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  Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 7655 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (1946 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access  
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)     Open Access  
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta Medica International     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access  
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acupuncture and Natural Medicine     Open Access  
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / Health Sciences Journal of Adıyaman University     Open Access  
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access  
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Skeletal Muscle Function Assessment     Open Access  
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
AJSP: Reviews & Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access  
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy     Open Access  
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ankara Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası     Open Access  
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Fundeni Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives Medical Review Journal / Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi     Open Access  
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access  
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASHA Leader     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine     Open Access  
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Medical Journal     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Addictive Behaviors Reports
  [8 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2352-8532
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • Correlates of attempting to quit smoking among adults in Bangladesh

    • Authors: Shariful Hakim; Muhammad Abdul Baker Chowdhury; Md Jamal Uddin
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8
      Author(s): Shariful Hakim, Muhammad Abdul Baker Chowdhury, Md Jamal Uddin
      Background Quit attempts are very essential in population-based smoking cessation. Little is known about the correlates of making a quit attempt of smoking in Bangladesh. We aimed to examine correlates of making a quit attempt of smoking among adults in Bangladesh. Methods We used data from the 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey, Bangladesh. A total of 2217 adult current smokers (2141 males and 76 females) aged 15 years and older who participated in the survey were included. We compared socio-demographic, behavioral, motivational, knowledge and attitudes towards smoking, quitting methods utilized, use of social media to quit smoking, and environmental characteristics of current smokers who made an attempt to quit with those who made no quit attempt during the previous 12 months of the survey. We applied multivariable logistic regression models for analyzing the data. Results Among the 2217 current smokers, 1058 (47.72%) made attempt to quit. We found respondents who smoked their first cigarette within 6 to 30 min of waking up were more likely to make an attempt to quit than those who smoked their first cigarette within 5 min of waking. Moreover, among daily current smokers who smoked 10–19 manufactured cigarettes per day were less likely to make a quit attempt. We also found intention to quit smoking, smoking rules inside the home, and exposure to anti-smoking advertisements as significant correlates of making a quit attempt of smoking among adults in Bangladesh. Conclusions Policymakers should consider our findings when implementing tobacco control programs in Bangladesh.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T22:59:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2018.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2018)
       
  • Prior prescription opioid misuse in a cohort of heroin users in a
           treatment study

    • Authors: Michael Fendrich; Jessica Becker
      Pages: 8 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8
      Author(s): Michael Fendrich, Jessica Becker
      This study investigates prior prescription opioid misuse in a cohort of heroin users whose progress was tracked in a treatment study conducted in the US from 2006 to 2010. Half of the sample misused prescription opioids (“other opiates/analgesics”) prior to their onset of heroin misuse (POBs). We found that POBs were demographically younger and more likely to be white than other heroin users (OHUs). There were differences between the two groups with respect to the reporting of at least one year of regular use of substances and age of onset of substance use. POBs were more likely to report regular use, and earlier onset of use of several substances, mostly of the type potentially obtained via prescription. POBs were more persistent in their opioid use and more likely to suffer near-term elevated depressive symptoms compared with OHUs. These findings suggest that heroin addiction treatment may need to be tailored according to opioid misuse history.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T22:59:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2018.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2018)
       
  • Parental belief and adolescent smoking and drinking behaviors: A
           propensity score matching study

    • Authors: Hei Wan Mak
      Pages: 11 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8
      Author(s): Hei Wan Mak
      This research examines the effects of parental belief on adolescent later smoking and drinking behaviors. Previous studies show that parental belief may have detrimental or beneficial influences on adolescents' behaviors. Analysis is based on Wave 1 and 2 data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), N = 3232, and is conducted using an OLS regression estimation and propensity score matching (PSM; nearest-neighbor and kernel matching). Results show that, of adolescents who used cigarettes and alcohol at Wave 1, they are more likely to continue the activity if their parents were aware of it. Adolescents are also more likely to use cigarettes if their parents believed they smoked when in fact they did not. Of adolescents who did not use alcohol, no significant association is found between parental belief and their later alcohol use. Self-fulfilling prophecy is proposed to explain the effects of parental belief. Results obtained from PSM show weaker effects of parental belief, suggesting that part of the effects is explained by shared factors which are responsible for the belief and adolescent substance use. Adolescent concealment is proposed as an important unobserved confounder that influences the association between parental belief and adolescent substance use. The study suggests that research on parent-adolescent communication affected by the self-fulfilling prophecy needs to consider adolescents' intentional concealment, which may help avoid conflicts elicited by discussing topics that adolescents feel uncomfortable confiding in.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T22:59:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2018.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2018)
       
