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  Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 7879 journals)
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Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
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ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
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Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / Health Sciences Journal of Adıyaman University     Open Access  
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African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
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Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Althea Medical Journal     Open Access  
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
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American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Anatomica Medical Journal     Open Access  
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Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
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Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ankara Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası     Open Access  
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives Medical Review Journal / Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi     Open Access  
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access  
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASHA Leader     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
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Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine     Open Access  
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
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Journal Cover
Addictive Behaviors Reports
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.755
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2352-8532
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3160 journals]
  • Parental belief and adolescent smoking and drinking behaviors: A
           propensity score matching study

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Hei Wan Mak This research examines the effects of parental belief on adolescent later smoking and drinking behaviors. Previous studies show that parental belief may have detrimental or beneficial influences on adolescents' behaviors. Analysis is based on Wave 1 and 2 data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), N = 3232, and is conducted using an OLS regression estimation and propensity score matching (PSM; nearest-neighbor and kernel matching). Results show that, of adolescents who used cigarettes and alcohol at Wave 1, they are more likely to continue the activity if their parents were aware of it. Adolescents are also more likely to use cigarettes if their parents believed they smoked when in fact they did not. Of adolescents who did not use alcohol, no significant association is found between parental belief and their later alcohol use. Self-fulfilling prophecy is proposed to explain the effects of parental belief. Results obtained from PSM show weaker effects of parental belief, suggesting that part of the effects is explained by shared factors which are responsible for the belief and adolescent substance use. Adolescent concealment is proposed as an important unobserved confounder that influences the association between parental belief and adolescent substance use. The study suggests that research on parent-adolescent communication affected by the self-fulfilling prophecy needs to consider adolescents' intentional concealment, which may help avoid conflicts elicited by discussing topics that adolescents feel uncomfortable confiding in.
       
  • Associations of personality traits with marijuana use in a nationally
           representative sample of adolescents in the United States

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Angela E. Lee-Winn, Tamar Mendelson, Renee M. Johnson IntroductionIdentifying adolescents at risk for marijuana use who can be targeted for intervention efforts is critical. Certain personality traits are strongly associated with substance use, including marijuana use. We investigated the associations of impulsivity (and its subscales sensation seeking and lack of planning), aggression, and neuroticism with marijuana use (lifetime and frequency of past 12-month use) in a national sample of adolescents.MethodsWe used data from the National Comorbidity Survey: Adolescent Supplement, a nationally representative, cross-sectional study of 8495 U.S. adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios and odds ratios to assess associations of the five personality scales with lifetime use and frequency of past 12-month use and examined gender as a potential moderator of these associations.ResultsEach of the personality traits was positively associated with lifetime use (all p 
       
  • Exercise addiction is associated with emotional distress in injured and
           non-injured regular exercisers

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Mia Beck Lichtenstein, Rasmus Oestergaard Nielsen, Claire Gudex, Cecilie Juul Hinze, Uffe Jørgensen IntroductionExercise addiction is characterized by the use of physical activity to cope with emotions and mood, while sports injuries can lead to psychological distress such as depression and anxiety. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between risk of exercise addiction and psychological distress, and whether this association was modified by injury status.MethodsA cross-sectional study with injured and non-injured recreational exercisers (n = 1083). Using the Exercise Addiction Inventory participants were classified into the following groups: High risk of exercise addiction (HREA) with musculoskeletal injury (n = 44); HREA without musculoskeletal injury (n = 31); Low risk of addiction (LREA) with injury (n = 563); LREA without injury (n = 445). The outcomes were depression using the Major Depression Inventory, and emotional stress using the Perceived Stress Scale. Data were analyzed using binomial regression analysis with prevalence proportion difference (PPD) as measure of association.ResultsCompared with LREA-exercisers, more HREA exercisers were depressed (PPD = 13% points [95%CI 3.6; 22.4]) or experienced emotional stress (PPD = 26.2% points [95%CI 14.5; 37.8]). Amongst injured exercisers, more HREA exercisers had depression (PPDHREA-injured = 15.9% points [95%CI 2.5; 29.3]) compared with LREA-exercisers.ConclusionsRecreational exercisers with high risk of exercise addiction reported more symptoms of depression and emotional stress, and this relationship seemed exacerbated in the presence of musculoskeletal injury. Psychological assessment and counseling may be useful supplements to somatic injury interventions for addressing emotional distress.
       
