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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2342 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
4 open     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AboutOpen     Open Access  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access  
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Científica Estudiantil     Open Access  
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Herediana     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access  
Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)     Open Access  
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta Medica International     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acupuncture and Natural Medicine     Open Access  
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / Health Sciences Journal of Adıyaman University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Cell and Gene Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Clinical Radiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Advances in Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Skeletal Muscle Function Assessment     Open Access  
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Thoracic and Critical Care Medicine     Open Access  
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AJOB Empirical Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AJSP: Reviews & Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Al-Qadisiah Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alerta : Revista Científica del Instituto Nacional de Salud     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Althea Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Anatomica Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ankara Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası     Open Access  
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Clinical Hypertension     Open Access  
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Annals of Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Musculoskeletal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Reports     Open Access  
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives Medical Review Journal / Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi     Open Access  
Archives of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology     Open Access  
Archives of Clinical Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access  
Archives of Organ Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Pulmonology and Respiratory Care     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Renal Diseases and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASHA Leader     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Addictive Behaviors Reports
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.755
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 9  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2352-8532
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3204 journals]
  • Discretionary Spending Priorities of Unemployed, Job-Seeking Adults Who
           Smoke Cigarettes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2020Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Sarah Stinson, Amy Chieng, Judith J. Prochaska
       
  • Adverse childhood experiences, dissociation, and anxious attachment style
           as risk factors of gaming disorder

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2020Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Piotr Grajewski, Małgorzata Dragan
       
  • Exposure to adverse childhood experiences and early initiation of
           electronic vapor product use among middle school students in Nevada

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Lauren Marie Williams, Kristen Clements-Nolle, Taylor Lensch, Wei Yang
       
  • Selfie-engagement on social media: Pathological narcissism, positive
           expectation, and body objectification – Which is more influential'

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Valentina Boursier, Francesca Gioia, Mark D. Griffiths
       
  • Smoking cessation in inpatient psychiatry treatment facilities: A review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2020Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Robert Kagabo, Adam J. Gordon, Kola Okuyemi
       
  • Factors related to an increase of cannabis use among adolescents in Chile:
           National school based surveys between 2003 and 2017

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2020Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Nicolás Libuy, Carlos Ibáñez, Adrian P. Mundt
       
  • Effects of frequent marijuana use on risky decision-making in young adult
           college students

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Jorie L. Casey, Anita Cservenka
       
  • E-cigarette and hookah adoption patterns: Is the harm reduction theory
           just so much smoke'

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2020Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Eric W. Ford, Kitty S. Chan, Megha Parikh, Kevin B. Lowe, Timothy R. Huerta
       
  • Prevalence of e-cigarette use among tobacco smokers in six states and
           regions of Myanmar

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Ye Phyo, Ajay M.V. Kumar, Khine Wut Yee Kyaw, Kyaw Kan Kaung, Mya Lay Nwe, Thida, Tharaphi
       
  • Socioeconomic differences in the motivation to stop using e-cigarettes and
           attempts to do so

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2020Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Tina Jahnel, Stuart G. Ferguson, Timea Partos, Leonie S. Brose
       
  • Parenting paused: Pathological video game use and parenting outcomes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Laura Stockdale, Sarah M. Coyne
       
  • Development of the Substance Use Motives Measure (SUMM): A comprehensive
           eight-factor model for alcohol/drugs consumption

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Roberta Biolcati, Stefano Passini
       
  • E-liquid-related posts to Twitter in 2018: Thematic analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Jon-Patrick Allem, Anuja Majmundar, Likhit Dharmapuri, Tess Boley Cruz, Jennifer B. Unger
       
  • Trends of poly-substance use among Canadian youth

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Alexandra M.E. Zuckermann, Gillian Williams, Katelyn Battista, Margaret de Groh, Ying Jiang, Scott T. Leatherdale
       
  • The associations between low-level gaming, high-level gaming and
           problematic alcohol use

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Eilin K. Erevik, Torbjørn Torsheim, Cecilie S. Andreassen, Elfrid Krossbakken, Øystein Vedaa, Ståle Pallesen
       
  • Mental health professionals' perceptions, judgements and decision-making
           practices regarding the use of electronic cigarettes as a tobacco harm
           reduction intervention in mental healthcare: A qualitative focus group
           study

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Charlie Albert Smith, Ann McNeill, Loren Kock, Zoyah Ahmed, Lion Shahab
       
  • Comparing Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) with Timeline
           Follow Back (TLFB), DSM-5 and Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) for the
           assessment of alcohol misuse among young people in Ugandan fishing
           communities

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Monica O. Kuteesa, Sarah Cook, Helen A. Weiss, Anatoli Kamali, Wolfgang Weinmann, Janet Seeley, Josephine N. Ssentongo, Thaddeus Kiwanuka, Florence Namyalo, Denis Nsubuga, Emily L. Webb
       
  • Substances used in electronic vapor products among adults in the United
           States, 2017

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Katrina F. Trivers, Andrea S. Gentzke, Elyse Phillips, Michael Tynan, Kristy L. Marynak, Gillian L. Schauer
       
  • Exposure to secondhand smoke in vehicles among Canadian adolescents: Years
           after the adoption of smoke-free car laws

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Sunday Azagba, Keely Latham, Lingpeng Shan
       
  • Impulsivity, risk gambling, and heavy episodic drinking among adolescents:
           A moderator analysis of psychological health

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Helena C. Kaltenegger, Sara Brolin Låftman, Peter Wennberg
       
  • Opioid prescribing and opioid-overdose deaths in Michigan: Urban-rural
           comparisons and changes across 2013–2017

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Jamey J. Lister, Jennifer D. Ellis, Miyoung Yoon
       
  • How maladaptive cognitions contribute to the development of problematic
           social media use

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2020Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Giulia Fioravanti, Gordon Flett, Paul Hewitt, Laura Rugai, Silvia Casale IntroductionThe current study investigates the effects of perfectionism discrepancies (PD) and social hopelessness (SH) on problematic social media use as conceptualized by the cognitive-behavioral model. Methods: A sample of 400 university students (52.3% women; mean age = 22.01 ± 1.99) completed measures assessing PD, SH, and problematic social media use. Results: Structural equation modeling showed that both social hopelessness and feeling discrepant from personal and prescribed standards predicted the preference for online social interactions (POSI). POSI predicted the motivation to use online social media as a means of alleviating distressing feelings, the inability to regulate social media use and the negative outcomes resulting from use of SNS. Conclusions: In line with the cognitive-behavioral model of problematic Internet use, the present study suggests the primary importance of maladaptive cognitions about the self (i.e. perfectionism discrepancies) and the world (i.e. social hopelessness) for the development of a preference for online social interactions. In particular, the present study shows that individuals are likely to opt for online social interactions as a function of their pessimistic social expectancies and the sense of inadequacy that comes from perceptions of falling short of expectations.
       
  • The relationship between narcissism, intensity of Facebook use, Facebook
           flow and Facebook addiction

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2020Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Julia Brailovskaia, Hans-Werner Bierhoff, Elke Rohmann, Friederike Raeder, Jürgen Margraf IntroductionThe present study investigated mechanisms that may contribute to the enhanced risk of narcissistic individuals to develop Facebook addiction.MethodsIn a sample of 449 Facebook users (age: M(SD) = 31.07(9.52), range: 18–65) the personality trait narcissism, Facebook flow, intensity of Facebook use, and Facebook addiction were assessed by an online survey.ResultsIn a moderated mediation analysis, the positive relationship between narcissism and Facebook addiction was positively mediated by the level of flow experienced on Facebook. Intensity of Facebook use moderated the positive association between Facebook flow and Facebook addiction.ConclusionsExcessive Facebook use may cause psychological dependence. Narcissistic individuals are at enhanced risk for this form of dependence that is fostered by experience of flow during Facebook use and intensity of Facebook use. Current results should be taken into account, when assessing individuals at risk for pathological Facebook use and when planning specific interventions to deal with it.
       
  • Personality associations with Facebook Use and Tendencies towards Facebook
           Use Disorder

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Cornelia Sindermann, Éilish Duke, Christian Montag IntroductionThe present study sought to address core issues in the association between personality and the putative disordered use of Facebook. First, to redress the issue of generalisation from samples solely recruited from Facebook, we sought to explore personality differences between users and non-users of Facebook. Second, we aimed to investigate associations between personality and Facebook Use Disorder. The present study contributes a novel perspective to extant research on this topic by moving beyond the broad Big Five of personality, to explore possible relationships between Facebook use and sub-facets of the Big Five; all analyses were additionally controlled for confounding effects of demographic variables.Methods3,835 (n=2,366 males) participants completed socio-demographic variables, the Big Five Inventory and stated their user status on Facebook (i.e. user versus non-user). Facebook-users also completed a Facebook Use Disorder scale assessing addictive tendencies towards Facebook use.ResultsFacebook users reported higher levels of extraversion and lower levels of conscientiousness compared to non-users. Tendencies towards Facebook Use Disorder correlated negatively with conscientiousness and positively with neuroticism in both males and females. Conclusions: The present results indicate that research samples drawn from Facebook users may be biased with regard to personality (extraversion, conscientiousness). Moreover, certain personality traits – conscientiousness and neuroticism – which may increase a tendency towards Facebook Use Disorder are discussed.
       