  • Psychometric evaluation of a lifetime version of the marijuana problems
           scale

    • Authors: David C. Hodgins; Jonathan N. Stea
      Pages: 21 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8
      Author(s): David C. Hodgins, Jonathan N. Stea
      Introduction The Marijuana Problems Scale (MPS) is a widely-used self-report measure of cannabis-related negative consequences that has a past three-month reporting window. This report describes the psychometric characteristics of a lifetime version (MPS-L). Methods As part of a larger study, 119 individuals who had recovered from cannabis use disorder completed the MPS-L on two occasions 2 weeks apart and 91 participant-nominated family and friends also completed a collateral version of the scale. Results Item analyses and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that three of the 19 items were relatively weaker. Omitting these items, the MPS-L showed good internal reliability (α = 0.88, for summed severity total, α = 0.85 for number of consequences identified) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.81 and 0.73). As expected, correlations with collateral reports were moderate (r = 0.33 and 0.29), and collaterals reported significantly fewer negative consequences than participants. MPS total scores also correlated as expected with external validity measures (e.g., number of cannabis use disorder symptoms reported, motives for use, lifetime depression, treatment history). PCA supported the use of a total score summed score, but also revealed two secondary factors, measuring internal consequences (e.g., low self-esteem) and external consequences (e.g., financial difficulties). Conclusions These analyses provide good preliminary support for a lifetime version of the MPS, with the summed severity total score performing slightly better than the total number of consequences endorsed.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T22:59:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2018.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2018)
       
  • Excluded, then inebriated: A preliminary investigation into the role of
           ostracism on alcohol consumption

    • Authors: Amy K. Bacon; Blair Engerman
      Pages: 25 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8
      Author(s): Amy K. Bacon, Blair Engerman
      Introduction Ostracism has only recently been investigated as a relevant social stressor that might precede college student alcohol use. The present study continues initial efforts to examine the effects of ostracism on subsequent alcohol consumption in the laboratory. A 2 (sex: male, female) × 2 (condition: ostracism, control) between-subjects experimental design was conducted to examine the effects of these variables on alcohol consumption in the laboratory. Methods Social drinking college students (N = 40; 43% female) were randomly assigned to one of two social interaction tasks: either an in-person conversation from which the participant was excluded by two confederates, or independently rating neutrally valenced photographs alongside confederates. Participants then consumed a priming drink (targeted dose = 0.03 BrAC) before completing a mock taste test of up to 710 ml of light beer. Amount consumed (in ml) during the mock taste test served as the primary dependent variable. Results The ostracism condition was effective at decreasing mood and psychological need variables (i.e., control, belonging) compared to the control condition. After removing from analyses those who identified the confederates as part of the study (n = 7; 3 control, 4 ostracism), results indicated that males consumed more beer than females, and that ostracized participants trended toward consuming more beer than control participants. Conclusions Findings contribute important methodological additions to a burgeoning literature on the effects of ostracism on drinking, and suggest that ostracism may be a valuable addition to studies examining drinking to cope behaviors.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T22:59:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2018.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2018)
       
  • Creation and validation of the barriers to alcohol reduction (BAR) scale
           using classical test theory and item response theory

    • Authors: Zachary J. Kunicki; Melissa R. Schick; Nichea S. Spillane; Lisa L. Harlow
      Pages: 47 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): Zachary J. Kunicki, Melissa R. Schick, Nichea S. Spillane, Lisa L. Harlow
      Those who binge drink are at increased risk for alcohol-related consequences when compared to non-binge drinkers. Research shows individuals may face barriers to reducing their drinking behavior, but few measures exist to assess these barriers. This study created and validated the Barriers to Alcohol Reduction (BAR) scale. Participants were college students (n = 230) who endorsed at least one instance of past-month binge drinking (4+ drinks for women or 5+ drinks for men). Using classical test theory, exploratory structural equation modeling found a two-factor structure of personal/psychosocial barriers and perceived program barriers. The sub-factors, and full scale had reasonable internal consistency (i.e., coefficient omega = 0.78 (personal/psychosocial), 0.82 (program barriers), and 0.83 (full measure)). The BAR also showed evidence for convergent validity with the Brief Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire (r = 0.39, p < .001) and discriminant validity with Barriers to Physical Activity (r = −0.02, p = .81). Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis showed the two factors separately met the unidimensionality assumption, and provided further evidence for severity of the items on the two factors. Results suggest that the BAR measure appears reliable and valid for use in an undergraduate student population of binge drinkers. Future studies may want to re-examine this measure in a more diverse sample.

