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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2415 journals)            First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Showing 1201 - 1400 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Family and Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Forensic Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Gandaki Medical College-Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Generic Medicines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Geographical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hand Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Head & Neck Physicians and Surgeons     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health & Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Journal of Health and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Economics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior     Open Access  
Journal of Health Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science and Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of health sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences / Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Health Sciences and Surveillance System     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences Scholarship     Open Access  
Journal of Health Specialties     Open Access  
Journal of Health Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Healthcare Informatics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Helminthology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Herbs Spices & Medicinal Plants     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of HIV for Clinical and Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Hospital Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Human Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Human Rhythm     Open Access  
Journal of Human Transcriptome     Open Access  
Journal of Ideas in Health     Open Access  
Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inflammation Research     Open Access  
Journal of Injury and Violence Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Institute of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Insulin Resistance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Interactional Research in Communication Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of International Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Interventional Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Investigative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Islamabad Medical & Dental College     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Karnali Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Kathmandu Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of King Abdulaziz University : Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Laryngology and Voice     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Limb Lengthening & Reconstruction     Open Access  
Journal of Lumbini Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Materials Science : Materials in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Maternal and Child Health     Open Access  
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Cases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Colleges of PLA     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Medical Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Ethics     Partially Free   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ideas     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Investigation and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Laboratory and Diagnosis     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Law and Ethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Medical Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medicinal Botany     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207)
Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Medicine and the Person     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medicine in Scientific Research     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine in the Tropics     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine Research and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medicines Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Metabolomics & Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Movement Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Multidisciplinary Research in Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Nanotheranostics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Natural Medicines     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nature and Science of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Journal of Nepalgunj Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Neurocritical Care     Open Access  
Journal of Neurodegenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Neurorestoratology     Open Access  
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Nobel Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Obesity and Bariatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Occupational Health     Open Access  
Journal of Occupational Therapy Education     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Ocular Biology, Diseases, and Informatics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Oral Health and Craniofacial Science     Open Access  
Journal of Orofacial Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, Hearing and Balance Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ovarian Research     Open Access  
Journal of Ozone Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Journal of Paramedical Sciences & Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Journal of Parkinsonism and Restless Legs Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parkinson’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Participatory Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Patan Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Pathogens     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Patient Experience     Open Access  
Journal of Patient Safety and Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Patient-Reported Outcomes     Open Access  
Journal of Periodontal Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physiobiochemical Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physiology-Paris     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pioneering Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Pregnancy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Prevention & Intervention Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health     Open Access  
Journal of Primary Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Prosthodontic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Prosthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Receptor, Ligand and Channel Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Regenerative Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Scientific Innovation in Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Scientific Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Arthroplasty     Open Access  
Journal of Sleep Disorders : Treatment & Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of South American Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences : Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stem Cell Therapy and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stomal Therapy Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Journal of Substance Use     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Surgical Academia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Surgical and Clinical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report     Open Access  
Journal of Systemic Therapies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of The Academy of Clinical Microbiologists     Open Access  
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the American College of Certified Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American College of Clinical Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Anatomical Society of India     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Anus, Rectum and Colon     Open Access  
Journal of The Arab Society for Medical Research     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
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Journal of the Anatomical Society of India
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.109
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0003-2778
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3200 journals]
  • Prof Mahesh Chandra Vaidya
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 2Author(s):
       
  • Off-line virtual microscopy in teaching histology to the undergraduate
           medical students: do the benefits correlate with the learning style
           preferences'
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 2Author(s): Mamata ChimmalgiAbstractIntroductionAdvances in technology have metamorphosed the methods and tools used in medical education. Teaching microscopic anatomy has shifted in the last few decades from conventional microscopy using light microscope and glass slides to virtual microscopy using computers and virtual slides.Students differ in their learning style preferences. Their performance is optimized when the teaching method or a strategy is adopted to their learning style preference.The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of using the off-line virtual slides in teaching histology on the performance of the first-year medical students and to ascertain its suitability to students with different learning style preferences.MethodLearning style preferences of the students was determined by using VARK questionnaire. Students were taught histology using the offline virtual slides. Pre- and post-intervention tests using two methods of examination determined the impact of virtual slides in teaching anatomy to students with different learning style preferences.ResultsUsing paired t-test, independent t-test and Kruskall Wallis rank test (as applicable), intra- and inter-group scores for the pre- and post-tests were compared. Results revealed significant gain in the scores with the use of virtual slides irrespective of the method of examination or learning style preferences.DiscussionVirtual slides, when used in teaching histology as an adjunct to conventional microscopy, positively influenced the performance of the students irrespective of their learning style preferences. Offline virtual slides can be a via-media approach for using virtual microscopy in the institutions lacking in high-end infrastructure.
       
  • Calcaneum talar facets, its diagnostic and clinical relevance to fracture
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 2Author(s): Fazal ur RehmanAbstractIntroductionCalcanei are classified into three to five patterns according to the number of superior articular facets present. As reported earlier the relative distribution of facets pattern varies with race and sex. Study of the calcaneal talar facets variation is important because it influence subtalar joint stability and knowledge of facets is essential while correcting foot deformities and for placing the screw in fracture fixation by orthopaedic surgeons.Material & methodFor this study sixty calcanei of human cadaver were procured from various sources. The calcanei were observed for patterns of the talar articular facets and the separation between the facets.ResultIn this study, only three patterns were described. Pattern I calcanei bear three facets for the talus, Pattern II calcanei bear two and Pattern III calcanei a single facet only. This study is important with the view that fracture involved facet and lead to decrease in calcaneal axial length.DiscussionAn understanding of the complex surgical calcaneal anatomy begins with a 3-D appreciation of the multiple articulations and bony processes. Calcaneal reconstruction is predicted on the restoration of the articular surfaces especially the posterior facet, appropriate reconstruction of the 3 dimentional spatial relationship between three articular facets is of paramount importance. Nature of calcaneal bone (spongy or dense) is important for orthopaedic surgeon in fracture fixation, calcaneum is harder beneath the posterior facet. Distance between anterior and middle facet is important for calcaneal lengthening osteotomy without violating the subtalar joint.
       