  • Excluded, then inebriated: A preliminary investigation into the role of
           ostracism on alcohol consumption

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Amy K. Bacon, Blair Engerman IntroductionOstracism has only recently been investigated as a relevant social stressor that might precede college student alcohol use. The present study continues initial efforts to examine the effects of ostracism on subsequent alcohol consumption in the laboratory. A 2 (sex: male, female) × 2 (condition: ostracism, control) between-subjects experimental design was conducted to examine the effects of these variables on alcohol consumption in the laboratory.MethodsSocial drinking college students (N = 40; 43% female) were randomly assigned to one of two social interaction tasks: either an in-person conversation from which the participant was excluded by two confederates, or independently rating neutrally valenced photographs alongside confederates. Participants then consumed a priming drink (targeted dose = 0.03 BrAC) before completing a mock taste test of up to 710 ml of light beer. Amount consumed (in ml) during the mock taste test served as the primary dependent variable.ResultsThe ostracism condition was effective at decreasing mood and psychological need variables (i.e., control, belonging) compared to the control condition. After removing from analyses those who identified the confederates as part of the study (n = 7; 3 control, 4 ostracism), results indicated that males consumed more beer than females, and that ostracized participants trended toward consuming more beer than control participants.ConclusionsFindings contribute important methodological additions to a burgeoning literature on the effects of ostracism on drinking, and suggest that ostracism may be a valuable addition to studies examining drinking to cope behaviors.
       
  • Psychometric evaluation of a lifetime version of the marijuana problems
           scale

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): David C. Hodgins, Jonathan N. Stea IntroductionThe Marijuana Problems Scale (MPS) is a widely-used self-report measure of cannabis-related negative consequences that has a past three-month reporting window. This report describes the psychometric characteristics of a lifetime version (MPS-L).MethodsAs part of a larger study, 119 individuals who had recovered from cannabis use disorder completed the MPS-L on two occasions 2 weeks apart and 91 participant-nominated family and friends also completed a collateral version of the scale.ResultsItem analyses and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that three of the 19 items were relatively weaker. Omitting these items, the MPS-L showed good internal reliability (α = 0.88, for summed severity total, α = 0.85 for number of consequences identified) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.81 and 0.73). As expected, correlations with collateral reports were moderate (r = 0.33 and 0.29), and collaterals reported significantly fewer negative consequences than participants. MPS total scores also correlated as expected with external validity measures (e.g., number of cannabis use disorder symptoms reported, motives for use, lifetime depression, treatment history). PCA supported the use of a total score summed score, but also revealed two secondary factors, measuring internal consequences (e.g., low self-esteem) and external consequences (e.g., financial difficulties).ConclusionsThese analyses provide good preliminary support for a lifetime version of the MPS, with the summed severity total score performing slightly better than the total number of consequences endorsed.
       
  • Examining co-patterns of depression and alcohol misuse in emerging adults
           following university graduation