      PubDate: 2018-02-07T19:59:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2018.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
       
  • Relationship between tonic and phasic craving for alcohol

    • Authors: Emily E. Hartwell; Lara A. Ray
      Pages: 71 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): Emily E. Hartwell, Lara A. Ray
      Background Multiple measures are utilized to assess alcohol craving, often interchangeably. Little is known about the relationship between tonic and phasic craving. This study fills this gap in the literature by examining the association between tonic levels of alcohol craving and phasic craving for alcohol that is provoked by alcohol administration. Methods Forty-three non-treatment seeking problem drinkers underwent an initial interview and two laboratory testing sessions, where either alcohol or a saline placebo was administered intravenously. Tonic craving was assessed via the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) at the initial interview. Phasic craving was assessed during the laboratory sessions (i.e., alcohol and saline administrations, single blinded) at baseline and at 3 subsequent breath alcohol concentrations (0.02, 0.04, and 0.06 g/dl). Results There was a main effect of PACS in predicting phasic craving across both saline and alcohol administration conditions (p < 0.05). The OCDS was predictive of phasic craving when alcohol, but not saline, was administered (p = 0.058); the obsessive subscale (p = 0.01), but not the compulsive subscale (p > 0.10), predicted phasic craving during alcohol, as compared to saline administration. Conclusion In sum, tonic craving captured by the OCDS was predictive of phasic craving during alcohol administration whereas the PACS more generally captured the increase in phasic craving. Therefore, these measures of tonic craving may function differently in capturing the experience of phasic craving. Implications for the utilization of the PACS and OCDS as well as assessments of craving in alcoholism research are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T04:54:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2018.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
       
  • Addictive behaviors and psychological distress among adolescents and
           emerging adults: A mediating role of peer group identification

    • Authors: Iina Savolainen; Markus Kaakinen; Anu Sirola; Atte Oksanen
      Pages: 75 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Iina Savolainen, Markus Kaakinen, Anu Sirola, Atte Oksanen
      Objective Research suggests the sense of belonging to primary groups functions as an important social resource for youth well-being, but it can be compromised among those dealing with addiction. The current study examined how adolescents' and emerging adults' identification with a primary peer group consisting of friends, mediates the relationship between addictive behaviors and psychological distress. Method The study utilized demographically balanced survey data on 1200 Finnish participants aged 15 to 25 (mean age 21.29, 50% female). Measures were included for psychological distress, excessive drinking, excessive drug use, excessive gambling, excessive Internet use, and peer group identification. Results All forms of addictive behaviors had a significant direct relationship with higher psychological distress. Excessive drug use, gambling and Internet use were associated with a weaker identification with a peer group, which predicted higher psychological distress. Contrary to the above findings, excessive drinking was linked to stronger peer group identification, mediating psychological distress downwards. Conclusions These findings support past research and provide a mediation model explanation onto how weaker social relations add to negative well-being consequences in different addictive behaviors, thus underlining the importance of expanding our understanding of social group outcomes among young individuals.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T04:54:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2018.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
       
  • The association between nicotine dependence and physical health among
           people receiving injectable diacetylmorphine or hydromorphone for the
           treatment of chronic opioid use disorder