  • A Brief Review of Choice Bundling: A Strategy to Reduce Delay Discounting
           and Bolster Self-Control

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2020Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Melinda L. Ashe, Stephen J. WilsonAbstractChoice bundling is a behavioral economic strategy designed to reduce excessive delay discounting and bolster self-control. Choice bundling entails aggregating a series of individual, identical intertemporal decisions (e.g., should I smoke today') into a single choice (e.g., should I smoke this month'). In this brief review, we succinctly summarize delay discounting and how it has been linked to lapses in self-control, using substance use as an exemplar. Next, we describe how choice bundling may theoretically work to counter excess discounting rates. Finally, we review the extant empirical research on choice bundling and offer recommendations for future research.
       
  • Parenting styles and metacognitions as predictors of Cannabis use

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Thomas Brosnan, Daniel C. Kolubinski, Marcantonio M. SpadaAbstractMetacognitions, the beliefs held about internal mental processes and the strategies aimed at controlling such processes, are known to play a significant role in the development and maintenance of addictive behaviours. Specifically, lack of cognitive confidence and beliefs about the need to control thoughts have been implicated across addictive behaviours. No research to date, though, has explored the role of metacognitions in cannabis use. Research has also shown that an authoritarian parenting style (where a parent uncompromisingly enforces their own ideas regardless of the will of the child) may be correlated with addictive behaviours. However very limited research has investigated the role of parenting styles in cannabis use. In the current study we aimed to investigate the relative contribution of parenting styles and metacognitions to cannabis use. A sample of 85 participants completed a series of online questionnaires, measuring negative affect, parenting styles, metacognitions and cannabis use. Spearman correlations indicated that cannabis use was positively correlated with each of the metacognitions and both permissive and authoritarian parenting styles. Regression analyses demonstrated that a combination of the physically coercive aspects of the authoritarian parental style and lack of cognitive confidence predicted cannabis use when controlling for negative affect. The implications of the current findings are discussed.
       
  • Gaming Addiction and Perceived Stress among Saudi Adolescents

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Ahmad Mamoun Rajab, Mohamed Saddik Zaghloul, Saed Enabi, Tawfik Mamoun Rajab, Abdullah Murhaf Al-Khani, Abdulrahman Basalah, Sara Wafik Alchalati, Joud Enabi, Saadi Aljundi, Syed Baqui Billah, Juliann Saquib, AbdulRahman AlMazrou, Nazmus SaquibAbstractIntroductionAdolescents (age: 10 -19 years) make up 15% of the Saudi population and have easy access to electronic gadgets and the Internet, yet data on gaming addiction among adolescents are negligible. We aimed to determine the prevalence of gaming addiction and its association with stress among Saudi school students.MethodsIn this cross-sectional survey, 2675 school students (grades 7-12) from 40 randomly selected schools in four main cities of Al-Qassim province in Saudi Arabia participated. The questionnaire inquired about demography, lifestyle, gaming addiction (7-item Game Addiction Scale), and stress (10-item Perceived Stress Scale). Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association between gaming addiction (yes, no) and stress (high, moderate, low).ResultsParticipants’ mean age was 16.1 (SD = 1.6) years; 50% were female; 64% reported>3 hours of daily screen time; 5% were addicted to gaming; 11.4% had high-level stress. Addiction to gaming was strongly associated with stress in the adjusted analysis (moderate OR=6.7, 95% CI = 2.9 -15.5; high OR=11.9, 95% CI = 4.7 -30.1). Additionally, those who were older, female, had poor grades, unhealthy dietary habits, an inactive lifestyle, and smoked were more likely to experience high stress.ConclusionsGaming addiction is strongly associated with stress among Saudi adolescents.
       
  • Problematic Facebook Use and Anxiety Concerning Use of Social Media in
           Mothers and Their Offspring: An Actor–Partner Interdependence Model

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2020Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Stefano Ruggieri, Gianluca Santoro, Ugo Pace, Alessia Passanisi, Adriano SchimmentiAbstractPrevious research has shown significant and positive associations between social anxiety of parents and their adolescent offspring. The main aim of this study was to investigate this relationship in the social media (SM) context. We tested one hundred and fifty-two couples comprising mothers and their adolescent offspring (12–14 years old) on their levels of problematic Facebook use (PFU) and social anxiety concerning SM use. An actor–partner interdependence model highlighted the positive relationship between the PFU scores of mothers and their offspring on the levels of SM social anxiety in the offspring. We discuss the results in the context of intergenerational transfer of problematic technology use and social anxiety.
       
  • Narcissism and problematic social media use: A systematic literature
           review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Silvia Casale, Vanessa BanchiAbstractIntroductionThe relationship between narcissism and social media use has been a topic of research since the advent of the first social media website. While numerous meta-analyses have been conducted to synthesize empirical evidence on the association between narcissism and typical online behaviors (e.g., uploading photos and usage frequency), evidence on the association between narcissism and Problematic Social Media Use (PSMU) has not yet been systematized. The current study represents the first systematic review on this topic.MethodsElectronic literature databases, including the Web of Science, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and EMBASE, were searched to identify studies that examined the relationship between narcissism and PSMU. We found 14 empirical studies on narcissism and PSMU. Additionally, seven studies focused on the association with Problematic Facebook Use (PFU).ResultsConsistent results were reported regarding the positive and significant association between grandiose narcissism and PFU (0.13< r
       
  • Passive objective measures in the assessment of problematic smartphone
           use: A systematic review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2020Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Francesca C. Ryding, Daria J. KussAbstractResearch focussing on problematic smartphone use has predominantly employed psychometric tests which cannot capture the automatic processes and behaviours associated with problematic use. The present review aimed to identify passive objective measures that have been used or developed to assess problematic smartphone use. A systematic search was conducted using Web of Science, Scopus, PsychInfo and PubMed databases to identify passive objective measures that have been employed to assess problematic smartphone use, resulting in 18 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Objective data that were monitored predominantly focussed on general screen usage time and checking patterns. Findings demonstrate that passive monitoring can enable smartphone usage patterns to be inferred within a relatively short timeframe and provide ecologically valid data on smartphone behaviour. Challenges and recommendations of employing passive objective measures in smartphone-based research are discussed.
       
  • The association between meaning in life and harmful drinking is mediated
           by individual differences in self-control and alcohol value

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2020Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Amber Copeland, Andrew Jones, Matt FieldAbstractIntroductionThe adoption of adult roles that provide meaning in life is associated with reduced harmful drinking. The current study examined whether this relationship is mediated by increased self-control and reduced value of alcohol.MethodsCross-sectional design. 1,043 adults (786 females) ≥18 years old completed an online survey. The outcome variable was scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), predictor variables were presence of and search for meaning in life (Meaning in Life Questionnaire), and mediating variables were trait self-control (Brief Self-Control Scale) and the value of alcohol (Brief Assessment of Alcohol Demand).ResultsPresence of meaning in life had a significant negative association (B = -.01, SE = .00, 95% CI -.02 to -.00, p=.015), whilst search for meaning in life had a significant positive association (B = .01, SE = .00, 95% CI .01 to .02, p=.001) with AUDIT scores. The negative association was mediated by increased self-control (B = -.09, SE = .01, 95% CI -.12 to -.06) and decreased value of alcohol (B = -.02, SE = .01, 95% CI -.04 to .00), whilst the positive association was mediated by decreased self-control (B = .05, SE = .01, 95% CI .03 to .07) and increased value of alcohol (B = .02, SE = .01, 95% CI .00 to .04), thereby supporting our hypotheses.ConclusionsThe relationships between presence and search for meaning in life and harmful drinking are mediated by individual differences in both trait self-control and the value of alcohol.
       
  • Assessing Comprehension and Perceptions of Modified-Risk Information for
           Snus Among Adult Current Cigarette Smokers, Former Tobacco Users, and
           Never Tobacco Users

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2020Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Janine L. Pillitteri, Saul Shiffman, Mark A. Sembower, Michael R. Polster, Geoffrey M. CurtinAbstractIntroductionSnus, a low nitrosamine smokeless tobacco product, presents less risks to health than cigarettes. Effectively communicating such risk information could facilitate smokers switching completely to snus, thereby benefiting public health.MethodsThis study assessed comprehension and perceptions of modified-risk information regarding snus. Adult cigarette smokers, former tobacco users, and never tobacco users (N=3,922) from a US internet panel viewed an advertisement stating that smokers who switched completely to snus could greatly reduce risk of lung cancer, respiratory disease, heart disease, and oral cancer. Respondents answered questions regarding the modified-risk information and rated perceived risks of snus relative to cigarettes and other smokeless tobacco products.ResultsAcross the four diseases mentioned in the advertisement, most respondents (49.7%-68.6%, across tobacco user groups) understood that snus presents less risk than cigarettes but is not completely safe. Some indicated snus presents the same risk as cigarettes; this was highest for oral cancer (33.7%-42.02%) and lowest for lung cancer (15.4%-23.1%) and respiratory disease (15.6%-23.4%). Majorities understood snus is addictive (77.7%-87.9%), quitting all tobacco is the best option for smokers (83.6%-93.1%), and non-users of tobacco should not use snus (80.4%-87.8%). Only 2.1%-5.8% indicated smokers would receive a health benefit if they continued to smoke while using snus.ConclusionsThe modified-risk information, conveying that snus presents less risk than cigarettes but is not completely safe, was understood by majorities of respondents. Differential risk beliefs across diseases suggest responses were shaped not only by the modified-risk information, but also by intuitions and pre-existing beliefs about tobacco products.
       