  • Vacuum phenomenon in multiple joints; prevalence and association with age
           and gender
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 2Author(s): Muhsin Engin Uluc, Atilla Hikmet Cilengir, Sebnem Karasu, Berna Dirim Mete, Ozgur TosunAbstractIntroductionOur purpose was to determine the prevalance ratio of vacuum phenomenon (PRVP) in the sacroiliac (SIJ), sternoclavicular (SCJ), shoulder (ShJ) and symphysis pubis (SP) joints of adult population and to assess the relationship between the presence of the vacuum phenomenon (VP) and demographic factors.MethodsThe presence of gas density within joints was recorded as positive finding on images of thorax and abdominopelvic CT scans of 161 patients.ResultsThe overall PRVP for each joint were as follows: 16.7% for ShJ, 32.3% for SCJ, 71.4% for SIJ, 7.5% for SP. The mean ages of the patients who had VP were significantly lower than the patients who did not have VP in ShJ and SCJ, but mean ages of patients who had VP in SP were significantly higher than the patients who did not have VP. There was a significant positive correlation between ShJ and SCJ and negative correlation between SCJ and SIJ.DiscussionVP may be detected as an incidental finding in various joints at the same time. Therefore, its presence may not have any clinical relevance. Examination technique, joint position and patient population may affect the PRVP in the joints. Knowledge of this anatomical phenomenon may prevent faulty diagnosis of joint pathology and prevent suboptimal treatment of patients.
       
  • Interrelation of temporal fascia, temporalis and masseter muscles
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 2Author(s): M.F. Sargon, S. Selvi, M. Farımaz, H. Akdemir AktaşAbstractIntroductionIn the study; interrelation in between the distal part of deep layer of temporal fascia, temporalis muscle and the muscle fibers of deep layer of masseter were examined in order to detect the possible different relationships in between them.MethodsInterrelation in between the distal part of temporal fascia, temporalis muscle and the muscle fibers of deep layer of masseter were examined in six fresh frozen and four embalmed head-neck specimens bilaterally. Three of the specimens were female and seven of them were male. Their ages varied between 76 to 83 years. In all of the 20 dissections; the zygomatic arch was removed and the interrelation in between these anatomical structures were demonstrated.ResultsIn the gross anatomic examination, three different types of interrelation was found. In the first type, there was no continuity or connection in between the temporalis muscle and the muscle fibers of deep layer of masseter. In all of them; masseter formed the superficial relation of temporalis muscle. In the second type; the deep layer of masseter was connected to the temporalis muscle’s distal fibers and all these fibers coursed as a single muscle. Both muscles’ fibres were inserted into the coronoid process. This type was present both unilaterally and bilaterally. In the third type, the temporal fascia was inserted to the coronoid process, together with the temporalis muscle.DiscussionAwareness of the surgeons about the high ratio of these types of interrelations will affect the success of the surgery.
       
  • Histogenesis of uterus in human fetuses
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 2Author(s): Keisam Anupama Devi, Ningthoujam Damayanti, Moirangthem MatumAbstractIntroductionThe histological changes during the development of the human uterus throughout the fetal period exhibit varying cellular patterns in the lining epithelium. The present study documents these progressive changes during fetal uterine maturation.Methods70 fetal uteri whose age varies from 14th to 40th gestational weeks without any external anomalies were studied.ResultsAt 14 weeks, the uterine lining epithelium is predominantly pseudostratified columnar, the nuclei being arranged at varying levels. However, the lower part of cervix shows epithelium comprising of a mosaic of flat or slightly raised polygonal cells which gradually changes to stratified squamous epithelium with advancing gestation. From 32 weeks onwards, the pseudostratification of uterine epithelium changes to simple columnar epithelium progressively. At 14 weeks, two distinct layers of mesenchymal cells are apparent, elongated cells in abundance at the subserosal layer and sparsely arranged rounded cells towards the lumen. Endometrial glands appear by the 17th week.DiscussionExcept for the lower part of cervix, pseudostratified columnar epithelium lines the fetal uterus. As gestation progresses, pseudostratification gradually changes to simple columnar epithelium. The palmate folds of the epithelium appear by 17 weeks in cervical canal. The smooth muscle bundle appears by 24 weeks of gestation. Undifferentiated mesenchymal cells around paramesonephric duct develop into both smooth muscles and endometrial cells.
       
  • A Morphological Study of Branches of External Carotid Artery in Adult
           Human Cadavers
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 2Author(s): Sarika H. Dakare, Pritha S. BhuiyanAbstractIntroductionExternal carotid artery has eight named branches distributing to head and neck. The rich vascularity of most parts of head and neck (except brain and eye) is mainly maintained by external carotid artery through its branches. The detailed knowledge of external carotid artery and its branches is important for procedures like catheterization, radical neck dissection, reconstruction of aneurysms and carotid endarterectomy to prevent vascular accidents.Material and methodsTwenty formalin fixed adult human cadavers, obtained from the Department of Anatomy were dissected.ResultsMean distances of origin of eight branches of external carotid artery from carotid bifurcation were measured. The most common variation found was linguo-facial trunk in fourteen specimens (35%). The other variations found were common trunk for ascending pharyngeal artery and occipital artery in five specimens (12.82%) and thyrolingual trunk in one specimen (2.56%).There was appearance of two roots of ascending pharyngeal artery in one case.DiscussionKnowledge about the variations of origin of branches of external carotid artery is important for surgeons performing head and neck surgeries. It is also helpful for radiologists for diagnostic imaging of vascular lesions and for interventional procedures.
       
  • Vigabatrin toxicity-effects on optic nerve
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 2Author(s): Deepa Singh, Aksh Dubey, S.L. JethaniAbstractIntroductionVigabatrin is an antiepileptic drugwhich is used as the drug of choice in resistant epilepsy and infantile spasms. Cases of visual field constriction have been frequently reported following the use of this drug indicating some involvement of the visual system. Studies have been done on the effects on retina but few are available stating the effects on optic nerves. Hence the present study was designed to study the histopathological effects of vigabatrinadministrationon the optic nerves of albino rats.Material and MethodsRats were divided into control and experimental groups. Vigabatrin was administered intraperitoneally to the experimental group in three graded doses for a period of 4 weeks, after which the rats were sacrificed. Brains were dissected out, followed by dissection of the eyeballs along with optic nerves. Slides of optic nervewere prepared for histological examination.ResultsAtrophy of optic nerve and signs of intramyelinicoedema in the form of vacuolation were seen. Features of demyelination were not found in any slide. Severity of the findings increased with increasing doses.DiscussionVigabatrin may be toxic to the visual system, especially the optic nerves. We suggest that it should be used with caution and only if required, keeping doses as low as possible. Tests for assessing visual function should be performed during treatment and doses should be adjusted accordingly.
       
