Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8690 journals)
    - ANAESTHESIOLOGY (121 journals)
    - CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (338 journals)
    - DENTISTRY (294 journals)
    - ENDOCRINOLOGY (151 journals)
    - FORENSIC SCIENCES (42 journals)
    - HEMATOLOGY (158 journals)
    - HYPNOSIS (4 journals)
    - INTERNAL MEDICINE (178 journals)
    - MEDICAL GENETICS (58 journals)
    - MEDICAL SCIENCES (2415 journals)
    - NURSES AND NURSING (370 journals)
    - OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY (207 journals)
    - ONCOLOGY (386 journals)
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    - PATHOLOGY (100 journals)
    - PEDIATRICS (275 journals)
    - PSYCHIATRY AND NEUROLOGY (833 journals)
    - RESPIRATORY DISEASES (105 journals)
    - RHEUMATOLOGY (79 journals)
    - SPORTS MEDICINE (81 journals)
    - SURGERY (406 journals)

MEDICAL SCIENCES (2415 journals)            First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Showing 1201 - 1400 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Family and Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Forensic Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Gandaki Medical College-Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Generic Medicines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Geographical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hand Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Head & Neck Physicians and Surgeons     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health & Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Journal of Health and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Economics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior     Open Access  
Journal of Health Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science and Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of health sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences / Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Health Sciences and Surveillance System     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences Scholarship     Open Access  
Journal of Health Specialties     Open Access  
Journal of Health Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Healthcare Informatics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Helminthology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Herbs Spices & Medicinal Plants     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of HIV for Clinical and Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Hospital Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Human Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Human Rhythm     Open Access  
Journal of Human Transcriptome     Open Access  
Journal of Ideas in Health     Open Access  
Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inflammation Research     Open Access  
Journal of Injury and Violence Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Institute of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Insulin Resistance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Interactional Research in Communication Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of International Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Interventional Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Investigative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Islamabad Medical & Dental College     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Karnali Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Kathmandu Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of King Abdulaziz University : Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Laryngology and Voice     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Limb Lengthening & Reconstruction     Open Access  
Journal of Lumbini Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Materials Science : Materials in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Maternal and Child Health     Open Access  
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Cases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Colleges of PLA     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Medical Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Ethics     Partially Free   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ideas     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Investigation and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Laboratory and Diagnosis     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Law and Ethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Medical Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medicinal Botany     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208)
Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Medicine and the Person     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medicine in Scientific Research     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine in the Tropics     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine Research and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medicines Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Metabolomics & Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Movement Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Multidisciplinary Research in Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Nanotheranostics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Natural Medicines     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nature and Science of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Journal of Nepalgunj Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Neurocritical Care     Open Access  
Journal of Neurodegenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Neurorestoratology     Open Access  
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Nobel Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Obesity and Bariatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Occupational Health     Open Access  
Journal of Occupational Therapy Education     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Ocular Biology, Diseases, and Informatics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Oral Health and Craniofacial Science     Open Access  
Journal of Orofacial Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, Hearing and Balance Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ovarian Research     Open Access  
Journal of Ozone Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Journal of Paramedical Sciences & Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Journal of Parkinsonism and Restless Legs Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parkinson’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Participatory Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Patan Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Pathogens     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Patient Experience     Open Access  
Journal of Patient Safety and Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Patient-Reported Outcomes     Open Access  
Journal of Periodontal Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physiobiochemical Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physiology-Paris     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pioneering Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Pregnancy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Prevention & Intervention Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health     Open Access  
Journal of Primary Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Prosthodontic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Prosthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Receptor, Ligand and Channel Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Regenerative Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Scientific Innovation in Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Scientific Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Arthroplasty     Open Access  
Journal of Sleep Disorders : Treatment & Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of South American Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences : Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stem Cell Therapy and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stomal Therapy Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Journal of Substance Use     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Surgical Academia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Surgical and Clinical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report     Open Access  
Journal of Systemic Therapies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of The Academy of Clinical Microbiologists     Open Access  
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the American College of Certified Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American College of Clinical Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Anatomical Society of India     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Anus, Rectum and Colon     Open Access  
Journal of The Arab Society for Medical Research     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2382-1205
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1092 journals]
  • The “Baby Moses” Law: A Case for Improving Medicolegal
           Education for Pediatric Trainees

    • Authors: Gregory C Valentine, Melissa H Althouse, Caraciolo J Fernandes
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Medicolegal education is not standardized for medical student or pediatric resident trainees throughout the United States. However, trainees will inevitably face patient encounters in which knowing state and federal laws are integral in properly treating and caring for the patient. Here, we present the case of treating an abandoned infant in Texas, the Baby Moses law, and how knowing state and federal laws enhance trainees’ understanding and ability to care for their patients. We then discuss the paucity of medical literature surrounding medicolegal education curricula and the need for the development of a national curriculum on medicolegal education that starts in medical school and extends throughout residency and subspecialty training.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-09-25T04:17:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520913955
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Improving Student Feedback Quality: A Simple Model Using Peer Review and
           Feedback Rubrics

    • Authors: Troy Camarata, Tony A Slieman
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Constructive feedback is an important aspect of medical education to help students improve performance in cognitive and clinical skills assessments. However, for students to appropriately act on feedback, they must recognize quality feedback and have the opportunity to practice giving, receiving, and acting on feedback. We incorporated feedback literacy into a case-based concept mapping small group-learning course. Student groups engaged in peer review of group-constructed concept maps and provided written peer feedback. Faculty also provided written feedback on group concept maps and used a simple rubric to assess the quality of peer feedback. Groups were provided feedback on a weekly basis providing an opportunity for timely improvement. Precourse and postcourse evaluations along with peer-review feedback assessment scores were used to show improvement in both group and individual student feedback quality. Feedback quality was compared to a control student cohort that engaged in the identical course without implementing peer review or feedback assessment. Student feedback quality was significantly improved with feedback training compared to the control cohort. Furthermore, our analysis shows that this skill transferred to the quality of student feedback on course evaluations. Feedback training using a simple rubric along with opportunities to act on feedback greatly enhanced student feedback quality.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-09-25T03:44:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520936604
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Formalizing a Residency Mentorship Program with a “Business of
           Medicine” Curriculum

    • Authors: Ajay Sampat, Danielle Larson, George Culler, Danny Bega
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:Mentorship is critical for achieving success in academic medicine and is also considered one of the core professional competencies for residency training. Despite its importance, there has been a decline in the mentor-mentee relationship, largely due to time constraints and lack of clear guidelines for productive discussions. We provide a mentorship curriculum with an easily adoptable workbook which may serve as a guide for programs seeking more formalized mentorship opportunities.Methods:We created a mentorship curriculum that was divided into 4 quarterly sessions, each with topics to facilitate career guidance and development, and to provide insight into the practical aspects of business of medicine. The mentorship pilot curriculum was implemented during the 2017 to 2018 academic year. Specific questions were provided to stimulate reflection and appropriate discussion between resident mentee and faculty mentor. A post-curriculum survey was distributed to evaluate the effectiveness and satisfaction of the curriculum.Results:A total of 23 residents participated in this pilot project. A majority had not had any formal teaching related to the business aspects of medicine (82%). Upon completion of the curriculum, most residents felt several topics were sufficiently covered, and a majority were satisfied with the course and relationship developed with their mentor (87%).Conclusions:Our pilot curriculum provides a model to address a knowledge gap in the practical aspects of medicine while simultaneously enhancing residency mentorship. The one-year course was generally well-received by residents and can serve as a model to other academic residency programs with similar challenges and goals.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-09-24T04:41:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520959685
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Enhancing Mentoring in Palliative Care: An Evidence Based Mentoring

    • Authors: Lalit Kumar Radha Krishna, Lorraine Hui En Tan, Yun Ting Ong, Kuang Teck Tay, Jia Min Hee, Min Chiam, Elisha Wan Ying Chia, Krish Sheri, Xiu Hui Tan, Yao Hao Teo, Cheryl Shumin Kow, Stephen Mason, Ying Pin Toh
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:Growing concerns over ethical issues in mentoring in medicine and surgery have hindered efforts to reinitiate mentoring for Palliative Care (PC) physicians following the easing of COVID-19 restrictions. Ranging from the misappropriation of mentee’s work to bullying, ethical issues in mentoring are attributed to poor understanding and structuring of mentoring programs, underlining the need for a consistent approach to mentoring practices.Methods:Given diverse practices across different settings and the employ of various methodologies, a novel approach to narrative reviews (NR)s is proposed to summarize, interpret, and critique prevailing data on novice mentoring. To overcome prevailing concerns surrounding the reproducibility and transparency of narrative reviews, the Systematic Evidenced Based Approach (SEBA) adopts a structured approach to searching and summarizing the included articles and employed concurrent content and thematic analysis that was overseen by a team of experts.Results:A total of 18 915 abstracts were reviewed, 62 full text articles evaluated and 41 articles included. Ten themes/categories were ascertained identified including Nature; Stakeholders; Relationship; Approach; Environment; Benefits; Barriers; Assessments; Theories and Definitions.Conclusion:By compiling and scrutinizing prevailing practice it is possible to appreciate the notion of the mentoring ecosystem which sees each mentee, mentor, and host organization brings with them their own microenvironment that contains their respective goals, abilities, and contextual considerations. Built around competency based mentoring stages, it is possible to advance a flexible yet consistent novice mentoring framework.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-09-23T01:04:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520957649
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Wikipedia: A Medical Student Educational Project to Edit Wikipedia in
           Preparation for Practicing Evidence-Based Pain Medicine

    • Authors: Diana Kantarovich, Hanna B Vollbrecht, Sebastian A Cruz, Hector Castillo, Cody S Lee, Josef Kushner, Jim X Leng, Vince K Morgan, Kevin M Hellman
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Objective:Wikipedia is commonly used to acquire information about various medical conditions such as chronic pain. Ideally, better online pain management content could reduce the burden of opioid use disorders. Our goal was to improve the quality of the content available on Wikipedia to make it more accurate and applicable to medical students and the general public while training medical students to practice evidence-based medicine and critically assess their sources of information.Methods:An elective class in Neuroscience, Pain, and Opioids composed of 10 medical students met biweekly to discuss landmark and practice-changing research articles in the fields of acute pain, chronic pain, and opioid management. The professor chose Wikipedia articles relevant to this course. Three independent viewers analyzed the quality of citations, anecdotal medical content, and content value for both patients and medical professionals. As part of their coursework, students then edited the Wikipedia articles.Results:Although some of the Wikipedia pain topic content (6.7% ± 2.0) was anecdotal, financially biased, or inconsistent with Western Medical Practice content, overall articles included primarily high-quality citations (85.6% ± 3.1). On a 0-5 Likert scale, students felt content would be moderately helpful for both medical students/professionals (3.4 ± 0.2) and laypersons (3.5 ± 0.2). Editing and adding citations was feasible, but novel material was often reverted.Conclusion:A significant amount of pain medicine content was relevant and amenable to student editing. Therefore, future use of this tactic could provide a unique opportunity to integrate evidence-based medicine into the medical curriculum and have a direct impact on the widely available medical information. Future refinement in the editorial process may also further improve online information.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-09-22T09:30:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520959691
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Self-Efficacy as an Indicator for Success in a Premedical Curriculum for
           Underrepresented Minority High School Students

    • Authors: Rosellen Roche, Joel Manzi, Terra Ndubuizu, Samantha Baker
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Context:The Aspiring DOctors PreCollege Program at the Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine Cleveland Campus is unique among other precollege pipeline and mini-medical school programs in that it engages learners from urban underserved communities for an entire academic year as a cocurricular adjunct to their high school course load. One day per month, students are brought to the medical college campus and introduced to the field of osteopathic medicine. Students also participate in activities related to preparing for college admissions, diversity in higher education, mental health and wellness, and financial stewardship. All these activities are done with the goal of increasing the number of underrepresented minority (URM) students in the health care professions.Objective:Self-efficacy has been identified as a measure of internal motivation and belief in one’s ability to succeed in the face of challenges. The purpose of this study is to determine what effect, if any, participation in this program has on URM student self-efficacy.Methods:Students were asked to complete a validated self-efficacy questionnaire at the start and end of this program to determine their levels of self-efficacy and if there were changes after participating in this program.Results:Ten of the 12 seniors completed pre- and post-self-efficacy surveys. Two main discoveries were made through this pilot. First, when tested at the beginning of the program, all students had high levels of self-efficacy (mean score, 4.45 of 5). Second, 2 items were specifically increased by a statistically significant amount. The students increased in self-efficacy concerning the responses “I can learn what is being taught in class this year” (P = .024) and “My ability grows with effort” (P = .015).Conclusions:With the competitive standards of acceptance into the Aspiring DOctors PreCollege Program, students enrolled in this program had high levels of self-efficacy from the onset. While there was modest increase across the board, many of these indicators remained consistently high after the program. Using self-efficacy as a screening tool for premedical students may be helpful in identifying candidates likely to succeed in a future medical career.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-09-21T05:10:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520940661
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Integrating iPads into Team-Based Learning in the Pediatrics Clerkship: Do
           They Provide Any Value'

    • Authors: Maribeth B Chitkara, Richard Pongvitayapanu, Wei-Hsin Lu
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:Team-Based Learning (TBL) is an instructional strategy that embraces the concept of a flipped classroom. At our institution, the Clerkship in Pediatrics utilizes TBL sessions to deliver curricular content rather than lecture format. In 2016, matriculating medical students were given iPads for the purpose of transitioning to electronic delivery of curricular materials in the pre-clinical phase of their study. In 2017, the Clerkship in Pediatrics was tasked with investigating methods to integrate iPad use into clinical education.Activity:We employed the web-based platform Examplify to deliver test questions for TBL sessions over the span of 1 academic year (2018-2019). Curricular content was converted to Examplify for half of the TBL sessions and team performance for the sessions was compared to those administered traditionally. Students participating in the course were surveyed regarding their satisfaction with the 2 formats using a 15-item survey with a 4-point rating scale and open-ended questions.Results and discussion:Integration of technology into TBL sessions was met with mixed results. Performance on the eTBL sessions was significantly higher for 2 of the 6 sessions: the Abdominal Pain (90.2% vs 84.1%, P = .04) and the Toxicology (85.6% vs 79.4%, P = .03) sessions. A majority of students felt that the eTBL sessions facilitated multiple learning styles, promoted discussions, and nurtured different learning styles. However, students also felt that the electronic sessions were more cumbersome and difficult to navigate. Future research comparing the 2 modalities using a more comprehensive integration of media content, such as video and audio files, will further inform the success of this endeavor.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-09-11T05:20:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520957645
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Acquisition of Procedural Skills in Preregistration Physiotherapy
           Education Comparing Mental Practice Against No Mental Practice: The
           Learning of Procedures in Physiotherapy Education Trial – A Development
           of Concept Study

    • Authors: Karl Martin Sattelmayer, Kavi C. Jagadamma, Roger Hilfiker, Gillian Baer
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Introduction:Procedural skills are a central element in the education of physiotherapists. Procedural skills relate to the execution of a practical task. An educational intervention, which can be used to support skill acquisition of procedural skills, is mental practice (MP). Several studies have investigated the use of MP or imaging in medical education. This pilot study evaluated the application of MP on the acquisition of procedural skills in physiotherapy education.Methods:This pilot randomised controlled study recruited a convenience sample of 37 BSc physiotherapy student participants. Two different complex task procedures (transfer and vestibular rehabilitation) were trained during this study. Participants in both the transfer (task procedure 1) and the vestibular rehabilitation (task procedure 2) arm of the study were randomly assigned to either MP or no MP.Results:For the transfer task, median performance at post-acquisition testing showed a moderate effect size in favour of the group using MP (r: −0.3), but the findings were not statistically significant (P: 0.2). Similar results were found for the vestibular rehabilitation task (r: 0.29; P: 0.21). In addition, the self-reported confidence was higher in the MP group.Conclusion:Moderate effect sizes were identified in favour of MP at post-acquisition testing. In addition, the between-group difference was higher than the minimally important difference. The feasibility of the study was high based on quantitative feasibility measures such as the recruitment rate. Both these findings suggest larger well-powered studies should be considered to confirm the findings of this pilot study.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-09-10T08:59:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520927382
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Adapting Premedical Post-Baccalaureate Approaches to Support US-style
           Medical Education in the United Arab Emirates