  • Social norms and e-motions in problematic social media use among
           adolescents

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Claudia Marino, Gianluca Gini, Federica Angelini, Alessio Vieno, Marcantonio M. SpadaAbstractIntroductionBeing constantly connected on social media is a “way of being” among adolescents. However, social media use can become “problematic” for some users and only a few studies have explored the concurrent contribution of social context and emotion regulation to problematic social media use. The current study aimed to test: (i) the influence of friends (i.e., their social media use and group norms about social media use); and (ii) the effects of difficulties in emotion regulation and so-called “e-motions” on adolescents’ problematic social media use.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted in Italian secondary schools. An online questionnaire was administered to 761 adolescents (44.5% females; Mage = 15.49 years; SDage = 1.03).ResultsPath analysis showed that social norms were directly associated with problematic social media use and friends’ social media use was associated with the frequency of social media use, which, in turn, was associated with problematic use. Difficulties in emotion regulation were directly and indirectly linked to problematic social media use via frequency of use and facilitating use of e-motions.ConclusionsThese findings provide support for the importance of both peer influence and emotion regulation in this context. Social norms and emotion regulation should be considered in prevention programs addressing problematic social media use in adolescents.
       
  • Sensitivity and specificity of a commercial urinary ethyl glucuronide
           (ETG) test in heavy drinkers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Erica N. Grodin, Xuan-Thanh Nguyen, Diana Ho, Spencer Bujarski, Lara A. RayAbstractIntroductionTo advance the use of alcohol metabolites as biomarkers in the context of alcohol research, the present study tested the sensitivity and specificity of a commercially available urinary ethyl glucuronide (uEtG) test (DrugConfirm Advanced 80hr EtG) in a clinical research context.MethodsA community sample of heavy drinkers (N=68) completed the 30-day Timeline Follow-Back (TLFB) interview and provided a urine sample for uEtG analysis. Analyses of sensitivity and specificity of the uEtG assay were conducted using the following outcomes: (a) past day drinking, (b) past day binge drinking (defined as ≥4 drinks for women and ≥5 drinks for men), (c) past 3-day drinking, and (d) past 3-day binge drinkingResultsThe majority of participants reported past-3-day drinking (80.9%) and a sizeable minority reported past day drinking (33.8%). While uEtG-based detection of past day drinking and binge drinking was acceptable (sensitivity = 73.91%, and 83.33%; specificity = 80.00% and 66.13%, respectively), detection of any drinking and binge drinking in the past 3 days was poor (sensitivity and specificity of 43.64% and 84.62%, and 39.39% and 62.86%, respectively).ConclusionsThis study contributes to the mixed findings on the validity of EtG tests, which suggest that commercial uEtG tests with conservative detection thresholds are not a reliable alcohol biomarker without corroborating self-report data. Lower detection thresholds are recommended when using uEtG as an alcohol biomarker. Efforts to reach acceptable levels of sensitivity and specificity with commercial assays hold potential to advance the measurement of alcohol intake, overcoming the pitfalls of self-report data.
       
  • Once online poker, always online poker' Poker modality trajectories
           over two years

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Magali Dufour, Adèle Morvannou, Émélie Laverdière, Natacha Brunelle, Sylvia Kairouz, Marc-Antoine Nolin, Louise Nadeau, Frédéric Dussault, Djamal BerbicheAbstractOnline poker is considered more at-risk than land-based poker in terms of intense gambling behaviors and gambling problems. The development of many online gambling sites has raised public health concerns about the potential increase in online poker players. Longitudinal studies are useful to better understand the evolution of gambling behaviors; however, very few consider online poker players. Using a prospective design, this study aims to identify online and land-based trajectories over a two-year period and the factors influencing those trajectories.Results are based on data collected at three time-points over the course of a prospective cohort study conducted in Quebec (n=304). A latent class growth analysis was performed to determine trajectories based on the main poker modality played, either online or land-based poker. Multinomial multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the correlates of poker playing trajectories.Over two years, three poker playing trajectories were identified, comprising two stable trajectories [stable land-based (51.5%) and stable online (36.3%)] and an unstable trajectory [unstable online land-based (12.1%)]. The second trajectory included online poker players at baseline who transitioned to land-based poker. Number of gambling activities increased the odds of being in the first trajectory as compared to the others. Severity of gambling problems was a significant predictor of the second “unstable” or the third “stable online” trajectories, but not for the first “stable land-based” poker trajectory.The majority of poker players remained in either the land-based or online trajectories over two years. No poker players transitioned from land-based to online poker.
       
  • Trauma in childhood and adolescence and impaired executive functions are
           associated with uncertain reflective functioning in mothers with substance
           use disorder

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Vidar Roald Kristiansen, Tore Bergby Handeland, Bjørn Lau, Kerstin Søderstrøm, Ulrika Håkansson, Merete Glenne ØieAbstractAimsImpairments in reflective functioning are known to have adverse effects on the ability to display sensitive parenting as a caregiver. Several factors are associated with impairments in reflective functioning, such as impaired executive functioning and experienced trauma. We investigated how these factors contribute to an impaired reflective functioning style, such as pathological certain or uncertain reflective functioning. Extreme scores on these two subscales reflect two kinds of impairments in reflective functioning. We assessed executive functions, reflective functioning, and trauma in 43 mothers diagnosed with substance use disorders (SUD).MethodsCertain or uncertain reflective functioning were assessed using the Reflective Functioning Questionnaire 8 (RFQ-8). Executive functions and trauma were assessed by administering various questionnaires, interviews and neuropsychological tests.ResultsHigh uncertain reflective functioning was more than six times as common (odds ratio) in mothers reporting high amounts of trauma in childhood compared with mothers reporting low amounts of trauma. Impaired executive functions were also significantly associated with high uncertain reflective functioning. Certain reflective functioning did, however, not show any significant associations.ConclusionWhen the SUD mothers give information about relational trauma in childhood, it might therefore be worth investigating and addressing the potential tendency to have an uncertain reflective functioning style.
       
  • Potions for Emotions: Do self-reported individual differences in
           negative-emotional drinking predict alcohol consumption in the laboratory
           following exposure to a negative experience'

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Henry R.T. Austin, Lies Notebaert, Reinout W. Wiers, Elske Salemink, Colin MacLeodAbstractAimsResearch suggests that self-reports on inferred motives for engaging in behavior may be biased by limited introspective access into such processes. Self-reports on observable behavior, on the other hand, may generate more accurate responses with which to predict behavior. The aim was to determine whether drinking alcohol in response to negative emotion (negative-emotional drinking; NED) is best predicted by self-reported individual differences in (a) motives to use alcohol to regulate negative emotion, or (b) the degree to which negative emotion impacts alcohol consumption (observable behavior). Methods. Thirty-nine beer drinkers completed the Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (DMQ-R) which measures individual differences in drinking motives, including the motive to regulate negative emotion (coping motives). They also completed a new self-report measure of the degree to which negative emotion impacts their alcohol consumption. Participants were randomized into a negative emotion induction condition or control condition and completed a subsequent alcohol consumption task to serve as a behavioral measure of drinking in response to negative emotion. Results. Self-reports on the degree to which negative emotion impacts respondents’ alcohol consumption strongly predicted alcohol consumption in the negative emotion induction condition (r=.72, p=
       
  • Emerging insights on internet gaming disorder: Conceptual and measurement
           issues

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Halley M. Pontes, Vasileios Stavropoulos, Mark D. Griffiths
       
  • Effect of Hypnotic Suggestion on Cognition and Craving in Smokers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 November 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Bollinger J.W., Beadling C.W., Waters A.JAbstractCigarette smoking remains an important public health concern, and novel smoking cessation interventions are needed. Craving for cigarettes is a well-established target for intervention. Recent research has identified cognitive processes associated with craving, such as attentional bias to smoking cues, as targets for intervention. One intervention that may be effective in reducing attentional bias is hypnotic suggestion. Using a counterbalanced within-subjects design in a sample of active smokers (N=33), this laboratory study examined if hypnotic suggestion can modify attention, assessed by the classic and smoking Stroop tasks, and craving. Hypnotic susceptibility was assessed using the Stanford Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility. There was no evidence that hypnotic susceptibility moderated the effect of hypnotic suggestion on the classic or smoking Stroop effects. However, hypnotic susceptibility did moderate the effect of hypnotic suggestion on craving, such that hypnotic suggestion reduced craving in individuals with high levels of susceptibility. Further research into the mechanisms by which hypnotic suggestion reduces craving is warranted.
       
