93%) significantly increased in the evaluation population. Females weremore aware about the various tobacco products and their effects on health. More people knew about the harmful effectsof tobacco on their health and oral cavity, and had their mouth examined and the frequency of consumption of theseproducts reduced significantly after the campaign. Attitudes towards production, sale and advertisements of tobaccoalso improved significantly. Conclusions: The mass media campaign was an effective tool for increasing awarenessamong the population.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Factors Affecting Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening Among African Women
           in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    • Abstract: Introduction: Cervical cancer is a health concern among women worldwide, presently ranking as the second to fourthcommon cancer type among women in different parts of the world. Human papillomaviruses (HPV) 16 and 18 are themain causative agents of cervical cancer. However, prevention is possible with early and regular cervical cancer screening.Objective: This study aimed to identify the cervical cancer screening practices and factors affecting the screeningstatus of African immigrant women attending selected church services in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Methodology:A cross-sectional study among 320 randomly selected respondents between ages 18-69 was conducted in three differentchurches with high numbers of African participants. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among therespondents. To ensure a good understanding, the questionnaire was written and self-explained in English language,because English is the general spoken language among the study population. Three levels of analysis were conductedusing SPSS 21, involving descriptive analysis, chi square and multiple logistic regression. Results: The response ratewas 98.2%, the majority (68.1%) of the respondents being aged 31-50 years and married. The prevalence of screeningamong the respondents over the past 3 years was 27.2%. Using a p-value of 0.05 as the significance level, the finalmodel showed that marital status (p=0.004), knowledge (p=0.035), perceived barriers (p=0.003), and having a regularhealth care provider (p<0.001) were the only significant predicting factors of uptake of cervical screening among Africanimmigrant women in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Conclusion: The findings revealed that the uptake of cervical cancerscreening among the African women was very low. Marital status, knowledge, perceived barriers and having a regularhealth care provider were the predictive factors. Specific awareness programs to increase uptake should be designed andimplemented by the relevant authorities.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists Inhibit Mitogenic Activity in Triple
           Negative Breast Cancer Cells

    • Abstract: Despite a discovery of hormonal pathways regulating breast cancer, a definitive cure for the disease requires furtheridentification of alternative targets that provide a hormone-independent support. Apart from their role in inflammatorydiseases, cysteinyl leukotriene (CysLT) receptor antagonists (LTRAs) decrease the risk of lung cancer in asthma patientsand inhibit tumor progression in several malignancies. In the present study, we evaluate the effects of two chemicallydifferent, clinically relevant LTRAs (montelukast and zafirlukast) in a triple negative breast cancer cell line, MDAMB-231. We found that these two LTRAs reduced breast cancer cell viability in a dose-dependent manner with the50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) between 5-10 μM. Although both LTRAs have several pharmacological propertiesin common, we noticed that montelukast mainly induced apoptosis, while zafirlukast mainly exerted its action on cellcycle. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for such different effects remain unclear. In summary, our resultssuggest that CysLT plays a role in proliferation and survivability of breast cancer cells in the absence of hormonal stimuli.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Chemopreventive Effects of Edible Canna (Canna edulis Kerr. ...

    • Abstract: Objective: Dietary high fibre and calcium intake has been suggested to reduce colorectal cancer risk. However, thereis limited information available regarding the potential of edible canna (Ganyong), with high dietary fibre and calciumcontent, to act as a preventive agent for colorectal cancer. This experimental study was conducted to investigate thepreventive effect of Ganyong in reducing colorectal carcinogenesis with attention to effects on adenomatous polyposiscoli (APC) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were dividedinto 5 equal groups; a normal control group without azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulphate (AOM/DSS) inductionand Ganyong, a ‘cancer’ control group with AOM/DSS induction only, and three treatment groups with AOM/DSSinduction and different percentages (5%, 10% and 20%) of Ganyong. Paraffin-embedded sections of rat colon tissuewere analysed by haematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining against antibodies against APC and iNOS.Variation in rates of APC and iNOS expression were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Dunn’stest (SPSS statistic version 24). Pthe expression of APC (p=0.013) and iNOS (p=0.013) compared to the normal control group. APC expression in thetreated groups was lower than in the ‘cancer’ control group (p=0.049), especially in the 10% Ganyong group (p=0.02).In contrast, there was no significant variation among the treated groups regarding iNOS expression. Histopathologicalfeatures of the colon supported the data for APC and iNOS expression. Conclusion: This study indicated potentialchemopreventive effects of Ganyong reducing expression of factors contributing to colorectal carcinogenesis.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Protein Interaction Mapping Analysis via
           Proteomic Approaches