    • Authors: Heather Palis; Kirsten Marchand; Mohammad Karamouzian; Scott MacDonald; Scott Harrison; Daphne Guh; Kurt Lock; Suzanne Brissette; Aslam H. Anis; Michael Krausz; David C. Marsh; Martin T. Schechter; Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes
      Pages: 82 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): Heather Palis, Kirsten Marchand, Mohammad Karamouzian, Scott MacDonald, Scott Harrison, Daphne Guh, Kurt Lock, Suzanne Brissette, Aslam H. Anis, Michael Krausz, David C. Marsh, Martin T. Schechter, Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes
      Introduction People with chronic opioid use disorder often present to treatment with individual and structural vulnerabilities and remain at risk of reporting adverse health outcomes. This risk is greatly compounded by tobacco smoking, which is highly prevalent among people with chronic opioid use disorder. Despite the known burden of tobacco smoking on health, the relationship between nicotine dependence and health has not been studied among those receiving injectable opioid agonist treatment. As such, the present study aims to explore the association between nicotine dependence and physical health among participants of the Study to Assess Longer-Term Opioid Medication Effectiveness (SALOME) at baseline and six-months. Methods SALOME was a double-blind phase III clinical trial testing the non-inferiority of injectable hydromorphone to injectable diacetylmorphine for chronic opioid use disorder. Participants reporting tobacco smoking were included in a linear regression analysis of physical health at baseline (before receiving treatment) and at six-months. Results At baseline, nicotine dependence score, lifetime history of emotional, physical, or sexual abuse and prior month safe injection site access were independently and significantly associated with physical health. At six-months nicotine dependence score was the only variable that maintained this significant and independent association with physical health. Conclusions Findings indicate that after six-months, the injectable treatment effectively brought equity to patients' physical health status, yet the association with nicotine dependence remained. Findings could inform whether the provision of treatment for nicotine dependence should be made a priority in settings where injectable opioid agonist treatment is delivered to achieve improvements in overall physical health in this population.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:59:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2018.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
       
  • Depressed female smokers have higher levels of soluble tumor necrosis
           factor receptor 1

    • Authors: Mauro Porcu; Regina Célia Bueno Rezende Machado; Mariana Urbano; Waldiceu A. Verri; Ana Carolina Rossaneis; Heber Odebrecht Vargas; Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes
      Pages: 90 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): Mauro Porcu, Regina Célia Bueno Rezende Machado, Mariana Urbano, Waldiceu A. Verri, Ana Carolina Rossaneis, Heber Odebrecht Vargas, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes
      Aim To examine clinical and biomarkers in depressed female smokers, in order to better clarify the process that link mood disorders, childhood trauma and smoking in women. Methods The clinical sample comprised women with unipolar or bipolar depression, divided into subgroups of smokers and never-smoker. The control groups comprised two subgroups non-depressed women, separated into smokers and never-smokers. A structured questionnaire was used to assess socio-demographic and clinical data. The following scales were used: 17-item version Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating scale (HAM-A), Sheehan disability scale, the Child Trauma Questionnaire. The following biomarkers were investigated: lipid profile, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides the Castelli's Risk indexes I and II; and cytokines, including interleukins (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF-R1). Results Depressed female smokers showed a number of significant positive correlations: emotional neglect and sTNF-R1 (p = 0.02); waist circumference and sTNF-R1 (p = 0.001); body mass index and sTNF-R1 (p < 0.01); HAM-A and sTNF-R1 (p = 0.03); IL-1β and sTNF-R1 (p < 0.01); IL-10 and sTNF-R1 (p = 0.001); IL-12 and sTNF-R1 (p < 0.01);Castelli index I and sTNF-R1 (p < 0.01); Castelli index II and sTNF-R1 (p < 0.01); and a significantly negative correlation between HDLc and sTNF-R1(p = 0.014). Conclusion This study suggests that depressed female smokers who experienced more childhood trauma and had more anxiety symptoms are associated with the activation of inflammatory processes and alterations in components of lipid profile.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:59:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2018.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
       
  • Ethnic variations in the relationship between multiple stress domains and
           use of several types of tobacco/nicotine products among a diverse sample
           of adults

    • Authors: Christopher J. Rogers; Myriam Forster; Jennifer B. Unger
      Pages: 96 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): Christopher J. Rogers, Myriam Forster, Jennifer B. Unger
      Introduction Financial strain and discrimination are consistent predictors of negative health outcomes and maladaptive coping behaviors, including tobacco use. Although there is considerable information exploring stress and smoking, limited research has examined the relationship between patterns of stress domains and specific tobacco/nicotine product use. Even fewer studies have assessed ethnic variations in these relationships. Methods This study investigated the relationship between discrimination and financial strain and current tobacco/nicotine product use and explored the ethnic variation in these relationships among diverse sample of US adults (N = 1068). Separate logistic regression models assessed associations between stress domains and tobacco/nicotine product use, adjusting for covariates (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, and household income). Due to statistically significant differences, the final set of models was stratified by race/ethnicity. Results Higher levels of discrimination were associated with higher odds of all three tobacco/nicotine product categories. Financial strain was positively associated with combustible tobacco and combined tobacco/nicotine product use. Financial strain was especially risky for Non-Hispanic Whites (AOR:1.191, 95%CI:1.083–1.309) and Blacks/African Americans (AOR:1.542, 95%CI:1.106–2.148), as compared to other groups, whereas discrimination was most detrimental for Asians/Pacific Islanders (AOR:3.827, 95%CI:1.832–7.997) and Hispanics/Latinas/Latinos (AOR:2.517, 95%CI:1.603–3.952). Conclusions Findings suggest discrimination and financial stressors are risk factors for use of multiple tobacco/nicotine products, highlighting the importance of prevention research that accounts for these stressors. Because ethnic groups may respond differently to stress/strain, prevention research needs to identify cultural values, beliefs, and coping strategies that can buffer the negative consequences of discrimination and financial stressors.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:59:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2018.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
       