  • Sources of youth access to JUUL vaping products in the United States

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Neil McKeganey, Christopher Russell, Evangelos Katsampouris, Farhana HaseenAbstractI*ntroductionThis study assessed sources of youth access to JUUL vaping products, the highest selling brand of the most commonly used tobacco product among adolescents in the United States.MethodsA cross-sectional online survey assessed use of JUUL vaping products in a non-probability, nationally representative sample of 9,865 adolescents aged 13-17 years in the United States. Past 30-day JUUL users (n = 1,537) were asked how they got the JUUL vaping products they had used in the past 30-days. Those who reported having bought JUUL products themselves were asked about the places and people from whom they had bought products. Population-weighted percentages and 95% confidence intervals are reported for each source of access.ResultsAn estimated 79.6% (95% CI = 77.5% to 81.6%) of current JUUL users obtained JUUL products from at least one social source (e.g. ‘someone bought for me, someone offered to me) in the past 30 days. By comparison, 20.0% [95% CI = 18.0% to 22.0%) of current users bought JUUL products themselves. Of 1,322 youth who reported obtaining JUUL products from at least one source or by buying products themselves in the past 30 days, 77.5% (95% CI = 75.3% to 79.8%) had obtained JUUL products exclusively from social sources (i.e. they did not buy products directly), 17.2% (95% CI = 15.2% to 19.3%) obtained JUUL products exclusively by buying the products themselves (i.e. they did not obtain products from any social sources), and 5.2% (95% CI = 4.0% to 6.4%) had obtained JUUL products both from social sources and from buying the products themselves. Among youth who bought JUUL products themselves, the most common place of purchase was ‘a gas station or convenience store’ [53.1% (95% CI = 47.5% to 58.6%)].ConclusionsYouth who are currently using JUUL vaping products obtain these products predominantly through social sources, such as friends and peers. Youth sources of access to JUUL vaping products appear to mirror youth sources of access to other tobacco products. Reducing youth use of JUUL vaping products will require a greater focus on measures that deter or penalize legal-age purchasers who give or sell products to minors.
       
  • Implementation of a contingency approach for people with co-occurring
           substance use and psychiatric disorders: acceptability and feasibility
           pilot study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Bianief Tchiloemba, Julie J. Desrosiers, Rositsa Boyadjieva, Didier Jutras-AswadAbstractIntroductionThe prevalence of co-occurrent substance use and psychiatric disorders is high. Contingency-based interventions have been shown to be effective in promoting adherence to treatment for people with substance use disorders but are among the least used evidence-based interventions for clients with comorbid psychiatric disorders, related to acceptability issues.ObjectiveThe present implementation study aims to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of a contingency approach in co-occurring disorders specialized treatment services.MethodologyFocus groups were conducted with health professionals and service users recruited from a specialized co-occurring disorder program (COD). Pre-intervention focus groups were conducted to select preferred modalities to implement the program. Post-intervention focus groups were conducted to document the satisfaction and benefits of the intervention. Throughout the study, program monitoring was conducted systematically to determine the gaps between planned and actual interventions.ResultsBoth health professionals consulted and service users agreed that the contingency approach could be integrated within usual co-occurring disorders treatment. In general, patients more readily accepted the contingency approach than health professionals. The higher functioning level group reported several benefits from the approach and implementation in its group sessions went as planned. Contingency approach was described by all participants as consistent with general treatment goals and led to patient’s awareness about their group attendance.ConclusionThis study highlights several challenges related to the implementation of a contingency approach. It also suggests that implementation of this approach could benefit from taking into account the needs and perspectives of service users.
       
  • On the Prevalence of Addicted or Problematic Gaming in Finland

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Veli-Matti Karhulahti, Raine KoskimaaAbstractWe bring attention to a notable unreported “gaming addiction” or “problem gaming” prevalence data set that adds significantly to both the DSM-5’s call for further Internet Gaming Disorder research as well as many other scientific encouragements for more wide-ranging reports on the topic.
       
  • Pilot study: Improving attention bias modification of alcohol cues through
           concealed gaze-contingent feedback in alcohol dependence

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Timo L. Kvamme, Mads U. Pedersen, Morten Overgaard, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Valerie VoonAbstractIn an attempt to improve attention bias modification (ABM), we tested whether an attentional training protocol which featured monetary operant conditioning of eye-gaze to avoid alcohol stimuli in alcohol-dependent patients could reduce attention, craving and relapse to alcohol. We employed a pilot randomized control trial (RCT) with 21 detoxified alcohol dependent patients (48.9±10 years of age, 9 male) from an inpatient and outpatient treatment centre. The novel operant concealed conditioning paradigm provided monetary reinforcements or punishments respective to eye-gaze patterns towards neutral or towards alcohol stimuli along with an 80% probability of a to-be-detected probe appearing following neutral stimuli (ET-ABM group). Patients in the control-group received random monetary feedback and a 50/50 ABM contingency. We compared AB on trained and untrained stimuli and addiction severity measures of obsessive thoughts and desires to alcohol following training. We further assessed addiction severity and relapse outcome at a 3-month follow-up. Results indicate that this form of attentional retraining only worked for the trained stimuli and did not generalize to untrained stimuli or to addiction severity measures or relapse outcome. Potential explanations for lack of generalization include the low sample size and imbalances on important prognostic variables between the active-group and control-group. We discuss progress and challenges for further research on cognitive training using eye-tracking based feedback.
       
  • Associations between self-esteem and smoking and excessive alcohol
           consumption in the UK: a cross-sectional study using the BBC UK Lab
           database

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Szinay Dorothy, Tombor Ildiko, Garnett Claire, Boyt Neil, West RobertAbstractIntroductionThere is mixed evidence regarding the associations between self-esteem and smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. This study aimed to investigate whether self-esteem is associated with smoking status and alcohol consumption in a large sample of adults in the United Kingdom after adjusting for age, sex, socio-economic status and depressed mood.MethodsDesign: Cross-sectional correlational study conducted under the aegis of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) between 2009 and 2013.Participants: 187,398 respondents (67.9% female) with a mean age of 32.82 years (SD=12.41) providing complete data.Setting: UK.MeasuresOnline self-report questionnaire. The outcomes were smoking status (current smoker, ever smoker) and alcohol consumption (current drinker, excessive drinker); the input variable was self-esteem measured using a Single Item Self-Esteem Scale; covariates were age, sex, SES, and depressed mood measured using a single item question.ResultsThe odds of being an ever smoker and a current smoker were greater in people with lower self-esteem (AdjOR 0.97; 95% CI 0.95-0.99, Cohen’s d=-0.02; and AdjOR 0.96; 95% CI 0.94-0.99, Cohen’s d=-0.02 respectively). The odds of being a current drinker were lower in people with lower self-esteem (AdjOR 1.20, 95% CI 1.17-1.24, Cohen’s d=0.10) while being an excessive drinker was associated with lower self-esteem (β=-0.13, p
       
  • Positive urgency partially mediates the relationship between childhood
           adversity and problems associated with substance use in an undergraduate
           population

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Nayani Ramakrishnan, Matthew McPhee, Alexandra Sosnowski, Vinitaa Rajasingaam, Suzanne ErbAbstractBackgroundChildhood adversity predicts the development of substance use problems in young adulthood. Building on past work examining the mediating role of impulsivity in the relationship between childhood maltreatment and substance use in alcohol and nicotine users, this study examined the relationship with other substances in a representative undergraduate sample. In addition, the study aimed to determine whether there was convergence in findings between different measures of childhood adversity and impulsivity.Method309 undergraduate students completed self-report questionnaires assessing childhood adversity (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire – CTQ; Adverse Childhood Experience Scale – ACE), impulsivity (Short UPPS-P; Barratt Impulsivity Scale – BIS-11) and problems associated with substance use (Drug Abuse Screening Test – DAST-10).ResultsThe SUPPS-P positive urgency facet partially mediated the relationship between CTQ and DAST-10 (b = 0.0039, 95% CI [0.0008, 0.0086]), as well as between ACE and DAST-10 (b = 0.015, 95% CI [0.0014, 0.0446]). The BIS-11 motor facet partially mediated the effect of CTQ on DAST-10 (b = 0.0017, 95% CI [0.0002, 0.0054]).ConclusionPositive urgency partially mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and substance use problems for both the CTQ and ACE. While these results are consistent with past studies showing a selective mediation effect of positive urgency in a sample of young adults, they are inconsistent with those showing a selective mediation effect of negative urgency in a sample of heavy drinkers. Together, these findings suggest that the relationship between childhood adversity, impulsivity, and substance use-related problems may be influenced by experience.
       
  • Hallucinogen Use is Associated with Mental Health and Addictive Problems
           and Impulsivity in University Students

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Jon E. Grant, Katherine Lust, Samuel R. ChamberlainAbstractBackgroundThis study examined the prevalence of hallucinogen use in a large sample of university students and its associations with mental health issues.Methods9,449 students received a 156-item anonymous online survey, which assessed the use of hallucinogens (ever or past year), alcohol and drug use, mental health issues, and impulsive and compulsive traits. Group differences were characterized using statistical tests (p values reported uncorrected, but only regarded as significant if surviving Bonferroni correction).Results3,525 university students (57.7% female) responded to the survey. The prevalence of past 12-month hallucinogen use in the sample was 4.7%, with an additional 6.4% reporting having used more than 12 months ago. Hallucinogen use was associated with the use of multiple other drugs (e.g., alcohol, opiates) (each p
       
  • Who is using and why: Prevalence and perceptions of using and not using
           electronic cigarettes in a statewide survey of adults

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Raymond G. Boyle, Sara Richter, Sharrilyn HelgertzAbstractThis statewide survey examined prevalence, reasons for using, discontinuing use, and not wanting to try e-cigarettes.MethodsParticipants (n=6052) were adult Minnesota residents. E-cigarette initiation and current use prevalence rates were calculated for demographic characteristics and smoking status. The percent of respondents endorsing a reason for trying e-cigarettes are reported overall and by smoking status. The percent of respondents endorsing each reason for discontinuing or not using e-cigarettes are reported for daily and occasional smokers. All descriptive analyses were weighted. To develop profiles of e-cigarette users, a latent class analysis (LCA) was undertaken.ResultsOverall, 20.7% of adults reported ever use and 4.6% were current users. Use varied notably by age and smoking status. Only 2.8% of never smokers were current e-cigarette users. Among young adults, 14.6% reported current use but most (70.0%) were never smokers. The reasons given for using e-cigarettes varied by smoking status. Curiosity was the top reason for all groups except recent former smokers, for whom cutting down or quitting other tobacco products was primary. Most smokers discontinuing e-cigarettes preferred cigarettes, and four-fifths of smokers who never tried e-cigarettes lacked interest. From the LCA four profiles were evident: young adult experimenters, curious adults, smokers trying to quit cigarettes, and dual users.ConclusionsInnovative higher nicotine content devices have sustained interest in e-cigarettes especially among young adults and smokers with a goal of cutting down or quitting smoking. Future regulations and communication should focus on reducing e-cigarette use among young adult nonsmokers.
       
