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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2404 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 201 - 400 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
Asian Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atención Primaria Práctica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
AUP Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (AJUM)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine     Open Access  
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Bangladesh Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Journal Khulna     Open Access  
Basal Ganglia     Hybrid Journal  
Basic Sciences of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batı Karadeniz Tıp Dergisi / Medical Journal of Western Black Sea     Open Access  
Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings     Hybrid Journal  
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BC Medical Journal     Free  
Benha Medical Journal     Open Access  
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
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Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
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Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Biologics in Therapy     Open Access  
Biology of Sex Differences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomarker Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical & Life Sciences Collection     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biomedical Informatics Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Optics Express     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Photonics     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
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Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Biomedicine Hub     Open Access  
Biomedicines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomedika     Open Access  
Biomolecular and Health Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Biosafety and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biosalud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biostatistics & Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Birat Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BIRDEM Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Birth Defects Research     Hybrid Journal  
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
BJR|Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BJS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Black Sea Journal of Health Science     Open Access  
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Blickpunkt Medizin     Hybrid Journal  
BMC Biomedical Engineering     Open Access  
BMC Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
BMC Medical Research Methodology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
BMC Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
BMC Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BMC Research Notes     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
BMH Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMI Journal : Bariátrica & Metabólica Iberoamericana     Open Access  
BMJ     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1884)
BMJ Case Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BMJ Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BMJ Innovations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BMJ Leader     Hybrid Journal  
BMJ Open     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
BMJ Open Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
BMJ Open Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMJ Sexual & Reproductive Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BMJ Surgery, Interventions, & Health Technologies     Open Access  
Bodine Journal     Open Access  
Boletín del Consejo Académico de Ética en Medicina     Open Access  
Boletín del ECEMC     Open Access  
Boletin Médico de Postgrado     Open Access  
Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México     Open Access  
Bone     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Bone and Tissue Regeneration Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Reports     Open Access  
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Bozok Tıp Dergisi / Bozok Medical Journal     Open Access  
Brachytherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Brain and Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Brain Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brain Connectivity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Brain Impairment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Pain (BrJP)     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Breastfeeding Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
British Journal of Biomedical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
British Journal of General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
British Journal of Hospital Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Buddhachinaraj Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bulletin Amades     Open Access  
Bulletin de la Société de pathologie exotique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Legal Medicine     Open Access  
Bulletin of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin of the History of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Free  
Bulletin of the Scientific Centre for Expert Evaluation of Medicinal Products     Open Access  
Bundesgesundheitsblatt - Gesundheitsforschung - Gesundheitsschutz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Burapha Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Burns     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cadernos de Naturologia e Terapias Complementares     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Calcified Tissue International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Bulletin of Medical History     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Medical Association Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Canadian Medical Education Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Prosthetics & Orthotics Journal     Open Access  
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Care Management Journals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports     Open Access  
Case Reports in Acute Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Clinical Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Study and Case Report     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
CASUS : Revista de Investigación y Casos en Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cell & Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cell Adhesion & Migration     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cell and Molecular Response to Stress     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cell and Tissue Transplantation and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cell Cycle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Cell Death and Differentiation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cell Death Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Health and Cytoskeleton     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cell Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CEN Case Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Central African Journal of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ceylon Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  

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Basal Ganglia
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.421
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2210-5336
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3207 journals]
  • Maximizing benefits of the levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel: Systematic
           considerations, challenging convention and individualizing approaches
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2018Source: Basal GangliaAuthor(s): Nirosen Vijiaratnam, Carolyn M. SueAbstractThe levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) is an efficacious treatment for Parkinson disease. The initiation and management of the LCIG requires a streamlined approach that takes into account patient heterogeneity. In this article we outline an over arching approach to this while highlighting steps that could be potentially modified in each individual, with the ultimate goal of achieving ideal clinical outcomes.
       