    • Authors: Janah Shaya, Sulafudin Vukusic, Asli Hassan, Abdus Sabur Muhammad, Guan Tay, Habiba Al Safar, Peter R. Corridon
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      A recent academic paradigm shift in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) introduced US-style medical education to meet the nation’s growing need for medical practitioners. This newly established Doctor of Medicine (MD) program at Khalifa University of Science and Technology (KU) left gaps in student preparedness. To address this problem, KU simultaneously developed a post-bachelor’s premedical program, commonly known as a pre-medicine post-baccalaureate (PMPB) program, that prepared students for entry into the UAE’s first MD program. The authors adapted US-style post-baccalaureate approaches to create KU’s PMPB program that gave students unique opportunities to take coursework that filled gaps in previous knowledge and prepare for the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) exam. The 1-year bridging program harnessed academic strengths from the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) post-baccalaureate premedical programs network and Kaplan, Inc. Overall, 19 (12 Emirati and 7 international) students achieved admissible MCAT scores (group’s minimum score = 485, average score = 492, and maximum score = 509) and gained research experiences that supported their entry into KU’s medical school. The PMPB program supplied two-thirds of the medical schools’ fall 2019 inaugural class, increased local awareness and interest in medicine and created a novel platform to help students pursue a career in medicine in the UAE.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-09-10T05:46:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520953119
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • The Validation of Geriatric Cases for Interprofessional Education: A
           Consensus Method

    • Authors: Carolyn CJ Teuwen, Rashmi RA Kusurkar, Hermien WH Schreurs, Hester HEM Daelmans, Saskia SM Peerdeman
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:Case-based Interprofessional Education (IPE) can help students practise their roles and responsibilities. To construct these cases, input from experts in clinical practice is essential. Consensus between these experts can be facilitated using consensus methods. In this study, a geriatric focus for the cases was chosen because of the interprofessional nature of geriatrics and the ageing population in healthcare facilities.Methods:By combining the 3 most commonly used consensus methods, we developed a 6-step approach to validate cases for IPE. The 6 steps include 3 expert rounds (Steps 1, 3 and 5) and 2 rounds in which discussion points were formulated by the researcher (Steps 2 and 4). The cases were piloted with students as Step 6. Four facets of a case were included: the patient description, the complemented treatment plan, the difficulty of the case and the scoring of the treatment plan. Our educational setting required constructing 4 cases with increasing difficulty. Results: Step 1: 5 typical geriatric cases were assembled. Step 2: Similar characteristics were defined; 5 cases were merged into 4. The 4 cases showed increasing difficulty levels. Step 3: The constructed cases were validated for patient description authenticity, treatment plan adequacy, difficulty and scoring of the treatment plan. Step 4: The items for further discussion were defined. Step 5: Consensus was reached for all 4 cases through a face-to-face discussion. Step 6: The student pilot for Case 1 showed no significant adjustments.Conclusion:We developed a 6-step consensus method to validate cases for IPE, and we constructed 4 geriatric cases based on this method. While consensus about the patient descriptions and difficulty levels was reached easily, consensus on the treatment plans was more difficult to achieve. Validation of the scoring of the treatment plan was unsuccessful. Further research on this will be conducted.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-09-10T02:10:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520957639
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Embedding the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and
           Health in Health Professions Curricula to Enable Interprofessional
           Education and Collaborative Practice

    • Authors: Monica Moran, Jane Bickford, Sarah Barradell, Ingrid Scholten
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      The World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO-ICF) is a comprehensive and highly adaptable framework that provides a universal language and shared health concepts to articulate human functioning across the lifespan and from individual to population health settings. It provides a global, biopsychosocial, and holistic structure for conceptualising the human experience of health and health service provision. Consequently, the ICF framework offers hope for a universal map for health service providers that bridges professional, cultural, economic, and geographical variations. While the use of the ICF is typically mandated by health professions accreditation bodies, integration of the ICF in medical and health professional education programmes has been slow. In addition, its potential for scaffolding interprofessional education for collaborative practice has not been maximised. In this Perspective paper, we draw on our extensive experience in developing curricula and teaching within a range of health professions programmes (medicine, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, and speech-language pathology) to provide advice on conceptual, theoretical, and practical dimensions of embedding the ICF framework within curricula to support interprofessional education and collaborative practice.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-08-31T12:29:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520933855
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Medical Education Adaptations Post COVID-19: An Egyptian Reflection

    • Authors: Mohamed HK Shehata, Enjy Abouzeid, Nourhan F Wasfy, Adel Abdelaziz, Ray L Wells, Samar A Ahmed
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:Coronavirus (COVID19) appears to be an inflection point that is forcing a disruption in medical education.Objective:The study aims to explore how medical schools in Egypt responded to COVID-19 pandemic regarding teaching and learning/assessment for undergraduate students.Design:A mixed method exploratory 2-phase study was conducted. Data was collected through a questionnaire and focus groups.Results:The responses of the participants were categorized according to main themes; University preparedness, Role of faculty in the transition, Role of ME units/Departments/National/Regional bodies in the transition, Role of Egyptian Knowledge Bank, New teaching methods/strategies, New assessment methods/strategies and Projection into the future. The staff level of preparedness for that unexpected shift was evaluated as optimum to high and a good leadership support was reported by 70% of them. They reported conflicting views about the proper role of medical education units but reinforced the idea of Egyptian Knowledge Bank’s crucial role in this transition. Additionally, 64.1% of the participants identified a clinical skills teaching challenge and 76.3% of them reported absence of alternative methods for summative assessment. Finally, there is a communication problem with the students that leads to their detachment.Conclusions:Individuals moved faster than bodies and relied on support existing outside the universities when catastrophe happened. Many recommendations emerged including the need to integrate online learning into the curriculum at favorable percentages.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-08-27T11:35:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520951819
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Effect of Targeted Curricular Reform on the Learning Environment, Student
           Empathy, and Hidden Curriculum in a Medical School: A 7-Year Longitudinal

    • Authors: Nathalie K Zgheib, Zakia Dimassi, Thalia Arawi, Kamal F Badr, Ramzi Sabra
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Objective:The American University of Beirut Faculty of Medicine follows the American model of medical education. In 2013-2014, a carefully designed new curriculum replaced the previous, largely traditional curriculum, and aimed to improve student wellbeing, upgrade the learning environment, enhance student empathy, and counter the negative influences of the hidden curriculum. This longitudinal study assessed the effectiveness of the new curriculum in those domains over a period of 7 years.Methods:Three cohorts of medical students anonymously filled a paper-based survey at the end of years 1, 2, 3, and 4 of the 4-year curriculum. These included the Class of 2016, the last batch of students who followed the old curriculum, and 2 cohorts that followed the new curriculum (Class of 2017 and Class of 2019). The perceived learning environment was assessed by the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measurement survey; the student’s empathy was assessed by the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy-Student version; and the hidden curriculum was examined using a locally developed survey.Results:The scores on the learning environment survey were significantly higher among the cohorts following the new curriculum relative to those following the old curriculum. Similar significant results appeared when looking at each of the subscales for the learning environment. The students’ empathy scores were also significantly higher in both cohorts of the new curriculum when compared with the old curriculum. Nevertheless, there was a significant decrease in empathy in both third and fourth years relative to second year. The new curriculum also improved aspects of the students’ perceptions and responses to the hidden curriculum.Conclusion:In conclusion, a well-planned and well-researched curricular intervention, based on sound educational theories, practices, and standards can indeed transform the learning environment, as well as the attitudes, values, and experiences of medical students.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-08-27T01:45:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520953106
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Where Does Indian Medical Education Stand Amidst a Pandemic'

    • Authors: Poorvaprabha Patil, Stuti Chakraborty
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      The recent outbreak of COVID-19, declared a pandemic, has affected medical education globally. The scenario is no different for medical students in India as they find themselves at a crossroads in their careers, with clinical and elective postings called off. Missing out on the opportunity to learn from “first-hand” clinical observation stands to threaten the quality of medical education and learning procured by Indian medical students which is extremely essential to deal with the vast patient load that awaits them in their impending future as healthcare professionals. Is the Indian medical education system being able to cope with the challenges imposed by the increasing burden of COVID-19' The authors propose few administrative and on-ground interventions that must seek to work collectively with all government and private medical institutions in order to help students/interns and residents in coping with stress, anxiety or academic losses incurred due to the pandemic.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-08-26T06:01:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520951606
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Educational Alternatives for the Maintenance of Educational Competencies
           in Surgical Training Programs Affected by the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Hassan ElHawary, Ali Salimi, Peter Alam, Mirko S Gilardino
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Along with the socio-economic burden the COVID-19 pandemic carried, the strain it brought upon our health care system is unparalleled. In an attempt to conserve much needed personal protective equipment (PPE) as well as to free up available hospital beds to accommodate the significant influx of COVID-19 patients, many elective surgical cases were essentially put on hold. Furthermore, to taper the spread of this highly contagious virus and to protect the medical staff, surgical clinics were limited to urgent care that could not be managed through virtual platforms. Surgical trainees, such as residents and fellows, who solemnly rely on clinical and surgical exposure to hone their operative and clinical skills, were evidently left deprived. As the pandemic rapidly progressed, medical staff in the emergency departments and what is now known as the COVID wards and COVID ICUs quickly became overwhelmed and overworked. This new reality required surgical trainees to rapidly redeploy to help meet the rising hospital needs. With no clear end to this pandemic, surgical trainees worry they will not reach the appropriate milestones and acquire the amount of surgical experience required to become competent surgeons. As a result, a rapid solution should be found and applied to remedy this newly created gap in surgical education. The measures we recommend include access to regular webinars from world-renowned experts, increased implementation of surgical simulation, selective redeployment of residents to favor level-appropriate learning opportunities and lastly, the active participation of trainees in telemedicine with an increase in surgical exposure as soon as the restrictions are lifted.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-08-24T03:22:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520951806
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • From Creation to Evaluation: A Comprehensive Global Health Scholars
           Program for Graduate Medical Education Trainees

    • Authors: Jennifer Morgan, Shannon Galvin, Joshua Goldstein, Colleen Fant, Robert Murphy, Ashti Doobay-Persaud
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Introduction:Recently, participation in clinical global health rotations has significantly increased among graduate medical education (GME) trainees. Despite the many benefits these experiences provide, many ethical challenges exist. Well-intentioned partnerships and participants often encounter personal and professional dilemmas related to safety, social responsibility, and accountability. We designed a curriculum to provide trainees of all specialties with a comprehensive educational program aimed at delivering culturally mindful and ethically responsible clinical care in resource-constrained settings.Methods:The McGaw Global Health Clinical Scholars Program (GHCS) at Northwestern University offers a 2-year curriculum for selected GME trainees across specialties interested in global health. Each trainee must complete the following components: core lectures, peer journal club, specialty-specific lectures, a mentorship agreement, ethics and skill-based simulations, a global health field experience, a poster presentation, and a mentored scholarly project.Results:Since 2014, 84 trainees from 13 specialties have participated in the program with 50 current trainees and 39 graduates. Twenty-five trainees completed exit surveys, of which 95% would recommend this program to other trainees and 84% felt more prepared to deliver global health care. In addition, 78% reported career plans that included global health and/or work with underserved populations. Trainees described “acceptance of differences and respect for those differences” and “understanding sustainability” as learning points from the program.Discussion:Providing a comprehensive global health education program across specialties can be feasible and effective. GME trainees who participated in this program report feeling both more prepared for clinical experiences and more likely to serve the underserved anywhere.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-08-21T05:36:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520951821
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • The Pedagogical Shift During COVID 19 Pandemic: Online Medical Education,
           Barriers and Perceptions in Central Kerala

    • Authors: Aboobacker Mohammed Rafi, Pulikkottil Raphael Varghese, Praveenlal Kuttichira
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Owing to COVID 19 pandemic, all educational institutions including medical colleges were closed by the second week of March 2020 in Kerala, India. This college started online classes using various e-platforms by the third week of March. In this study, we report the barriers and perceptions of undergraduate students by an online questionnaire after 2.5 months of e-classes. The study participants were 364 students who responded in a week’s time. Most of the faculty used platforms like Google class room or recorded YouTube videos. The department of Physiology used the Impartus platform. Among the respondents 72.8% were using mobile data and 17.8% were using broadband facilities. Among network providers Jio was the most used. Only first year students were exposed to 3 different online platforms. Among those students, 63.6% reported in favor of Impartus, followed by YouTube and Google class room. Most of the students preferred recorded classes (69.2%) over live classes (33.5%). Submissions were mainly through the online platform itself (69.5%), email submission to the department (17%) or to the faculty (13.5%). Forty seven percent of the students wanted the classes to be of 30 to 45 minutes duration and 42% felt that the classes should be short and below 30 minutes. Only 28.3% of the students favored centralized online class by the university. Providing education to students cannot be discontinued for long. In the present study students are able to follow the online classes and have good learning experience on in the Didactic part. The medical educators could rise up to the challenge of continuing to teach even in times of crisis.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-08-19T11:46:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520951795
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • The Case for Writing Critical Thinking Reports as a Teaching Strategy on
           Today’s Hospital Wards

    • Authors: Farrin A Manian
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      I review some of the challenges in teaching medical students and housestaff on today’s hospital medicine wards, including increasingly limited time for dedicated teaching. Tapping into the extensive literature of “writing to learn” or “writing-across-the curriculum” in non-medical educational settings ranging from elementary school to college classes, I urge consideration of writing concise critical thinking reports (CTRs) by medical students and housestaff in response to questions raised during patient rounds as a means of enhancing their ward-based learning experience. Several potential reasons for writing CTRs are offered: (1) Nurtures curiosity; (2) Demands self-directed search for and encoding of new knowledge; (3) Emphasizes metacognition and conceptualization crucial to meaningful learning; (4) Provides opportunity for learners to teach and share newly-assimilated material with a broader web-based audience; (5) Encourages the concept of narrow but more in-depth learning related to a specific clinically relevant subject matter; (6) Nudges learners toward clear and succinct writing as an important general skill to develop in their everyday professional activities, including electronic medical record documentation; and (7) Reduces work-related burnout. Barriers to writing CTRs, including lack of general appreciation for explanatory writing as a potential teaching strategy in medical education and allowing sufficient time for medical students and housestaff to engage in this activity among other competing demands, are discussed. Writing CTRs is a potentially powerful pedagogical tool in ward-based learning that deserves consideration and formal evaluation by properly designed studies.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-08-17T05:24:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520948879
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • A Faculty Development Model for Academic Leadership Education Across A
           Health Care Organization