  • Comparing harm beliefs and risk perceptions among young adult waterpipe
           

    • Authors: Isaac M. Lipkus; Darren Mays
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Isaac M. Lipkus, Darren Mays
      Introduction Very little is known about how waterpipe tobacco smokers and nonsmokers compare on harm beliefs about waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) and how these beliefs are related to risk appraisals and intentions to engage in WTS. We investigated these issues among young adult waterpipe tobacco smokers, susceptible nonsmokers, and non-susceptible nonsmokers. Methods Young adults ages 18 to 30 who smoked waterpipe tobacco during the last 30 days or never used waterpipe tobacco were recruited online through Turkprime. Nonsmokers were grouped as susceptible or not. Participants completed measures of harm beliefs, risk appraisals (i.e., perceived risks and worry), and desire to quit among smokers or willingness/curiosity to try waterpipe among nonsmokers. Results Analyses were based on 247 smokers and 418 nonsmokers. Smokers endorsed most strongly harm beliefs that portrayed WTS as safe, followed by susceptible and then non-susceptible nonsmokers. Most harm beliefs were significantly related to risk appraisals, yet weakly associated with desire to quit or willingness/curiosity to try waterpipe tobacco, except among susceptible nonsmokers. Conclusions Greater efforts are needed to correct maladaptive beliefs about WTS harms, especially among smokers. Among susceptible nonsmokers, harm beliefs may be more influential in predicting willingness to try WTS than risk appraisals.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T04:54:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2018.03.003
       
  • The relationship between concussion and alcohol consumption among
           university athletes

    • Authors: Bradey Alcock; Caitlyn Gallant; Dawn Good
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Bradey Alcock, Caitlyn Gallant, Dawn Good
      Introduction This study investigated concussion as a potential risk factor for increased alcohol consumption in university athletes. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, 41 university students (37% with a history of concussion) completed self-report measures, while electrodermal activation (EDA) was recorded for each participant to capture baseline physiological arousal. Results As expected, concussion status significantly predicted alcohol consumption over and above athletic status, b = 0.34, p = 0.034, 95% CI [0.195, 4.832], such that those with a prior concussion history engaged in greater alcohol consumption. Importantly, concussion status also significantly predicted baseline physiological arousal, b = −0.39, p = 0.014, 95% CI [−0.979, −0.120], such that those with a history of concussion exhibited lower EDA. Conclusions Elevated alcohol consumption among athletes is a pronounced associate of concussion in sports and may be a behavioral reflection of disruption to the orbitofrontal cortex – an area implicated in inhibition.

      PubDate: 2018-02-07T19:59:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2018.02.001
       
  • Anterior insula activation during inhibition to smoking cues is associated
           with ability to maintain tobacco abstinence

    • Authors: Jodi M. Gilman; Milena Radoman; Randi M. Schuster; Gladys Pachas; Nour Azzouz; Maurizio Fava; A. Eden Evins
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Jodi M. Gilman, Milena Radoman, Randi M. Schuster, Gladys Pachas, Nour Azzouz, Maurizio Fava, A. Eden Evins
      Relapse to smoking after initial abstinence is a major clinical challenge with significant public health consequences. At the brain and behavioral level, those who relapse to tobacco smoking have both greater cue-reactivity and lower inhibitory control than those who remain abstinent. Little is known about neural activation during inhibitory control tasks in the presence of drug-related cues. In the current study, tobacco smokers (SMK; n = 22) and non-smoking controls (CON; n = 19) completed a Go/NoGo task involving smoking cues during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. Following the scan session, smokers were required to quit smoking, and maintenance of abstinence was evaluated as part of a 12-week smoking cessation trial. We evaluated pre-cessation brain activity during NoGo trials in smokers who were versus were not able to quit smoking. We then compared fMRI and inhibitory control measures between smokers and non-smokers. We did not find differences between SMK and CON in performance or activation to smoking or neutral cues. However, compared to SMK who relapsed, SMK who attained biochemically-validated abstinence at the end of the smoking cessation trial had greater neural activation in the anterior insula during NoGo trials specifically with smoking-related cues. Results indicate that within SMK, decreased inhibitory control activation during direct exposure to drug-related stimuli may be a marker of difficulty quitting and relapse vulnerability.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T11:21:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2018.01.002
       