    • Abstract: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), although not very common in many parts of the world, is a major concern insome countries, including Iran. Molecular studies are very helpful to provide essential information regarding underlyingcarcinogenetic mechanisms. Here, considering NPC proteomic approaches, established biomarkers were designated forprotein-protein interaction network construction and analysis with corresponding plug-ins. A network of reported proteinmarkers was constructed and topological and biological process features were investigated. Centrality analysis showedthat JUN, CALM1, HSB1, and SOD1 are more important than other differentially expressed proteins in an interactingpattern. What is more, by extending the network, Tp53, PRDM10, AKT1, ALB, HSP90AA1, and EGFR achieved thehighest values for NPC network strength. It can be concluded that these proteins as well as their contributing processes,particularly in a second network, may be important for NPC onset and development. Targeting these candidate proteinsmay allow novel treatment approaches following appropriate validation.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Quality of Breast Cancer Surgical Pathology Reports

    • Abstract: Background: Surgical pathology reporting of breast cancer is needed for appropriate staging and treatment decisions.We here checked the quality of surgical pathology reports of breast cancer from different laboratories of Karachi,Pakistan. Methods: One hundred surgical pathology reports from ten different laboratories of Karachi were assessedfor documentation of elements against a checklist adopted from the CAP guideline over a period of six months fromJanuary, 2017 to June, 2017 in the Oncology Department, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi. Results: Outof 100 reports, clinical information was documented in 68%, type of procedure and lymph node sampling in 84%and 34% respectively. Specimen laterality was mentioned in 90%, tumor site in 44%, tumor size in 92%, focality in40%, histological type in 96%, grade in 87%, LCIS in 19%, DCIS in 83%, size of DCIS in 19%, architectural patternin 26% , nuclear grade in 17%, necrosis in 14%, excision margin status in 91%, invasive component in 83%, DCIS in16%, lymph node status in 91% with positive nodes in 56%, size of macro met in 54%, extranodal involvement in 48%,lymph vascular invasion in 86%, treatment effects in 31%, and pathology reporting with TNM in 57%. Conclusion:This study shows that the quality of surgical pathology reports for breast cancer in Karachi is not satisfactory. Therefore,there is great need to create awareness among histopathologists regarding the importance of accurate breast cancersurgical pathology reporting and to introduce a standardized checklist according to international guidelines for bettertreatment planning.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • A Germline Mutation in the BRCA1 3’UTR Variant Predicts Susceptibility
           to Breast Cancer in a ...