  • Motor fluctuations and levodopa-induced peak dose dyskinesias in
           parkinsonism due to spinocerebellar ataxia type 3
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2018Source: Basal GangliaAuthor(s): Aaron de Souza, Rainha J. de SouzaAbstractSpinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) type 3 is often reported as a cause of familial parkinsonism, and may present as a relatively “pure” parkinsonian phenotype, indistinguishable in its clinical features and responsiveness to levodopa from idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD). In contrast to PD, levodopa induced dyskinesias and motor fluctuations are not common in atypical parkinsonian syndromes. We report a patient who presented with the ataxic phenotype of SCA3, and then developed progressively worsening levodopa-responsive parkinsonism over nine years’ follow up. High dose levodopa therapy led to the onset of peak-dose choreiform dyskinesias and wearing-off of levodopa effect, findings not previously associated with the ataxic phenotype of SCA3. The pathogenesis of parkinsonism in SCA3 and the possible mechanisms leading to peak-dose dyskinesias are discussed. Genetic testing for SCA may be performed more liberally in patients with otherwise “typical” PD, particularly in the face of a positive family history.
       
  • Altered thalamic glucose metabolism in cerebellar projections in
           Parkinson’s disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Basal Ganglia, Volume 14Author(s): Esther Pelzer, Younis Nahhas, Marc Tittgemeyer, Lars Timmermann, Carsten EggersAbstractA pathological communication between the basal ganglia (BG) and the cerebellum (Cb) at the level of the thalamus has been proposed to be causative for the generation of parkinsonian tremor. Recent studies, however, indicated, that altered Cb-thalamic circuitry is not only underlying the genesis of tremor, but is involved in the generation of other parkinsonian symptoms like bradykinesia and rigor.Hence, we studied the glucose metabolism of akinetic-rigid parkinsonian patients in (i) anatomical (anterior, medial, lateral, posterior) and (ii) projection territory-based (Cb- and BG-thalamic) subdivision of the human thalamus and compared them with healthy controls in order to predict disease progression irrespective of the symptom tremor. The dentate nucleus was representatively chosen as output station for Cb regions, BG regions comprised the pallidum.Regarding (i) the anatomical subdivision we found no significant difference between patients and controls in the glucose metabolism for the anterior and medial group (p > 0.05), but an increase of glucose metabolism for the lateral and posterior group (p 
       
  • A systematic review of decision-making impairments in Parkinson’s
           Disease: Dopaminergic medication and methodological variability
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Basal Ganglia, Volume 14Author(s): Sophie Wohlert Kjær, Malene Flensborg Damholdt, Mette Buhl CallesenAbstractCognitive impairments in Parkinson’s disease have been studied with great interest, and decision-making abilities in particular have received attention over the past decade. The degree of decision-making impairments in Parkinson’s disease has been debated in relation to different types of decision-making tasks and the possible effect of dopaminergic medication, among others. The present review presents a systematic overview of literature investigating decision-making in patients with Parkinson’s Disease treated with dopaminergic medication. The aim of the review is to discuss decision-making impairments displayed by patients considering effects of dopaminergic medication. Patients with Parkinson’s Disease on dopaminergic medication were found to be impaired in decision making tasks. Dopaminergic medication has a complex, but often significant, relationship with decision making impairments. Finally, the influence of methodological differences in the assessment of decision-making will be considered offering important implications for future research.
       
  • Long-term ambulatory assessment of motor symptoms in movement disorders: a
           best-evidence review
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Basal Ganglia, Volume 14Author(s): G. Kramer, N.M. Maurits, J.G.M. Rosmalen, M.A.J. TijssenAbstractIntroductionAassessing movement disorders in daily life can provide information that might not be available during a short clinical visit. This review provides an overview of the currently available ambulatory registration methods to assess motor symptoms.MethodsA systematic review was performed of ambulatory registration methods, registering motor symptoms for at least 24 h. The following characteristics were studied: study goal, study population, data acquisition, outcome measures, and data interpretation.ResultsFor the classical subjective approach, a patient-kept diary, two types are widely applied: the ON/OFF diary to assess the medication response status in patients with Parkinson’s Disease (PD), and the fall diary to assess fall frequency. Both diaries are established methods for clinical decision-making. However, both diaries have disadvantages, especially since self-report might not always agree with clinicians’ ratings. An often-used alternative objective approach that employs accelerometry can assess activity levels and gait, monitor disease progression and distinguish between healthy controls and patients. However, accelerometry cannot reliably assess medication status in PD nor distinguish between different diseases. Also due to the heterogeneity in body locations for the accelerometer and outcome measures, there are no gold standards to rely on. Accelerometry to assess tremor can be used to obtain clinically valid measures. The combination of objective and subjective measurements is, at this point, mainly useful for scientific research.ConclusionSubjective measurements of ON/OFF status and fall frequency remain the most widely adopted long-term registration methods. Most other methods first need more validation in a clinical setting before they can be applied in patient care.
       