    • Authors: Jessica T Servey, Joshua D Hartzell, Thomas McFate
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Academic leadership in undergraduate and graduate medical education requires a specific set of leadership and managerial skills that are unique to academic leadership positions. While leadership development training programs exist for traditional leadership roles such as department chairs, executives, and deans, there are fewer models of leadership training specifically geared for academic leadership positions such as program and clerkship directors, and designated institutional officials. There are academic programs at the national level, but there is sparse literature on the specific decisions required to create such programs locally. With growing regulatory and accreditation requirements as well as the challenges of balancing the clinical and educational missions, effective leadership is needed across the spectrum of academic medicine. To meet this need for the military health care system in the United States, we used Kern’s six-step framework for curriculum development to create a 1-week academic leadership course. This paper describes the process of development, implementation, outcomes, and lessons learned following the initial 3 years of courses. Specific discussions regarding who to train, which faculty to use, content, and other elements of course design are reviewed. The course and process outlined in the paper offer a model for other organizations desiring to establish an academic leadership course.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-08-13T01:07:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520948878
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Prompting Candidates in Oral Assessment Contexts: A Taxonomy and Guiding

    • Authors: Jacob Pearce, Neville Chiavaroli
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Prompting is an aspect of oral assessment that deserves more attention. There appears to be considerable variation in how practitioners conceptualise prompting and how it is deployed in practice. In order to unpack the term and promote the validity of its use in performance assessments, we present a taxonomy of prompting as a continuum of types, namely: presenting the task; repeating information; clarifying questions; probing questions; and finally, leading questions. We offer general principles for consideration when using prompting in oral assessment: neutrality; consistency; transparency; and reflexivity. Whenever oral assessment is planned, assessors should be appropriately trained in the type and degree of prompting required, and candidates suitably briefed to know what to expect. Overall, we aim to raise awareness that quite different behaviours tend to be subsumed under the general term ‘prompting’. This paper provides concrete guidelines for implementing the defensible and effective use of prompting in oral examinations, applicable to a wide range of assessment contexts.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-08-13T01:07:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520948881
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Contextual Analysis of Stakeholder Opinion on Management and Leadership

    • Authors: Nisreen Rajeh, Janet Grant, Jamila Farsi, Ara Tekian
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:The study aimed to conduct a contextual analysis of interviews intended to assist with the future design of a feasible and relevant leadership and management course for undergraduate medical students at King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Saudi Arabia.Methods:This was a cross-sectional study conducted at King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Saudi Arabia, during 2019. An exploratory qualitative approach, utilizing systematic content analysis, was used. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews that were conducted with 10 leaders who were stakeholders at KAU, health service providers at KAU hospital, and stakeholders in the Ministry of Health.Results:This study revealed critical findings that highlighted the areas in which KAU could instill better and adequate leadership and management skills in their undergraduate medical students. Multiple core categories for a leadership and management curriculum emerged with many interrelated themes. Most participants mentioned that leadership can be taught and that early exposure is beneficial for developing skills. Additionally, they stated that leaders should have a vision and the ability to articulate that vision.Conclusions:Different implementation challenges were described in relation to the availability of human resources, the current short supply of suitable teachers, and program design. Teaching methods recommended included simulations, lectures, and a project-based approach. Assessment methods that were recommended included objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), formative and summative assessments, self-assessments, and portfolios.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-08-10T06:47:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520948866
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Interprofessional Team-based Learning: Building Social Capital

    • Authors: Annette Burgess, Christie van Diggele, Elie Matar
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Often the first-time health professionals work together is as new graduates, with a paucity of shared learning among the various health disciplines within university curricula. This is largely due to the complexities of delivering interprofessional education (IPE) and the preference of individuals to work within their established silos. With its ability to nurture collaboration among students, there is a developing trend to use team-based learning (TBL) as a teaching method to engage health care students in IPE. Using the conceptual lens of social capital theory, the purpose of this article is to provide readers with an overview and evidence for the use of TBL within the interprofessional health care education setting, highlighting the benefits and challenges.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-08-07T02:53:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520941820
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Agreement of Program Directors With Clinical Competency Committees for
           Fellow Entrustment

    • Authors: Richard Mink, Bruce E Herman, Carol Carraccio, Tandy Aye, Jeanne M Baffa, Patricia R Chess, Jill J Fussell, Cary G Sauer, Diane E J Stafford, Pnina Weiss, Megan L Curran, Christiane E L Dammann, Pamela C High, Deborah Hsu, Jennifer C Kesselheim, John D Mahan, Kathleen A McGann, Angela L Myers, Sarah Pitts, David A Turner, Alan Schwartz
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Objectives:Fellowship program directors (FPD) and Clinical Competency Committees (CCCs) both assess fellow performance. We examined the association of entrustment levels determined by the FPD with those of the CCC for 6 common pediatric subspecialty entrustable professional activities (EPAs), hypothesizing there would be strong correlation and minimal bias between these raters.Methods:The FPDs and CCCs separately assigned a level of supervision to each of their fellows for 6 common pediatric subspecialty EPAs. For each EPA, we determined the correlation between FPD and CCC assessments and calculated bias as CCC minus FPD values for when the FPD was or was not a member of the CCC. In addition, we examined the effect of program size, FPD understanding of EPAs, and subspecialty on the correlations. Data were obtained in fall 2014 and spring 2015.Results:A total of 1040 fellows were assessed in the fall and 1048 in the spring. In both periods and for each EPA, there was a strong correlation between FPD and CCC supervision levels (P 
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-08-06T02:28:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520936613
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Perceptions of Cultural Competency Among Premedical Undergraduate Students

    • Authors: Reeti Goyal, Skky Martin, Dana Garbarski
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:Cultural competence is a difficult skill to teach, as it has several operational definitions as well as limited and unstandardized training procedures. Currently, there is no formal cultural competency training at the undergraduate level for students who seek to become a medical doctor. The purpose of this study is to explore perceptions of cultural competence among premedical undergraduates by assessing how they define and understand cultural competency and their knowledge (and sources thereof) of sociocultural realities in health and medicine.Methods:Structured in-depth interviews took place in 2016 and 2017 at a medium-sized private college in the Midwestern United States. Twenty premedical students were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed and thematically coded following an inductive, iterative, and systematic process.Results:Most students can provide a definition of cultural competence that includes at least one component of how it is conceptualized by the Association of American Medical Colleges. However, students focus largely on defining cultural competence as individual attitudes and interaction rather than systemic or structural realities that produce inequalities in health care. When explicitly asked, students varied in the level of detail provided in explaining the social determinants of health (such as race or ethnicity, sex, gender, and socioeconomic status) and varied in the accuracy of their definitions of traditional health practices. Each student noted the importance of training on cultural competence and many placed patients’ health at the center of their reason for doing so rather than focusing on their own training as a motivation. Students discussed various aspects of sociocultural differences and the need for physicians to understand patients’ outlooks on health care and be able to communicate to patients the purpose of suggested medical treatment, as well as the inherent tension in balancing patients as individuals and members of sociocultural groups. Premedical undergraduate students see their own cultural competence as an informal skill that is gained through social interactions across various areas of life, such as work, family, friends, and school.Conclusion:This study traces the sources of sociocultural information that premedical students will bring to their medical training as well as places where cultural competence can be further explored, practiced, and formally integrated in premedical education.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-07-31T05:27:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520934823
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Medical Students’ Empathy Level Differences by Medical Year, Gender, and
           Specialty Interest in Akdeniz University

    • Authors: Özge Akgün, Melahat Akdeniz, Ethem Kavukcu, Hasan Hüseyin Avcı
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:As an important feature in patient-physician communication for both primary and clinical care, empathy is one of the basic competencies that physicians should possess. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the level of empathy among medical students in all years of medical training using two different instruments: the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (for clinical empathy level) and the Toronto Empathy Questionnaire (for general empathy level).Materials and Methods:This study is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in 2017-2018 academic year with students studying at Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine. Data collection form, Toronto Empathy Questionnaire (TEQ) and Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) was applied to the students by the researchers. The statistical analysis was carried out by using IBM-SPSS version 23 for Mac OS. T-test, ANOVA test, Spearman and Pearson correlation analysis were used for comparisons.Results:The mean TEQ score of the students was 52.8/65 and the JSPE-S score was 80.3/100. TEQ scores of students increased up to 4th year and then decreased, but the difference between the years was not statistically significant. The third year students’ JSPE-S scores were significantly higher than that of the sixth year students.Conclusion:While the clinical empathy levels of medical students decreased significantly after 3rd year, the general empathy levels decreased less. This result shows us that we should review our medical education curriculum and educational environment, and should initiate initiatives, and devote more time to empathy education in order to prevent the decrease in empathy level and increase empathy during medical education.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-07-31T05:27:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520940658
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • A Patient-Narrative Video Approach to Teaching Fibromyalgia

    • Authors: Frederic Stuart Leeds, Evan M Sommer, Wyatt J Andrasik, Kareem M Atwa, Timothy N Crawford
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Introduction:Although fibromyalgia is one of the most common and clinically important rheumatologic entities, physicians frequently report that their training fails to prepare them to manage this disease. Many medical schools devote insufficient time and attention to the subject of fibromyalgia, resulting in training gaps that can manifest as failures of both knowledge and empathy. There is a need for evidence-based, time-efficient methods for teaching this important subject. We have developed a narrative-driven video presentation for clerkship students and sought to evaluate its impact on fibromyalgia-related knowledge and attitudes.Methods:Fibromyalgia: A Patient’s Perspective (FPP), a 13-minute video, was presented to third-year medical students (N = 54). Surveys of knowledge and attitudes were collected before and after the video. Composite scores, as well as Knowledge and Attitudes subscales, were computed, and paired t tests were used to compare pre/post means for these scales, as well as for individual questions. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to identify correlations between survey scores and student sex and specialty of interest.Results:Between pre-experience and post-experience surveys, there were statistically significant differences for 11 of 15 questions (73%). The composite score increased from 3.8 (SD = 0.44) to 4.2 (SD = 0.47) (P 
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-07-31T05:05:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520947068
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Developing a Workplace-Based Learning Culture in the NHS: Aspirations and

    • Authors: Suzanne Gawne, Rebecca Fish, Laura Machin
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:The delivery of patient care in the United Kingdom is under increasing financial pressure. The need to continuously improve service delivery while making financial savings is challenging. Alongside this, National Health Service (NHS) Trusts must provide a suitable educational environment that meets the needs of all learners while meeting performance standards and targets set by external regulating authorities. This research addresses the gap in literature concerning educational culture in the NHS.Methods:This case study examines the delivery of postgraduate medical education in the workplace. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 lead educators in the Medical Division of a North West NHS Trust to glean their insights into what works and what needs to change.Results:A thematic analysis of the transcripts revealed a number of factors that facilitated and hindered educational opportunities for doctors in training, including the role of leadership, the demands of external regulatory authorities, and the pressures on frontline staff to deliver safe, personal, and effective care.Conclusion:Opportunities for developing a collaborative approach between educational and clinical leaders and the individuals delivering education in the workplace to enhance the educational environment are discussed. Finally, an evaluatory toolkit based on the themes emerging from the data is proposed, as a resource for other health care organisations to help improve the delivery of workplace-based medical education.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-07-31T05:05:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520947063
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Effect of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic on Pediatric
           Resident Well-Being

    • Authors: Pooja B Sanghavi, Karla Au Yeung, Carmela E Sosa, Angela F Veesenmeyer, Jolie A Limon, Vini Vijayan
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Objectives:This study aims to identify factors specific to the COVID-19 pandemic that affect resident physicians’ well-being, identify potential sources of anxiety, and assess for depression and stress among residents.Methods:A cross-sectional survey was performed in April 2020 that evaluated resident perceptions about COVID-19 pandemic, its impact on their personal lifestyle, and coping mechanisms adopted. The respondents also completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and Cohen Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10).Results:Of 37 residents, 29 completed the survey for a response rate of 78%. We found that 50% of residents harbored increased anxiety due to the pandemic and reported fears of spreading disease. Factors that negatively impacted their well-being included social isolation from colleagues (78%), inability to engage in outdoor activities (82%), and social gatherings (86%). Residents expressed concern about the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on their didactic education and clinical rotations. The mean PSS-10 total score was 17 (SD = 4.96, range = 0-33) and the mean BDI-II total score was 6.79 (SD = 6.00). Our residents adopted a number of coping mechanisms in response to COVID-19.Conclusions:We identified factors specific to the COVID-19 pandemic that adversely affected resident physician well-being. Trainees were concerned about the risk of developing COVID-19 and spreading this to their family. Residents also harbored anxiety regarding the effect of COVID-19 on their education. Lifestyle changes including social isolation also resulted in a negative effect on resident well-being. Developing strategies and resources directed to addressing these concerns may help support well-being and alleviate stress and anxiety.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T12:24:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520947062
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Emerging Innovations and Professional Skills Needed Within Pharmacy

    • Authors: Amanda A Olsen, Lana M Minshew, Kathryn A Morbitzer, Tina P Brock, Jacqueline E McLaughlin
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      To ensure students are prepared for the rapidly evolving world of health care, curricula must be aligned with emerging innovations, as well as professional skills likely to influence students’ abilities to be successful. At the 2019 annual meeting of PharmAlliance institutions, we asked experts to identify innovations and professional skills necessary for the future of pharmacy practice. Experts identified a wide range of topics, including personalized and precision medicine, digital health, interprofessional collaboration, clinical decision making, and overcoming complexity and ambiguity. While these findings are useful for informing curriculum content, we must also commit to ensuring our pharmacy curricula are emerging, forward thinking, and effective at preparing students for the challenges in health care.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-07-29T02:39:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520943597
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Table Quizzes as an Assessment Tool in the Gross Anatomy Laboratory

    • Authors: Natascha Heise, Carolyn A Meyer, Brendan A Garbe, Heather A Hall, Tod R Clapp
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Using cadaveric instruction in a graduate-level anatomy course is an expensive and time-consuming undertaking. While this is a worthwhile endeavor, most first-year medical students and students in the health fields struggle with the independent, self-directed learning approach in the cadaveric laboratory, and going beyond rote memorization of the material. As such, effective assessment tools that maximize student learning in the cadaveric laboratory are critical, especially if no lecture component is present. Dissection quality often reflects student attention to detail and therefore may be tied to overall performance in the course. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between weekly table quizzes and the overall student outcomes in a graduate biomedical human dissection class as well as examining the benefits and implications of this approach. In this course, a uniquely structured weekly quiz assessed dissection quality and probed student understanding in human anatomy. Student data compiled from 5 years of dissection courses were analyzed to evaluate the relationship between performance in the weekly assessment and on the unit examinations. The results showed a statistically significant relationship between the weekly quizzes and the student examinations at the end of each dissection block in 2013, 2015, 2016, and 2017. The data suggest a potential correlation between performance on weekly quizzes and on unit examinations. The unique nature of the table quizzes provides the students with the opportunity to practice the retrieval of their knowledge, feel more guided throughout their dissection, and receive immediate feedback on their performance. This assessment tool also provides a way to predict student outcomes and an opportunity for early intervention to help at-risk students. The analysis of this research study contributes to the need for more data on the usage of assessment tools in a graduate human dissection class.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-07-29T02:23:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520941822
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Prevalence of Burnout and Associated Factors Among Family Medicine
           Residency in Thailand