    • Abstract: Purpose: The impact of the BRCA1-3’UTR-variant on BRCA1 gene expression and altered responses to externalstimuli was previously tested in vitro using a luciferase reporter assay. Its ability to predict breast cancer risk in womenwas also assessed but the conclusions were inconsistent. The present study concerns the relationship between theBRCA1-3’UTR germline variant rs8176318G>T and susceptibility to Breast cancer in an ethnic population of SaudiArabia. Methodology: The study included 100 breast cancer patients and 100 sex matched healthy controls fromthe northwestern region (Tabuk) and Dammam of Saudi Arabia were investigated for the BRCA1-3’UTR germlinevariant rs8176318G>T using an allele specific PCR technique. Genotype distributions were then compared. Results:The frequencies of the three genotypes GG, TT and GT in our Saudi Arabian patients were 26%, 8% and 66% andin healthy controls were 45%, 5% and 50%, respectively (p=0.03). Risk of developing breast cancer was found to besignificantly associated with the GT variant (OR 2.28, 1.24-4.191; RR 1.47, 1.11-1.93; P=0.007), GT+TT (OR, 2.32,1.28-4.22; RR 1.48, 1.13-1.94; P=0.005) and the T allele (OR 1.62 , 1.072- 2.45; RR 1.28, 1.02-1.60: P=0.020). Therewere 2.76 and 2.28 fold increase risks of developing breast cancer associated with the TT and GT genotypes in ourcases. A significant correlation was also found between the BRCA1 3’UTR variants with the stage of the disease anddistant metastasis but not with age, grade, and ER, PR and her2/neu status. Conclusion : The rs8176318G/T in the3’untranslated region (UTR) of the BRCA1 gene was found to be associatedwith increased susceptibility to breastcancer in our study population, increased risk being noted with the GT and TT genotypes. Further association studiesare needed to confirm this finding in other regions of Saudi Arabia.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Differential Expression of c-fos Proto-Oncogene in Normal Oral Mucosa
           versus Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    • Abstract: Background: The c-Fos nuclear protein dimerizes with Jun family proteins to form the transcription factor AP-1complex which participates in signal transduction and regulation of normal cellular processes. In tumorigenesis, c-Fospromotes invasive growth through down-regulation of tumor suppressor genes but its role in oral carcinogenesis is notclear. Objectives: This study concerned c-fos gene expression in normal and malignant tissues of the oral cavity, withattention to associations between expression status and clinico-pathological profiles of OSCC patients. Method: A totalof 65 histopathologically confirmed OSCC tissue samples were included in case group along with an equal number ofage and sex-matched normal tissue samples of oral cavity for the control group. c-Fos protein and m-RNA expressionswere analyzed using immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR, respectively. Results: A significant low expression of c-Fosprotein was observed in OSCC cases than normal control subjects (p= <0.001). The mean percent positivity of c-Fosprotein in cases vs. controls was 24.91± 2.7 vs. 49.68± 2.2 (p= <0.001). Most OSCC tissue samples showed weak ormoderate c-Fos expression whereas 53.8% of normal tissue sections presented with strong immunostaining. Moreover,the relative m-RNA expression for the c-fos gene was significantly decreased in case group (0.93± 0.48) as compared tothe control group (1.22± 0.87). Majority of c-Fos positive cases were diagnosed with well developed tumor. The meanpercent positivity of c-Fos protein was significantly lower in higher grade tumor as compared with normal oral mucosa(p= < 0.001). Conclusion: The present study suggested that the c-fos gene is downregulated in oral carcinomas. Thedisparity of c-Fos protein levels in different pathological grades of tumor and normal oral tissue samples may indicatethat loss of c-Fos expression is related with the progression of OSCC.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Evaluation of Collagen in Leukoplakia, Oral Submucous Fibrosis and Oral
           Squamous Cell ...

    • Abstract: Objectives: Picrosirius red and MMP are capable of degrading extracellular matrix proteins, expressed in lesions suchas squamous cell carcinomas. The present study was undertaken with an aim to analyze and compare changes in collagenusing Picrosirius red staining under polarizing microscopy and immunohistochemical staining using anti MMP-13 insamples of oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods:A total of 70 slides were prepared and divided into 3 groups. Group I comprised 10 slides of normal gingival tissue,Group II 40 slides of potentially malignant disorders and Group III 20 slides of well differentiated oral squamous cellcarcinoma. Half the slides for each group were stained with Picrosirius red stain and the remainder with antibodies toMMP-13. Rerults: In Group II, MMP-13 connective tissue expression was greater in OSMF as compared to leukoplakia.Group III showed elevated expression among 70% of cases. Picrosirius red staining in Group II cases, showed higherstaining Yellow-Orange andGreen-Yellow mature fibers in OSMF than leukoplakia cases while in Group III, 50%OSCC cases showed Green-yellow stained immature thin fibers. Conclusion: In future, therapeutic measures targetedagainst MMP-13 may inhibit collagenolysis to some extent and delay spread of tumors. An easy and reliable methodto determine the state of the stroma in such cases may be Picrosirius red staining with polarizing microscopy.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Synergistic Growth Inhibitory Effects of Chrysin and Metformin Combination
           on Breast Cancer ...