  • Are the subthalamic nucleus, internal globus pallidus and thalamus
           involved in thinking'
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Basal Ganglia, Volume 14Author(s): Eduard Minks, Pavel Jurák, Jan Chládek, Alexandra Minksová, Zuzana Hummelová, Josef Halámek, Jan Chrastina, Petra Ovesná, Martin BarešAbstractIntroductionThe aim was to compare event-related potentials and event-related de/synchronisations between the P300 and mismatch negativity paradigms, both recorded in the subcortical structures and thus illustrate conscious cognition process in these structures. The second aim was to uncover if the mismatch negativity can be found in subcortical structures.MethodsWe included patients with Parkinson's disease, generalised dystonia, essential tremor and epilepsy in the deep brain stimulation program. The electrodes were implanted into the subthalamic nucleus, internal globus pallidus, then in the anterior and ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus bilaterally. We were interested in local oscillations.ResultsWe found a significant P300 - mismatch negativity difference at 250–400 ms latency in the basal ganglia and thalamus in event-related potentials in 7 out of 8 patients. There was also a significant difference in event-related de/synchronisations at 500–1500 ms latency in 7 out of 8 patients in the beta band and desynchronisation in the subthalamic nucleus plus the internal globus pallidus and synchronisation in the anterior thalamic nucleus. When the mismatch negativity protocol was processed we found a significant outcome in event-related potentials (100–250 ms latency) in the internal globus pallidus and the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus in 4 out of 6 patients.ConclusionThe results suggest that the subthalamic nucleus, internal globus pallidus and maybe also the thalamus are involved firstly in the subconscious cognitive process 100–250 ms after the stimuli, then in the conscious cognitive processes at the level of the afferent information processing network at 250–400 ms and finally they affect conscious cognitive activity at a time of large brain neuronal network 500–1500 ms after stimuli.
       
  • Novel missense mitochondrial DNA 4079A>G variation in familial early-onset
           Parkinson’s disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Basal Ganglia, Volume 14Author(s): Sasan Andalib, Tahereh Mousavi, Ebrahim Sakhinia, Bahman JabbariAbstractBackgroundFamilial Parkinson's Disease (familial PD) and Early-Onset Parkinson's Disease (EOPD) are both uncommon disorders. Genetic analyses of familial EOPD have been limited due to its rarity. Here, we report four members of a family with familial EOPD carrying a novel mtDNA variation.Case reportFour members of a family presenting with bradykinesia, muscular rigidity and resting tremor were diagnosed as having familial EOPD. The patients’ peripheral blood was analyzed for the presence of three previously known mtDNA variations in PD, viz m.4216T>C, m.4917A>G, and m.15928G>A using PCR-RFLP; none of these variants were identified in the four patients. However, we found a novel mtDNA m.4079A>G variation in ND1 (NADH dehydrogenase 1) gene in all the tested four family members.DiscussionThe m.4079A>G is a missense variation giving rise to a Tyr-Cys aminoacid substitution in ND1 protein (ND1:p.Tyr258Cys). This may lead to a defective protein influencing oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore, wider analyses of mRNA expression, protein transcription, and functional neuroimaging of brain energy metabolism are required in EOPD patients.
       
  • Treatment of oromandibular dystonia using botulinum toxin injections –
           Case series and illustrative muscle targeting
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Basal Ganglia, Volume 13Author(s): Genevieve Lynn Tan Yu, Raymond L. RosalesAbstractOromandibular dystonia (OMD) is a severely disabling disorder with limited available therapies. Current oral medications for OMD are ineffective and may pose further risks of aspiration particularly in combination states of jaw and tongue dystonia. We advocate the use of Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injection with proper muscle site selection and dosing as the most effective treatment in OMD clinically. Targeting muscle for injection should involve not only an astute clinical examination and understanding the patient’s history, but perhaps also guided by instrumentation. Based on our previous and present case series, we present specific localization techniques for BoNT in OMD patients subsequent to methodical patient selection, proper BoNT reconstitution and conversion. We believe adequate knowledge and appropriate technique will give our patients greatest benefit and will minimize risk of adverse events following treatment.
       