  • Emotion dysregulation and negative affect: Laboratory and EMA
           investigations in smokers

    • Authors: Jessica M. MacIntyre; Aimee Ruscio; Emily Brede; Andrew J. Waters
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Jessica M. MacIntyre, Aimee Ruscio, Emily Brede, Andrew J. Waters
      Introduction Difficulties in emotion regulation are associated with addictive behaviors, including smoking. Difficulties in emotion regulation may underlie large, rapid changes in negative affect that can increase likelihood of relapse. We investigated the association between emotion regulation ability and negative affect in smokers assessed both in the laboratory and in the field using Ecological Momentary Assessment. Methods Adult community smokers (N = 44) carried a personal digital assistant (PDA) for two weeks and were instructed to complete assessments of negative affect multiple times per day. Participants were instructed that they could smoke as much or as little as they liked. The Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) were completed at 3 lab visits. Results Participants with higher average DERS scores reported greater negative affect at lab visits. When a participant reported a DERS score at a lab visit higher than their individual average, they also reported higher negative affect at that lab visit. Participants with higher baseline DERS scores reported more labile negative affect during EMA than those with lower baseline DERS scores, and they also reported a higher maximum level of negative affect during EMA. Discussion and conclusions Overall, the findings suggest that changes in emotion regulation are associated with negative affect and that emotion regulation ability is related to the both the intensity and lability of negative affect. A better understanding of momentary changes in emotion regulation and negative affect may lead to improved interventions for preventing substance use relapse.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T11:21:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2018.01.001
       
  • Association between drug use and urban violence: Data from the II
           Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey (BNADS)

    • Authors: Renata Rigacci Abdalla; Luciana Massaro; André de Queiroz Constantino Miguel; Ronaldo Laranjeira; Raul Caetano; Clarice S. Madruga
      Pages: 8 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): Renata Rigacci Abdalla, Luciana Massaro, André de Queiroz Constantino Miguel, Ronaldo Laranjeira, Raul Caetano, Clarice S. Madruga
      Objective To investigate the association of alcohol and cocaine use with urban violence (both as victim and as perpetrator) in a representative sample of the Brazilian population. Method The Second Brazilian Alcohol and Drugs Survey (II BNADS) interviewed 4607 individuals aged 14years and older from the Brazilian household population including an oversample of 1157 adolescents (14 to 18years old). The survey gathered information on alcohol, tobacco and illegal substances use as well as on risk factors for abuse and dependence, behaviors associated with the use of substances and the possible consequences, as urban violence indicators. Results Approximately 9.3% of the Brazilian population has been victim of at least one form of urban violence. This proportion increases to 19.7% among cocaine users and to 18.1% among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD). Perpetration of violence was reported by 6.2% of the sample. Cocaine use and AUD increased in almost four times the chances of being an aggressor. Being religious and married decreased the chances of being a victim and/or perpetrador of urban violence. Higher education also decreased the chances of involvement in both victimization or perpetration of violence. Both Parallel Mediation Models considering cocaine use as a predictor of urban violence (victimization or perpetration) were valid and alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms were mediators of this relationship. Conclusions This study presents relevant data of interest to Brazil as this country is one of the major consumer market of cocaine and also is among the most violent countries worldwide.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T11:24:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2017)
       
  • Alcohol and tobacco use among methadone maintenance patients in Vietnamese
           rural mountainside areas