    • Abstract: Objective: To explore the possibility of a novel chemopreventive strategy for improving breast cancer treatment,the anticancer effects of a combination two natural compounds, Chrysin and Metformin, against T47D breast cancercells were investigated. Materials and Methods: After treatment of T47D cells with Metformin, Chrysin and the twodrugs in combination, toxicity to cancer cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Real time PCR was then used to determinethe expression levels of hTERT and cyclin D1 genes. Results: The MTT test findings showed that the combination ofmetformin and chrysin had high synergistic effects in killing cancer cells. In addition PCR demonstrated a significantdecrease in cyclin D1 and hTERT gene expression in the T47D breast cancer cell line. Conclusion: The conmbinationof metformin and chrysin suppressing hTERT and cyclin D1 gene expression might offer an appropriate approach forbreast cancer therapy.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Knowledge, Perception, and Acceptance of HPV Vaccination and Screening for
           Cervical Cancer ...

    • Abstract: Objective: To determine knowledge, perception, and acceptance related to cervical cancer, HPV vaccination andscreening for cervical cancer among Indonesian women, particularly in Yogyakarta province. Methods: A conveniencesample of 392 women consists of 192 young women, 100 mothers of girls aged 12 – 15 years, and 100 adult womenin Yogyakarta province, Indonesia was participated in this study. A self-administered paper-based questionnaire wasused to determine demographics characteristics of respondents, as well as their knowledge – perception – acceptancerelated to cervical cancer, HPV vaccination, and screening for cervical cancer. Data collection were conducted duringDecember 2013 to March 2014. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze description of demographics characteristics,knowledge, perception, and acceptance; while crosstab analysis using Chi-Square was used to analyze the relationshipbetween demographics characteristics versus knowledge, perception, and acceptance. Results: This study found thatknowledge and perception regarding cervical cancer, HPV vaccination, and screening for cervical cancer among womenin Indonesia, particularly in Yogyakarta Province were still insufficient, however the acceptance was good. Among femaleyoung women, 64% had good knowledge, 62% had positive perception of cervical cancer and HPV vaccination, and92% tended to accept HPV vaccination. Among mothers of girls aged 12 – 15 years, 44% had good knowledge, 46%had positive perception of cervical cancer and HPV vaccination, and 91% tended to accept HPV vaccination for theirdaughters. Among adult women, 68% had good knowledge, 57% had positive perception of cervical cancer and screeningfor cervical cancer, and 90% tended to accept cervical cancer screening. In general, demographics characteristics ofhaving experience and exposure to information had significant relationship with knowledge, perception, and acceptanceof HPV vaccination and screening for cervical cancer. Conclusions: Either knowledge or perception of cervical cancerand strategies toward it among Indonesian women particularly in Yogyakarta province were still unsatisfied. Effortsshould be improved for supporting cervical cancer prevention and control in Indonesia through such as education oncervical cancer disease and strategies toward it.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Assessing Breast Cancer Risk with an Artificial Neural Network

    • Abstract: Objectives: Radiologists face uncertainty in making decisions based on their judgment of breast cancer risk.Artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques have been widely applied in detection/recognition of cancer.This study aimed to establish a model to aid radiologists in breast cancer risk estimation. This incorporated imagingmethods and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) for cyto-pathological diagnosis. Methods: An artificial neuralnetwork (ANN) technique was used on a retrospectively collected dataset including mammographic results, riskfactors, and clinical findings to accurately predict the probability of breast cancer in individual patients. Area underthe receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC), accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictivevalues were used to evaluate discriminative performance. Result: The network incorporating the selected featuresperformed best (AUC = 0.955). Sensitivity and specificity of the ANN were respectively calculated as 0.82 and 0.90.In addition, negative and positive predictive values were respectively computed as 0.90 and 0.80. Conclusion: ANNhas potential applications as a decision-support tool to help underperforming practitioners to improve the positivepredictive value of biopsy recommendations.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Association of BRCA1 Promoter Methylation with Breast Cancer in Asia: A
           Meta- Analysis

    • Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the degree of association of BRCA1 promoter methylation withbreast cancer in Asia. Methods: The study sample for the present meta-analysis was provided by published researcharticles on associations of BRCA1 promoter methylation with breast cancer in Asia accessed through databases onPubMed, ProQuest and EBSCO published between 1997 and November 2017. Pooled odds ratios (OR) were calculatedwith fixed and random-effect models. Data were processed using Review Manager 5.3 (RevMan 5.3). Results: Ofa total of 475 articles, 11 studies were included in our systematic review with meta-analysis of relevant data. Theresults showed a highly significant association between BRCA1 promoter methylation with breast cancer in Asia(OR = 8.78 [95% CI 4.15-18.56, p < 0.00001]). Conclusion: This analysis confirmed association between BRCA1promoter methylation and breast cancer in Asia. BRCA1 promoter assessment might be a predictive or diagnostic aidfor breast cancer prediction.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Psychological Limbo as a Barrier to Spiritual Care for Parents of Children
           with Cancer: A ...