  • Alterations in vestibular function in individuals with cervical dystonia
           and the effects of botulinum toxin treatment
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Basal Ganglia, Volume 13Author(s): Kelly L. Andrzejewski, Shiyang Ma, Ashley Owens, Michael T. Bull, Kevin M. Biglan, Su Kanchana, Jonathan W. Mink, Michael P. McDermott, Benjamin T. Crane, Richard BarbanoAbstractIntroductionIndividuals with cervical dystonia (CD) often report difficulty with balance and an altered perception of vertical. Previous studies have suggested a decreased proprioceptive response to stretch of neck muscle spindles in these patients, and impaired dynamic balance changes in individuals with tremor.MethodsParticipants with CD were divided into three groups based on severity of tremor and dystonic position on the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale 2 (TWSTRS2). Unaffected controls completed assessments including Fukuda, modified Romberg, and subjective visual vertical tests. Participants with CD completed the same assessments at baseline and 4 to 6 weeks following botulinum toxin treatment.ResultsCD participants with marked tremor and deviation had more difficulty perceiving what was vertical as demonstrated by a greater degree off midline on the subjective visual vertical test, compared to individuals with marked tremor with minimal deviation and controls, though this was not significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Individuals with CD also had more difficulty maintaining balance on a compliant surface with eyes closed compared to controls on the modified Romberg test. TWSTRS2 motor severity score was significantly associated with degrees off midline on the subjective visual vertical test at baseline for CD participants, but not after botulinum toxin treatment.ConclusionsIndividuals with more severe tremor and dystonic posture appear to have an altered perception of vertical associated with CD severity and that may improve following botulinum toxin treatment. Modified Romberg testing suggests that visual cues may also be important to compensate for tremor and dystonic positions found in CD.
       
  • l-dopa+therapy’s+drawbacks+in+mice&rft.title=Basal+Ganglia&rft.issn=2210-5336&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Filgrastim (G-CSF) ameliorates Parkinsonism l-dopa therapy’s drawbacks
           in mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Basal Ganglia, Volume 13Author(s): Rasha El-Esawy, Mohamed Balaha, Samah Kandeel, Sabeha Hadya, Mohamed-Nabih Abd El-RahmanAbstractl-dopa is still the cornerstone symptomatic medication for Parkinson disease (PD), although it cannot stop the neurodegenerative process progression or even aggravate it. Filgrastim (G-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor, exhibited neurotrophic, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, immunomodulating and neuroprotective potentialities. The present study assessed the possible modulating potentialities of filgrastim on l-dopa treatment’s drawbacks in a mouse model of PD. Male BALB/c mice received 30 mg/kg/day rotenone suspended in 0.25 ml 0.5% CMC in PBS for 28 days orally from day 1st until the day 28th of the experiment for induction of PD. Since day 29th till day 43rd, mice treated with either 10 mg/kg/day l-dopa and 2.5 mg/kg/day carbidopa suspended in 0.25 ml 0.5% CMC in PBS orally, 50 μg/kg/day filgrastim in 0.1 ml 5% dextrose SC or a combination of both. Filgrastim, in the present study, able to alleviate the l-dopa therapy’s drawbacks in PD that revealed by the restoration of the exhausted nigrostriatal GSH level, and the reduction of the elevated nigrostriatal MDA, NO and TNF-α levels that deteriorated by l-dopa therapy. Moreover, the co-therapy of filgrastim with l-dopa, considerably potentiated the deteriorated mice’s working memory, and abrogated the nigrostriatal histopathological changes and caspase-3 immunohistochemical expression, failed to improve by l-dopa therapy. Furthermore, the filgrastim co-therapy with l-dopa demonstrated a remarkable improvement in the nigrostriatal dopamine level, and repression of rotenone-induced descent latency prolongation, as well as, stride length reduction than each alone. Therefore, filgrastim is promising, as a disease-modifying therapy, in amelioration of l-dopa therapy’s drawbacks in PD.
       
 
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