  • Anterior skull base variations and its implications using CT scan imaging
           for safer endoscopic surgeries
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 2Author(s): Vinodhini Periyasamy, Shivarama Bhat, Mamatha H, Mythilikrishnan, M.N. Sree RamAbstractIntroductionComputerized tomographic imaging of the nasal and paranasal regions has become an indispensable tool for the endoscopic sinonasal surgery. The uncinate process is an important bony structure located in the lateral wall of the nose.The olfactory fossa is a space, situated superior to the cribriform plate and has a variable depth.MethodsA descriptive, case-control study was carried out on 120 patients with a clinical diagnosis of chronic rhino sinusitis who were referred for a sinus CT scan by ENT specialists.ResultsRight side type I uncinate process of 90% was more prevalent in the males of the cases group and 86% is in the females of the control group. Prevalence of left side type II keros classification was seen in 66.7% and 63.3% of cases group and 73.3% and 83.3% of the control group for both the genders.DiscussionKnowledge about the superior insertion of uncinate process and height of the olfactory fossa provides understanding about the upper limit of surgical dissection and aids in road mapping the confident direction for the functional endoscopic surgeons.
       
  • Effect of stress induced by expsoure to short and long term foot shock on
           liver, spleen and kidney in aged mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 2Author(s): Prakash Babu B, Hemalatha B, Henry TAbstractIntroductionStress affects the central nervous system leading indirectly to modulation of the activity of steroid, catecholamine and opioid systems. It also affects behaviour, immune system, cardiovascular responses and gastrointestinal tract. In response to stress, a cascade of neurohumoral events chiefly at the level of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, is triggered, the result of which is the termination of stress reaction leading to normalization.During Induction of stress hormone epinephrine concentration increases many times in the body.MethodsIn the present study short term (5 days) and long term (21 days) foot shock stress was given to Albino mice of old age of BALB C strain (481 days old) to see any the histological changes in liver, spleen and kidney.ResultsMice subjected to long term stress showed in liver vacuolization, elongation of nucleus of hepatic cells and infiltration. While in kidney dilated Bowman’s capsule, frequent vacuolization in renal cortex, degeneration of cells of proximal convoluted tubule, whereas in spleen there was increase in size of the follicles and red pulp morphology of parenchyma (increase in red pulp).DiscussionThus it is concluded from the entire study that long term stress causes degeneration in hepatic cells, infiltration in liver, degeneration of glomerulus, bowman’s capsule, convoluted tubules in kidney which finally leading to both hepato-toxicity and nephro-toxicity. In spleen long term stress alters the immune response in Old age Albino Mice by inducing morphology changes, explaining in part the indicating impaired immunity that develops in organisms that are exposed to chronic stress.
       
  • Morphometric analysis of lateral and third ventricles by computerized
           tomography for early diagnosis of hydrocephalus
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 2Author(s): Vishram Singh, Satbir Singh, Dalvinder Singh, Poonam PatnaikAbstractIntroductionBrain ventricles are dilated with accumulation of excess cerebrospinal fluid in it, which can cause the pressure damage to the surrounding structures. This study aims to highlight the reference range values for lateral and third ventricles of brain for easy diagnosis and management of hydrocephalic patients.Material and methodsWe calculated the frontal horn ratio(FHR), bi- caudate ratio(BCR), Evan’s ratio(ER), cella media ratio(CMR), bi-frontal index(BFI), bi- occipital index(BOI), third ventricle width(TVW), third ventricle sylvian fissure ratio index (TSFI), and third ventricle ratio (TVR) in 120 apparently normal CT-Head images and forty hydrocephalic images by taking linear measurements withdicom image software. Descriptive statistics –mean, standard deviation, standard error, 95% confidence interval were calculated for each parameter. Independent student t- test, age regression analysis, and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient were applied accordingly.ResultsBCR, ER, TSFI showed significant correlation with the age and anteroposterior diameter of brain. BCR and TVW were significantly higher in males. In normal images, 95% confidence limits for FHR [0.295-0.309], TVW [6.104–6.92], TSFI [0.538–0.558] were found. The mean FHR and TVR in hydrocephalic patients were 0.42 and 0.072.DiscussionSince Frontal horn ratio and Third ventricle ratio do not depend upon the age, sex and size of brain, these two parameters can be used as the screening and monitoring tools in patients with hydrocephalus.
       
  • Cytogenetic, epidemiological and clinical profile of children with Down
           syndrome in Karnataka
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 2Author(s): Krishnaveni Sharath, Asha K.R., Lakshmi Prabha Subhash, Jayarama S. KadandaleAbstractIntroductionDown syndrome is one of the best recognized and the most common chromosomal aneuploidy with high life expectancy than other chromosomal aneuploidies. The clinical features are quite distinguishing and easily identifiable, but a karyotype analysis is always better to confirm the diagnosis. It is also needed for calculating the risk of recurrence and for genetic counseling. This study was done to analyze the clinical features, cytogenetic and epidemiological profile of Down syndrome children in Tumkur and Bangalore region of Karnataka.Material and methodsKaryotyping was done in 75 children with clinical features of Down syndrome by standard methods. Information about epidemiological & clinical features was documented. Informed written consent was taken from the parents. Comparison was made in the observed epidemiological profile, clinical features and the karyotype obtained.ResultsAmong the 75 children with clinical features of Down syndrome, 59 had trisomy 21, 11 had translocation and 2 had mosaicism and 3 had a normal karyotype. The mean maternal age was 28.5 years. The prominent abnormalities noted were craniofacial features (71.8%). Characteristic limb abnormalities were also commonly observed (48.4). Congenital heart disease was diagnosed 56.1% cases analyzed.DiscussionEfforts should be made to establish early diagnosis and proper screening. Confirmation of clinical diagnosis by Karyotyping is essential to determine the precise diagnosis, calculate recurrence risk and provide basis for genetic counseling.
       