    • Authors: Achariya Charoentanyarak, Thunyarat Anothaisintawee, Ruankwan Kanhasing, Panitee Poonpetcharat
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Objectives:To assess the prevalence of burnout and associated factors among family medicine residents in Thailand.Materials and Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted by all Thai Family Medicine residents year 1 to 3 during February 2019. Self-reported questionnaires, including demographic data, and the Thai version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory were distributed to 703 residents via electronic transmissions, including e-mail, Facebook, and Line instant communication application. Burnout was diagnosed by the following criteria: high-level emotional exhaustion, high-level depersonalization, and low-level personal accomplishment. Factors associated with burnout were explored by the univariate logistic regression model. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the independent risk factors of burnout among Thai Family Medicine residents.Results:There were 149 residents who participated in this study, with a response rate of 21% (n = 703). As no residents diagnosed with burnout using the proposed criteria, burnout was, therefore, redefined as residents reporting high-level emotional exhaustion and high-level depersonalization. The prevalence of burnout in family medicine residents in this study was 10.74% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.26%-16.85%). Our study found that having relationship problems with patients, having relationship problems with colleagues, and having thought of resigning from the training program were independently associated with burnout with odds ratios of 6.93 (95% CI: 1.64-29.27), 6.31 (95% CI: 1.89-21.12), and 4.16 (95% CI: 1.09-15.81), respectively.Conclusions:Burnout at high level in emotional exhaustion and high level in depersonalization can occur among family medicine residents. Concerning factors were found to be patient and colleague relationship problems and having thought of resigning from the residency program. Other factors that may contribute to burnout were type of training programs, insufficient income, and family relationship. We recommend that the training institute should be able to monitor residents’ stress level and to help prevent those who have burnout and reduce its impact.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-07-28T05:10:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520944920
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Planning and Implementation of Guided Self-study in an Undergraduate
           Physiotherapy Curriculum in Switzerland—A Feasibility Study

    • Authors: Slavko Rogan, Jan Taeymans J, Stefan Zuber, Evert Zinzen
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:Self-directed learning (andragogy) or self-determined learning (heutagogy) can be implemented in guided self-study (GSS) with the aim to foster changes in the knowledge and skills of physiotherapy students in a higher education setting. To date, there is a lack of evidence for the use of GSS in higher education for physiotherapy.Aim:This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of developing and implementing GSS in an undergraduate physiotherapy educational program in Switzerland. In addition, the effectiveness of GSS in bringing changes in knowledge and skills was assessed.Method:Full-time undergraduate physiotherapy students (n = 49) from the third semester volunteered in this feasibility study. Students were randomly allocated into a GSS group or a control group (CG) in the period from October to November 2019. The GSS group prepared a total of 3 clinical cases. Each case was processed in an 8-day cycle. On day 1, the clinical case (ie, description of a patient and symptoms) and learning goals were provided to the students electronically. The students prepared the cases in groups from days 2 to 7. They were guided 2 times by the tutor (physical meeting and via Skype) during this preparation phase. The results of group work were presented and reflected on during a moderated plenum session (90 minutes) on day 8. The feasibility of this higher education study was operationalized as follows: exposure (“dose,” ie, the number of GSS sessions performed over 90 minutes, as well as the content of the cases and the learning objectives); students’ responsiveness, with an a priori set 100% willingness to participate on day 8; program differentiation, to illustrate differences between the content of GSS cases and the curriculum; and degree of acceptability. In addition, an assessment was made of the total scores in the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) and written examinations, as well as the amount of GSS. Statistical analyses were conducted using an intention-to-treat approach.Results:All 3 GSS sessions on day 8 lasted the scheduled 90 minutes. The content of the presented cases was aligned with the learning objectives. The responsiveness of students willing to participate on day 8 was 42%. In program differentiation, no differences in content were found between the GSS presentation content and the usual curriculum content when compared with the learning aims. Objective structured clinical examination grades and written examination grades were similar for the GSS and CG. The analysis of the focus group interview showed a low degree of acceptability indicating that the students’ workload was high during the GSS period.Conclusions:This study showed that this GSS program for undergraduate physiotherapy students in its current form is “feasible with modification.” Modification of the study protocol (eg, better time planning in the academic calendar) is needed to improve the students’ responsiveness. Alternatively, classroom hours may be reduced to favor self-study time. Such adjustments to the timetable should allow the physiotherapy students to better prepare the clinical cases. The effectiveness of the GSS and normal curriculum on OSCE and written examination scores was similar, probably due to the observed low students’ acceptability
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-07-28T05:10:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520944921
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Pharmacogenomics Instruction Depth, Extent, and Perception in US Medical

    • Authors: Dara Basyouni, Aymen Shatnawi
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Introduction:This descriptive study aimed to evaluate the depth, extent, and perception of pharmacogenomics instruction in schools and colleges of medicine in the United States. Changes in medical pharmacogenomics instruction over the past decade were also assessed by comparing our results with those of a previous study.Methods:An electronic survey was emailed to all accredited allopathic and osteopathic medical schools across the US using Qualtrics online survey software. Multiple email reminders were sent to increase the response rate.Results:Of 151 targeted eligible medical schools across the United States, 22 responded to the survey. One invalid response was excluded, resulting in a response rate of 13.9%. Of responding schools, 85.7% cover pharmacogenomics in their curriculum, mainly in the second year, however, none teach pharmacogenomics as a stand-alone course. The depth and the extent of pharmacogenomics coverage varied among responding programs. Although 66.7% of respondents believe that neither physicians nor other health care professionals possess appropriate knowledge in pharmacogenomics, only 23.8% plan to increase pharmacogenomics instruction in their curricula in the near future.Conclusions:Most medical schools surveyed include some pharmacogenomics instruction in their curricula, although the depth and the extent of the instruction varies. Most respondents believe that physicians and other health care professionals today do not possess an appropriate level of knowledge in pharmacogenomics; however, few institutions report short-term plans to increase pharmacogenomics instruction. Pharmacogenomics plays a significant role in personalized medicine; greater efforts by medical school decision-makers are needed to improve the level of pharmacogenomics instruction in medical curricula.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-07-27T01:36:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520930772
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • National Board of Medical Examiners and Curriculum Change: What Do Scores
           Tell Us' A Case Study at the University of Balamand Medical School

    • Authors: Mode Al Ojaimi, Megan Khairallah, Rayya Younes, Sara Salloum, Ghania Zgheib
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Objectives:This study describes the results of NBME (National Board of Medical Examiners) implementation in Balamand Medical School (BMS) from 2015 to 2019, after major curricular changes were introduced as of 2012. BMS students’ performance was compared with the international USMLE step 1 (United States Medical Licensing Examination, herein referred to as step 1) cohorts’ performances. The BMS students’ NBME results were analyzed over the successive academic years to assess the impact of the serial curricular changes that were implemented.Methods:This longitudinal study describes the performance of BMS preclinical second year medicine (Med II) students on all their NBME exams over 4 academic years starting 2015-2016 to 2018-2019. These scores were compared with the step 1 comparison group scores using item difficulty. The t test was computed for each of the NBME exams to check whether the scores’ differences were significant.Results:Results revealed that all BMS cohorts scored lower than the international USMLE step 1 comparison cohorts in all disciplines across the 4 academic years except Psychiatry. However, the results were progressively approaching step 1 results, and the difference between step 1 scores and BMS students’ NBME scores became closer and not significant as of year 4.Conclusions:The results of the study are promising. They show that the serial curricular changes enabled BMS Med II students’ scores to reach the international cohorts’ scores after 4 academic years. Moreover, the absence of statistical difference between cohort 4 scores and step 1 cohorts is not module dependent and applies to all clinical modules. Further studies should be conducted to assess whether the results obtained for cohort 4 can be maintained.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-07-24T11:22:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520925062
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Health Profession Education in Remote or Geographically Isolated Settings:
           A Scoping Review

    • Authors: Carole Reeve, Karen Johnston, Louise Young
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Remote health has been differentiated from rural health in Australia and defined as isolated, with poor service access and a relatively high proportion of Indigenous residents, necessitating different models of care. Educational strategies for remote health practice are often needs driven and the characteristics of remote health may be used to categorise remote health professional education. This scoping review aims to identify the purpose of health professional education for remote settings, the type of educational strategies implemented and the reported outcomes. A broad search of published literature available in online bibliographic databases was conducted. A total of 33 articles met the review inclusion criteria. A further 7 articles were identified for inclusion in the review through citation searches and the authors’ networks giving a total of 40 articles. Six primary themes were established based on the educational purpose: (1) cultural competency; (2) social accountability; (3) rural and remote skill development for the general workforce; (4) remote specialisation; (5) specialist skills required for a remote workforce; and (6) remote teaching. These themes also reflect the philosophical change over time recognising remote health as a separate discipline and its value as a distinctive and efficacious learning environment. The concept of education for remote practice is proposed to describe this unique leaning environment which encompasses critical pedagogy to develop a sense of agency and social accountability, embedding the delivery of primary health care through service learning and developing relationships in a context which is transformative.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-07-23T05:06:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520943595
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Preclerkship Point-of-Care Ultrasound: Image Acquisition and Clinical

    • Authors: Michel Khoury, Salomon Fotsing, Alireza Jalali, Nicolas Chagnon, Stéphanie Malherbe, Nermine Youssef
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Introduction:The integration of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) in preclerkship medical education is currently popular and based on the notion that POCUS may improve diagnostic and procedural skills in medical students. However, empirical evidence demonstrating that POCUS can enhance clinical skills in preclerkship students has been lacking. We sought to evaluate anatomical sonographic knowledge and ultrasound generation capabilities associated with the implementation of a 3-h echocardiography training camp led by 2 emergency physicians and using a flipped classroom design.Methods:Preclerkship students from the University of Ottawa (n = 32) were recruited to participate. A flipped classroom model was adopted, providing students with a 3-chaptered peer-designed, expert validated ultrasound manual before the workshop, to maximize scanning times (2 h of reading). A pretest Likert-type design was used to assess student perception of the ultrasound tool. Similarly, a pretest/post-test model was used to assess sonographic anatomical identification. In addition, a subsequent Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) test was done 3 weeks after the hands-on session, to evaluate image generation (4 cardiac views: parasternal long, parasternal short, subxiphoid, and apical 4 chambers), understanding of knobology and structural labeling.Results:For the sonographic anatomy, there was a statistically significant increase (P 
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-07-23T05:05:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520943615
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • An Educational Evaluation of a Journal Club Approach to Teaching
           Undergraduate Health Care Research

    • Authors: Michaela Friesth, Kristina Dzara
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:Health care research is a common undergraduate health sciences requirement. There is limited literature regarding course structure, content, or learning outcomes; most courses have traditionally been taught through didactic lecture. This is misaligned with Generation Y learner values, as they desire guided learning, real-world examples, active engagement, learning through doing, and psychological safety.Methods:A “journal club” approach to teaching health care research was implemented at Northeastern University in Fall 2018. Each session involved (1) a moment of reflection; (2) an introduction to the topic; (3) 1 student methods report presentation; (4) 2 student “journal club” self-directed structured article summary presentations; (5) large-group discussion; (6) plus/delta feedback to instructor. Each student completed 2 “journal club” and 1 methods presentations, 6 peer reviews, CITI research training, a quality improvement survey, and a final course reflection. We utilized a convergent mixed-methods educational evaluation, integrating data from 3 distinct sources—a quality improvement survey, final student course reflections, and Plus/Delta feedback—which were analyzed via thematic analysis. The Northeastern University Institutional Review Board exempted the study.Results:Students appreciated the course structure and reported confidence in their critical appraisal abilities. Four qualitative themes emerged: (1) enabled a high degree of growth as students and scholars; (2) designed in thoughtful and unique format; (3) initially intimidated students and was academically challenging; and (4) prioritized and enabled psychological safety.Conclusions:Although initially intimidating and admittedly challenging, undergraduate health sciences students applauded the course’s curricular design and enabling of psychological safety, which aligned with Generation Y learner values, ultimately leading to growth in perceived and realized confidence and ability to critically review research articles.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-07-22T05:13:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520940662
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Perspectives From Rising Fourth Year Medical Students Regarding Strategies
           to Counteract the Effects of COVID-19 on Medical Education

    • Authors: Daniel R Liesman, Luke Pumiglia, Michael T Kemp, Hasan B Alam
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has put those who oversee medical education in a challenging position. Medical school administrators, students, and national governing bodies have been forced to make difficult decision as a result of public health concerns and government-enforced restrictions. We, as rising fourth-year medical students, would like to shed light upon the hard work that many of those in leadership positions have done as well as lay out some concerns that medical students who are preparing to apply to residency have. Additionally, we would like to suggest several potential approaches that attempt to address some of the problems arising from the pandemic. Continuing to balance education with the hurdles presented by COVID-19 will require a multi-faceted and coordinated approach. We believe that implementing virtual rotations, delaying the opening of the application, decentralizing clinical skills evaluations, and modifying graduation requirements are possible options among many that could aid in addressing some of the current challenges presented by COVID-19.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-07-13T09:17:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520940659
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Mapping the Expert Mind: Integration Method for Revising the ACES Medical
           Simulation Curriculum

    • Authors: Pierre Cardinal, Glenn Barton, Kirk DesRosier, Sharon Yamashita, Angèle Landriault, Aimee Sarti, Stephanie Sutherland, Susan Brien, Kevin McCarragher, Tobias Witter
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Purpose:This article shares our experience developing an integrated curriculum for the ACES (Acute Critical Event Simulation) program. The purpose of the ACES program is to ensure that health care providers develop proficiency in the early management of critically ill patients. The program includes multiple different types of educational interventions (mostly simulation-based) and targets both specialty and family physicians practicing in tertiary and community hospitals.Methods:To facilitate integration between different educational interventions, we developed a knowledge repository consisting of cognitive sequence maps that make explicit the flow of cognitive activities carried out by experts facing different situations - the sequence maps then serving as the foundation upon which multimodal simulation scenarios would be built. To encourage participation of experts, we produced this repository as a peer-reviewed ebook. Five national organizations collaborated with the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada to identify and recruit expert authors and reviewers. Foundational chapters, centered on goals/interventions, were first developed to comprehensively address most tasks conducted in the early management of a critically ill patient. Tasks from the foundational chapters were then used to complete the curriculum with situations. The curriculum development consisted of two-phases each followed by a peer-review process. In the first phase, focus groups using web-conferencing were conducted to map clinical practice approaches and in the second, authors completed the body of the chapter (e.g., introduction, definition, concepts, etc.) then provided a more detailed description of each task linked to supporting evidence.Results:Sixty-seven authors and thirty-five peer reviewers from various backgrounds (physicians, pharmacists, nurses, respiratory therapists) were recruited. On average, there were 32 tasks and 15 situations per chapter. The average number of focus group meetings needed to develop a map (one map per chapter) was 6.7 (SD ± 3.6). We found that the method greatly facilitated integration between different chapters especially for situations which are not limited to a single goal or intervention. For example, almost half of the tasks of the Hypercapnic Ventilatory Failure chapter map were borrowed from other maps with some modifications, which significantly reduced the authors’ workload and enhanced content integration. This chapter was also linked to 6 other chapters.Conclusions:To facilitate curriculum integration, we have developed a knowledge repository consisting of cognitive maps which organize time-sensitive tasks in the proper sequence; the repository serving as the foundation upon which other educational interventions are then built. While this methodology is demanding, authors welcomed the challenge given the scholarly value of their work, thus creating an interprofessional network of educators across Canada.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-07-10T05:51:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520913270
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Breaking Bad News Training in the COVID-19 Era and Beyond

    • Authors: Gehan Soosaipillai, Stephanie Archer, Hutan Ashrafian, Ara Darzi
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      COVID-19 has disrupted the status quo for healthcare education. As a result, redeployed doctors and nurses are caring for patients at the end of their lives and breaking bad news with little experience or training. This article aims to understand why redeployed doctors and nurses feel unprepared to break bad news through a content analysis of their training curricula. As digital learning has come to the forefront in health care education during this time, relevant digital resources for breaking bad news training are suggested.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-07-10T05:43:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520938706
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Establishing Regional Medical Campuses to Ensure Comparable Experiences:
           Recommendations From a Narrative Review