    • Authors: Bach Xuan Tran; Huong Lan Thi Nguyen; Quynh Ngoc Hoang Le; Hue Thi Mai; Chau Ngo; Canh Dinh Hoang; Hai Hong Nguyen; Hai Quan Le; Hung Van Nguyen; Huong Thi Le; Tho Dinh Tran; Nabil Zary; Carl A. Latkin; Thuc Minh Thi Vu; Roger C.M. Ho; Melvyn W.B. Zhang
      Pages: 19 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): Bach Xuan Tran, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Quynh Ngoc Hoang Le, Hue Thi Mai, Chau Ngo, Canh Dinh Hoang, Hai Hong Nguyen, Hai Quan Le, Hung Van Nguyen, Huong Thi Le, Tho Dinh Tran, Nabil Zary, Carl A. Latkin, Thuc Minh Thi Vu, Roger C.M. Ho, Melvyn W.B. Zhang
      Introduction The expansion of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program requires more data about the factors affecting the effectiveness of treatment, especially behavioral data such as smoking and alcohol use among patients. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol consumption and identify related factors among MMT patients in the Vietnamese rural mountainside. Methods We interviewed 241 MMT patients in two clinics in Tuyen Quang, a mountainous province in Vietnam. Patients were asked to report the smoking status (current smoker or not), nicotine dependence (by Fagerström test for nicotine dependence - FTND) and alcohol use (by using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test – AUDIT-C). EuroQol-5 dimensions-5 levels (EQ-5D-5L) and EQ-Visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) were employed to measure health-related quality of life. Multivariate logistic and Tobit regressions were used to identify the associated factors. Results The majority of respondents were current smokers (75.7%) and a low proportion were hazardous drinkers (18.3%). People receiving treatment in a rural clinic (OR=0.45; 95%CI=0.22–0.92) and had problems in usual activities (OR=0.20; 95%CI=0.06–0.70) were less likely to be smokers. Q-VAS score (Coef.=0.03; 95%CI=0.02–0.05) and having problems in mobility (Coef.=0.72; 95%CI=0.03–1.42) was found to be associated with the increase of nicotine dependence. In terms of alcohol drinking, people with other jobs were more likely to drink hazardously compared to unemployed patients (OR=2.86; 95%CI=1.20–6.82). Similarly, patients having higher duration of MMT had higher likelihood of being hazardous drinkers (OR=1.07; 95%CI=1.01–1.13). Conclusions This study highlights the low rate of alcohol abusers but a considerably high proportion of current smokers among MMT patients in the rural mountainside area. Alcohol and tobacco counseling programs combined with social and family support also play an essential role in alcohol and tobacco control. In addition, implementing mass community-based behavioral change campaigns to reduce drug addiction-related stigmatization should also be prioritized.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T11:21:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2017)
       
  • Drug, nicotine, and alcohol use among exercisers: Does substance addiction
           co-occur with exercise addiction'

    • Authors: Attila Szabo; Mark D. Griffiths; Rikke Aarhus Høglid; Zsolt Demetrovics
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Attila Szabo, Mark D. Griffiths, Rikke Aarhus Høglid, Zsolt Demetrovics
      Background Scholastic works suggest that those at risk for exercise addiction are also often addicted to illicit drugs, nicotine, and/or alcohol, but empirical evidence is lacking. Aims The aim of the present work was to examine the co-occurrence of illicit drug, nicotine, and alcohol use frequency (prevalence of users) and severity (level of problem in users) among exercisers classified at three levels of risk for exercise addiction: (i) asymptomatic, (ii) symptomatic, and (iii) at-risk. Methods A sample of 538 regular exercisers were surveyed via the Qualtrics research platform. They completed the (i) Drug Use Disorder Identification Test, (ii) Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, (iii) Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and (iv) Exercise Addition Inventory. Results A large proportion (n=59; 10.97%) of the sample was found to be at risk for exercise addiction. The proportion of drug and alcohol users among these participants did not differ from the rest of the sample. However, the incidence of nicotine consumption was lowest among them. The severity of problematic substance use did not differ across the groups. Conclusions These findings suggest that substance addiction and the risk for exercise addiction are unrelated. In fact, those at risk for exercise addiction exhibited the healthiest profile related to the prevalence of smoking.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T13:45:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.12.001
       
  • Correlates of cannabis vape-pen use and knowledge among U.S. college
           students