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Jona R. Frohlich, Karli K. Rapinda, Roisin M. O'Connor, Matthew T. Keough Depression and alcohol use disorders are highly comorbid. Typically, alcohol use peaks in emerging adulthood (e.g., during university), and many people also develop depression at this time. Self-medication theory predicts that depressed emerging adults drink to reduce negative emotions. While research shows that depression predicts alcohol use and related problems in undergraduates, far less is known about the continuity of this association after university. Most emerging adults “mature out” of heavy drinking; however, some do not and go on to develop an alcohol use disorder. Depressed emerging adults may continue to drink heavily to cope with the stressful (e.g., remaining unemployed) transition out of university. Accordingly, using parallel process latent class growth modelling, we aimed to distinguish high- from low-risk groups of individuals based on joint patterns of depression and alcohol misuse following university graduation. Participants (N = 123) completed self-reports at three-month intervals for the year post-graduation. Results supported four classes: class 1: low stable depression and low decreasing alcohol misuse (n = 52), class 2: moderate stable depression and moderate stable alcohol misuse (n = 35), class 3: high stable depression and low stable alcohol misuse (n = 29), and class 4: high stable depression and high stable alcohol misuse (n = 8). Our findings show that the co-development of depression and alcohol misuse after university is not uniform. Most emerging adults in our sample continued to struggle with significant depressive symptoms after university, though only two classes continued to drink at moderate (class 2) and high (class 4) risk levels.
       
  • Prior prescription opioid misuse in a cohort of heroin users in a
           treatment study

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Michael Fendrich, Jessica Becker This study investigates prior prescription opioid misuse in a cohort of heroin users whose progress was tracked in a treatment study conducted in the US from 2006 to 2010. Half of the sample misused prescription opioids (“other opiates/analgesics”) prior to their onset of heroin misuse (POBs). We found that POBs were demographically younger and more likely to be white than other heroin users (OHUs). There were differences between the two groups with respect to the reporting of at least one year of regular use of substances and age of onset of substance use. POBs were more likely to report regular use, and earlier onset of use of several substances, mostly of the type potentially obtained via prescription. POBs were more persistent in their opioid use and more likely to suffer near-term elevated depressive symptoms compared with OHUs. These findings suggest that heroin addiction treatment may need to be tailored according to opioid misuse history.
       
  • Correlates of attempting to quit smoking among adults in Bangladesh

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Shariful Hakim, Muhammad Abdul Baker Chowdhury, Md Jamal Uddin BackgroundQuit attempts are very essential in population-based smoking cessation. Little is known about the correlates of making a quit attempt of smoking in Bangladesh. We aimed to examine correlates of making a quit attempt of smoking among adults in Bangladesh.MethodsWe used data from the 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey, Bangladesh. A total of 2217 adult current smokers (2141 males and 76 females) aged 15 years and older who participated in the survey were included. We compared socio-demographic, behavioral, motivational, knowledge and attitudes towards smoking, quitting methods utilized, use of social media to quit smoking, and environmental characteristics of current smokers who made an attempt to quit with those who made no quit attempt during the previous 12 months of the survey. We applied multivariable logistic regression models for analyzing the data.ResultsAmong the 2217 current smokers, 1058 (47.72%) made attempt to quit. We found respondents who smoked their first cigarette within 6 to 30 min of waking up were more likely to make an attempt to quit than those who smoked their first cigarette within 5 min of waking. Moreover, among daily current smokers who smoked 10–19 manufactured cigarettes per day were less likely to make a quit attempt. We also found intention to quit smoking, smoking rules inside the home, and exposure to anti-smoking advertisements as significant correlates of making a quit attempt of smoking among adults in Bangladesh.ConclusionsPolicymakers should consider our findings when implementing tobacco control programs in Bangladesh.
       
  • The association between self-reported varenicline adherence and
           varenicline blood levels in a sample of cancer patients receiving
           treatment for tobacco dependence

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Grace Crawford, Nancy Jao, Annie R. Peng, Frank Leone, Ravi Kalhan, Rachel F. Tyndale, Jessica Weisbrot, Brian Hitsman, Robert Schnoll IntroductionThe degree to which smokers quit successfully with varenicline is strongly associated with their adherence to the medication regimen. Thus, measuring varenicline adherence to identify smokers needing additional intervention is a priority. Few studies, however, have examined the validity of self-reported varenicline adherence, using a biological assessment of adherence as a reference. No study has examined this issue among cancer patients trying to quit smoking, who may show unique patterns of adherence given their medical comorbidity.MethodsThis study used data from 76 cancer patients who received varenicline and provided self-reported varenicline adherence data (pill count) and a blood sample to determine varenicline metabolites 4 weeks after initiating varenicline.ResultsReceiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses of plasma varenicline levels showed that 4 ng/ml was the optimal cut-point for differentiating adherence with significant (p's 
       