  • Impact of mindfulness based stress reduction on sperm DNA damage
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 2Author(s): Surabhi Gautam, Bhavna Chawla, Shilpa Bisht, Madhuri Tolahunase, Rima DadaAbstractIntroductionSperm DNA damage is the major cause of defective sperm function. Poor social habits take a toll not only on reproductive health of parents but the resultant offspring too. Adopting a holistic integrated approach like mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR), a yoga based intervention have gained significant impetus in recent years. This study aimed to analyze how mere a simple lifestyle change can bring about balance in seminal oxidative stress parameters and related consequences in next generations.MethodsOut of 126 fathers of children with non-familial sporadic heritable Retinoblastoma (NFSHRb), 102 were randomized into 2 groups i.e. MBSR group and Non-MBSR group. Parameters of seminal oxidative stress (OS) and oxidative DNA damage (ODD) were measured at baseline (0 day) and after 4 weeks in both groups.ResultsThere was significant decrease (p 
       
  • Role of genomic changes in chromosome 17 and p53 gene in oral squamous
           cell carcinoma patients by Flouroscence in situ hybridization in Indian
           population
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 2Author(s): Garima Khatri, Mohan Singh, P.M. Sareen, Khushboo JoshiAbstractIntroductionOral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is widely recognized as the most common type of head and neck cancer and is an important cause of death and morbidity. Oral cancer is one of the major health problems in India and Indian subcontinent countries. Tobacco is the main etiological factor for oral carcinoma. Human papilloma virus, ethnicity, socio-economic status, dietary deficiencies and poor oral hygiene are other etiological factors of oral carcinoma. In Indian population, the situation is more alarming since nearly 10% of the cancers that develop annually belongs to this category. Deactivation and unregulated expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes may be involved in the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The genomic change results in numerical aberrations in chromosomes 17 & p53 gene. The aim of our study was to identify numerical aberrations of chromosome 17, deletion or amplification of p53 gene.Material and methodsThis study was performed retrospectively on 30 cases diagnosed with OSCC through FISH technique. Molecular cytogenetic techniques, using fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific DNA probes, facilitate the confirmation of presumed chromosomal aberrations with high sensitivity and specificity.ResultsOut of 30 cases 29 represent molecular alteration. About 70% of cases presented chromosome 17 polysomy and only 20% of cases had chromosome 17 monosomy. 58% of samples revealed p53 gene amplification and 37% of them showed p53 deletion.DiscussionHigh frequency of correlation between molecular changes in chromosome 17 and p53 gene with OSCC indicates towards their critical role in development of this disease.
       
  • An anatomical study of the caprine posterior cruciate ligament
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 2Author(s): Yong Qin, Bin Zhang, Chao Huang, Song-Cen LvAbstractIntroductionThe pathophysiology and treatment techniques for posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries and diseases are currently controversial and leave much room for improvement. However, the caprine PCL anatomy is not well known.MethodsForty-three caprine knees without degenerative or traumatic changes were studied.ResultsThe passive range of motion was 42.1 ± 9.0°to 145.0 ± 8.3°for the caprine knee. The PMB was tighter than the ALB at the most extended angle of the knee. As the knee became flexed, the ALB became taut whereas the PMB was first relaxed and then taut. The insertion area of the ALB was 43.6 ± 9.3 mm2 in the femur and 23.2 ± 5.1 mm2 in the tibia, respectively. And that of the PMB was 19.1 ± 4.6 mm2 and 39.6 ± 8.6 mm2, respectively. The distance between the insertion centers of the two bundles was 7.23 ± 0.29 mm on the femur and 5.67 ± 0.69 mm on the tibia.DiscussionQuantitative data on the size and morphology of the PCL anatomy were obtained on caprine knees, which provides guidance for future translational research on the sheep model to improve surgical techniques for surgical reconstruction and other PCL treatments.
       
  • Morphometric study of Intratemporal course of facial nerve in relation to
           pneumatization of temporal bone—An original study
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 2Author(s): Vishram Singh, D. Krishna Chaitanya Reddy, David Victor Kumar I., B.K.S. Chauhan, Sridhar ReddyAbstractIntroductionFacial nerve (C.N VII) is the nerve of facial expression and communication. The intratemporal part of this nerve comprising tympanic and mastoid segments, is very vulnerable to injury during ear surgeries. Hence to safely navigate around this part of the nerve one has to be very familiar with 3D anatomy of the temporal bone and crucial landmarks present in relation to the nerve. Aim of this study is to know the exact morphometry of Intratemporal part of the facial nerve in relation to Pneumatization of temporal bone.Material and methodsThe present study was carried out on 54 cadaveric temporal bones obtained from the department of anatomy, Santosh Medical College, Santosh University, Delhi-NCR. With the pneumatization determined by computerized tomography (CT), the dissection was performed by standard techniques of ‘canal wall up’ mastoidectomy and ‘canal wall down’ mastoidectomy. Temporal bones have been classified into 3 groups: Group I-Well Pneumatised bones, Group II- Mixed type of Pneumatised bones and Group III- Sclerosed bones. The mean, standard deviation (S.D), maximum and minimum values were calculated in all the groups for the lengths of the facial nerve.ResultsThe total length of the intratemporal part of facial nerve ranged between 19.71–30.13 mm for group I, 21.77–27.27 mm in group II and 16.21–25.19 mm in group III respectively.DiscussionThe distal segment of nerve is most commonly injured during otologic surgeries. Incus pointer can be considered as a landmark to identify the facial nerve. Accordingly the tympano mastoid part of the facial nerve can be divided into proximal, distal and stylomastoid foramen segments. Radiological evaluations such as Computed Tomographic (CT) imaging techniques and MRI techniques like FIESTA (Fast Imaging Employing Steady-state Acquisition) have become popular in identifying these segments. The morphometric values of facial nerve provided in the present study can help in assessment during procedures, like end to end anastamosis and cable nerve graft repairs in iatrogenic injuries.
       
  • Protective effect of human adipose-derived stem cells transplanted to fat
           grafts against high-power laser therapy mediated fat tissue damage
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 2Author(s): Jae Chul Lee, Soo Young ChoeAbstractIntroductionHigh Power Laser therapy (HPLT) can damage tissues due to its high skin absorption and side effects. The objective of this study was to determine the protective effect of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) against HPLT-mediated fat tissue damage after fat grafts in an in vivo study.MethodsTo determine the viability of fat grafts with transplanted hADSCs, high power laser (HPL) irradiation was performed using a 830 nm gallium–aluminum–arsenide (Ga–Al–As) laser. In the in vivo study, fat grafts with hADSCs/Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) were transplanted and HPL irradiation of each nude mouse was performed per protocol for a period of 13 weeks. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) levels of hADSCs were quantified by immunofluorescent staining using anti-VEGF antibody and anti-CD31 antibody, respectively, along with human mitochondrial (hMT) antibody.ResultsCompared to the HPLT + DMEM group, HPLT + hADSCs group showed increase in the number of viable cells of hADSCs in fat grafts, fat graft survival rate (weights and volumes), and expression levels of VEGF and CD31 in treated nude mice. Results of the in vivo study using nude mice and immune cytokine array suggest that hADSCs have potential protective effect against HPLT-mediated fat tissue damage.DiscussionhADSCs could be applied in clinical fields by inhibiting HPLT-mediated side effects.
       
  • Role of sVEGFR (sFlt-1) in inducing endoplasmic reticulum stress in
           trophoblast cells and its status in preeclampsia
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 2Author(s): Sankat Mochan, Neerja Bhatla, Kalpana Luthra, Rani Kumar, Sadanand Dwivedi, Arundhati Sharma, Renu DhingraAbstractIntroductionPreeclampsia (PE) and its subtypes (early and late onset) are serious concerns all across the globe affecting about 8% of overall pregnancies and accounts for approximately 60,000 deaths annually with a predominance in developing countries. The two-stage model, deficient spiral artery remodelling (stage I) and an imbalance between angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factor(s) (stage II) are well established facts so far. Increased sFlt-1 along with high oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) have recently been suggested in pregnancies with PE. The second decade of 21st century highlighted a new window to explore further the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in the onset of the variant forms of PE. In our previous studies, we reported apoptosis and oxidative stress, induced by sFlt-1 in trophoblast cells. However, the role of sFlt-1 in inducing ER stress is still an unrevealed hugger-mugger till date.MethodsStudy was divided into two parts (1) Serum Analysis of sFlt-1 and GRP78 was done using ELISA (2) In Vitro experiments: Activation of ER stress markers (GRP78, eIF2α and CHOP) were assessed at various time points (8 h, 14 h, 24 h) at protein (Immunofluorescence, Western blot) and transcript level (qRT-PCR).ResultsSignificant raised levels of sFlt-1 and GRP78 in preeclamptic sera was found. We observed significant ER stress in the placental cells (BeWo Cells) (in vitro) when exposed to normotensive sera with recombinant sFlt-1 and also when treated with recombinant sFlt-1 alone.DiscussionWe reported significant ER stress in the placental cells (BeWo Cells) (in vitro) when exposed to normotensive sera with recombinant sFlt-1 and also when treated with recombinant sFlt-1 alone.
       
  • Anatomic variations in the course of the hypoglossal nerve: A case report
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 1Author(s): Gunjan Agrawal, Ashutosh Gupta, Vivek Chaudhary, Fiza QuerishiAbstractTo achieve a successful surgical anatomy a detailed knowledge of regional anatomy and anatomical variations is an important fundamental. The extra cranial hypoglossal nerve has a well described course as it traverses the neck, and is frequently identified during neck dissection. This serves a guide to the surgeon of such atypical variations in anatomy to avoid injury to important structures during dissection. We are presenting a case report which demonstrates the extra cranial variation of Hypoglossal nerve.
       
  • Bilateral tendon-like formation at the distal edge of the adductor
           pollicis muscle
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 1Author(s): Christian Albrecht MayWe present a unique description of bilateral tendon-like structures at the distal border of the transverse head of the adductor pollicis leading to a palpable strand in a 48-year-old female. Variations of the adductor pollicis are briefly reviewed.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Role of folic acid supplementation and/ or its absence during pregnancy on
           implantation of embryos – An experimental study of Wistar rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 1Author(s): Prasanna Lokadolalu Chandracharya, Rohini Alva, Mamatha Hosapatna, Anjaneyalu Konuri, Ashok KumarAbstractIntroductionThe present study was undertaken to know the effect of folic acid (FA) supplementation and FA absence diet during pregnancy on the number of implantation as well as their endometrial changes.MethodsEighteen Wistar strain Albino rats were randomly divided into three groups and given different diets: Control group with normal diet, group with FA supplementation diet, and group with FA absent diet (with added Succinyl Sulfathiazole) for 5 weeks. The number of coloured thickenings along the uterine horns were identified by injecting 1% Evan’s blue due solution. The sites of embryo implantation were fixed in 10% buffered formalin for 8 hours and embedded.ResultAverage number of implantation observed in pregnant dams fed with FA supplementation diet was 10 in contrast it was 7 in diet with FA absent diet and 8 in control groups. Histologically, implantation site in FA supplemented group showed favorable endometrial environment than the other groups.DiscussionFA is essential in successful implantation by providing favorable receptive environment to receive the implantation-competent blastocyst for a successful pregnancy.
       
  • Deplastination: Making plastinates histo-pathologically relevant
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 1Author(s): Deepak Vinod Francis, Suganthy RabiAbstractIntroductionDeplastination is a process that reverses plastination. While the process is in its infancy, this study was designed to see if deplastinated tissues can be used for histopathological studies.MethodsIn this study, a slice of liver tissue was split into two parts. The first half was processed, sectioned and stained with routine H&E staining while the other half was plastinated with S10 plastination technique and was deplastinated after 3 months using sodium methoxide as the deplastinating agent. It was latter stained with routine H&E. The slides were assessed qualitatively on parameters like tissue and cell identification, staining property, preservation of tissue architecture, visualisation of intracellular structures like nuclei, nucleoli, fat goblets etc. and presence of artefacts due to the process.ResultsIdentification of tissue was possible on the deplastinated slides. Intracellular structures like nuclei, nucleoli, fat droplets were identified in the deplastinated slides.DiscussionIn this study, we have found that sodium methoxide and methanol form good deplastinating agents for small sections of tissue. Identification of endpoint of deplastination forms a crucial step in the process.
       