    • Abstract: Background: Pediatric cancer causes reduced life quality and psychological problems for parents. It is necessaryto pay attention to spirituality, which plays a significant role in increasing the life quality of these parents and theirpatient children and managing the conditions associated with the disease. This study was performed to determinefactors predisposing to spiritual care in parents of children suffering from cancer. Methods: This qualitative study wasconducted by conventional content analysis. Fifteen parents of children with cancer hospitalized in the oncology andhematology wards of governmental hospitals in Iran were selected using a purposive sampling method and underwentsemi-structured deep interviews from 2015.1.10 until 2017.3.10. Results: On data analysis, 12 subcategories emergedleading to extraction of three : “projection”, “mental concern”, and “psychological pains”. The final result was a focuson the theme “psychological limbo”. Conclusion: Our findings showed that cancer induces psychological problemsin parents, which may serve as factors that drive them towards spiritual affairs. Hence, attention should be paid topredisposing factors of spiritual care to facilitate tranquility and an ability to adapt to their circumstances in affectedparents.
      PubDate: Sat, 17 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Expression of CDK6 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    • Abstract: Background: CDK6 is the key factor in regulation of the cell cycle and essential for passage into the G1 phase. Italso plays an important role in the development of various tumors. In this cross-sectional study expression of the CDK6protein in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and healthy oral mucosa of controls was assessed to determine relationswith malignant transformation and clinicopathologic factors. Method: A total of 60 samples, 45 from OSCCs and 15from healthy tissue, underwent immunohistochemistry for CDK6. Nuclear and cytoplasmic staining of keratinocyteswas considered as positive and the percentages of positive cells were calculated. Results: Expression of CDK6 wasdetected in 55.6% of OSCC samples (25 cases) and 13.3% of controls (2 cases), the difference being significant. Meanpercentage of CDK6 stained cells was 24.2±29.3 in the OSCC cases and 4.33±2.1 in the control group, again statisticallysignificant. No relationship was detected between CDK6 expression and clinicopathologic factors. Conclusion:Overexpression of CDK6 observed in OSCC points to a role for this protein in oral carcinogenesis.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Exploring Spatial Patterns of Colorectal Cancer in Tehran City, Iran

    • Abstract: Objectives: Colorectal cancer (CRC) may now be the second most common cancer in the world. The aim of thisstudy was to determine whether clusters of high and low risk of CRC might exist at the neighborhood level in Tehrancity. Methods: In this study, new cases of CRC provided from Cancer Registry Data of the Management Center ofMinistry of Health and Medical Education of Iran in the period from March 2008 to March 2011 were analyzed. Rawstandardized incidence rates (SIRs) were calculated for CRC in each neighborhood, along with ratios of observed toexpected cases. The York and Mollie (BYM) spatial model was used for smoothing of the estimated raw SIRs. Todiscover clusters of high and low CRC incidence a purely spatial scan statistic was applied. Results: A total of 2,815new cases of CRC were identified and after removal of duplicate cases, 2,491 were geocoded to neighborhoods. Thelocations with higher than expected incidence of CRC were northern and central districts of Tehran city. An observedto expected ratio of 2.57 (p<0.001) was found for districts of 2, 6 and 11, whereas, the lowest ratio of 0.23 (p<0.001)was apparent for northeast and south areas of the city, including district 4. Conclusions: This study showed that thereis a significant spatial variation in patterns of incidence of CRC at the neighborhood level in Tehran city. Identificationof such spatial patterns and assessment of underlying risk factors can provide valuable information for policymakersresponsible for equitable distribution of healthcare resources.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
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