    • Authors: Julie S Byerley, Johanna H Foster, Gary L Beck Dallaghan
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:Given increasing class sizes and desires to keep costs down, many medical schools are developing regional clinical campuses. We found our regional campus system to be very successful in allowing class size expansion, inspiring a workforce for the state, and concurrently allowing our students to individualize their experience. We desire to articulate our experience, with a review of the relevant evidence, with the goal of assisting other medical schools in their efforts to develop regional medical campuses.Methods:We conducted a narrative literature review to identify considerations for developing regional campuses, taking into consideration our experiences in the process. A medical librarian undertook a literature search for the purposes of this narrative review.Results:Of the 61 articles identified, 14 were included for full-text review. Five facets on branch campus development were identified: relationships, infrastructure, curriculum, recruitment, and accreditation. Within each of these facets we provide further details based on findings from the literature complemented by our experience.Conclusions:Launching a regional campus requires building relationships with clinical partners, ensuring an infrastructure that supports student need and accreditation, comparable curriculum with the same objectives and assessment measures, and aspects of the experience that inspire a student desire to learn in that setting. We share our experience in building successful branch campuses, which have added significantly to our large public school of medicine and its service to our state.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-07-10T05:41:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520936617
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • The Curriculum at the College of Medicine and Medical Sciences at Arabian

    • Authors: Khalid Mubarak Bindayna, Abdelhalim Deifalla
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Arabian Gulf University (AGU) follows a curriculum based on Problem Based Learning (PBL). PBL is a learner-centered approach that empowers students for life-long learning. Students are taught through problems that are designed based on global health problems customized to the local needs. The classroom teaching is complemented through adjunct programs like community health activities and professional skills program. Medical education aims to meet the changing needs of society. Demographics, disease epidemiology and healthcare needs of the gulf countries have changed over 38 years since the inception of AGU. To keep pace with the changing demands, it is imperative that the curriculum is reviewed in the light of advances in technology and newer techniques of medical education.In the present article the curriculum at AGU is reviewed based on the predictors for future medical education and alternative teaching methods that can be integrated to optimize the student outputs are explored.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-07-10T04:50:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520932904
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Expanding OSCE-related Learning Opportunities For Pre-Clerkship Students:
           Insights From an Assessment for Learning Curriculum

    • Authors: Aaron W Bernard, Listy Thomas, Jennifer Rockfeld, Todd Cassese
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Pre-clerkship clinical skills courses at many medical schools use objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) to assess students’ development as it relates to the foundational clinical skills of history taking, communication, and physical examination. The authors report on a curriculum in which OSCEs also serve as a springboard for additional learning by linking them to activities that include patient write-ups, oral presentations, clinical reasoning discussions, clinical question generation, and video review with faculty. The rationale for using OSCEs as an assessment for learning tool is discussed, and some lessons learned are reported.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-07-09T05:15:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520940663
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • The Potential Impact of COVID-19 on the Medical School Application

    • Authors: Rachel L O’Connell, Michael T Kemp, Hasan B Alam
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a significant impact on the medical community. It is suspected that the pandemic will impact the medical school application process due to effects on standardized testing, performance measures, financial burdens, and interview strategies. It is important to consider these issues early to optimize success of future strategies and mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on the application cycle.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-07-08T05:29:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520940666
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Medical Students’ Participation in Longitudinal Community Service During
           Preclerkship Years: A Qualitative Study on Experiences and Perceived

    • Authors: Amier Haidar, Samuel G Erickson, Tiffany Champagne-Langabeer
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      The aim of this study was to qualitatively evaluate medical students perspectives of the benefits of a longitudinal volunteering experience compared with a 1-day community service experience. Fifteen medical students participated in 2 types of community service: (1) longitudinal, weekly volunteering from February to April of 2019 and (2) a single day of community service in March of 2019. Semistructured interviews were conducted to identify medical students perspectives of the impact of volunteering. Interview data was analyzed thematically based on the common ideas expressed by the participants. Four themes emerged: development of communication and interpersonal skills; understanding how to teach; ability to understand community issues in a low socioeconomic status (SES) neighborhood and the improvement of overall well-being. Medical students’ participation in a longitudinal nutrition education volunteer program was perceived as being an effective way to develop communication, interpersonal, and teaching skills. Medical students were able to interact with a diverse and vulnerable community located in a low SES neighborhood, to help them understand current community issues and risk factors.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-07-08T05:06:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520936610
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Making a Medical School Class Whole: A Holistic Approach to Student

    • Authors: Derek Soled, Shivangi Goel
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Student government has a unique role in medical schools, where it can function to strongly nurture the well-being of a class. Student body representatives have a better understanding of the interests of medical students and the adversity they face. Thus, the student government is in a prime position to make positive change in the lives of their classmates with help from the school administration. This article explores these ideas and is written from the perspective of the co-presidents of the student body at a northeast medical school.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-07-06T06:35:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520932554
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Medical Decision-Making in the Physician Hierarchy: A Pilot Pedagogical

    • Authors: John Rosasco, Michele L McCarroll, M David Gothard, Jerry Myers, Patrick Hughes, Alan Schwartz, Richard L George, Rami A Ahmed
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Purpose:Recently, the American College of Graduate Medical Education included medical decision-making as a core competency in several specialties. To date, the ability to demonstrate and measure a pedagogical evolution of medical judgment in a medical education program has been limited. In this study, we aim to examine differences in medical decision-making of physician groups in distinctly different stages of their postgraduate career.Methods:The study recruited physicians with a wide spectrum of disciplines and levels of experience to take part in 4 medical simulations divided into 2 categories, abdominal pain (biliary colic [BC] and renal colic [RC]) or chest pain (cardiac ischemia with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI] and pneumothorax [PTX]). Evaluation of medical decision-making used the Medical Judgment Metric (MJM). The targeted selection criteria for the physician groups are administrative physicians (APs), representing those with the most experience but whose current duties are largely administrative; resident physicians (RPs), those enrolled in postgraduate medical or surgical training; and mastery level physicians (MPs), those deemed to have mastery level experience. The study measured participant demographics, physiological responses, medical judgment scores, and simulation time to case resolution. Outcome differences were analyzed using Fisher exact tests with post hoc Bonferroni-adjusted z tests and single-factor analysis of variance F tests with post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference, as appropriate. The significance threshold was set at P 
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-07-02T11:59:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520925061
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Learning to Speak Up for Patient Safety: Interprofessional Scenarios for
           Training Future Healthcare Professionals

    • Authors: Lise McCoy, Joy H Lewis, Harvey Simon, Denise Sackett, Tala Dajani, Christine Morgan, Aaron Hunt
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:Preventable medical errors represent a leading cause of death in the United States. Effective undergraduate medical education (UME) strategies are needed to train medical students in error prevention, early identification of potential errors, and proactive communication. To address this need, a team of faculty from A.T. Still University’s School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona developed four digital patient safety case scenarios for second-year medical students. These scenarios were designed to integrate interprofessional collaboration and patient safety principles, increase student ability to identify potential errors, and promote proactive communication skills.Methods:Faculty used Qualtrics to create four digital case scenarios on patient safety covering the following domains: communicating about potential drug-to-drug interactions; effective handoffs; human factors errors, such as fatigue, illness, and stress; and conflicts with supervising resident. In fall 2018, 97 second-year medical students completed the entire safety module in dyad or triad teams. As they worked through each case study, student teams completed 11 assessment questions with instant feedback, and participated in short case debrief discussions. Next, each individual student took a 12-question post-test to assess learning. Descriptive statistics were reviewed for the assessment questions, and case critical thinking discussion answers were reviewed to evaluate student comprehension.Results:The mean score for the module was 95.5% (SD= 6.36%, range = 75%-100%). Seventy-eight students completed the post-test, which had a mean score of 96.5% (SD = 6.51%, range = 66.7%-100%). Student written responses to the four case critical thinking discussion prompts indicated a high level of comprehension.Conclusion:Our results demonstrated that digital case studies can provide an innovative mechanism to introduce key patient safety concepts and experiential practice of interprofessional communication in early UME. Our design and implementation of these engaging interprofessional patient safety training modules provided an opportunity for students to learn key communication and safety concepts in small teams. This training method was cost-effective and could be replicated in other online learning or blended learning environments for a wide range of health professions.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-06-29T06:23:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520935469
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Health Professions Students’ Assessment of an Interprofessional Rural
           Public Health-Focused Rotation: A Pilot Study Based on the
           Community-Oriented Primary Care Approach

    • Authors: Patrik Johansson, Devin Nickol, Shannon Maloney, Brandon Grimm, Melissa Tibbits, Mohammad Siahpush, Armando De Alba Rosales, Elizabeth Lyden, Caitlin Schneider, Jaime Gofin
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Using a community-oriented primary care (COPC) approach, the format for this interprofessional rural rotation was a public health focused team project based in a local health department and primary care setting. The target audience included fourth-year dental students, fourth-year undergraduate students in imaging science, second-year master of public health students, third-year medical students enrolled in the MD/MPH program, second-year nurse practitioner students, fourth-year pharmacy students, second-year MSN nursing students, and first-year PhD students. The specific learning objectives of the curriculum were drawn from emphasis areas of the Interprofessional Education Collaborative’s competency domains and included the development of students’ knowledge to function as a member of an interprofessional team to (1) engage diverse health care professionals, (2) communicate with team members to clarify each member’s responsibility in executing components of a public health intervention, (3) choose effective communication tools and techniques, (4) integrate knowledge and experience of other professions, and (5) engage themselves and others to constructively manage disagreements.Additional learning objectives centered on 10 competencies from the Master’s Degree in Public Health Core Competency Project. Assessment of 13 student participants, as a group, showed increased perceived knowledge in 4 out of 5 selected interprofessional emphasis areas and 9 out of 10 public health competencies. Our curriculum provides promising evidence for one interprofessional rural education model with proven short-term effectiveness among six health professions disciplines, in increasing student knowledge in interprofessional emphasis areas and public health competencies.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-06-29T06:20:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520932549
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • The Ophthalmology Chief Resident: Does Surgical Volume Correlate With
           Likelihood of Selection'

    • Authors: Nikisha Q Richards, Reginald K Osardu
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Purpose:Investigate whether number of logged Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) surgical cases correlates with likelihood of Virginia Commonwealth University Health System (VCUHS) ophthalmology residents being selected as the chief resident.Design:Retrospective study.Participants:VCUHS ophthalmology residents from 2006 to 2016.Methods:Analyze association between chief resident selection and logged cases.Main outcome measures:Review number of archived logged ACGME surgical cases of all residents between the years 2006 and 2017. Review chief resident selected each year 2006-2016.Results:Our analysis correctly predicted the chief resident in 2 of the 10 years analyzed.Conclusion:Those residents performing the most surgical procedures in each respective class were not more likely to be selected as chief resident.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-06-26T05:51:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520930779
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Development of a Hybrid, Interprofessional, Interactive Quality

    • Authors: Isabelle S Kusters, Megan E Gregory, Jennifer L Bryan, Sylvia J Hysong, LeChauncy D Woodard, Aanand D Naik, Kyler M Godwin
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Over the past 20 years, there has been an increased focus on quality improvement (QI) in health care, which is critical in achieving care that is patient-centered, safer, timelier, and more effective, efficient, and equitable. At the center of this movement is QI education, which is known to lead to learning, behavior change, and improved outcomes. However, there is a need for the development and provision of long-duration, interactive, interprofessional training in QI, to allow for in-depth learning and application of learned skills. To this end, we designed a curriculum for an established interprofessional, interactive, web-based QI fellowship for doctorally prepared clinicians. Curricular content is delivered virtually to geographically dispersed learners over a 2-year time span. The didactic curriculum and experiential learning opportunities provide learners with the foundational knowledge and practical skills to engage in—and eventually, lead—QI initiatives around the country. Evaluation of learner satisfaction and cognitive, affective, and skills-based learning has found that this model is an effective method to train geographically distributed learners. A hybrid training structure is used, where learners interact with the material through 3 distinct delivery modes: (1) virtual instruction in QI topics; (2) face-to-face training, mentorship, and the opportunity for practical application of applied knowledge and skills through the completion of QI projects; and (3) opportunities for other types of training, tailored to each learner’s Individual Development Plan. This training program model holds value for QI learning in various health care settings, which are interprofessional by nature. These foundational concepts of hybrid learning to distributed learners—wherein an instructor delivers curriculum in small, face-to-face batches, interprofessional learning is supplemented in a virtual, longitudinal manner, and learners are allowed the opportunity to put skills into action for real-world problems in interdisciplinary clinical teams—can be applied in a multitude of settings, with comparatively lower time and cost expenditure than traditional training programs.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-06-26T05:48:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520930778
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Educational Strategies to Develop and Implement a Comprehensive Health
           Care Model Focused on Primary Care in Colombia

    • Authors: Gustavo-Adolfo Quintero, John Vergel, Ángelo Laverde, Luis-Carlos Ortíz
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      The traditional, subject-based medical curriculum in Colombia has been mainly focused on the biomedical model proposed by Flexner in 1910. This means learning outcomes or competences are framed on curative care and the specialization of physicians. Students are mainly trained to work in highly complex hospitals in urban centers and encouraged to enroll (as soon as possible) in residencies. This curriculum lacks pertinence to implement the new Colombian Primary Health Care Model as the focus is a shift toward the promotion of health and prevention of illness. Recommendations to provide light on how to implement a change for ensuring pertinence of medical education in this context are discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-06-26T05:42:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520930260
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Peak Performance: A Communications-Based Leadership and Teamwork
           Simulation for Fourth-Year Medical Students

    • Authors: Sarah Smithson, Gary Beck Dallaghan, Jason Crowner, Laura Trollinger Derry, Akshitha (Ammu) Vijayakumar, Mindy Storrie, Timothy P Daaleman
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:Medical education has traditionally been rooted in the teaching of health and disease processes, with little attention to the development of teamwork and leadership competencies.Objective:In an era of value-based health care provided by high-functioning teams, new approaches are needed to develop communication, leadership, and teamwork skills for medical students.Design:We designed and piloted a simulation-based educational activity called Peak Performance that linked a workbook, which focused on self-reflection on communication and leadership skills, with professional coaching. The simulation scenario placed students in the role of an upper-level resident on an inpatient service, followed by a small group debrief with students, a clinical faculty member, and a professional executive coach. After the debriefing session, students were invited to complete a self-reflection workbook within 1 week of the initial simulation. The final element of the curriculum was an individualized session with an executive coach. Peak Performance was offered to all fourth-year medical students enrolled in the Social and Health Systems Science required course at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine.Results:Pre-/post-self-assessments of leadership competencies were completed by students. Pre-simulation self-assessment scores ranged from 3.72 to 4.33 on a 5-point scale. The lowest scores were in “Managing Conflict” and “Managing Others.” The highest score was in “Self-Awareness.” The post-simulation scores decreased in every competency, with “Managing Others” dropping significantly from 3.72 pre-simulation to 3.36 post-simulation (0.31, P  50%).Conclusions:A novel simulation-based educational activity linked to professional coaching is a feasible and impactful strategy to develop leadership, communication, and teamwork skills in medical students. Student insight and self-awareness increased as evidenced by a decrease in competency self-assessment after guided reflection and individualized coaching.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-06-25T08:06:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520929990
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Medical Students and COVID-19: Challenges and Supportive Strategies