  • Myocardial bridging ‘a double-edged sword’: Analysis and
           significance
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 1Author(s): Divia Paul A., Ramakrishna Avadhani, Subramanyam K.AbstractIntroductionMyocardial bridging (MB) in coronary artery exhibits a role of a double-edged sword in coronary artery disease (CAD). The objectives under study were to validate the prevalence and segments of coronaries with myocardial bridging, length and diameter of bridging segments and cardiac dominance patterns among a west coastal population of Kerala and Karnataka, India from coronary angiogram reports. The co-relation of bridged segments and cardiac dominance patterns in diseased and non-diseased coronary arteries were assessed to find out the significance of both in CAD.Materials and MethodsThe angiograms were obtained from K.S Hegde Medical Academy and Hospital, Karnataka after procuring the ethical clearance. 1000 cases with clinical symptoms, ECG abnormalities were studied prospectively. Recanalized normal looking coronary arteries were excluded.ResultsMyocardial bridging were seen in 50 cases with majority involvement of mid-segment of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Mean ± S.D for the length of bridged segments can be expressed as 17.96 ± 9.79 mm for upper limit (U.L) and 14.51 ± 7.56 mm for lower limit (L.L) respectively. Cardiac dominance was seen as right in 863 cases, left in 77 cases, co-dominant in 60 cases. 629 patients had diseased coronaries among the study group. Out of the 50 bridged coronaries, eleven cases had stenosis among bridged segmentsDiscussion and conclusionSignificant association (p 
       
  • Surgical anatomy of the vasculobiliary apparatus at the hepatic hilum as
           applied to liver transplantations and major liver resections
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 1Author(s): Shallu Garg, K. Hemanth Kumar, Daisy Sahni, T.D. Yadav, Anjali Aggarwal, Tulika GuptaAbstractIntroductionTo evaluate the hepatic arterial, bile duct and portal venous anatomy as applicable to major liver resections.MethodsThe study was conducted on 100 formalin fixed adult cadaveric livers. The hepatic arterial, bile ductal and portal venous anatomy of the liver was dissected from their origin up to their segmental branching. Left and right hemilivers were compared with regard to the single and multiple vascular or biliary pedicles entering their respective hemilivers.ResultsThe anatomy of all the three structures, ie., hepatic artery, bile duct and portal vein were conventional in 39% and variant, i.e., “triple” anomaly in 4% of liver specimens. In 57% liver specimens, the anatomy of one or two structures was variant and individual variation of hepatic artery, bile duct and portal vein anatomy was observed in 34%, 42% and 14% of livers respectively. The anatomy of hepatic artery was classified according to the Michels classification. In 9% of livers, rare variations not included in Michels classification was found. The drainage pattern of bile ducts was grouped according to Blumgart’s classification. In 11% of livers, rare variations not included in Blumgart’s classification were found. The branching pattern of main portal vein was classified according to the Akgul’s classification. In 1% of livers, rare variations in the right portal vein were found.DiscussionIn the present study, the vasculobiliary anatomies of liver were highly complex with the existence of many anatomic variations. The increasing complexity of hepatic surgical procedures necessitates appropriate knowledge of these anatomic variations.
       
  • Ossified ligaments in relation to foramina and bony landmarks of the
           middle cranial fossa
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 1Author(s): Ashutosh Kumar, Ritu Sehgal, T.S. RoyAbstractIntroductionSporadic reports on individual ossified ligaments of the middle cranial fossa (MCF) fail to do justice to their grave clinical consequences. The present study attempts a comprehensive search for all ossified ligaments and associated accessory foramina in relation to MCF, in order to standardize baseline prevalence pertinent for the Indian subcontinent.MethodsFifty well-preserved and intact, adult (age>20 yrs), dry, macerated skulls were obtained from the Anatomy departments of medical colleges in Delhi, including the All India Institute of Medical Sciences. All the skulls were subjected to a meticulous, bilateral examination and digital photography of internal & external aspects of the skull base, to look for presence of partially or completely ossified ligaments and resulting accessory foramina.ResultsThe incidence values recorded from the present sample (n = 50 × 2) for completely (C) and incompletely (IC) ossified MCF ligaments are as follows: Caroticoclinoid: C = 6 (6%), IC = 2 (2%); Interclinoid: C = 3 (3%), IC = 2 (2%); Pterygospinous: C = 2 (2%), IC = 3 (3%); Pterygoalar: C = 1 (1%), IC = 2 (2%); Petrosphenoid/petroclinoid: C = 2 (2%), IC = 0 (0%). All completely ossified ligaments were found to be associated with accessory foramina.DiscussionPresence of ossified MCF ligaments cannot be overlooked in patients with symptoms arising from compression of neurovascular structures and those undergoing skull-base neurosurgery, necessitating pre-surgical screening for presence of calcified ligaments in close proximity to vital structures − a scenario that may influence surgical outcome.
       
  • Anatomical variations of the formation of human sural nerve in stillborns
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 1Author(s): Tufan Ulcay, Ahmet UzunAbstractIntroductionThe sural nerve (SN) is formed by the union of the medial and lateral sural cutaneous nerves (MSCN, LSCN) of the leg that originate from the tibial and common peroneal nerves. Sural nerve is used for various reasons in surgical operations. The sural nerve is universally recognized by surgeons as a site for harvesting an autologous nerve graft The aim of this study was to describe the course, variations, morphometric analysis and some clinically significant relations of the human sural nerve in stillborns.MethodsThe study was carried out on 18 Turkish stillborns, 12 males and 6 females. The formation of sural nevre was classified into three main groups. The site of formation of the sural nerve was observed and the length of the sural nerve components were measured.ResultsThree types of SN formation were observed. Type A (anastomotic type) was seen in 33 of the observed 36 legs (92%). The site of formation of the SN by union of the MSCN and LSCN was 30% (10/33). In males, the mean length of MSCN was 24.59 ± 14.84 mm and 27.45 ± 23.30 mm in females.DiscussionThis study was performed to ensure an anatomical and morphometrical description of the sural nerve and its components in 18 embalmed stillborns. Due to its great importance in neurosurgery and plastic surgery, the formation type, course and formation level of the sural nerve have been studied on different races and age groups since the beginning of the last century.
       
  • The articular surfaces of the proximal segment of ulna: Morphometry and
           morphomechanics based on digital image analysis and concepts of fractal
           geometry
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 1Author(s): Ahmed Al-Imam, Ashok Sahai, Shams Al-Nuaimi, Mustafa IsmailAbstractIntroductionThe elbow joint is a compound joint made of articulations in between the humerus, ulna and the radius. The coupling areas (joints) are of prime importance from the kinetic-biomechanical perspective and of potential inter-ethnic significance. These articulations can be affected by several pathologies that may require medical and surgical interference. This experimental analysis aims to infer data in relation to the morphometry of the proximal segment of the ulna and its articular surfaces represented by the greater sigmoid notch (trochlear notch) and lesser sigmoid notch (radial notch).MethodsA sample of fifty ulnae (n = 50, 27 right and 23 left) was studied in connection with; the surface area of the sigmoid notches (SA), weight of ulna, and the volume of proximal portion of ulna (including the olecranon process and reaching inferiorly to the lowest margin of the radial notch), the length of ulna (L). Longitudinal dimensional parameters were also studied including; the straight distance between the highest point (tip) of the olecranon and that of the coronoid process (OCD), and the mid-olecranon thickness in mediolateral (T1) and anteroposterior orientation (T2).ResultsIt has been inferred that there were no significant differences in between right versus left ulnae and in relation to the majority of morphometric parameters with an exception for OCD (22.47 vs 20.75, p-value = 0.002). There was a positive correlation in between all the parameters, although the strongest associations were observed in between OCD, the area of the trochlear notch, and the weight of ulna.DiscussionA precise conclusion was reached in relation to morphometry, volumetry and the pertinent biomechanics of the proximal segment of the ulna. Key findings are of value to biomedical engineers, medical professionals including orthopaedic surgeons and rheumatologists, evolutionary biologist, and physical anthropologist. Data from this study can be used to (reverse) engineer the perfect implant for the elbow joint.
       
  • Gestational diabetes reduced sertoli cells in 12 weeks age rat offsprings
           testis
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 1Author(s): Taghi Meskari, Soraya Ghafari, Vahid Khouri, Ramin Azarhoush, Mohammad Jafar GolalipourAbstractIntroductionPrevious study has shown the adverse effects of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus on male reproductive system. This study was done to evaluate the effect of induced gestational diabetes on seminiferous tubule of 12 weeks age offspring rats.Methods10 Wistar rats' dams were randomly allocated to control and diabetic groups. Streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes in female rats. Dams in diabetic group received 40 mg/kg/BW of streptozotocin at the first day of gestation and control group animals received an equivalent volume of normal saline by intraperitoneally. Six offspring of each group were randomly selected on day 84 postnatal. Five micrometer sections were taken from testes, stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Photographs of sections were taken using Olympus BX51 microscope and a digital camera DP12. Density and number of spermatogenesis cells, leydig cells, sertoli cells, seminiferous tubule diameter and Seminiferous epithelial height and dUTP end-labeling positive cells were evaluated in 50,000 μm2 area of seminiferous tubules by Olysia Autobioreport software.ResultsSpermatogenesis and leydig cells in gestational diabetic offsprings non-significantly reduced in compare to controls. Sertoli cells significantly reduced in gestational diabetic offspring compared to controls. Seminiferous tubular diameter and seminiferous epithelial height non-significantly reduced in gestational diabetic offspring compared to controls. The apoptotic cells in diabetic group non-significantly increased in comparison with controls. The histopathological alterations were not seen in experimental group.DiscussionUncontrolled gestational diabetes significantly reduces the sertoli cells but non-significantly reduces the spermatogenic cells in the rat offsprings.
       
  • The acromial morphology and its implication in impingement syndrome: An
           anatomical study
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 1Author(s): Manisha B. Sinha, Human Prasad Sinha, Praisy JoyAbstractIntroductionResection of acromion in case of impingement syndrome is a controversial issue. It is associated with the risk of instability of humeral head. The aim of our study was to determine the morphometry of acromion so that the decision for arthroscopic resection becomes easier in these cases. The morphometry of acromion was also correlated with other parameters of scapula.Material and methodsThe study was conducted in sixty one intact dry adult scapulae of unknown sex. Various parametric and nonparametric data from scapulae were taken.ResultType I (flat), Type II (curved) and Type III (hooked) were found in 24.59%, 49.18% and 26.22% scapulae respectively. The average scapular length and breadth were 135.96 ± 11.96 mm and 98.8 ± 7.56 mm respectively. Mean value of length, breath, and thickness of acromian were 41.23 mm, 22.12 mm and 7.01 mm respectively. The thickness of acromion was less than 8 mm in 86.67% of scapulae. In 13.33% cases the thickness was>8 mm. A statistically significant positive correlation was also found between the length of acromion and the length and breadth of scapula.DiscussionOur study may suggest that in Indian population, 13.33% population is at risk of impingement syndrome according to the thickness of acromion. In addition, angles of acromion tilt and acromion slope are larger in Indian scapulae as compare to that of other countries. This knowledge would be useful for orthopaedic surgeons and radiologists.
       
  • Comparing safety margin of innervation points of the subscapular nerves
           from the base and tip of the coracoid process
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 1Author(s): Ruchi Goyal, Anjali Aggarwal, Tulika Gupta, Ramandeep Kaur, Daisy SahniAbstractIntroductionArthroscopic procedures like repair of subscapularis tendon tears pose a potential risk of injury to subscapular nerves. Damage to these nerves can be minimized by knowledge of relationship of subscapular nerve with nearby bony landmark such as coracoid process.MethodsGross anatomic dissection of thirty embalmed human cadaveric shoulder specimens was performed; variations in number and origin of subscapular nerves were noted. Distance of point of entry of upper and lower subscapular nerves into the subscapularis muscle from base and tip of coracoid process was measured in both neutral and external rotation with 30° abduction positions of arm. Length and angulation of coracoid process of 48 dry scapulae were also evaluated.ResultsVariability in terms of origin was more commonly observed in lower than upper subscapular nerve. Minimum safe distance of subscapular nerves was 39 mm medial to the base of a coracoid process with arm kept in neutral position and margin of safety reduced to 33 mm if the arm is in 30° abduction with external rotation position. Range of distance of nerve entry into muscle from tip was very wide as compared to the base of coracoid process. Length of coracoid process ranged from 28 to 45 mm, forward angulation of coracoid process ranged from 53°–86°.DiscussionGreater margin of safety for upper and lower subscapular nerves was observed with the arm in neutral position in comparison to 30° abduction with external rotation position and base of coracoid could be more dependable landmark than its tip.
       