  • Beer Advertisements and Adolescent Drinking Knowledge, Expectancies, and
           Behavior

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Douglas A. Gentile, Brooke J. Arterberry, Patrick K. Bender, Kristi A. CostabileAbstractObjective(1) To examine the degree to which overall beer advertising expenditure is related to youth brand awareness, preferences, and drinking behavior, and (2) to use multiple methods, including individual brand awareness and expectancies, to gain a broader understanding of the true effects of alcohol advertising on youth alcohol-related expectancies and behavior.MethodMixed psychological and advertising methods were used to examine how beer advertising is related to adolescents’ beer brand awareness, expectancies, and behavior. 1,588 7th-12th graders were surveyed in two states.ResultsThe amount of money spent advertising beer brands was positively correlated with adolescents’ brand awareness, preference, use, and loyalty behavior (all correlations above .65). Moreover, beer advertising-related variables predicted adolescents’ intention to drink and actual alcohol consumption, independent of peer and parent alcohol-related behavior and attitudes.ConclusionsThe results show that overall levels of advertising expenditures were strong predictors of adolescents’ beer brand awareness, preferences, use, and brand loyalty. Moreover, advertising-related variables were substantial predictors of adolescents’ intention to drink as an adult and current underage drinking behavior. Together, the present findings suggest that previous work may have underestimated the relationship between alcohol advertising and adolescents’ drinking behavior.
       
  • A Retrospective Study of the Role of Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics
           in Preventing Rehospitalization in Early Psychosis with Cannabis Use

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Emily Rozin, Vivek Vanaharam, Dale D'Mello, Scott Palazollo, Cathy AdamsAbstractBackgroundDespite compelling evidence that cannabis use is associated with neurocognitive deficits, loss of cerebral gray matter, relapse and rehospitalization, a substantial number of individuals with early psychosis continue to use recreational or medicinal marijuana. One identified pathway to relapse is non-adherence. Recurrent relapses modify the trajectory of illness and culminate in long-term disability. Long-acting antipsychotic medications are superior to oral equivalents in preventing relapse.PurposeThe current paper sought to examine the role of long-acting antipsychotics in preventing relapse in cannabis using early psychosis patients.MethodsThe present retrospective study, which was based in an early psychosis program in mid-Michigan, examined the association between patient perceptions of antipsychotic medication and subsequent rehospitalization, among cannabis users (n=244) and non-users (n=27). Patient perceptions of antipsychotic medications were assessed using a single question from the NAVIGATE Patient Self-Rating Form: “Between now and your next visit, do you think we should keep your medication the same, or consider changing the medication'”.ResultsCannabis users were substantially more likely to report dissatisfaction with antipsychotic medication (Pearson Chi-square 9.67, df=1.0, p
       
  • Pilot Study to Inform Young Adults About the Risks of Electronic
           Cigarettes Through Text Messaging

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Karen S. Calabro, Georges E. Khalil, Minxing Chen, Cheryl L. Perry, Alexander V. ProkhorovAbstractIntroductionYoung adults are rapidly adopting electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use. The popularity of e-cigarettes among young people can be attributed to heavy industry advertising and misleading health claims. Data indicate that young e-cigarette users who have never used conventional cigarettes may transition toward smoking combustible cigarettes. Communicating e-cigarette risks via text messaging is limited. This pilot study assessed the impact of exposure to 16 text messages on e-cigarette knowledge and risk perception. The short text messages delivered to participants conveyed e-cigarette use may lead to addiction to nicotine and explained the latest health-related findings.MethodsA two-group randomized pretest and posttest study was conducted among 95 racially, ethnically diverse young adults recruited from vocational training programs. Fifty percent of participants were randomized to receive either gain- or loss-framed messages. Knowledge and risk perceptions about e-cigarettes and tobacco use were assessed pre- and post-message exposure.ResultsParticipants had a mean age of 20.8 years, SD=1.7. Current use of e-cigarettes was reported by 10.5% (10/95) and 27.4% (26/95) used a variety of other tobacco products. Findings revealed significant increases in knowledge about e-cigarettes after exposure to the messages (range for ps: p < 04 to p < .0001). A statistically significant increase in perceived e-cigarette risk was found post-exposure (p =.002). Participants randomized to gain-framed messages reported a significantly higher perceived risk of using e-cigarettes post-exposure than did those who received loss-framed messages (p =.02).ConclusionsThis was a small-scale pilot requiring additional evidence to support the effectiveness of text messaging for increasing e-cigarette knowledge and risk perception. Future research may apply text messages to test new ways to educate young populations about tobacco use and consider addressing these messages to specific subgroups at high risk of use such as non-college bound young adults.
       
  • Exploring online problem gamblers' motivation to change

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Ayna B. Johansen, Pål Fylling Helland, Dag K. Wennesland, Edmund Henden, Håvar BrendryenAbstractBackgroundIn order to improve interventions for problem gambling, there is a need for studies that can highlight psychological factors that support the desire to reduce gambling.ObjectiveTo explore online problem gamblers' motivation for change by studying participants' reactions to an online treatment referral website designed to motivate at-risk gamblers to seek help.DesignA qualitative evaluation study, combining focus groups and in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using the general inductive approach.InformantsThe informants included 19 male, treatment- and non-treatment seeking, online gamblers who played a variety of games, including poker, sports betting and online casino.ResultsMotivation to change emerged as two processes including (a) empathy with others, which included projection of their thoughts and feelings onto others, and (b) dissonance between gambling behavior and ideal self-image. Dissonance included two subthemes: (i) dissonance due to positive feelings towards sports and athletics, and (ii) dissonance due to gambling among family.ConclusionsThe findings have implications for interventions designed to evoke motivation early in treatment of online problem gambling. Inducing problem gamblers to reflect on the thoughts and feelings of concerned significant others, real or fictional, could be a viable strategy to motivate online problem gamblers to consider change.
       
  • Effects of e-cigarettes versus nicotine replacement therapy on short-term
           smoking abstinence when delivered at a community pharmacy

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Sharon Cox, Lynne Dawkins, Jay Doshi, James CameronAbstractE-cigarettes (EC) are now the most popular quit aid in England but their effectiveness for cessation if offered at a pharmacy has not been tested. Here we test the effectiveness of offering an e-cigarette with and without nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) on 4–6-week quit rates in adult smokers seeking support from a community pharmacy. A between subject, six-week, prospective, cohort design. 115 smokers (female = 74; M age = 46.37, SD = 13.56) chose either an EC, EC + NRT or NRT alone, alongside standard behavioural support. Smokers opting for an EC alone or an EC + NRT were more likely to report complete abstinence from smoking at 4–6 weeks (62.2% and 61.5% respectively) compared to NRT alone (34.8%). An EC intervention was significantly more effective for smoking cessation than NRT in this community pharmacy. The results for e-cigarettes appear positive but with the caveat that participants chose their own products which may have introduced bias.
       
  • Tackling smoking among out of school youth in South Africa: An analysis of
           friendship ties

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): R. Desai, R.A.C. Ruiter, J. Schepers, S.P. Reddy, L.A.G. MerckenAbstractBackgroundFriendships during adolescence play a significant role in the initiation and maintenance of tobacco use. Smoking behaviour among adolescent friends has not been explored among out of school youth (OSY) in South Africa. Out of school youth (OSY), described as those between 13 and 20 years old, have not completed their schooling and are not currently enrolled in school, are at greater risk for tobacco use.AimThe main aim of this study is to examine whether the smoking behaviour of OSY is associated with that of their OSY friends.MethodsRespondent driven sampling was used to recruit OSY and their OSY friends. A mixed effects logistic regression with a random intercept across school-province combinations was used to analyse survey data. Race and gender were also incorporated into the analyses as effect moderators (n = 391).ResultsResults of this study confirm that cigarette smoking was common among OSY and their OSY friends, with 53.5% of the respondents smoking in the past month (SD = 0.44). When OSY friends were either all non-smokers or half their friends were non-smokers, Coloured (mixed race) OSY were less likely to smoke compared to Black African and Other (mostly Asian descent) OSY.ConclusionCultural norms and values associated with the different race groups may play a role in the smoking behaviour of out of school youth friends. Understanding this relationship is useful for identifying those OSY that are vulnerable to the behaviours that place them at risk of tobacco related morbidity and mortality.
       