    • Authors: Sonal Chandratre
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to spread across the world, it is also adversely affecting medical student education. In addition, COVID-19 poses several challenges to medical students’ physical and mental health and their professional identity formation. Medical students are experiencing increasing anxiety due to the COVID-19 disruption. Medical students show higher rates of depression, suicidal ideation, and stigmatization around depression and are less likely to seek support. It is therefore important to safeguard their mental health and implement effective strategies to support their educational, physical, mental, and professional well-being.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-06-24T07:09:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520935059
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Current State of Transgender Medical Education in the United States and
           Canada: Update to a Scoping Review

    • Authors: Ian T Nolan, Gaines Blasdel, Samuel N Dubin, Teddy G Goetz, Richard E Greene, Shane D Morrison
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:The published literature on education about transgender health within health professions curricula was previously found to be sporadic and fragmented. Recently, more inclusive and holistic approaches have been adopted. We summarize advances in transgender health education.Methods:A 5-stage scoping review framework was followed, including a literature search for articles relevant to transgender health care interventions in 5 databases (Education Source, LGBT Source, MedEd Portal, PsycInfo, PubMed) from January 2017 to September 2019. Search results were screened to include original articles reporting outcomes of educational interventions with a transgender health component that included MD/DO students in the United States and Canada. A gray literature search identified continuing medical education (CME) courses from 12 health professional associations with significant transgender-related content.Results:Our literature search identified 966 unique publications published in the 2 years since our prior review, of which 10 met inclusion criteria. Novel educational formats included interdisciplinary interventions, post-residency training including CME courses, and online web modules, all of which were effective in improving competencies related to transgender health care. Gray literature search resulted 15 CME courses with learning objectives appropriate to the 7 professional organizations who published them.Conclusions:Current transgender health curricula include an expanding variety of educational intervention formats driven by their respective educational context, learning objectives, and placement in the health professional curriculum. Notable limitations include paucity of objective educational intervention outcomes measurements, absence of long-term follow-up data, and varied nature of intervention types. A clear best practice for transgender curricular development has not yet been identified in the literature.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-06-24T07:01:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520934813
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Reforming Undergraduate Psychiatry Training in Ukraine

    • Authors: Oksana Kopchak, Irina Pinchuk, Boris Ivnev, Norbert Skokauskas
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      In Ukraine, mental health problems are common yet the mental health services available are still old fashioned and based on healthcare approaches used in the Soviet Union, providing mainly inpatient services and rudimentary community services. The World Health Organization (WHO) introduced the Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) to reduce the mental health treatment gap all over the world and 2 years later introduced the WHO mhGAP-Intervention Guide (mhGAP-IG), version 2.0 (2016) as not only an educational tool, but also an evidence based guideline to scale up services for mental, neurological and substance use (MNS) conditions with an objective to reduce gap between available health systems capacity and resources for mental health. The main aim of this paper is to describe reforms of undergraduate psychiatry training in Ukraine using Kyiv Medical University as a case example. Kyiv Medical University (KMU) is the first university in Ukraine to introduce the mhGAP-IG in Ukraine. The revised psychiatry curricula in KMU aims to strengthens the evidence based teaching practices, to put emphasis on community orientated mental health care, and to use interactive teaching methods that the university hopes will attract more future doctors to psychiatry and ideally contribute towards the reduction of the mental health treatment-gap in Ukraine.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-06-22T07:03:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520924000
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • An Exploration of Knowledge and Attitudes of Medical Students and
           Rheumatologists to Placebo and Nocebo Effects: Threshold Concepts in
           Clinical Practice

    • Authors: Mark H Arnold, Damien Finniss, Georgina M Luscombe, Ian Kerridge
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Introduction:Understanding placebo and nocebo responses (context/meaning effects [CMEs]) is fundamental to physician agency. Specific instruction in CMEs is often lacking in medical education. Patient–practitioner interactions may challenge medical students’ understanding of biomedical causality and the nexus between this, practical ethics and professionalism across various conceptual and applied aspects of CMEs. This study compared the corpus of knowledge and phronesis related to CMEs between Australian graduate medical students and rheumatologists to gain a sophisticated understanding of this relationship to inform curriculum development.Method:In 2013 and 2014, the authors surveyed third-year medical students undertaking a graduate programme in an Australian medical school and Australian rheumatologists to ascertain their understanding of placebo and nocebo responses. The survey ascertained (1) the alignment of the respondents’ understanding of CMEs with accepted facts and concepts; (2) opinions on the ethical status of CMEs; and (3) responses to 2 scenarios designed to explore matters of biomedical causality, practical ethics and professionalism.Results:There were 88 completed surveys returned, 53 rheumatologists and 35 students. Similar proportions within each group identified CMEs, with most (n = 79/88 [89.8%]) correctly recognising a placebo (rheumatologists: 50 [94.3%], students: 29 [82.9%]) and approximately three-quarters (n = 65/88 [73.9%]) correctly recognising nocebo effects (rheumatologists: 39 [73.6%], students: 26 [74.3%]). Statistically significant differences between practitioners and students were observed in relation to the following: placebo responders and placebo responsiveness; placebos as a ‘diagnostic tool’; placebos usage in clinical practice and research, and nocebo effects.Conclusions:Physicians require an awareness of CMEs and the fact that they arise from and influence the effective agency of health care professionals. Curricular emphasis is needed to permit an honest assessment of the components that influence when, how and why patient outcomes arise, and how one’s agency might have neutral or negative effects but could be inclined towards positive and away from negative patient outcomes.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-06-22T02:24:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520930764
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Impact of Simulator-Based Crisis Resource Management Training on
           Collective Orientation in Anaesthesia: Pre-Post Survey Study With
           Interprofessional Anaesthesia Teams

    • Authors: Markus Flentje, Hendrik Eismann, Lion Sieg, Vera Hagemann, Lars Friedrich
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Theory:Individuals have different qualities, levels of willingness, and degrees of engagement for working in teams. This behaviour is termed ‘Collective Orientation’ (CO). Collective orientation can be trained and has a positive influence on team processes. Here, we investigated the effect of a simulator-based, Crisis Resource Management team training upon the participants’ CO.Hypotheses:We hypothesized (1) the scales of CO and Presence for lab-based microworld research (PLBMR) are applicable to the German anaesthesia teams, (2) the CO can be influenced by means of simulation training, (3) the training effect is dependent on sex and/or profession, and (4) the change of CO depends on the perceived presence of the participants in the scenario.Method:In a pre-post study, 66 nurses and doctors from various anaesthetic departments took part in a 1-day training course to improve non-technical skills. The primary outcome was the mean difference between the CO measured (via questionnaires) immediately before (T1) and after (T2) training. The change was then tested for dependence upon other variables, such as sex, professional group, and immersion into the simulation scenarios.Results:Collective orientation improved significantly after training (mean difference: 0.2; P 
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-06-22T02:21:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520931773
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Reorganizing the History of Present Illness to Improve Verbal Case
           Presenting and Clinical Diagnostic Reasoning Skills of Medical Students:
           The All-Inclusive History of Present Illness

    • Authors: Adam Kilian, Laura A Upton, John N Sheagren
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      The Institute of Medicine states that most diagnostic errors are caused by flaws in clinician diagnostic thinking. Accurately inferring the correct diagnosis from the patient history is the best way to improve diagnostic accuracy and efficiency. Such an improvement is contingent upon training early phase medical learners how to organize data from a patient history to arrive at the most likely diagnosis of the patient’s chief health concern (CC). We describe how organizing the traditional history of present illness into what our trainees have come to call the “All-Inclusive History of Present Illness” (AIHPI) by applying the Bayesian statistical concepts of chronologically sequencing, as suggested by Skeff, both relevant historical risks and known medical events generate a series of pre-event probabilities of the most likely disease causing a patient’s CC. Our trainees have enthusiastically recognized that the AIHPI organization process helps them improve both their ability to deliver well-organized, succinct verbal case presentations and the efficiency of generating and communicating what they think is the most likely disease causing a patient’s CC.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-06-10T10:37:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520928996
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Incoming Interns Recognize Inadequate Physical Examination as a Cause of
           Patient Harm

    • Authors: Stefani Russo, Katherine Berg, Joshua Davis, Robyn Davis, Lee Ann Riesenberg, Charity Morgan, Lucas Chambers, Dale Berg
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Introduction:As providers of a large portion of the care delivered at academic health centers, medical trainees have a unique perspective on medical error. Despite data suggesting that errors in physical examination (PE) can lead to adverse patient events, we are not aware of previous studies exploring medical trainee perceptions of the relationship between patient harm and inadequate PE. We investigated whether first-year residents at a large tertiary care academic medical center perceive inadequate PE as a cause of adverse patient events.Methods:As part of a larger survey given to incoming interns at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital orientation (2014-2018), the authors examined the perceptions of inadequate PE and adverse patient events. We also examined other details related to PE educational experiences and self-reported PE proficiency. The survey was developed a priori by the authors and assessed for face validity by expert faculty.Results:Ninety-eight percent of respondents (695/706) reported that inadequate PE leads to adverse patient events. Seventy percent (492/706) believe that inadequate PE causes adverse events in up to 10% of all patient encounters, and 30% (214/706) reported that inadequate PE causes adverse events in greater than 10% of patient encounters. Forty-five percent of surveyed interns (319/715) had witnessed a patient safety issue as a result of an inadequate PE. Only 2% of surveyed interns (11/706) did not think patients experience adverse events because of inadequate PEs. Ninety percent of surveyed interns (643/712) reported feeling proficient in performing PE. From 2015 to 2018, 80% (486/604) indicated that they received “just enough” PE education.Conclusion:Nearly all incoming interns surveyed at our institution believe that inadequate PE leads to adverse patient events, and 45% have witnessed an adverse patient event due to inadequate PE. We urge clinicians, educators, and health care administrators to consider enhanced PE skills training as an important and viable approach to medical error reduction, and as such, we propose a 5-pronged intervention for improvement, including a redesign of PE curricula, development of checklist-based assessment methods, ongoing skills training and assessment of physicians-in-practice, rigorous study of PE maneuvers, and research into whether enhanced PE skills improve patient outcomes.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-06-10T10:35:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520928993
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Are We Conditioning EBM Researchers to be Innovative or Narrow'

    • Authors: Samuel Seery
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      This short essay considers preferential publication and impact factor as stimuli, instrumentally conditioning medical researchers. The author postulates that publication houses emphasising publication of the highest levels of evidence (ie, meta-analyses) at the detriment of other levels of evidence, is inadvertently guiding researchers to overlook necessary research for more individualised care. The author recommends preferential publication and impact factor should be openly discussed by medical educators to ensure we are training researchers to conduct meaningful, high quality, innovative research.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-06-09T11:10:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520924002
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Design Thinking in Medical Education: The Key Features and Practical

    • Authors: John Sandars, Poh-Sun Goh
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Design thinking is a process that applies both creativity and innovation to iteratively develop and implement a new product. The design thinking process also enhances design thinking skills that are essential for personal and professional life in a complex world. Health care is increasingly being faced with complex problems, and the education of current and future doctors in design thinking is an important curricular challenge for all medical educators. Medical educators will need to enhance their own design thinking skills to enable them to effectively respond to this challenge.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-06-04T04:02:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520926518
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Integrating an Interprofessional Geriatric Active Learning Workshop Into
           Undergraduate Medical Curriculum

    • Authors: Wanda Jirau-Rosaly, Shilpa P Brown, Elena A Wood, Nicole Rockich-Winston
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Purpose:The aging population in the United States poses a substantial challenge to our health care system, and particularly affects the training of physicians in geriatric care. To introduce undergraduate medical students to a variety of clinical skills and concepts emphasized in geriatrics, we created an interprofessional geriatric workshop and examined changes in student perceptions of working in interprofessional teams, knowledge regarding geriatric concepts, perceptions of the pre-work material, and suggestions for curricular improvement to enhance the workshop for future students.Methods:Second-year medical students participated in a 4-hour workshop with tasks that emphasized activities of daily living, geriatric physical assessment, end-of-life discussions, Beers Criteria, and a home health assessment. Pre- and post-surveys were administered including the Students Perceptions of Interprofessional Clinical Education–Revised (SPICE-R) survey and a knowledge assessment. Student perceptions of pre-work and overall program assessment were captured after the workshop. Descriptive statistics and paired t tests assessed for significant differences. Emerging themes were analyzed using the Glaser constant comparative method.Results:Of the 186 medical student participants, 178 students completed the SPICE-R survey, demonstrating significant increases in students’ perceptions of the value of interprofessional education (P 
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-06-03T09:58:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520923680
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Experiential Application of a Culinary Medicine Cultural Immersion Program
           for Health Professionals

    • Authors: Melissa D Olfert, Rachel A Wattick, Rebecca L Hagedorn
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Nutrition is a key factor in preventing and treating long-term disease. Patients should be advised to follow evidence-based dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean diet, which has shown success in preventing or managing a variety of long-term diseases. All health professionals can play a role in providing nutrition advice to patients; however, many have shown an overall low nutrition knowledge and self-efficacy in counseling patients. Because of this, there is a call by health professional organizations for an increase in the applied nutrition education of health professionals. Increasing Culinary Health Opportunities for Professionals is a learn-first, practice second experiential learning program with currently practicing or aspiring health professionals aimed to increase nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy, attitudes, and dietary intake. Currently practicing health professionals (n = 15) and aspiring health professionals (n = 14) were recruited to participate in a 16-week online course on culinary medicine and the Mediterranean diet followed by a 2-week cultural immersion in Tuscany, Italy. Participants were taught the Mediterranean diet and lifestyle, culinary medicine, nutrition counseling, and cultural comparisons in the online course. In Tuscany, participants completed culinary lessons, organic farm tours, food production facility tours, and various tastings of Mediterranean foods. Participants completed a 51-item survey that measured nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy, attitudes, and Mediterranean diet adherence at baseline, post-online education, and post-cultural immersion. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to determine differences in mean scores between cohort 1 (currently practicing) and cohort 2 (aspiring). Results showed that cohort 1 had a greater increase in knowledge (1.07 ± 0.40 vs −0.87 ± 0.40, P = .0069) and self-efficacy (0.74 ± 0.24 vs 0.01 ± 0.24, P = 0.0441) from pre-post course, but at the conclusion of the cultural immersion, there were no significant differences between cohorts in mean changes in attitude, knowledge, self-efficacy, or Mediterranean diet scores from baseline. These results suggest that implementation of this curriculum can be equally effective in increasing nutrition-related attitudes, self-efficacy, and Mediterranean diet adherence for both currently practicing and aspiring health professionals.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-06-03T09:52:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520927396
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Assessing Medical Student Interest in Training About Medications for
           Opioid Use Disorder: A Pilot Intervention