  • Proximal attachment of long head of biceps brachii to the bicipital
           tubercle of scapula and its functional significance
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 1Author(s): S.D. Joshi, S.S. JoshiAbstractIntroductionLesions affecting the tendon of Long Head of Biceps brachii (LHB) are among the more frequent causes of pain and disability in the region of shoulder joint. Shoulder arthroscopy has shown that there is dual attachment of LHB to the Supraglenoid tubercle (SGT) and glenoid labrum, but the origin from the bony prominence on upper part of dorsal surface of neck of scapula has not been described in the literature reviewed. This bony elevation has been named as “Bicipital Tubercle (BT)”. What is astonishing is the fact that such a prominent BT has been either missed or ignored by earlier workers.MethodsDuring the dissection of the shoulder joint, the tendon of LHB could be separated into superficial and deeper laminae. The fibres of the superficial lamina could be traced to BT in approximately 80% cases.ResultsIn 70% of specimens LHB was seen to join the posterior labrum; in 20% the anterior labrum and in the remaining to both the labrum. In 57% of right and 65% of the left scapulae the BT was very prominentConclusionThe efficiency of action of LHB is enhanced by its getting a firm attachment to the bicipital tubercle (BT). Thus in man the origin of the tendon of LHB has shifted from only the SGT to SGT plus labrum, and further has got an additional attachment to BT. This attachment to the BT seems to have been overlooked and demands its inclusion in all the future studies.
       
  • A morphometric study of human middle ear ossicles in cadaveric temporal
           bones of Indian population and a comparative analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 1Author(s): David Victor Kumar, D. Krishna Chaitanya, Vishram Singh, D. Sridhar ReddyAbstractIntroductionMalleus, Incus and Stapes are the three middle ear ossicles which form an articulated chain and help in conduction of sound from external ear to inner ear. Morphometric study of these ossicles has been going since the early 60s. Although the methods of been changing due to advent of newer technologies and treatments.MethodsWe studied ossicles of 60 temporal bones. The ossicles have been obtained by ‘canal-wall down’ mastoidectomy technique. They have been measured by an open software, Fiji (https://imagej.nih.gov) where the scale was standardized and set to mm (millimeter).ResultsThe mean total length of the malleus is 8.23 mm; a mean angle of 128.76°, mean width of the head 2.56 mm, and mean length of manubrium is 4.17 mm. The mean total length of incus is 7.04 mm, mean angle of 97.23°, mean total width of 5.31 mm, and mean length of long process is 3.27 mm. The mean total height of stapes is 3.44 mm; mean width of the footplate is 1.10 mm and a mean angle of 51.01°.DiscussionMorphometric data obtained in the present study can be useful for the reconstructive procedures. Preoperative radiological assessment is advised for these small bones. The present study also emphasizes on the future directions where in reconstructive procedures can be improved with the artistic renderings of the blueprints provided, for new prosthetic designs which can be manufactured by using Teflon materials.
       
  • Anatomical and molecular studies of cytochrome P450 family CYP7A1 gene
           polymorphism and its association with gallstone in north Indian population
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 1Author(s): Mansi Shukla, Anil Kumar, Raj Kumar Srivastava, Shirin JahanAbstractIntroductionIn this study, we have mainly focused on the molecular and biochemical aspects to know the cause of gall stone diseases in human. To know about these problems, there may be necessitating initiating interest in researchers of this field and to set up easily available tools and techniques. The screening of polymorphism with molecular approaches of P450 super family CYP7A1 gene was performed to explore its relation with gallstone diseases.MethodsTotal 300 samples (150 patients and 150 controls) were analyzed for the study. The polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR followed by RFLP with BsaI restriction enzyme. The lipid profile was estimated by using modified Roeschlau’s method. The cholesterol content in gall stones was determined with Liebermann-Burchard reaction method.ResultsThe cholesterol content of recovered gallstones was found 98.86 ± 25.43 (% by weight). BMI and serum glucose were found higher in patients than in the control group: 30.84 ± 8.13 kg/m2vs 28.61 ± 7.50 kg/m2 (P = 0.032), and 121.03 ± 15.11 mg/dL vs 104 ± 21.05 mg/dL (P = 0.001) respectively. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences in genotypic frequencies of gene CYP7A1 gene polymorphism between patients and controls. Frequencies of C allele (CYP7A1 gene polymorphism) in patients and controls were obtained 24.24% vs 26.46% (P = 0.621, OR = 0.89). Genotypic frequencies between patients and controls were found 59.42% vs 54.97% for AA; 30.25% vs 34.72% for CA; and 10.33% vs 10.31 for CC.DiscussionIn this study by using of multiple logistic regression analysis the results have indicated that CYP7A1 gene polymorphism may not play any significant role in gallstone disease.
       
  • Dendritic processes as targets for arsenic induced neurotoxicity:
           Protective role of curcumin
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Volume 67, Issue 1Author(s): Parul Kaushal, Pavan Kumar, Raj D. Mehra, Pushpa DharAbstractIntroductionMicrotubule associated protein2 (MAP2) plays a vital role in morphological stabilization and plasticity of the neuronal dendritic processes. Any alteration in the expression of this protein following exposure to environmental contaminants such as arsenic (iAs) could induce functional deficits in neurons. In India, over 1.5 million people are exposed to iAs with over 200,000 reported cases of arsenicosis. Oxidative stress has been identified as one of the key factors underlying iAs induced toxicity. Hence, the need of the hour is to identify cost effective and safe therapeutic approaches for combating iAs induced adverse effects. The present study aimed at determining the ameliorative potential of Curcumin (Cur) supplementation on dendritic profile of cerebellar Purkinje cells in rats subjected to iAs exposure during postnatal period.MethodsMother reared rats were divided into control and experimental groups (receiving NaAsO2 alone or along with Cur by intraperitoneal route from postnatal day (PND) 1–21. Cerebellar tissue obtained from perfusion fixed animals was processed for Cresyl Violet staining and immunohistochemical localization of MAP2.ResultsAn overall decrease in molecular layer thickness (MLT) of cerebellar cortex along with disrupted morphology of Purkinje dendritic processes was evident in iAs alone treated animals as compared to controls and Cur co-treated animals. Also, decrease in MAP2 immunostained area (%) was noted in the ML of iAs alone treated animals.DiscussionPreliminary observations suggest modulating effect of Cur on MAP2 expression and dendritic morphology of cerebellar Purkinje cells in rats following NaAsO2 exposure.
       
 
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