  • Sensitivity to reward and punishment and alcohol outcomes: Metacognition
           as a moderator

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Rebecca E. Sistad, Raluca M. Simons, Jeffrey S. SimonsAbstractIntroductionThe purpose of this study was to examine associations between inhibitory (sensitivity to punishment [SP], adaptive metacognition) and facilitatory (sensitivity to reward [SR], maladaptive metacognition) factors of alcohol consumption and problems among young adults.MethodsThree hundred fifty-five young adults (ages 18–25, 61% female) recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk and a large public midwestern university in the United States self-administered a Web survey. Two multiple regression models were tested.ResultsSR significantly moderated the effects of SP and the maladaptive metacognition (MC) subscale Uncontrollability/Danger on alcohol consumption. Alcohol problems were also significantly predicted by SR and Uncontrollability/Danger. The interaction between SR and SP on alcohol problems was conditional upon levels of the maladaptive MC subscale Lack of Cognitive Confidence, with a significant moderating effect only at high levels of Lack of Cognitive Confidence.ConclusionsConsistent with the literature, individuals with high levels of SR coupled with low SP are at risk for increased alcohol consumption. This effect on drinking behaviors is further influenced by maladaptive MC, such that individuals characterized by high SR and low SP are significantly more likely to report more alcohol-related problems if they believe that worrying is dangerous and uncontrollable or lack cognitive confidence; however as SP increases, this effect significantly diminishes.
       
  • Internet addiction disorder detection of Chinese college students using
           several personality questionnaire data and support vector machine

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Zonglin Di, Xiaoliang Gong, Jingyu Shi, Hosameldin O.A. Ahmed, Asoke K. NandiAbstractWith the unprecedented development of the Internet, it also brings the challenge of Internet Addiction (IA), which is hard to diagnose and cure according to the state-of-art research. In this study, we explored the feasibility of machine learning methods to detect IA. We acquired a dataset consisting of 2397 Chinese college students from the University (Age: 19.17 ± 0.70, Male: 64.17%) who completed Brief Self Control Scale (BSCS), the 11th version of Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), Chinese Big Five Personality Inventory (CBF-PI) and Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS), where CBF-PI includes five sub-features (Openness, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism) and BSCS includes three sub-features (Attention, Motor and Non-planning). We applied Student's t-test on the dataset for feature selection and Support Vector Machines (SVMs) including C-SVM and ν-SVM with grid search for the classification and parameters optimization. This work illustrates that SVM is a reliable method for the assessment of IA and questionnaire data analysis. The best detection performance of IA is 96.32% which was obtained by C-SVM in the 6-feature dataset without normalization. Finally, the BIS-11, BSCS, Motor, Neuroticism, Non-planning, and Conscientiousness are shown to be promising features for the detection of IA.
       
  • The potential individual- and population-level benefits of encouraging
           drinkers to count their drinks

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Catherine F. Drane, Michelle I. Jongenelis, Penelope Hasking, Simone PettigrewAbstractIntroductionCross-sectional studies have established a link between overall engagement in protective behavioral strategies (PBSs) and reduced alcohol consumption. However, there are mixed results on the effectiveness of individual PBSs, with some found to result in increased consumption. A recent study examining the effects of PBS use over time found the ‘Count your drinks’ strategy to be most reliably associated with reduced alcohol consumption among 16 strategies. Given the apparent superior efficacy of this PBS, this exploratory study aimed to extend these results by (i) determining the extent to which increasing the frequency of PBS enactment is associated with alcohol consumption over time and (ii) predicting potential changes in population-level consumption resulting from higher levels of PBS use.Method1250 drinkers aged 18–70 years provided data at two time points relating to their drinking practices. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to model the relationship between changes in frequency of enactment of the ‘Count your drinks’ PBS and alcohol consumption. Coefficients were used to predict average reductions in alcohol consumption over one year associated with increased frequency of use of this PBS.ResultsLarger increases in the frequency of using the ‘Count your drinks’ PBS were associated with greater reductions in alcohol consumption. Exploratory extrapolation analyses demonstrated the potential for substantial reductions in overall alcohol consumption.ConclusionThe results suggest health promotion efforts designed to increase the frequency with which drinkers count their drinks could produce substantial annual decreases in alcohol consumption at both individual and population levels.
       
  • Cognitive mechanism of intimate interpersonal relationships and loneliness
           in internet-addicts: An ERP study

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Juan Hou, Yingying Jiang, Shuangyi Chen, Yingying Hou, Jingyi Wu, Ning Fan, Xiaoyi FangAbstractInterpersonal relationship and loneliness are important factors affecting internet addictive behavior of individuals. In the present study, we investigated intimate interpersonal relationships and loneliness in internet-addicts. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) of 32 internet addicts and 32 non internet-addicts. Participants viewed intimate-/conflict-relationship, happy/lonely, and neutral images. Results concerning attention probes showed that the accuracy rate of attention probes of internet-addicts was significantly lower than that of non internet-addicts; whereas, there was no significant difference in the reaction time of attention probes. Moreover, the differences in the mean amplitude and latency of P1, N1, N2P3, and LPP between internet-addicts and non internet-addicts were insignificant. Then, we found that the P1 amplitude of conflict images was significantly higher than that of intimate images among non internet-addicts; whereas internet-addicts indicated an insignificant difference between the two types of images. The P1 amplitude of lonely images was significantly higher than that of happy images among internet-addicts, but non internet-addicts were insignificant. The questionnaire data also obtained similar conclusions based on the EEG data. Finally, internet-addicts reported significantly higher loneliness scores than those of non internet-addicts. These results suggested that the social cognitive function of internet-addicts was probably impaired, especially in the cognition of interpersonal conflict. Furthermore, internet-addicts are likely to keep poor interpersonal relationships, which may induce more loneliness.
       
  • Assessing likelihood of product use for snus with modified-risk
           information among adult current cigarette smokers, former tobacco users,
           and never tobacco users

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Karen Gerlach, Saul Shiffman, Deena Battista, Michael Polster, Geoffrey CurtinAbstractIntroductionSwitching from cigarettes to snus by smokers unlikely to quit would be expected to benefit overall population health, with any potential benefit needing to be weighed against potential harms from snus use by tobacco non-users and smokers likely to quit. This study evaluates likelihood of snus use among tobacco users and non-users provided modified-risk information.MethodsAn online sample of 11,302 U.S. adults was randomized to view advertisements for snus that either provided modified-risk information or only described snus. Intent to purchase ratings were converted to projected purchase (use) rates using an empirically derived algorithm.ResultsProjected product use for snus was significantly higher among current smokers than former or never tobacco users (p 
       
  • Youth peer crowds and risk of cigarette use: The effects of dual peer
           crowd identification among hip hop youth

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Mario A. Navarro, Carolyn A. Stalgaitis, Matthew W. Walker, Dana E. WagnerAbstractIntroductionRecent research has found that the Hip Hop peer crowd has a strong link to risky health behaviors, including tobacco use. The current study expands on previous research on the Hip Hop peer crowd by investigating the nuances of the effects on cigarette risk that Hip Hop identification has in combination with other peer crowds.MethodsTargeted social media advertisements were used to recruit youth to complete an online survey. Participants (n = 4681) self-reported peer crowd identification via the I-Base Survey™, and cigarette smoking status. Smoking status was compared between peer crowd groups consisting of participants who had identification with only one peer crowd, and those who had identification with the Hip Hop peer crowd and one other crowd (i.e., Hip Hop dual peer crowd identification).ResultsSignificant differences in cigarette status were observed among the dual and single peer crowd groups. Specifically, differences in cigarette Non-susceptible Non-triers and Experimenters demonstrated that youth who identified as Mainstream Only were at lowest risk while youth who identified as Hip Hop/Alternative had the highest rates of cigarette experimentation. There were no differences between peer crowd groups on proportions of Susceptible Non-triers.ConclusionsExamining dual peer crowd identifications provides a nuanced understanding of risk. Dual identification with Hip Hop seems to have differential effects compared to solo identification with other crowds, whereby Hip Hop identification may increase cigarette experimentation when combined with another peer crowd. Findings demonstrate the potential of considering multiple peer crowd identification to inform public education campaign development.
       
  • Positive alcohol expectancies and injunctive drinking norms in drinking to
           cope motives and alcohol use among older adults

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Tomorrow D. Wilson, Linda Ann Wray, Rob J. TurrisiAbstractBackgroundStudies indicate older adults have increased risk for alcohol-related harms (e.g., risk for falls) that can manifest at lower levels of consumption than younger adults. Specifically, age-related changes in alcohol metabolism, physiology, increased morbidity, and potential interactions with medications to manage chronic conditions increases risk for related harms among older adults.PurposeThe present study used cross-sectional data to examine the associations between drinking to cope motives and positive alcohol expectancies, and injunctive drinking norms in older adults. We also explored the interaction between drinking to cope, positive expectancies and injunctive drinking norms on alcohol use.MethodsAdults aged 65 and older (N = 98) completed a series of measures assessing drinking to cope motives, positive alcohol expectancies, injunctive drinking norms, and past-month alcohol use.ResultsPositive alcohol expectancies were positively associated with drinking to cope motives. Drinking norms were not associated with coping motives. Moderating effects of expectancies varied on the link between coping motives and alcohol use. Greater endorsement of coping motives was associated with more alcohol consumption but only for those with low expectancies.ConclusionsBetter understanding of the complex interplay between drinking to cope motives, positive expectancies, and injunctive drinking norms of proximal as well as distal referents could foster improvement of clinical assessments to screen for risk factors of alcohol abuse and promote development of more age-salient measures of alcohol expectancies, norms, and motives.
       