  • Long-term smoking cessation rates in elderly versus other adult smokers: A
           3-year follow-up study in Taiwan

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Chiao-Lin Hsu, Kuang-Chieh Hsueh, Ming-Yueh Chou, Hsien-Chung Yu, Guang-Yuan Mar, Hong-Jhe Chen, Robert West IntroductionSmoking cessation improves life expectancy at any age. There is some evidence that elderly smokers have at least as good a chance of successfully stopping as other smokers but direct comparisons with long-term follow up are rare. This study aimed to compare success rates up to 3 years in smokers aged 65+ versus other adult smokers with and without adjustment for a range of other smoker characteristics.MethodsThis was a prospective study of 1065 smokers who attended a stop-smoking clinic in Taiwan. Participants (896 
       
  • Psychometric assessment of the Internet Gaming Disorder diagnostic
           criteria: An Item Response Theory study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Bruno Schivinski, Magdalena Brzozowska-Woś, Erin M. Buchanan, Mark D. Griffiths, Halley M. Pontes Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has been recognized by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) as a tentative disorder in the latest fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). In order to advance research on IGD, the APA has suggested that further research on the nine IGD criteria to investigate its clinical and empirical feasibility is necessary. The aim of the present study was to develop the Polish the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale–Short-Form (IGDS9-SF) and scrutinize the nine IGD criteria empirically. To achieve this, the newly developed IGDS9-SF was examined using a wide range of psychometric methods, including a polytomous Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis to evaluate the measurement performance of the nine IGD criteria. A sample of 3377 gamers (82.7% male, mean age 20 years, SD = 4.3 years) was recruited online for the present study. Overall, the findings obtained confirmed that suitability of the Polish IGDS9-SF to assess IGD amongst Polish gamers given the adequate levels of validity and reliability found. The IRT analysis revealed that the IGDS9-SF is a suitable tool to measure IGD levels above the average; however, criteria “continuation” (item 6), “deception” (item 7), and “escape” (item 8) presented with poor fit. Taken together, these results suggest that some of the diagnostic criteria may present with a different clinical weighting towards final diagnosis of IGD. The implications of these findings are further discussed.
       
  • What matters is when you play: Investigating the relationship between
           online video games addiction and time spent playing over specific day
           phases

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 June 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Stefano Triberti, Luca Milani, Daniela Villani, Serena Grumi, Sara Peracchia, Giuseppe Curcio, Giuseppe Riva Online video gaming is now widely considered an activity possibly related to addictive behaviors, so that the diagnosis of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) is now included both in DSM-5 and ICD-11; however, there is still debate about some specific features of such disorder. One debated aspect is time spent playing: IGD gamers certainly play a high amount of time, but, on the other hand, also highly-engaged individuals or people working with video games (e.g.: eSports professional players) may play a lot without developing IGD. The literature agrees on the importance of deepening the role of time spent playing video games in IGD, to understand if it can be considered a symptom useful for the diagnosis, or not: one possibility is that time spent playing is not important in an absolute sense, but relatively to specific day phases. The present research involved 133 participants to test the relationship between average time spent playing over day phases (morning, afternoon, night; week, weekend days), age, game preferences and IGD. IGD score positively predicted time spent playing during weekend mornings, which are a day phase usually dedicated to other activities. Instead, time spent playing during afternoon was negatively predicted by age, according to this day phase being more related to youngsters' spare time, while night playing was related to preference for game genres which need dedicated time to organize multi-playing. Discussion deals with the utility of these preliminary results for future, more systematic research on IGD and its distinctive symptoms.
       
  • Correlates of cannabis vape-pen use and knowledge among U.S. college
           students

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 7Author(s): Tessa Frohe, Robert F. Leeman, Julie Patock-Peckham, Anthony Ecker, