Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8529 journals)
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    - MEDICAL SCIENCES (2342 journals)
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    - RHEUMATOLOGY (78 journals)
    - SPORTS MEDICINE (81 journals)
    - SURGERY (401 journals)

MEDICAL SCIENCES (2342 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 801 - 1000 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
IEEE Transactions on Medical Robotics and Bionics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IJS Global Health     Open Access  
IJU Case Reports     Open Access  
Im OP     Hybrid Journal  
Image Analysis & Stereology     Open Access  
Imaging in Medicine     Open Access  
Imaging Journal of Clinical and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Imam Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
IMC Journal of Medical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
IMIA Yearbook     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Implantodontie     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Burns     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Cerebral Palsy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Clinical Medicine     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Health Sciences and Biomedical Research KLEU     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Medical Specialities     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Journal of Mednodent and Allied Sciences     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Otology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Transplantation     Open Access  
Indian Spine Journal     Open Access  
Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indonesian Biomedical Journal     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease     Open Access  
Industrial Health     Open Access  
Infant Observation: International Journal of Infant Observation and Its Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Infection International     Open Access  
Inflammation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Inflammation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Info Diabetologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Infodir : Revista de Información científica para la Dirección en Salud     Open Access  
Informatics in Medicine Unlocked     Open Access  
Injury Extra     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Injury Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
InnovAiT     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Innovare Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Innovare Journal of Medical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Innovation in Aging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insights in Biology and Medicine     Open Access  
Insulin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Integrative Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Integrative Medicine Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Integrative Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Integrative Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intellectual Disability Australasia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
intensiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interdisciplinary Sciences : Computational Life Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Academic Medicine     Open Access  
International Journal of Advance in Medical Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Advanced Medical and Health Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Allied Health Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Art Therapy: Formerly Inscape     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Basic, Applied and Innovative Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Biomedical and Advance Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Biomedical Investigation     Open Access  
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Care Coordination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Care Scholars     Open Access  
International Journal of Case Reports and Images     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Clinical Trials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Clinicopathological Correlation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Community Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Computational Medicine and Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Computational Models and Algorithms in Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Cosmetic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Disaster Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of General Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health and Medicine     Open Access  
International Journal of Health Professions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of High Dilution Research     Open Access  
International Journal of High Throughput Screening     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Immunological Nursing     Open Access  
International Journal of Impotence Research     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Infection     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Inflammation     Open Access  
International Journal of Integrated Care     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Integrated Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Interferon, Cytokine and Mediator Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of MCH and AIDS     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Medical and Dental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Medical Reviews and Case Reports     Open Access  
International Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Mens Social and Community Health     Open Access  
International Journal of Mevlana Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Molecular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Morphology     Open Access  
International Journal of Nanomaterials, Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Noncommunicable Diseases     Open Access  
International Journal of Nursing Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nursing Science Practice and Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
International Journal of Oral and Craniofacial Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Oral Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Phytomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Play Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Prevention and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Recent Surgical and Medical Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Statistics in Medical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Stomatology & Occlusion Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Students' Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Telerehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Travel Medicine and Global Health     Open Access  
International Journal of Trichology     Open Access  
International Journal of Tropical Disease & Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Tumor Therapy     Open Access  
International Journal of Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
International Journal of Vascular Surgery and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Maritime Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Medical Case Reports Journal     Open Access  
International Medical Review on Down Syndrome     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Neuroscience Journal     Open Access  
International Review of Administrative Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Review of Cytology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 222)
International Wound Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Internet Journal of Medical Update     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interventional Medicine and Applied Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Intisari Sains Medis     Open Access  
IntraVital     Full-text available via subscription  
Investigación Clínica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investigación en Educación Médica     Open Access  
Investigaciones Andina     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iraq Medical Journal     Open Access  
IRBM News     Full-text available via subscription  
Irish Journal of Medical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ISBT Science Series     Hybrid Journal  
iScience     Open Access  
Isis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Islets     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Israel Journal of Health Policy Research     Open Access  
Israel Medical Association Journal IMAJ     Open Access  
İstanbul Bilim Üniversitesi Florence Nightingale Tıp Dergisi     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Itch : International Forum for the Study of Itch     Open Access  
JAAPA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Jaffna Medical Journal     Open Access  
JAMA Network Open     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2211)
Jambi Medical Journal : Jurnal Kedokteran Dan Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JAMIA Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Janaki Medical College Journal of Medical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Japanese Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
JBJS Case Connector     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
JBJS Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
JBMR Plus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JBN (Jurnal Bedah Nasional)     Open Access  

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Informatics in Medicine Unlocked
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.224
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2352-9148
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3204 journals]
  • A stochastic cellular automata model of growth of avascular tumor with
           immune response and immunotherapy

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 June 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine UnlockedAuthor(s): Shiva Shahmoradi, Fereidoon Nooshiravan Rahatabad, Keivan Maghooli In this paper, a stochastic cellular automata model is presented to investigate the immunotherapy effects on avascular tumor treatment. In this model, the influence of the extracellular matrix on tumor growth is explored. To investigate the immunotherapy effect, first, the model tumor is first allowed to grow in a natural way. Then, immunotherapy is applied by increasing/decreasing the main parameters of the model, based on a threshold number of immune system cells. During the therapy period, the proliferation and escape rates of the cancer cells are decreased, with a constant step. In addition, the rate of cancer cell lysis and the rate of the binding of cancer cells are increased. These changes are continued until the number of immune cells reaches the given threshold. Results show that with a low threshold value, the tumor cell population does not change much. Moreover, by increasing the threshold value, the tumor enters the dormant state, and for the extreme threshold value, a long-term eradication of the tumor would be possible. These results are consistent with those captured by the ordinary differential equation (ODE) based models and also with experimental observations, where it has been shown that many patients can be in complete remission for 7–91 months.
  • An ECG-based feature selection and heartbeat classification model using a
           hybrid heuristic algorithm

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 June 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine UnlockedAuthor(s): Mehdi Ayar, Saeed Sabamoniri This paper proposes a hybrid model to classify cardiac arrhythmias and select their features in an optimal way. In the proposed model, the Genetic Algorithm was used to optimally select the features, and the Decision Tree with the C4.5 algorithm was applied to the extracted features to classify and train the model. The proposed approach was used to classify data into normal and abnormal classes as well as a 16-class collection of arrhythmias. To evaluate the performance of the proposed model compared with similar methods, we used the UCI arrhythmia dataset along with accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and average Sen-Spec metrics. The efficiency of the proposed method in both two-class and 16-class modes significantly improved the accuracy, sensitivity, the average of sensitivity and specificity parameters compared to similar methods. Our approach obtained values of 86.96%, 88.88%, and 86.55% for the two-class mode and 78.76%, 76.36%, and 78.69% for the 16-class mode classification in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, and the average Sen-Spec metrics respectively. The above-mentioned values are reported as the highest for the UCI arrhythmia dataset.
  • Influence of predator standby capacity, harvesting and noise on a two
           patchy aquatic delayed eco system with migration of prey

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 June 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine UnlockedAuthor(s): V. Madhusudanan, M.N. Srinivas, B.R. Tapas Bapu In this article, we analyse the dynamical behaviour of a prey predator fishery model. The model is studied and analysed on the basis of harvesting of prey species in an environment which consists of two sectors. Mathematically, we have analysed the boundedness of the solution and the local stability of positive interior equilibrium point. The time lag in terms of delay parameter corresponds to the predator gestation period. The occurrence of Hopf-bifurcation of the proposed model is shown at the positive equilibrium point by considering delay as a bifurcation parameter. We observe that the system exhibits periodic oscillations due to an increase of the delay parameter. Furthermore, we examined the impact of noise on the model system using the Fourier transform technique. Finally, we verified our analytical findings by means of graphical illustrations.
  • Taxonomy metagenomic analysis for microbial sequences in three domains
           system via machine learning approaches

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine UnlockedAuthor(s): Heba M. Afify, Mohammed A. Al-Masni The rapid advancements of using clinical microbiology and genome sequences encourage several taxonomic approaches, based upon both genome classification and bioinformatics surveys. This taxonomy arranges the tree of life among different organism databases and exploits the high similarly in biological information to access the best representation of genome sequences. However, there is still a challenge to find the entire hierarchy of this tree, due to the existence of the biodiversity databases, and the different classifiers, according to evolutionary or phylogenetic relationships. This paper presents the classification of three domains of microorganisms including Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya using two algorithms: the supper vector machine (SVM) and the deep belief network (DBN). The proposed approach utilized the alignment method and the code generation process as preprocessing steps on the EzBioCloud 16S rRNA database. In addition, this study accommodated the issue of choosing the proper reference sequence (RefSeq) and the appropriate code generation process of the genome sequences. Our results showed that the proposed method classifies the genome sequences with an overall classification accuracy of 99.99% and 99.93% for SVM and DBN classifiers using the standard RefSeq of each class, respectively. This paper enhanced the area of microbiological scientific classification through progress in using the character-based arrangement that will help in future evolutionary frameworks.
  • An IoMT based cyber training framework for orthopedic surgery using Next
           Generation Internet technologies

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 May 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine UnlockedAuthor(s): J. Cecil, Avinash Gupta, Miguel Pirela-Cruz, Parmesh Ramanathan Internet of Things based approaches and frameworks hold significant potential in changing the way in which engineering activities are accomplished. The information centric revolution underway has served as a catalyst in the design of innovative methods and practices in several engineering and other domains. In this paper, an Internet of Medical Things based framework for surgical training is discussed in the broader context of Next Generation frameworks. The design and development of this Internet of Medical Things based framework involving adoption of Global Environment for Network Innovations based networking principles is elaborated. The Virtual Reality based simulation environments incorporate haptic based interfaces which support collaborative training and interactions among expert surgeons and residents in orthopedic surgery from distributed locations. The impact of using this Internet of Medical Things based framework for medical education has also been studied; the outcomes underscore the potential of adopting such Internet of Medical Things based approaches for medical education.
  • A cloud based knowledge discovery framework, for medicinal plants from
           PubMed literature

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine UnlockedAuthor(s): Niyati Kumari Behera, G.S. Mahalakshmi MOBILE healthcare systems focus to achieve two specific goals: Making e-health applications and medical information available anywhere and anytime and the invisibility of computing details. In this paper a cloud based mobile application has been initiated to popularize herbal medicines among mainstream population. This system responds to queries posted by users on medicinal plants relating to particular disease by analysing research articles from PubMed via PubMed CLOUD and MeSH thesaurus. In this proposal, we particularly focus on applying text mining techniques on biomedical literature to unearth information on disease curing phyto-chemical properties of medicinal plants. The framework also includes an ontological structure to buffer the retrieved information and thereby enhances the overall system efficiency.
  • The ecological semantics of the IoMT: Modelling cyborgs networks for
           health policy

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 May 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine UnlockedAuthor(s): Manuel G. Chávez-Ángeles The paper presents an application of the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) to health policy, particularly to the management of electronic medical records (EMR) for epidemiological surveillance. It develops a game theoretical semantics (GTS) approach for the study of a cyborg's behavior in the context of health policy. The article also analyzes cyborg network dynamics, and presents a system dynamics simulation of the game theory model applied to this theoretical case. The model shows that under certain conditions, cyborg networks can be useful in preventing pandemic results.
  • A numerical modelling of an amperometric-enzymatic based uric acid
           biosensor for GOUT arthritis diseases

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine UnlockedAuthor(s): Parthasarathy P, Vivekanandan S A numerical model of an amperometric-enzymatic uric acid biosensor for a non-relentless condition has been developed. This model depends on the arrangement of nonlinear reaction diffusion equations for Michaelis-Menten formalism that depicts the concentrations of substrate and product. The new rough scientific articulations for the concentration of substrate (uricase enzyme) and product and the corresponding current response have been derived for all estimations of parameters utilizing the new perturbation technique. The non-dimensional numerical model of the amperometric biosensor can be effectively used to examine the responses. Moreover, the relative impact of these parameters is chosen by the Damkohler number and the impact of current density on this number likewise contemplated. All the analytical results are compared with simulation results using MATLAB program and the numerical outcomes concur with fitting hypotheses. Notwithstanding, strikingly the model likewise proposed that the choice of substrate and product for uric acid biosensor for the application of kidney disease and GOUT arthritis diseases.
  • Heterogeneity of human brain tumor with lesion identification,
           localization, and analysis from MRI

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine UnlockedAuthor(s): Sudipta Roy, Debnath Bhattacharyya, Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay, Tai-Hoon Kim ObjectiveAccurate identification of brain tumor and its heterogeneity is a critical task in planning for proper therapy. A reliable fully automatic detection and analysis method for the brain tumor is necessary for an efficient measurement of the tumors and its extent. This paper presents a computerized approach to brain tumor-edema detection and analysis from the MRI of brain sequences.MethodComputer-aided diagnosis systems are focused on several research activities and the ideas of the study of brain images with the diverse modality of heterogeneity by applying better image analysis algorithms. The proposed automated modern approach includes several stages of image segmentation, area and volume calculation, and its location findings using statistical and unsupervised clustering prediction method.ResultThe outcome of the proposed computerized method is compared with reference images and gives very promising results. Performance of our proposed methodology is also assessed with the gold standard recent comparable method and our method gives better results in context to accuracy and error metrics.ConclusionThe proposed method is capable of improving the overall detection, segmentation, and quantification of a variety of tumors for different cases from multiple standard datasets.
  • An efficient and secure remote user mutual authentication scheme using
           smart cards for Telecare medical information systems

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine UnlockedAuthor(s): Niranchana Radhakrishnan, Marimuthu Karuppiah Authentication schemes are widely used mechanisms to thwart unauthorized access of resources over insecure networks. Several smart card based password authentication schemes for Telecare Medical Information Systems (TMIS) have been proposed in the literature. Recently, Lee et al. proposed an authentication scheme for TMIS and then they claimed that their scheme is able to resist various attacks. However, in this paper we demonstrate that Lee et al. scheme is still vulnerable to forgery and offline password guessing attacks and it is also unable to provide user anonymity, forward secrecy and mutual authentication. With the intention of fixing the weaknesses of Lee et al. scheme, we present a secure authentication scheme for TMIS. Moreover, the proposed scheme can also resist all known attacks. We prove the security of the proposed scheme with the help of widely-accepted random Oracle model. Finally, we carry out the performance evaluation of the proposed scheme and other related schemes, and the result favors that the proposed scheme provides better trade-off among security and performance as compared to other existing related schemes.
  • Factors influencing pharmacists' intentions to use Pharmacy Information

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, Volume 11Author(s): Abdullah Alanazi, Fawaz Al Rabiah, Hisham Gadi, Mowafa Househ, Bakheet Al Dosari The Pharmacy Information System (PIS) is a sub-system of the hospital information system, which is designed to assist pharmacists in safely managing the medication process. To maximize the benefits of PIS, it is important to assess its impact on pharmacists' workflow and medication management processes. The PIS was implemented at King Abdulaziz Medical City-Riyadh (KAMC-Riyadh) 15 years ago. However, its impact on the work of pharmacists has not been satisfactorily explored. Our study was conducted at the Pharmaceutical Care Department of KAMC-Riyadh, and the data were collected from the inpatient pharmacist staff through a survey-based questionnaire. The majority of PIS users reported having a favorable experience with the technology, and to most of the items related to functionality.The present study identified potential key factors; those that are likely to influence pharmacists' personal intentions for using PIS. However, extended use of PIS would require reducing the rate of demotivated users.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • A case-study of NIRS application for infant cerebral hemodynamic
           monitoring: A report of data analysis for feature extraction and infant
           classification into healthy and unhealthy

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, Volume 11Author(s): Ali Rahimpour, Hosein Ahmadi Noubari, Mohammad Kazemian This paper reports the results of cerebral hemodynamic data analysis gathered from infant foreheads in selected case-studies. These studies were utilized for extracting relevant features aimed for discriminatory classification of infants into healthy and unhealthy cases. The principal objective of the study was to examine the effectiveness and accuracy of using near-infrared spectroscopy for measuring cerebral blood flow in infants and for health monitoring purposes. A total of 41 infants from several age groups varying from 2 h to several days since birth were participated for experimental data recordings. Both healthy and unhealthy infants of similar age groups were selected for the study. Selection was made without consideration as to the type of disorder in unhealthy infants, or any consideration as to being under any particular monitoring action. Data were collected during the rest state with no external stimulus. Several data analysis approaches were applied including temporal and time-frequency analyses, which were used for feature extraction of hemodynamic data and for identifying selective features to be used during data classification. We utilized SVM for pattern recognition and feature extraction aimed at discriminatory classification of healthy infants from unhealthy cases. This was followed by the application of the t-test for statistical analysis and accuracy evaluation. The results show a 94% accuracy in classification. A clear relationship was also found between oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration data belonging to healthy infants as shown in 2D data clustering illustration that can be used for infant classification. Similar correlation results were also observed with other physiological data.
  • Development of an ICT-based framework towards sustainable optimal diabetes
           management in Nigerian health sector

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, Volume 11Author(s): O.S. Ayanlade, T.O. Oyebisi, B.A. Kolawole This study aims at assessing the importance of incorporating HIT tools into the Nigerian health sector, especially for diabetes management. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in this study. Quantitative methods involve questionnaire administration, while qualitative methods comprise observation method and semi structured key informant interviews, used to complement the findings from the questionnaire data collection. AYDOT was developed to customize and adapt the international HIT standard, which can identify patients at risk and physicians could quickly attend to them in real-time through mobile text messages. The conditions used for ‘At-risk’ patients are if: the Blood pressure>140/80  mmHg, the sugar level before meal>7mm0/L; the Sugar level 2 h after meal>11.1mm0/L, the Body Mass Index BMI (W/H2)>= 25 kg/m2 and diabetes duration>10 yrs. The results from this study imply that for any diabetes management project to be successful, there is a need to move from paper-based to HIT-based system in the entire organization, as optimal management of diabetes relies on the availability and usability of Health Information Technology (HIT) applications.
  • Computational analysis of sequential and structural variations in
           stromelysins as an insight towards matrix metalloproteinase research

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, Volume 11Author(s): Beutline Malgija, Host Antony David Rajendran, Uma Maheswari, Nivetha Sarah Ebenezer, Joyce Priyakumari, Shanmughavel Piramanayagam Matrix metalloproteinases are zinc-dependent protein and peptide hydrolases. They are broadly involved in metabolic regulation through both extensive protein degradation and selective peptide-bond hydrolysis. Stromelysins belong to this group of proteinases and involved in various physiological and pathological functioning of the cell. This study aims at assessing the sequential and structural aspects of stromelysins based on in silico approaches. Deduced stromelysin sequences were predicted to possess regulatory domain, protease domain, and proline-rich hinge regions. Sequential analysis revealed MMP-3 and 10 are more similar than MMP-11 regarding stability and aminoacid distribution. Secondary structure prediction showed that beta-sheets dominated other secondary structural elements (alpha helices, coils, and turns) in stromelysins. Validation of predicted models with different approaches confirms the accuracy and best quality of models. The binding mode of zinc atom provides information regarding their interaction with stromelysins. The predicted models showed little variation in binding mode with their natural inhibitor, TIMP-1. The predicted models will be used in an extensive range of studies for functional analysis and improvement activity of stromelysins.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Documenting and predicting topic changes in Computers in Biology and
           Medicine: A bibliometric keyword analysis from 1990 to 2017

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, Volume 11Author(s): Oliver Faust The Computers in Biology and Medicine (CBM) journal promotes the use of computing machinery in the fields of bioscience and medicine. Since the first volume in 1970, the importance of computers in these fields has grown dramatically, this is evident in the diversification of topics and an increase in the publication rate. In this study, we quantify both change and diversification of topics covered in. This is done by analysing the author supplied keywords, since they were electronically captured in 1990. The analysis starts by selecting 40 keywords, related to Medical (M) (7), Data (D) (10), Feature (F) (17) and (AI) (6) methods. Automated keyword clustering shows the statistical connection between the selected keywords. We found that the three most popular topics in CBM are: Support Vector Machine (SVM), Electroencephalography (EEG) and IMAGE PROCESSING. In a separate analysis step, we bagged the selected keywords into sequential one year time slices and calculated the normalized appearance. The results were visualised with graphs that indicate the CBM topic changes. These graphs show that there was a transition from Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to SVM. In 2006 SVM replaced ANN as the most important AI algorithm. Our investigation helps the editorial board to manage and embrace topic change. Furthermore, our analysis is interesting for the general reader, as the results can help them to adjust their research directions.
  • Patulin interference with ATP binding cassette transferring auto inducer
           −2 in Salmonella typhi and biofilm inhibition via quorum sensing

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, Volume 11Author(s): Princy Vijayababu, Gopinath Samykannu, Christian Bharathi Antonyraj, Jebastin Thomas, SundaraBaalaji Narayanan, Syed Ibrahim Basheer Ahamed, Shanmughavel Piramanayagam Salmonella typhi are Gram-negative pathogens that infect many hosts including humans and animals and cause diseases ranging from gastroenteritis and diarrhea to life-threatening systemic syndrome. Owing to the metabolic versatility, they will colonize as multi cellular aggregates on various surfaces to enhance the virulence by forming a biofilm in which bacterial cells are more resistant to antibiotics than planktonic cells. Quorum Sensing (QS) is a cell-to-cell communication mechanism in the bacterial system to coordinate group behaviors such as biofilms formation and virulence factors production. In QS system ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter component, LsrA, plays a key role to transport autoinducer-2 (AI-2) to increase the cell density. In order to reduce biofilm formation, patulin was selected as a natural QS inhibitor and its function was studied by biofilm inhibitory assays. Significant differences in the spectroscopic values were obtained between antibiotic resistance of kanamycin (30 μg/ml) and patulin (30 μg/ml). Furthermore, to distinguish the molecular level interaction of LsrA, patulin and AI-2 were docked. Both the compounds were interact in the same pose with Glide score of −4.237 kcal/mol and −7.126 kcal/mol respectively. These results will suggest that patulin is the efficient Quorum Sensing Inhibitor to control biofilm formation in S.typhi.
  • Computational analysis of next generation sequencing data and its
           applications in clinical oncology

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, Volume 11Author(s): Rucha M. Wadapurkar, Renu Vyas Next generation sequencing (NGS) has made great strides in sequencing technology as it enables sequencing of genes in a high throughput manner with low cost. Various NGS platforms such as Illumina, Roche, ABI/SOLiD are used for wet-lab analysis of NGS data and computational tools such as BWA, Bowtie, Galaxy, SanGeniX are used for dry-lab analysis of NGS data. One of the important aspects of NGS data is its usage in early disease diagnosis especially in cancer which was earlier not possible with conventional sequencing technologies such as Sanger sequencing, NGS can identify all those mutations which cannot be identified using conventional sequencing technologies as researchers can now sequence the whole genome, exome or transcriptome. Exome sequencing is preferred, as a higher number of mutations are found to exist in the exome part of genes. The present comprehensive review encompasses the complete NGS data analysis workflow that includes alignment of NGS reads, identification and annotation of mutations and visualization, discussion of software tools for variant identification and annotation, evaluation of structural variation in NGS data, and study of different DNA sequencing technologies. In the field of clinical oncology, NGS has already proven its usefulness, and the mortality rate has been reduced, as now doctors can suggest a proper treatment to their patients by checking the complete genomic profile. However, data storage and the complexity in interpreting enormous amounts of data obtained with NGS still remain a computational challenge to researchers, as for each sample, the number of different and very large analysis files are generated directly from the raw sequence read file to the final result file. NGS resultant data is very complex, and its interpretation requires expert bioinformatics assistance, as a large number of mutations are identified from samples, but to differentiate clinically significant mutations among them with appropriate use of validation methods is a challenging task. This review is intended to provide researchers with a complete overview of NGS along with knowledge of how the tools will be employed, and insight into identification and interpretation of cancer mutations for clinical diagnostics.
  • An optimal big data workflow for biomedical image analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, Volume 11Author(s): Aurelle Tchagna Kouanou, Daniel Tchiotsop, Romanic Kengne, Djoufack Tansaa Zephirin, Ngo Mouelas Adele Armele, René Tchinda Background and objectiveIn the medical field, data volume is increasingly growing, and traditional methods cannot manage it efficiently. In biomedical computation, the continuous challenges are: management, analysis, and storage of the biomedical data. Nowadays, big data technology plays a significant role in the management, organization, and analysis of data, using machine learning and artificial intelligence techniques. It also allows a quick access to data using the NoSQL database. Thus, big data technologies include new frameworks to process medical data in a manner similar to biomedical images. It becomes very important to develop methods and/or architectures based on big data technologies, for a complete processing of biomedical image data.MethodThis paper describes big data analytics for biomedical images, shows examples reported in the literature, briefly discusses new methods used in processing, and offers conclusions. We argue for adapting and extending related work methods in the field of big data software, using Hadoop and Spark frameworks. These provide an optimal and efficient architecture for biomedical image analysis. This paper thus gives a broad overview of big data analytics to automate biomedical image diagnosis. A workflow with optimal methods and algorithm for each step is proposed.ResultsTwo architectures for image classification are suggested. We use the Hadoop framework to design the first, and the Spark framework for the second. The proposed Spark architecture allows us to develop appropriate and efficient methods to leverage a large number of images for classification, which can be customized with respect to each other.ConclusionsThe proposed architectures are more complete, easier, and are adaptable in all of the steps from conception. The obtained Spark architecture is the most complete, because it facilitates the implementation of algorithms with its embedded libraries.
  • An innovative exact method for solving fully interval integer
           transportation problems

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, Volume 11Author(s): A. Akilbasha, P. Pandian, G. Natarajan A new method namely, the mid-width method, is proposed herein for finding the optimal interval solution to an interval biomedical transportation problem in which shipping cost, supply and demand parameters are real intervals. The mid-width method is an exact method and is developed on two independent transportation problems which are obtained from a fully integer transportation problem. A numerical example in the field of pharmaceutical logistics is presented for understanding the solution procedure of the suggested method. Furthermore, the proposed method is extended to fuzzy transportation problems.
  • Performance prediction of interactive telemedicine

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, Volume 11Author(s): S. Sasikala, K. Indhira, V.M. Chandrasekaran Telemedicine is a remote medical practice, which utilizes information and communication technology to provide healthcare and exchange of health information for distance places. Diagnosis and prescription for rural and remote area patients are the main advantages of this system. The major categories of telemedicine are store-and-forward, remote patient monitoring and interactive telemedicine. Interactive telemedicine is a real-time interaction between patients and doctors. This method can be conducted in a nursing home or at the patient's house via a video-conferencing system. Moreover, this is more convenient for patients, than to obtain health care with a caretaker in person. However, Internet-based networks are congested with many users. We considered interactive telemedicine as a queueing system and analyzed it by using the method of supplementary variables. We obtained the performance measures through a probability generating function. The numerical results of the queueing system may be useful to provide service satisfactorily and update the utility function of interactive telemedicine.
  • Assessment of the diagnostic quality of the digital display monitors at
           the dental clinics of a university hospital

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, Volume 11Author(s): Muhammad Hasan Hameed, Fahad Umer, Farhan Raza Khan, Saleem Pirani, Mohammad Yusuf BackgroundIn contemporary health care, monitor displays are important devices that help clinicians in reading and understanding diagnostic images including radiographs. Image quality and observer performance could be compromised if the performance of monitor is below the known standards.ObjectivesTo estimate the parameters of diagnostic quality of digital display monitors (using AAPM TG-18 criteria) installed at the dental clinics of a university hospital.Materials and methodsA survey was carried out on a convenience sample of forty-four diagnostic monitor displays currently being used for radiographic interpretation at dental clinics of a university hospital. A calibrated photometer (BARCO V950-180, USA) comprising of different test patterns and reference standards developed by the AAPM TG18 and DICOM part 14 GSDF were used on the monitors to assess their diagnostic image quality. It is a scale which consists of five parameters that labels monitors into two categories: primary grade or secondary grade. Data was reported as frequencies of the five parameters of imaging.ResultsOf the 44 monitors assessed, none fulfilled the primary grade criteria. All monitors fulfilled the parameters for secondary grade display except the luminance response for which only 16/44 monitors passed the criteria. There was an excellent agreement between the assessors for the image quality parameters; kappa: 0.92.ConclusionsWithin the limitations of this study, it is concluded that all monitors at dental clinics were of secondary grade and the only parameter in which majority of the monitors failed, was the luminance response.
  • Medical Image Processor and Repository – MIPAR

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, Volume 12Author(s): Benjamin Aribisala, Olusola Olabanjo Background and ObjectivesThe recent progress in medical image analysis has given birth to image-guided therapy, virtual reality and augmented reality. These among other innovations have greatly improved healthcare delivery, improved quality of life and also saved lives.. The advances in Internet and network technology have produced web technologies which make it possible to offer platform or software as a service via the web, making it possible for end users to access computer resources or specialized computer tools remotely. However, the high cost of image acquisition, the limited availability of medical image analysts, and the limited collaborative efforts between medical experts and scientists are major challenges for medical image analysis in the developing world. The aim of this project was to develop a medical image e-infrastructure called Medical Image Processor and Analysis (MIPAR) to contain a repository of medical images acquired from Africa and a platform for processing medical images.MethodsThe backend of MIPAR which is resident on a High-Performance Computing infrastructure was built using FutureGateway, a framework for building science gateway. The image upload and download module was built upon the framework of Open Access Repository with the front end developed using HTML, CSS and BootStrap. JavaScript and JQuery were used for scripting. User's access to the server is controlled with HTTP response and a Client-Server Architecture, while the image processing tools on the server side communicate with PHP using Representational State Architecture (REST) API.ResultsMIPAR was tested using brain MRI images. Images were submitted remotely via MIPAR's web interface and kept in the repository. Image processing facility of MIPAR was tested using the brain extraction module, a 3D image of approximately 43MB was successfully brain extracted within 60 s.ConclusionMIPAR allows users to donate, download and process medical images at no cost. It is our hope that such useful and unique tool will encourage collaboration, improve diagnosis, improve patient management, and promote open science in Africa.
  • Molecular modelling and dynamic simulation of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine
           1-carboxyvinyltransferase (MurA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis using in
           silico approach

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, Volume 12Author(s): Mustafa Alhaji Isa, Rita Singh Majumdar, Shazia Haider, Saravanan Kandasamy UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 1-carboxyvinyltransferase (MurA) catalyses the biosynthesis of peptidoglycans in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) cell wall by adding enolpyruvyl to UDP-N-acetylglucosamine through an addition and elimination process. In this study, novel inhibitors of MurA were identified using an in silico approach. The three dimensional (3D) structure of MurA was determined based upon the principle of homology modelling, using a template (3SG1) obtained from Bacillus anthracis. Structural analysis revealed that three residues (Arg93, Asp305, and Val327) were involved in the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine binding site and one residue (Asp117) was involved in the direct catalysis. These residues were utilized as a prime target for the inhibitors during virtual screening and molecular docking analysis. A total of seven thousand five hundred and twenty-nine (7529) ligands were obtained from public databases, capable of binding to MurA. These compounds were further filtered for physicochemical properties (Lipinski rule of five), molecular docking analysis, and pharmacokinetic properties. Eleven (11) ligands with good binding energies ranging between ─10.73 and ─8.17 kcal/mol were obtained. Further, four compounds with good binding energies (ZINC20256175 = ─10.66 kcal/mol, ZINC12283251 = ─10.58 kcal/mol, ZINC14538153 = ─9.90 kcal/mol and ZINC12217441 = ─9.73 kcal/mol) out of the 11, were selected and used for Molecular Dynamic (MD) Simulation and Molecular Generalized Born Surface Area (MM-GBSA) analyses. The results of the analyses revealed that all four compounds achieved a differing level of stability during the 50ns MD simulation. Therefore, these compounds could be considered as potential inhibitors for MTB after successful experimental validation.
  • Patient-specific optimization of mechanical ventilation for patients with

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, Volume 12Author(s): Mohsen Nabian, Uichiro Narusawa Quasi-static, pulmonary pressure-volume (P-V) curves were combined with a respiratory system model to analyze tidal pressure cycles, simulating mechanical ventilation of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Two important quantities including 1) tidal recruited volume and 2) tidal hyperinflated volume were analytically computed by integrating the distribution of alveolar elements over the affected pop-open pressure range. We analytically predicted the tidal recruited volume of four canine subjects and compared our results with similar experimental measurements on canine models for the validation. We then applied our mathematical model to the P-V data of ARDS populations in four stages of Early ARDS, Deep Knee, Advanced ARDS and Baby Lung to quantify the tidal recruited volume and tidal hyperinflated volume as an indicator of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). These quantitative predictions based on patient-specific P-V data suggest that the optimum parameters of mechanical ventilation including PEEP and Tidal Pressure (Volume) are largely varying among ARDS population and are primarily influenced by the degree in the severity of ARDS.
  • Surface electromyography based method for computing muscle strength and
           fatigue of biceps brachii muscle and its clinical implementation

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, Volume 12Author(s): Chetan D. Kuthe, Rashmi V. Uddanwadiker, Alankar A. Ramteke IntroductionThe main objective of the present study is to compute muscle strength in terms of muscle force and fatigue for biceps brachii, using trained and untrained subjects in static contraction (isometric contraction).MethodsThere are two groups of 14 subjects each as trained subjects and untrained subjects. An isometric contraction is performed by two groups at three submaximal contraction levels L1 (50% MVC), L2 (75% MVC) and L3 (100% MVC) for 60 s each or until task failure, whichever comes first. The study compared the strength of the two groups based on maximal isometric muscle force and state of muscle fatigue using the slope of median frequency (MDF).ResultsIt was found that there was an 18.39% increase in the biceps brachii muscle strength for trained subjects as compared with untrained (P 
  • L-cube polynomial for the recognition of normal and hypertensive
           string-like pulse mappings in Chinese medicine

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, Volume 12Author(s): Ching-Hsing Luo, Jhong-Wun Ye, Chien-Yu Lin, Tsung-Lin Lee, Liang-Miin Tsai, Meng-Dar Shieh ObjectiveSince pulse feeling has been well translated using three-dimensional pulse mapping (3DPM) followed by pulse mapping analysis (PMA) instead of pulse wave analysis (PWA), mathematics such as polynomials is further considerably applied for the description of 3DPM patterns.MethodsTo elucidate the clinical indices of 3DPM patterns, an L-cube polynomial consisting of a major exponential function is proposed based on the Zernike polynomials.ResultsThe axis ratio r in the L-cube polynomial, which geometrically represents the ratio of the 3DPM longitudinal and transverse axes, is closely related to the augmentation index AIx showing the degree of artery stiffness during a cold pressor test (CPT).ConclusionThe axis ratio r is a useful index to recognize normal and hypertensive string-like pulse mappings. It is shown that The L-cube polynomial may become a very useful tool to elucidate valuable 3DPM indices from the CM pulse feeling database for clinical applications.
  • A novel method using SOM for recognizing patterns in dental radiographs-a
           conceptual approach

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, Volume 12Author(s): Kanika Lakhani, Vasudha Vashisht, Neeraj Gugnani AI techniques have always played a key role in medical science. In this paper, a new technique has been devised to identify the problems in human dentition. The idea is to collect the recorded radiographs and apply various enhancement techniques to identify the defected tooth and further apply feature extraction process to highlight the indefinite areas. Self organizing maps have been conceptualized to identify clusters based on similar patterns in the defective tooth. The idea behind the proposed technique is to reduce the time in identifying the problems or diseases locally. With this technique a clear picture of the infected tooth shall be made available for the diagnostic purpose.
  • Substrate specificities in Salmonella typhi outer membrane protease (PgtE)
           from Omptin family – An in silico proteomic approach

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, Volume 12Author(s): Gopinath Samykannu, Princy Vijayababu, Jeyakumar Natarajan Salmonella typhi are Gram-negative pathogen causes severe systemic infections like typhoid fever and gastrointestinal disease in humans. PgtE belongs to Omptin family, plays a central role at the host-pathogen interface. In the present study, S. typhi PgtE sequence retrieved and cleavage sites were predicted. Owing to the non-existence of crystal structure of S. typhi PgtE, theoretical 3D modeled structures were predicted with I-TASSER server, which helps to understand the protease inhibitory mechanism. Molecular interaction studies with known protease inhibitors were revealed that aspartic protease inhibitor Indinavir has the best interaction with S. typhi PgtE. From the metal ion docking studies, Mg2+ has better interaction, while compared to Zn2+ and Cu2+ ions. The multiple pathogen sequence alignment of Omptin proteases family shows that, interacting residues were conserved among the Omptins. These results will provide new knowledge for the development of novel therapeutic strategies against S. typhi PgtE and Omptin family proteases.
  • Computational design of small interfering RNAs and small hairpin RNAs to
           silence mutated P53 gene expressions

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, Volume 12Author(s): Anum Munir, Shumaila Azam, Sahar Aslam, Azhar Mehmood, G. Mujtaba Shah, Saeed Amjad, Muhammad Younis, Sahar Fazal RNA silencing is a novel gene regulatory mechanism that confines the transcript level by either preventing translation or by the initiation of particular RNA degradation. Small interfering RNAs are regularly represented as the exogenously made or viral inducers of RNAi. Such small RNAs have been used in biomedical research for particular repression of genes. A small hairpin RNA is an artificially synthesized RNA molecule with a hairpin or loop like structure, that is inserted into the designed siRNA to induce interference. In this research work, computational techniques are used to design the siRNA and shRNA against the P53 gene. Approximately four target sites are identified in the p53 gene to which the siRNA and shRNA can bind, for each target site the siRNAs and shRNAs are designed as complementary sequence of the target site. Furthermore, a small hairpin RNA is inserted as a loop in the designed siRNA molecules for better results. This computational analysis of siRNA and shRNA can be further used with the help of in-vitro exploratory techniques to check efficacy and adequacy.
  • The effect of filtering algorithms for breast ultrasound lesions

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, Volume 12Author(s): Fatima M. Osman, Moi Hoon Yap Breast ultrasound images have a complicated structure, which is difficult to be segmented due to the fact that it has low signal and affected by noise ratio. Recent research concentrated on the Region of Interest (ROI) labeling and ROI segmentation. In order to reduce chances of human error, stages of processing in breast ultrasound images might be different from one another. This research proposes a new image filtering method for breast ultrasound, namely Altered Phase Preserving Dynamic Range Compression (APPDRC). In addition, this paper compares the performance of filtering algorithms, in combination with standard thresholding segmentation. Focusing on the filtering stage, a comparison between the proposed method APPDRC Filter and previous approaches is validated on a dataset of 306 images, namely Inverted Median filter, Multifractal Filter, Hybrid Filter, SRAD filter, and PPDRC. Further, a summary of the work to date on the effect of filtering on lesion segmentation in ultrasound breast images is reported. Jaccard Similarity Index (JSI) is used for evaluation, in which the automated segmentation result is compared with the experienced radiologist's manual delineation. Our results revealed that making the choice of filtering algorithm affects the final segmentation results. Considering Mean JSI, Dice and MCC metrics, the proposed APPDRC Filter achieved the best performance, and outperformed the five evaluated filtering methods.
  • Production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from Pseudomonas plecoglossicida
           and its application towards cancer detection

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, Volume 11Author(s): Devaraj Sabarinathan, Sabapathy Poorna Chandrika, Pitchaikannu Venkatraman, Murugesh Easwaran, Chandrasekaran Senbagavadivoo Sureka, Kathirvel Preethi The present work focuses on the fermentative production of Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from an unexplored organism Pseudomonas plecoglossicida for this biopolymer production. The produced biopolymer was characterized using FTIR, NMR and GCMS analysis. As Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) exhibit a high level of biocompatibility and biodegradability, they are used for several biomedical applications. A simple and rapid cancer detection assay was developed using the PHB extracted from P. plecoglossicida. Breast cancer cells (T47D) were taken as a test sample, with the normal epithelial cells (PCS-600-010) as control. The assay checked for the ability of cells to attach to the surface of the PHB sheet. Primarily a docking study was made to understand the interaction of specific target proteins present in breast cancer cells (BRCA1) with the PHB molecules, where the surface adherence property was clearly denoted. Further authentication was done using the contact angle detection test which elucidated that only cancer cells showed the adherence effect, and normal cells did not exhibit such adherence property towards the PHB sheets. Hence, the produced biopolymer will likely be helpful in developing a novel cancer detection tool, by studying the surface adherence property of the cell towards the PHB sheet.
  • Molecular dynamics simulation approach to explore atomistic molecular
           mechanism of peroxidase activity of apoptotic cytochrome c mutants

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, Volume 11Author(s): Gurusamy Muneeswaran, Manickam Pandiaraj, Subramanian Kartheeswaran, Muniyandi Sankaralingam, Kaliappan Muthukumar, Chandran Karunakaran Mutations in cytochrome c (Cyt c) have been reported in tuning peroxidase activity, which in-turn cause Cyt c release from mitochondria and early apoptosis. However, the molecular tuning mechanism underlying this activity remains elusive. Herein, multiple 20 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of wild type (WT), Y67F and K72W mutated Cyt c in aqueous solutions have been carried out to study how the changes in structural features alters the peroxidase activity of the protein. MD simulation results indicate that Y67F mutation caused, (i) increased distances between critical electron-transfer residues, (ii) higher fluctuations in omega loops, and (iii) weakening of intraprotein hydrogen bonds result in open conformation at heme crevice loop in Cyt c leading to an enhanced peroxidase activity. Interestingly, the aforementioned structural features are strengthened in K72W compared to WT and Y67F, which triggers K72W mutated Cyt c into a poor peroxidase. Essential dynamics results unveil that first two eigenvectors are responsible for overall motions of WT, Y67F and K72W mutated Cyt c. This study thus provides atomic level insight into molecular mechanism of peroxidase activity of Cyt c, which will help in designing novel Cyt c structures that is more desirable than natural Cyt c for biomedical and industrial processes.Graphical abstractImage 1
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