  • Leisure activity and alcohol use among Ukrainian adolescents

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Nicholas Hryhorczuk, Alexander Zvinchuk, Zoreslava Shkiriak-Nyzhnyk, Nicole Gonzales, Daniel HryhorczukAbstractThe aim of this paper was to investigate associations between engagement in various types of leisure activity and alcohol use among Ukrainian adolescents. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1075 adolescents who were enrolled in the Family and Children of Ukraine birth cohort study using a self-administered questionnaire to determine how they prefer to spend their leisure time and their use of alcohol. Use of social media was associated with a higher risk of ever having used alcohol (OR = 2.11; 95%CI: [1.40–3.19]), used alcohol in the past 12 months (OR = 2.60; 95%CI [1.73–3.90]), and used alcohol in the past 30 days (OR = 2.35; 95%CI [1.50–3.70]). Visiting entertainment establishments (discos, recreation centers) was associated with a higher risk of ever used alcohol (OR = 1.84; 95%CI [1.33–2.56]), used alcohol in the past 12 months (OR = 2.09 95%CI (1.52–2.87), and used alcohol in the past 30 days (OR = 2.29; 95%CI [1.65–3.17]). Reading books was protective against using alcohol in the past 12 months (OR = 0.59; 95%CI [0.42–0.82] and the past 30 days (OR = 0.47; 95%CI [0.35–0.63]). Engaging in cultural leisure activities was protective against alcohol use in the past 30 days (OR = 0.72; 95% CI [0.54–0.95]). We conclude that among Ukrainian adolescents, engagement in sports, social media use and visiting entertainment establishments are associated with increased risk for alcohol use while reading books and engaging in cultural leisure activities are protective.
       
  • Stories of courage in a group of adults with Substance Use Disorder

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Ilaria Di Maggio, Sara Santilli, Laura NotaAbstractThe treatment for drug addiction is considered a difficult path for the most of patients. As matter of fact, individuals with Substance Use Disorder (SUD) experience numerous challenges before, during and after the treatment (e.g. tackling an unpredictable, uncertain and paradoxically negative future, tackling the anxiety and anticipatory fear of physical pain associated with abstinence; decide to go beyond self-justification and self-deception). Courage could be considered a positive and functional resource to help people with SUD to face challenges and difficulties related to treatment. In connection therewith, the aim of this study was to examine, using an embedded mix method analysis, the personal stories of courage of 80 individuals with SUD in order to identify the themes and types of courage used in their life. The analysis carried out showed that individuals with SUD reported more frequently stories of courage related to their SUD condition respect to other life situation. Moreover, the quantitative analysis showed that participants used more frequently psychological courage respect to moral and physical courage when these stories were referred to their SUD condition then other life situations.
       
  • Cognitive performance and mood after a normal night of drinking: A
           naturalistic alcohol hangover study in a non-student sample

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Lydia E. Devenney, Kieran B. Coyle, Joris C. VersterAbstractAimsThe alcohol hangover is typically investigated in student samples. However, alcohol hangovers are also reported by non-student drinkers, beyond the age and drinking behaviors of a student sample. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a normal night of alcohol consumption on next-day cognitive performance in a non-student sample.MethodsParticipants (N = 45) were recruited from a public drinking setting and participated in a naturalistic study comprising of a hangover test day and alcohol-free control day. On each test day, mood and hangover severity were assessed and participants completed a cognitive test battery consisting of a Stroop test, Eriksen's flanker test, spatial working memory test, free recall test, choice reaction time test, and intra-extra dimensional set shifting test.ResultsOn the hangover day, significantly impaired performance was revealed on all tests, except the intra-extra dimensional set shifting test. On the hangover day, significantly lower mood scores were observed for alertness and tranquility.ConclusionThe current study in a non-student sample confirms previous findings in student samples that cognitive functioning and mood are significantly impaired during alcohol hangover.
       
  • Convergence between the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale and diagnostic
           interview for the assessment of alcohol craving

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Emily E. Hartwell, Spencer Bujarski, ReJoyce Green, Lara A. RayAbstractIntroductionThe Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS) is one of the most widely used instruments to measure craving for alcohol. Recent research has suggested that scores on the PACS can be used as a “stand in” for the diagnostic criterion of alcohol craving with a proposed cutoff of>20 on the PACS indicating a “positive” alcohol craving symptom. The present study examined the convergence between the PACS and face-to-face diagnostic interview for the assessment of alcohol craving.MethodA sample of non-treatment seeking heavy drinkers (N = 338) enrolled in experimental studies of AUD completed the PACS as well as a face-to-face diagnostic interview for AUD, which included the craving item from the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA).ResultsUsing the PACS cut-off score of>20, 12.9% (N = 43) of the sample met criteria for alcohol craving compared to 21% (N = 74) of the sample meeting criteria based on the diagnostic interview. Using the PACS cutoff of>20, sensitivity (i.e., true positive rate) was 41% and specificity (i.e., true negative rate) was 95%. Exploratory analyses suggested that a cut-off score of ≥15 achieved the optimal balance of sensitivity (67%) and specificity (81%) in our sample.ConclusionsAdvancing the assessment of alcohol craving and the conversion from DSM-IV to DSM-5 diagnostic criteria represents an important research direction. The present study recommends that a PACS score cut off of ≥15 should be used as an indicator of clinically significant alcohol craving in community samples of non-treatment seekers.
       
  • Persistence of value-modulated attentional capture is associated with
           risky alcohol use

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Lucy Albertella, Poppy Watson, Murat Yücel, Mike E. Le PelleyAbstractBackgroundThis study examined how risky patterns of alcohol use might be related to the persistence of learned attentional capture during reversal of stimulus–reward contingencies.MethodsParticipants were 122 healthy adults (mean age 21 years, 66% female) who completed an assessment including a visual search task to measure value-modulated attentional capture, with a reversal phase following a period of initial training. The assessment also included questions about alcohol use.ResultsOverall, attentional capture was greater for distractors associated with high reward than for those associated with low reward, replicating previous findings of value-modulated attentional capture. When stimulus–reward contingencies were reversed, a higher persistence of learned attentional capture was associated with risky patterns of alcohol use.ConclusionThis result highlights how value-modulated attentional capture may persist and is associated with risky alcohol use in a non-clinical sample. Future research (potentially with clinical samples of heavy drinkers) aimed towards understanding the mechanisms that drive these reversal deficits, and their relation to other compulsive behaviours, may provide important insights into the development and maintenance of addictive behaviours.
       
  • An inverse relationship between perceived social support and substance use
           frequency in socially stigmatized populations

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Rachel Rapier, Scott McKernan, Christopher S. StaufferAbstractIntroductionSocial isolation and alcohol and substance use disorders (ASUD) have been identified as global health risks. Social support is protective against developing ASUD and is associated with beneficial addiction treatment outcomes. Socially stigmatized populations are at higher risk of both social isolation and ASUD, and the link between social support and substance use in these populations has been less researched than in general substance-using populations. We hypothesized that perceived social support, as measured by the Social Provisions Scale (SPS), would have an inverse relationship with frequency of substance use, from subsections of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) that estimate use over the past 30 days and over an individual's lifetime.MethodsUsing a cross-sectional design, we conducted secondary correlational analyses with pre-existing data to test our hypothesis in two separate samples made up of socially marginalized populations entering ASUD treatment programs. Sample 1: substance-using male prison inmates (n = 72, average age = 30.79) and Sample 2: primary methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (n = 86, average age = 43.41).ResultsSignificant negative correlations were found between SPS and lifetime use of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis (rs − 0.27, −0.39, −0.26; p-values 0.04, 0.001, 0.04, respectively) in Sample 1 and 30-day use of methamphetamine (rs − 0.28; p-value 0.008) in Sample 2.DiscussionDifferences in results between the samples (lifetime vs 30-day use) may reflect psychosocial and contextual differences impacting perceived social support. Our findings provide support for an important link between perceived social support and frequency of substance use in socially stigmatized populations.
       
  • High degree of uncertain reflective functioning in mothers with substance
           use disorder

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Tore Bergby Handeland, Vidar Roald Kristiansen, Bjørn Lau, Ulrika Håkansson, Merete Glenne ØieAbstractAimsHaving a substance use disorder (SUD) is associated with impaired reflective functioning (RF) or mentalizing, implying reduced capacity to reflect on internal mental states of the self and others. This has adverse effects on parenting and the child's development. High uncertain RF style prevents an adequate RF due to a concrete, rigid way of mentalizing. High certain RF style prevents adequate RF by making individuals too certain that their view of the world is the true and only one, thereby implying no need to mentalize others' state of mind. We investigated the degree of certain RF and uncertain RF in mothers with SUD with the recently developed screening measure Reflective Functioning Questionnaire-8 (RFQ). Further, we measured the concurrent validity of the RFQ and the more commonly used Parent Development Interview (PDI) measuring a one-dimensional scale of RF.MethodsWe used the RFQ-8 to investigate the degree of certain RF (RFQc) and uncertain RF (RFQu) in 43 mothers with SUD. We measured the concurrent validity of the RFQ and the more commonly used PDI.ResultsOur sample had considerably higher uncertain RF compared to certain RF. The RFQu was significantly negatively associated with maternal RF measured with the PDI, while the RFQc was not.ConclusionHigh degree of uncertain RF in mothers with SUD was associated with an impaired maternal RF (PDI). Administering the RFQ-8 before treatment might be an effective way to screen for uncertain RF deficit, pinpointing what should be the focus in the mentalization-based therapy.
       