    • Authors: Tessa Frohe; Robert F. Leeman; Julie Patock-Peckham; Anthony Ecker; Shane Kraus; Dawn W. Foster
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Tessa Frohe, Robert F. Leeman, Julie Patock-Peckham, Anthony Ecker, Shane Kraus, Dawn W. Foster
      Introduction The proliferation of electronic devices, such as vape-pens, has provided alternative means for cannabis use. Research has found cannabis-vaping (i.e., vape-pen use) is associated with lower perceived risks and higher cannabis use. Knowledge of these products may increase likelihood of subsequent use. As policies for cannabis shift, beliefs that peers and family approve of this substance use (injunctive norms) increase and there has been an increase in vape-pen use among young adults (18–35year olds); however, correlates thereof remain unknown. Young adults often engage in cross-substance use with cannabis and alcohol, making alcohol a potential correlate of cannabis vape-pen use and knowledge. Therefore, we examined alcohol use and other potential correlates of vape-pen use and knowledge among a sample of university students. Methods This secondary data analysis utilized surveys at multiple colleges in the U.S. (N=270). Alcohol use, social anxiety, cannabis expectancies, injunctive and descriptive norms and facets of impulsivity were examined as correlates of vape-pen use and knowledge using bivariate correlations and logistic regressions. Results Alcohol use was correlated with cannabis vape-pen use and knowledge. Frequency of cannabis use, peer injunctive norms, and positive expectancies were associated with increased likelihood of vape-pen use. Lack of premeditation, a facet of impulsivity, was associated with cannabis vape-pen knowledge. Conclusions Given the unknown nature and consequences of cannabis vape-pens, the present findings offer valuable information on correlates of this behavior. Further, correlates of knowledge of vape-pens may point to areas for education and clinical intervention to prevent heavy cannabis vape-pen use.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T11:21:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.11.004
       
  • Towards an understanding of self-directed language as a mechanism of
           behavior change: A novel strategy for eliciting client language under
           laboratory conditions

    • Authors: Benjamin Ladd; Tracey Garcia Kristen Anderson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Benjamin O. Ladd, Tracey A. Garcia, Kristen G. Anderson
      Introduction Change talk (CT) and sustain talk (ST) are thought to reflect underlying motivation and be important mechanisms of behavior change (MOBCs). However, greater specificity and experimental rigor is needed to establish CT and ST as MOBCs. Testing the effects of self-directed language under laboratory conditions is one promising avenue. The current study presents a replication and extension of research examining the feasibility for using simulation tasks to elicit self-directed language. Methods First-year college students (N =92) responded to the Collegiate Simulated Intoxication Digital Elicitation, a validated task for assessing decision-making in college drinking. Verbal responses elicited via free-response and structured interview formats were coded based on established definitions of CT and ST, with minor modifications to reflect the non-treatment context. Associations between self-directed language and alcohol use at baseline and eight months were examined. Additionally, this study examined whether a contextually-based measure of decision-making, behavioral willingness, mediated relationships between self-directed language and alcohol outcome. Results Healthy talk and unhealthy talk independently were associated with baseline alcohol use across both elicitation formats. Only healthy talk during the free-response elicitation was associated with alcohol use at follow up; both healthy talk and unhealthy talk during the interview elicitation were associated with 8-month alcohol use. Behavioral willingness significantly mediated the relationship between percent healthy talk and alcohol outcome. Conclusions Findings support the utility of studying self-directed language under laboratory conditions and suggest that such methods may provide a fruitful strategy to further understand the role of self-directed language as a MOBC.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T10:50:57Z
       
  • Online activities, prevalence of Internet addiction and risk factors
           related to family and school among adolescents in China

    • Authors: Miao Xin; Jiang Xing; Wang Pengfei; Li Houru; Wang Mengcheng; Zeng Hong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Miao Xin, Jiang Xing, Wang Pengfei, Li Houru, Wang Mengcheng, Zeng Hong
      Aims To investigate the online activities, prevalence of Internet Addiction in relation to demographic characteristics and risk factors related to family and school among adolescents. Methods A total of 6468 10–18year old adolescents recruited from local schools in Guangzhou, China were selected by adopting multi-stage stratified random sampling (female/male: 2886/3582; mean age:13.78±2.43). Participants completed a structured questionnaire. Results The overall prevalence of Internet Addiction was 26.50%, with severe addiction being 0.96%. Internet Addiction was higher among males than females (30.6% versus 21.2%). Older grade students reported more Internet addiction rate (χ 2 =431.25, P <0.001). The five highest-ranked online activities were social networking (94.73%), school work (86.53%), entertainment (82.44%), Internet gaming (73.42%) and shopping online (33.67%). A negative relationship with teachers (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.20–1.53), a negative relationship between two parents (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.18–1.37), and poor academic performance (OR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.17–1.35), showed the highest relative risks for Internet addiction. Conclusions Severe Internet Addiction is not common, but mild Internet addiction was reported by more than one fourth of all participants. The rates of Internet Addiction varied by gender, grade, the quality of family relationships and school situation, suggesting these factors should be considered when designing and implementing interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-10-26T13:39:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.10.003
       
 
 
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