    • Authors: Jennifer Thomas, Stephanie Slat, Gregory Woods, Kristen Cross, Colin Macleod, Pooja Lagisetty
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Objective:Educating medical students about buprenorphine may lessen barriers to providing treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) by addressing stigma, removing the need to complete training while practicing, and normalizing it as a pharmacological option. We conducted a needs assessment to measure student interest in buprenorphine waiver training and pilot tested an online course with an in-person discussion for feasibility and acceptability.Methods:All 2019 graduating students were surveyed to assess interest in completing buprenorphine waiver training and understand in which format they preferred to receive the training. Interested students received information about a free online buprenorphine waiver course and an optional in-person case discussion with a faculty member. Baseline and follow-up surveys were used to assess the intervention.Results:Out of 228 students contacted, 173 (75.9%) responded to at least 1 survey. Of the 228, 62 (27.2%) responded to the initial survey asking students about receiving buprenorphine waiver training. The 166 non-responding students were sent a second survey, and 111 (66.9%) students responded. Of those 111, 29 (26.1%) indicated they forgot to respond to the first survey, and 24 (21.6%) did not see the survey. Of the 62 interested students, 41 students (66.1%) wanted a combination of online and in-person training. Of the 62, 30 (48.4%) interested students completed the online course and 10 (16.1%) attended the case discussion. While not significantly different, a higher proportion of students (88.9%) indicated being likely to prescribe buprenorphine after attending the case discussion than after completing the online course only (69.2%).Conclusions:This assessment suggested that most of the medical students are willing to complete a buprenorphine waiver course. Feedback indicated an in-person component could increase future prescribing more than an online-only curriculum, and additional advertising could result in higher participation.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-06-02T05:45:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520923994
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Increasing Internal Medicine Resident Confidence in Leading Inpatient
           Cardiopulmonary Resuscitations and Improving Patient Outcomes

    • Authors: Nathan T Douthit, Christine M McBride, Erin Coleman Townsley
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Introduction:Residents do not feel confident or competent in leading inpatient resuscitations. This is a crucial part of training future internists. Our objective was to develop a low-cost intervention to improve resident confidence in leading cardiopulmonary resuscitations and patient outcomes.Methods:A “code-conference” including a lecture on a high-yield topic, a low-fidelity simulation, and review of resident-led resuscitations was created at our institution for the 2017-2018 academic year. Patient outcomes were assessed using objective measures of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival to discharge (sDC). Confidence was assessed via survey before and after the intervention, with a focus on beginning postgraduate year 2 (PGY-2) residents.Results:In 2017, 8 out of 8 (100%) PGY-2 residents responded, while in 2018, 8 out of 10 (80%) responded. Patient outcomes did not show a statistically significant improvement. There was a trend toward positive outcomes in the resident group alone. Return of spontaneous circulation increased from 63% to 79% (P = .08, total n = 97). Resident confidence was not improved in a statistically significant way, but there was a trend toward improvement and residents agreed it was an important part of their training.Discussion:There was no statistically significant improvement in code-blue outcomes; however, there was a positive trend with increased ROSC and stable sDC for resident-led resuscitations, despite hospital-wide decreases in both. Resident confidence also showed a positive trend with no statistical significant changes. It is possible to institute a low-cost high-yield intervention to improved resident confidence in leading code-blue resuscitations. It may also improve patient outcomes; however, further studies are needed to determine if it can improve patient survival outcomes.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-05-26T07:06:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520923716
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • A Faculty Development Graduate Medical Education Retreat to Teach and
           Address Social Determinants of Health

    • Authors: Johanna Martinez, Alice Fornari, Venice VanHuse, Ethan Fried, Omolara T Uwemedimo, Eun Ji Kim, Joseph Conigliaro, Andrew C Yacht
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:Social determinants of health (SDH) account for a large percentage of health outcomes. Therefore, ensuring providers can address SDH is paramount yet curricula in this area is limited.Aim:The authors aimed to raise awareness, identify learning opportunities, foster positive attitudes, and equip educators to implement SDH curriculum.Setting and participants:This retreat occurred at a large academic institution and had over 130 participants who represented 56 distinct training programs and over 20 disciplines.Program description:The retreat was titled “Social Determinants of Health: Walking in Your Patients’ Shoes.” The retreat was holistic and used a multidimensional approach that included traditional learning, team-based learning, reflective practice, and prompted action.Program evaluation:The evaluation of this retreat included electronic surveys and both qualitative and quantitative data. The retreat’s quality and effectiveness at improving participants’ knowledge and skill in addressing SDH was highly rated and resulted in numerous programs, including surgical and subspecialty programs reporting adopting SDH curricular and clinical workflow changes.Discussion:The retreat was successful and reached a wide and diverse set of faculty educators and can serve as an education model to the graduate medical education community on how to start to develop “physician-citizens.”
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-05-15T10:56:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520915495
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Case-Based Learning as an Effective Tool in Teaching Pharmacology to
           Undergraduate Medical Students in a Large Group Setting

    • Authors: Gurleen Kaur, Jagdeep Rehncy, Karamdeep Singh Kahal, Jaspreet Singh, Vidushi Sharma, Prithpal Singh Matreja, Harmandeep Grewal
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:The need for case-based learning in basic subjects is being recognized world over. Early clinical illustrations and actual clinical exposure enable students to associate basic science and real patient situations, probably increasing their retention of knowledge. The study was conducted to introduce an alternate method of teaching-learning in pharmacology in a large classroom setting to integrate pharmacology into clinical setting for better learning and understanding of the subject.Methods:Ninety-four students of second professional MBBS of a medical college in Punjab were divided into 2 groups and were taught a 2-hour topic in pharmacology using case-based learning (CBL) method and didactic lecture (DL) method using a crossover design. Their attendance and written test score at the end of teaching session were compared. Feedback from students and faculty was taken by prestructured questionnaires.Results:There was an increase in students’ attendance (P = .008) in CBL sessions but insignificant difference in their performance (P = .98) in the tests. Most (84%) of the students felt that CBL is a better method of teaching-learning than traditional DL. The teaching faculty felt that the students looked more interested and were themselves more motivated for the newer method of teaching.Conclusions:Case-based learning led to improvement in student motivation, satisfaction, and engagement. Most students and faculty accepted that CBL was an effective learning tool for pharmacology teaching in a large group setting and supported the incorporation of CBL into traditional DL teaching.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-05-13T06:45:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520920640
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Medical Student Workshop Improves Student Confidence in Working With
           Trained Medical Interpreters

    • Authors: Donna Coetzee, Anne G. Pereira, Johannah M Scheurer, Andrew PJ Olson
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Introduction:Many physicians care for patients whose primary spoken language is not English, and these interactions present challenges in physician-patient communication. These challenges contribute to the significant health disparities experienced by populations with limited English proficiency (LEP). Using trained medical interpreters is an important step in addressing this problem, as it improves communication outcomes. Despite this, many medical education programs have little formal instruction on how to work effectively with interpreters.Methods:To address this gap, we created an interactive workshop led by professional trained interpreters and faculty facilitators for medical students in their clinical years. Students were asked to evaluate the session based on relevance to their clinical experiences and helpfulness in preparing them for interactions with patients with LEP.Results:Immediately after the session, students reported that the clinical scenarios presented were similar those seen on their clinical clerkships. They also reported increased confidence in their ability to work with interpreters. On later follow-up, students reported that the instruction helped prepare them for subsequent patient interactions that involved interpreters.Conclusion:A workshop is an effective method for improving medical student comfort and confidence when working with interpreters for populations with LEP.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-05-11T04:35:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520918862
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Inequities Faced by Female Doctors Serving Communities of Need

    • Authors: Ana Motta-Moss, Zainab Hussain
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      The reasons for sex inequity in medicine are complex and partly interface ethnic background, specialty choice, and practice location. Multiple factors influence career choices including cultural values, balancing family responsibilities with professional growth, and career mentoring and support. Over the last 40 years, the Sophie Davis/CUNY School of Medicine (CSOM) has pursued a mission to increase diversity in medicine at the same time in which it has fostered the importance of primary care and service in underserved areas of New York State. Data from 1524 CSOM graduates show an increase in the number of women and underrepresented groups, with about a quarter of them working in Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSAs). When compared with their male counterparts, our female graduates report lower income for similar work hours, with this disparity increasing slightly between female and male doctors working in HPSAs. In addition, our female graduates have chosen primary care specialties at a ratio of nearly 2:1 when compared with their male peers. Despite these inequities, our female graduates report satisfaction with their career choices, primarily due to a strong commitment to serving back patients in those communities where some of them come from. More research is needed to identify specific factors that perpetuate pay inequity at the state level to minimize the implications of disparity for women doctors, particularly those working in low-income communities.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-04-23T06:17:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520915895
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Training in Interventional Radiology: A Simulation-Based Approach

    • Authors: Indrajeet Mandal, Utkarsh Ojha
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Innovations in medical technology have revolutionised both medical and surgical practice. Indeed, with such innovations, training for specific specialties has become more advanced and streamlined. However, despite these novel approaches to train students and specialist trainees, training for interventional radiology (IR) is lagging. While the reason for this lag remains contentious, one of the primary reasons for this issue may be the lack of standardisation for IR training due to a scarcity of specific guidelines for the delivery of IR procedural training. Interventional radiologists manage a vast array of conditions and perform various procedures. However, training for each procedure is largely dependent on the centre and access to a range of cases. Recently, the use of simulation technology has allowed this issue to be addressed. Simulation technology allows trainees to participate in a range of procedures regardless of their centre and availability of cases. Specialties such as cardiology and vascular surgery have already adopted simulation-based technology for trainees and have commented positively on this approach. However, simulation-based training is still lacking in the IR training pathway. Here, we evaluate why IR training can benefit from a more simulation-based approach. We further consider the cost-effectiveness of implementing simulation-based training nationally. Finally, we outline the potential pitfalls that may arise of introducing simulation-based training for IR trainees. We conclude that despite its disadvantages, simulation training will prove to be more cost-efficient and allow standardisation of IR training.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-04-13T07:31:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520912744
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Teaching “Shock Pathophysiology” by Flipped Classroom: Views
           and Perspectives

    • Authors: Rehana Rehman, Satwat Hashmi, Rozmeen Akbar, Syeda Sadia Fatima
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Flipped classroom (FCR) is an active learning pedagogical method in which the students prepare prior to class using different modalities, for example, reading materials and videos, and afterward spend the time in class discussing the content and reinforcing the concepts. We chose to replace one problem-based case on “Shock” with flipped-style teaching in the respiration circulation module of a private medical university. Our objective was to use the clinical presentation of “Shock” to open a window to interrelate basic science concepts of cardiovascular physiology and pathology. It aimed to merge the case-based discussion with small-group discussions in the form of FCR activity. The qualitative study gives an overview of comments of facilitators, observers, and leadership of the Department and University obtained during focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. Thematic analysis of responses emphasized the importance of FCR as an effective teaching learning modality, which can be made more effective by careful selection of topic and provision of facilities to support technology-enhanced learning. The discussions with facilitators, observers, and leadership revealed its usefulness through student’s engagement and increased participation to build learning of the key concepts. Student satisfaction in these activities can be enhanced by construction of knowledge acquired in non–face-to-face component with substantial pre-reading materials, videos, peer discussions, quizzes, and prompt feedback.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-03-02T10:57:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520910853
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Scaffolding Clinical Reasoning of Health Care Students: A Qualitative
           Exploration of Clinicians’ Perceptions on an Interprofessional Obstetric

    • Authors: Cora LF Visser, Anouk Wouters, Gerda Croiset, Rashmi A Kusurkar
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Purpose:Interprofessional education (IPE) on a ward supports students to generate interprofessional patient care plans as a means to learn about the roles, responsibilities, and clinical reasoning of other professions. We investigated how clinicians guide the clinical reasoning of students from their own and other professions and whether clinicians from nursing, midwifery, and medicine could scaffold students from all professions, that is, by providing just-in-time and tailored support.Methods:Nine supervising clinicians from medicine, nursing, and midwifery were interviewed and a repeat interview held 3 to 15 weeks later; one nurse supervisor was interviewed only once. Using conventional content analysis, themes were identified inductively. Next, we applied an existing scaffolding framework to conceptualise how clinicians supported the clinical reasoning in an IPE setting.Results:Themes were clinicians’ interventions and intentions, results of interventions and of IPE, characteristics of students and clinicians, interactions between clinicians and students, and logistics. Clinicians applied various interventions and expressed several intentions to guide the learning of students from all professions. Clinicians stimulated students’ clinical reasoning by structuring meetings, asking students to explain their thoughts to each other and through giving group assignments. Thus, clinicians used peer-assisted learning for the students. By collaborating with other supervising clinicians regarding the form and amount of guidance to give to the students, clinicians applied peer-assisted learning for themselves as well.Conclusion:Clinicians can learn to scaffold the clinical reasoning of students from different professions, when they are provided with training, good examples, and structures. An existing scaffolding framework can serve as an overview of aims and interventions to provide just-in-time guidance to students from all professions. The scaffolding framework is useful for training clinicians and for depicting the pedagogical approach for IPE wards.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-02-24T08:51:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520907915
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Implementing a Competency-Based Approach to Anatomy Teaching: Beginning
           With the End in Mind

    • Authors: Alireza Jalali, Dahn Jeong, Stephanie Sutherland
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:The shift in the medical education system from a time-based to a competency-based model has encouraged its adoption and application in competency-based education in anatomy classrooms, such as team-based learning models and flipped classroom models. This pilot study aimed to build on previous work of the linkages between anatomy-based learning (a flipped classroom model inspired by a modified team-based learning) and student learning and engagement, and further to assess the linkage between anatomy-based learning and academic performance.Methods:A sequential mixed-methods design was employed to first gather and analyse quantitative data, including confidential student first semester scores in anatomy: gender, stream, anatomy-based learning, and final anatomy overall mark. The quantitative phase was followed by a qualitative phase in which a series of 8 anatomy laboratories were observed (4 anatomy-based learning and 4 traditional). Thematic analysis was performed on the observation data.Results:Aggregate anatomy-based learning and traditional stream tests, and final unit scores were compared. The anatomy-based learning and final unit scores showed little difference between students in the anatomy-based learning and students in the traditional stream. Students using anatomy-based learning had an aggregate score of 1.15 and final aggregate mark of 72, whereas students in the traditional section had an aggregate score of 1.19 and final mark of 79. Qualitative phase was undertaken to try to assess the linkages between anatomy-based learning and student learning. Observations showed that students in the anatomy-based learning section spent more time on task as compared with their peers in the traditional stream. The anatomy-based learning students also seemed to practice more self-directed learning and employed more multimodal learning strategies than the traditional section stream.Discussion/conclusions:Although the quantitative results of this study showed no significant difference in mean scores between anatomy-based learning and traditional designs, it was possible to observe the potential of flipped classroom model in engaging students in individual preparation, in team-based learning, and in consensus-based learning approaches.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-02-19T06:29:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520907899
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Integration of Latin American Complementary and Alternative Medicine
           Topics Into a Doctor of Pharmacy Curriculum and Survey of Student
           Attitudes and Behaviors

    • Authors: Paul M Boylan, Andrea Murzello, Jayesh Parmar, Nicholas K Chow
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      One in 3 adults report using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and as many as 7 in 10 Hispanic patients report CAM use. Pharmacists often encounter patients who use CAM products and therefore college of pharmacy curricular standards require both CAM and cultural competence training; however, there is little guidance for colleges on how to best deliver this material. In Fall 2017, Larkin University College of Pharmacy implemented a curricular change wherein first professional (P1) year pharmacy students selected, researched, and presented on a CAM product from Latin America. Pre-post surveys were administered to the students to measure their attitudes and behaviors toward CAM before and after completing their project. Survey results showed that student attitudes and behaviors toward CAM were largely unchanged; however, post-survey results showed that students agreed that they knew where to search for Latin American CAM information (P 
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-02-03T11:15:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520904121
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Goal-Setting on a Geriatric Medicine Rotation: A Pilot Study