  • Ecological momentary assessment studies of comorbid PTSD and alcohol use:
           A narrative review

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): A.R. Lane, A.J. Waters, A.C. BlackAbstractIntroductionPTSD and harmful alcohol use, including alcohol use disorder (AUD), frequently co-occur. Recent research has used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine the associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol-related variables, such as craving for alcohol, alcohol use, and the presence of alcohol-related problems. The overall purpose of this narrative review is to summarize this emerging literature.MethodsInclusion criteria for studies were: 1) Use of ecological momentary assessment as the method for gathering data on alcohol use and/or craving in populations with both problematic alcohol use and PTSD, and the inclusion of an assessment of both PTSD symptoms and at least one alcohol use variable during EMA; and 2) At screening, participants were required to meet study criteria for a) elevated PTSD symptoms or trauma exposure, and b) alcohol use.ResultsThe pertinent extant literature is reviewed in terms of four underlying themes: Methodological considerations of EMA research in a population with PTSD symptoms and harmful alcohol use; Associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol use variable/s; Moderators of PTSD-alcohol use associations; Mediators of PTSD-alcohol use associations.ConclusionsCollectively, studies provide support for the self-medication hypothesis. Several variables were found to moderate association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol-related variables. EMA data may ultimately be useful in identifying when individuals are at risk for harm due to increased symptoms or alcohol misuse and may inform treatment approaches administered remotely.
       
  • The acceptability of smokeless tobacco products depends on nicotine levels

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): R. Cruz-Cano, M. Rangel-Gomez, C. Van Wagoner, A. Kidanu, M.C. Brinkman, P.I. ClarkAbstractUnderstanding the role nicotine plays in initiating and sustaining addiction has been of interest for the scientific community and general population, with the idea that low levels of nicotine will reduce abuse liability associated with smokeless tobacco products. Previously, research has relied on subjective assessments to determine consumer acceptability, but these measures cannot provide a characterization of the physiological responses associated with nicotine use. Consumer acceptability arises from psychological and neurophysiological factors, thus establishing the need to use subjective and objective measurements in conjunction. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of the subjective and objective effects of smokeless tobacco product use with varying levels of nicotine. EEG data were recorded before and after the use of four different smokeless tobacco products and one control product over five separate visits, with participants arriving to each visit after 12 h of tobacco abstinence. These products have distinct consumer acceptability levels and patterns of use characteristics ranging from starter products to those used primarily by established users. Subjective results showed that smokeless tobacco products with higher levels of nicotine were more successful in reducing craving and more reinforcing than those with lower levels. These results were concordant with the activity present in the EEG recordings where products with high nicotine levels produced larger changes in the amplitude of the event-related signal than those with low levels. This study is fundamental in understanding the relationship between subjective and objective smokeless tobacco acceptability measurements, as mediated by the different levels of nicotine in each product.
       
  • Self-reported sexually-transmitted infections and criminal justice
           involvement among women who use drugs

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Andrea K. Knittel, Jennifer LorvickAbstractBackgroundWomen involved in the criminal justice system in the United States have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI). It is unknown whether criminal justice involvement is a marker for other risk behavior, such as sex exchange or drug use, or criminal justice involvement itself increases risk directly.MethodsThis study examines the relationship between STI and the frequency and duration of arrest, probation, and incarceration in a sample of women who use drugs (n = 394) in Oakland, California who reported having been tested for STI in the past six months. Logistic regression models of STI using criminal justice measures as independent variables were used, and subsequent estimates were adjusted for demographics, sex exchange, specific drugs used, and number of sexual partners.ResultsAny time spent in jail in the past year was associated with higher odds of recent STI (UOR = 2.28, 95%CI [1.41–3.51]), and short incarcerations (2–3 weeks) in jail most substantially increased the odds of an STI diagnosis (UOR = 7.65, 95%CI [1.03, 56.68]). Arrest and probation were not significantly associated with STI. After adjusting for the covariates, particularly sex exchange and opioid use, none of the criminal justice-related variables were significantly associated with STI.ConclusionsA substantial portion of the increased risk of STI that is associated with criminal justice involvement for women who use drugs is likely due to sex exchange. Longitudinal studies are needed to temporally separate criminal justice exposures, drug use, sex exchange, and STI outcomes.
       
  • Perfectionism and self-medication as mediators of the links between
           parenting styles and drinking outcomes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): J.A. Patock-Peckham, W.R. CorbinObjectivePerfectionism reflects unreasonably high expectations for oneself that are rarely obtainable leading to negative affect. The self-medication model suggests that alcohol consumption is negatively reinforced and subsequently escalated due to reductions in negative affect when drinking (Hersh & Hussong, 2009). Wang (2010) found that parents directly influence perfectionism levels. Parents have also been found to indirectly influence alcohol-related problems (Patock-Peckham & Morgan-Lopez, 2006, 2009). The current study sought to examine the indirect effects of parenting on alcohol-related problems and alcohol use quantity/frequency through perfectionism dimensions, (i.e. order, discrepancy, and high standards) depression, and self-medication motives for drinking. We hypothesized that more critical parenting and perfectionism discrepancy would be associated with heavier drinking by increasing depressive symptoms and promoting drinking for negative reinforcement.MethodA structural equation model with 419 university volunteers was utilized to test our mediational hypotheses.ResultsThe analyses identified an indirect link between maternal authoritarian parenting and alcohol-related problems operating through perfectionism discrepancy. Higher levels of maternal authoritarian parenting were associated with greater perfectionism discrepancy which contributed to higher levels of depression, and in turn, stronger self-medication motives, as well as more alcohol-related problems.ConclusionsMaternal authoritarian parenting style is directly linked to perfectionism discrepancy along the self-medication pathway to alcohol-related problems. Our results suggest that the reduction of perfectionism discrepancy may be a good therapeutic target for depression as well as inform the development of parent or individual based prevention efforts to reduce risk for alcohol-related problems.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Alcohol consumption, life satisfaction and mental health among Norwegian
           college and university students

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Solbjørg Makalani Myrtveit Sæther, Marit Knapstad, Kristin Gärtner Askeland, Jens Christoffer SkogenAbstractObjectiveHigh-level alcohol consumption is common in, and central to, the student community. Among adults, high-level alcohol consumption, and sometimes also low, has been associated with poorer social integration and mental health. We aimed to investigate how alcohol consumption relates to life satisfaction and mental health among students in higher education.MethodsData from the Norwegian study of students' health and well-being (SHoT, 2014, n = 9632) were used. Associations between alcohol consumption (AUDIT; abstainers, low risk, risky and hazardous consumption) and life satisfaction and mental health complaints, as well as number of close friends, and social and emotional loneliness were investigated using linear regression models. Crude models and models adjusted for age, gender and relationship status were conducted.ResultsStudents reporting hazardous consumption reported lower life satisfaction, more mental health complaints, and more emotional and social loneliness than students with low risk consumption. Students reporting risky consumption reported slightly reduced life satisfaction and more mental health complaints, but more close friends and less social loneliness. Abstainers did not report reduced life satisfaction or more mental health complaints, despite reporting fewer close friends and more social loneliness.ConclusionHigh-level alcohol consumption among students might indicate increased risk of several problems in the future – but also currently. Our findings further imply that the quality of friendships might be more important for life satisfaction and mental health than the number of friends, but also that social integration in student communities might be more difficult for students who do not drink.
       
  • Psychiatric symptoms and recent opioid-related overdose: Results from a
           secondary analysis of an intervention study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Michael Fendrich, Jessica Becker, Jennifer Hernandez-MeierAbstractBackgroundDrug overdose (OD) is the leading cause of accidental death in the United States and most of these deaths involve opioids. Despite research linking opioid abuse to mental illness, and evidence suggesting a large portion of opioid OD deaths are suicides, OD prevention strategies scarcely take into account mental health risk factors.MethodsWe examined a sample of heroin and other opioid users enrolled in an intervention study to determine the prevalence of overdose, the prevalence of suicide attempts in overdose, and whether those with higher levels of psychiatric symptomatology would be more likely to experience a recent OD compared to other opioid users. By performing bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression models that controlled for poly drug use, criminal justice status, age, race, gender, and education, we evaluated the association of severe depression, severe anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and, psychosis and past three-month OD.ResultsJust over 12% (45/368) of recent opioid users reported a recent overdose. Four of these recent overdose victims reported that the overdose was a suicide attempt. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that severe depression (odds ratio 2.46; 95% CI: 1.24, 4.89), PTSD (odds ratio: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.37–5.60) and psychosis (odds ratio 2.39; 95% CI: 1.10–5.15) were significantly associated with elevated odds for OD.ConclusionsFindings suggest systematic mental health symptom screening and connection to mental health treatment for opioid users—especially those identified with OD—may be critical for OD prevention.
       
  • Corrigendum to “Three-month effects of Project EX: A smoking
           intervention pilot program with Korean adolescents” [Addict. Behav. Rep.
           9 (2019) 100152]

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Sheila Yu, Artur Galimov, Steve Sussman, Goo Churl Jeong, Sung Rae Shin
       
 
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