    • Authors: Jillian Alston, Evelyn Cheung, Dov Gandell
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:Formal goal-setting has been shown to enhance performance and improve educational experiences. We initiated a standardized goal-setting intervention for all residents rotating through a Geriatric Medicine rotation.Objectives:This study aims to describe the feasibility of a goal-setting intervention on a geriatric medicine rotation, the resources required, and the barriers to implementation. As well, this study aims to describe the learning goals residents created regarding content and quality.Methods:A pilot goal-setting intervention was initiated. A goal-setting form was provided at the beginning of their rotation and reviewed at the end of the rotation. Residents were invited to complete an anonymous online survey to gather feedback on the initiative. Goals were analysed for content and quality. Feedback from the survey results was incorporated into the goal-setting process.Results:Between March and December 2018, 26 of 44 residents completed the goal-setting initiative. Explanations for the poor adherence included limited protected time for faculty and residents to engage in coaching, its voluntary nature, and trainee absence during orientation. Reasons for difficulty in achieving goals included lack of faculty and trainee time and difficulty assisting residents in achieving goals when no clinical opportunities arose. Although only 59% of residents completed the intervention, if goal-setting took place, most of the goals were specific (71 of 77; 92%) and 35 of 77 (45.5%) goals were not related to medical knowledge.Conclusions:This pilot study outlines the successes and barriers of a brief goal-setting intervention during a Geriatric Medicine rotation. Adherence was limited; however, of those who did complete the intervention, the creation of specific goals with a short, structured goal-setting form was possible. To enhance the intervention, goal-setting form completion should be enforced and efforts should be made to engage in mid-rotation check-ins and coaching.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-01-30T10:46:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120519893989
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Measuring Students’ Perceptions of the Medical School Learning
           Environment: Translation, Transcultural Adaptation, and Validation of 2
           Instruments to the Brazilian Portuguese Language

    • Authors: Rodolfo F Damiano, Aline O Furtado, Betina N da Silva, Oscarina da S Ezequiel, Alessandra LG Lucchetti, Lisabeth F DiLalla, Sean Tackett, Robert B Shochet, Giancarlo Lucchetti
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:Although learning environment (LE) is an important component of medical training, there are few instruments to investigate LE in Latin American and Brazilian medical schools. Therefore, this study aims to translate, adapt transculturally, and validate the Medical School Learning Environment Scale (MSLES) and the Johns Hopkins Learning Environment Scale (JHLES) to the Brazilian Portuguese language.Method:This study was carried out between June 2016 and October 2017. Both scales have been translated and cross-culturally adapted to Brazilian Portuguese Language and then back translated and approved by the original authors. A principal components analysis (PCA) was performed for both the MSLES and the JHLES. Test–retest reliability was assessed by comparing the first administration of the MSLES and the JHLES with a second administration 45 days later. Validity was assessed by comparing the MSLES and the JHLES with 2 overall LE perception questions; a sociodemographic questionnaire; and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21).Results:A total of 248 out of 334 (74.2%) first- to third-year medical students from a Brazilian public university were included. Principal component analysis generated 4 factors for MSLES and 7 factors for JHLES. Both showed good reliability for the total scale (MSLES α = .809; JHLES α = .901), as well as for each subdomain. Concurrent and convergent validity were observed by the strong correlations found between both scale totals (r = 0.749), as well as with both general LE questions: recommend the school to a friend (MSLES: r = 0.321; JHLES: r = 0.457) and overall LE rating (MSLES: r = 0.505; JHLES: r = 0.579). The 45-day test–retest comparison resulted in a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.697 for the JHLES and 0.757 for the MSLES.Conclusions:Reliability and validity have been demonstrated for both the MSLES and the JHLES. Thus, both represent feasible options for measuring LE in Brazilian medical students.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-01-27T10:52:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520902186
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Enriching Medical Student Learning Experiences

    • Authors: K James Kallail, Pam Shaw, Tyler Hughes, Benito Berardo
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Objective:Medical students should develop skills in assessing their own learning needs and developing strategies to meet those needs. Medical curricula should be designed to provide active and enriching ways to explore medicine beyond the classroom. The program should enrich the elements of motivation, discovery, innovation, social services, cultural exploration, and personal development. The University of Kansas School of Medicine instituted a new curriculum in 2017 called ACE (Active, Competency-based, and Excellence-driven). Eight 1-week courses of enrichment experiences are embedded within the first 2 years of the curriculum.Methods:After each of 8 medical content blocks, students are required to participate in a 1-week, nongraded enrichment experience according to their own learning needs and interests. Students choose the type of enrichment activities including clinical experiences, professional development, leadership development, research and scholarly activity, and community engagement. Students select their top enrichment choices and a computer lottery makes the assignments from their designations. Students engaged in research and scholarly activity are guided to appropriate research mentors.Results:A total of 196 enrichment activities at 3 campuses were developed for 211 students during the first 2 years of medical school. Most students selected clinical experiences with enrichments available in most medical specialties and subspecialties. Students also use enrichment weeks to conduct research/scholarly activity, particularly those students pursuing the Honors Track. A total of 2071 enrichment experiences were completed in the first 2 years.Conclusions:Most enrichments involved clinical experiences, although research/scholarly activity and professional development enrichments also were popular. Evaluations from students and antidotal data suggested enrichments are popular among students and a good change of pace from the usual rigorous activities of the curriculum. Because of the large number of experiences required to conduct the enrichment weeks, a continuous process of evaluation is required to maintain the program. Therefore, flexibility is required to administer the program.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-01-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120520902160
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • The Efficiency of Online “Inked” Videos Versus Recorded PowerPoint
           Lectures on Teaching Pathophysiology to Medical Students in Pre-Clerkship
           Years: A Pilot Study

    • Authors: Regina Liu, Anju Relan, Jason Napolitano
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:As online learning develops an increasingly important role in medical education, new online teaching modalities are arising all the time. One such teaching modality that is gaining popularity among medical students is the “inked” video, a type of animated video that utilizes a virtual blackboard. Student reviews suggest that the dynamic style of the inked video allows it to teach more efficiently than traditional teaching modalities, but currently there is no quantitative evidence to support or guide the use of this teaching modality.Hypothesis:When compared to the traditional recorded PowerPoint lecture, online inked videos teach the same pathophysiology concepts to pre-clerkship medical students in a shorter amount of time.Method:A randomized, crossover-design study was conducted with second-year medical students at the David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles (n = 22). Students were randomized to 2 groups. Each group received 2 lessons on 2 different pathophysiology topics: one via a shorter inked video and the other via a longer recorded PowerPoint lecture. Two sets of dependent variables were used to test modality effects: immediate post-tests scores and delayed retention post-test scores. A perceptions survey was also administered to assess student preferences between the 2 teaching modalities.Results:Students performed similarly on immediate and delayed post-tests for the shorter inked videos and the longer recorded PowerPoint lectures (P > .05). Students reported greater engagement (P 
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-01-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120519897031
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • A Novel Peer-Directed Curriculum to Enhance Medical Ethics Training for
           Medical Students: A Single-Institution Experience

    • Authors: Brian T Sullivan, Mikalyn T DeFoor, Brice Hwang, W Jeffrey Flowers, William Strong
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:The best pedagogical approach to teaching medical ethics is unknown and widely variable across medical school curricula in the United States. Active learning, reflective practice, informal discourse, and peer-led teaching methods have been widely supported as recent advances in medical education. Using a bottom-up teaching approach builds on medical trainees’ own moral thinking and emotion to promote awareness and shared decision-making in navigating everyday ethical considerations confronted in the clinical setting.Objective:Our study objective was to outline our methodology of grassroots efforts in developing an innovative, student-derived longitudinal program to enhance teaching in medical ethics for interested medical students.Methods:Through the development of a 4-year interactive medical ethics curriculum, interested medical students were provided the opportunity to enhance their own moral and ethical identities in the clinical setting through a peer-derived longitudinal curriculum including the following components: lunch-and-learn didactic sessions, peer-facilitated ethics presentations, faculty-student mentorship sessions, student ethics committee discussions, hospital ethics committee and pastoral care shadowing, and an ethics capstone scholarly project. The curriculum places emphasis on small group narrative discussion and collaboration with peers and faculty mentors about ethical considerations in everyday clinical decision-making and provides an intellectual space to self-reflect, explore moral and professional values, and mature one’s own professional communication skills.Results:The Leadership through Ethics (LTE) program is now in its fourth year with 14 faculty-clinician ethics facilitators and 65 active student participants on track for a distinction in medical ethics upon graduation. Early student narrative feedback showed recurrent themes on positive curricular components including (1) clinician mentorship is key, (2) peer discussion and reflection relatable to the wards is effective, and (3) hands-on and interactive clinical training adds value. As a result of the peer-driven initiative, the program has been awarded recognition as a graduate-level certification for sustainable expansion of the grassroots curriculum for trainees in the clinical setting.Conclusions:Grassroots medical ethics education emphasizes experiential learning and peer-to-peer informal discourse of everyday ethical considerations in the health care setting. Student engagement in curricular development, reflective practice in clinical settings, and peer-assisted learning are strategies to enhance clinical ethics education. The Leadership through Ethics program augments and has the potential to transform traditional teaching methodology in bioethics education for motivated students by offering protected small group discussion time, a safe environment, and guidance from ethics facilitators to reflect on shared experiences in clinical ethics and to gain more robust, hands-on ethics training in the clinical setting.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-01-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120519899148
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Integrating Digital Health into the Curriculum—Considerations on the
           Current Landscape and Future Developments

    • Authors: Timothy Dy Aungst, Ravi Patel
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      The intercession of widespread Internet access and use of mobile devices and wearables has increased the attention to the field of digital health as a novel means of providing patient care. Although substantial advancements have been made toward the development of novel technologies and identification of therapeutic areas of impact, the issue remains of how to educate future health professionals to work in an era of digital tools. This perspective piece seeks to highlight areas of concern related to subset areas of the digital health environment and provide potential educational pathways to prepare students.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-01-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120519901275
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • A Bear in the Woods

    • Authors: Mara Feingold-Link
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      In medicine, we learn what questions to ask to best diagnose our patients. The My Life, My Story program helps participants learn what questions to ask to better empathize with patients.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-01-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120519899391
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Multidisciplinary Integrated Pharmacotherapy Curriculum in a Doctor of
           Pharmacy Program: Educators’ Perceptions, Views, and Perspectives

    • Authors: Alian A Alrasheedy
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:In pharmacy education, an integrated curriculum in which the full spectrum of foundational and pharmaceutical sciences is integrated with pharmacotherapy and clinical pharmacy is considered relatively new. At Unaizah College of Pharmacy (UCP), Qassim University, Saudi Arabia, a 6-year PharmD program was developed with a multidisciplinary integrated pharmacotherapy curriculum. The integrated pharmacotherapy curriculum represents approximately half of the didactic curriculum.Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions, the views, and experiences of academic faculty members regarding the impact and implementation of the multidisciplinary integrated pharmacotherapy curriculum in the PharmD program.Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted with all pharmacy faculty members involved in the integrated curriculum. The data-capturing technique in this study was a Web-based survey. In addition, the survey included an open-ended section in which the participants were encouraged to provide comments/feedback and share their experiences about the integrated curriculum.Results:The majority of participants (96.88%, n = 31) believed that the integrated curriculum is well suited for developing problem-solving skills needed in pharmacy practice. Similarly, 93.76% (n = 30) believed that the integrated curriculum results in better student learning experiences. Of the participants, 81.26% (n = 26) believed it results in a better understanding and application of pharmaceutical sciences in practice compared with traditional courses. Moreover, 71.88% (n = 23) considered that the required depth and breadth of the content related to their disciplines is achievable with this model. Of all participants, 96.88% (n = 31) believed that the successful implementation of this integrated curriculum needs strong collaboration, effective communication, good coordination between all departments, and a flexible, fully customizable, and effective e-learning system. Moreover, all participants believed that full integration requires careful design and implementation to ensure no overlapping or marginalization of topics/disciplines. In this study, 62.51% (n = 20) believed that the fully integrated curriculum results in a relatively higher workload compared with traditional courses.Conclusions:The majority of faculty members had positive perceptions regarding the multidisciplinary integrated pharmacotherapy curriculum. Moreover, the majority had positive views and experiences regarding the implementation of this integrated curriculum. The study identified several factors that helped in the successful implementation of this curriculum. Moreover, several challenges have been identified, including more investment in time and effort to implement this fully integrated curriculum.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-01-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120519897279
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Physician Self-disclosure of Lived Experience Improves Mental Health
           Attitudes Among Medical Students: A Randomized Study

    • Authors: Andrés Martin, Julie Chilton, Doron Gothelf, Doron Amsalem
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Introduction:Depression and suicidal ideation are common among medical students, a group at higher risk for suicide completion than their age-normed peers. Medical students have health-seeking behaviors that are not commensurate with their mental health needs, a discrepancy likely related to stigma and to limited role-modeling provided by physicians.Methods:We surveyed second-year medical students using the Attitudes to Psychiatry (ATP-30) and Attitudes to Mental Illness (AMI) instruments. In addition, we asked questions about role-modeling and help-seeking attitudes at baseline. We then conducted a randomized trial of an intervention consisting of 2 components: (a) a panel of 2 physicians with personal histories of mental illness speaking about their diagnosis, treatment, and recovery to the students, immediately followed by (b) small-group facilitated discussions. We repeated the ATP-30 and AMI after the active/early group was exposed to the panel, but before the control/late group was similarly exposed.Results:Forty-three medical students participated (53% women). The majority of students (91%) agreed that knowing physicians further along in their careers who struggled with mental health issues, got treatment, and were now doing well would make them more likely to access care if they needed it. Students in the active group (n = 22) had more favorable attitudes on ATP-30 (P = .01) and AMI (P = .02) scores, as compared with the control group (n = 21).Conclusion:Medical students can benefit from the availability of, and exposure to physicians with self-disclosed histories of having overcome mental illnesses. Such exposures can favorably improve stigmatized views about psychiatry, or of patients or colleagues affected by psychopathology. This intervention has the potential to enhance medical students’ mental health and their health-seeking behaviors.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-01-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120519889352
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
  • Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis on Sex and Gender in Preparatory
           Material for National Medical Examination in Germany and the United States

    • Authors: Helena Schluchter, Ahmad T Nauman, Sabine Ludwig, Vera Regitz-Zagrosek, Ute Seeland
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:Sex- and gender-based medicine (SGBM) should be a mandatory part of medical education. We compared the quantity and quality of sex- and gender-related content of e-learning materials commonly used by German and American medical students while preparing for national medical examinations.Methods:Quantitative, line-by-line analysis of the preparatory materials AMBOSS 2017 and USMLE Step 1 Lecture Notes (2017) by KAPLAN MEDICAL was performed between April and October 2017. Subjects were allocated to one of the three main fields: clinical subjects, behavioral and social science, and pharmacology. Qualitative analysis comprised binary categorization into sex- and gender-based aspects and qualification with respect to the presence of a pathophysiological explanation for the sex or gender difference.Results:In relation to the total content of AMBOSS and KAPLAN, the sex- and gender-based share of the clinical subjects content was 26.8% (±8.2) in AMBOSS and 21.1% (±10.2) in KAPLAN. The number of sex- and gender-based aspects in the behavioral and social science learning material differed significantly for AMBOSS and KAPLAN (4.4% ± 3.1% vs 10.7% ± 7.5%; P = .044). Most of the sex- and gender-related content covered sex differences. Most learning cards and texts did not include a detailed pathophysiological explanation for sex- or gender-based aspects. The knowledge provided in the preparatory documents represents only a small part of facts that are already known about sex and gender differences.Conclusions:The preparatory materials focused almost exclusively on biological sex differences and the sociocultural dimension in particular is underrepresented. A lot more evidence-based facts are known and should be integrated into the materials to reflect the importance of SGBM as an integral component of patient-centered medicine.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
      PubDate: 2020-01-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2382120519894253
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2020)
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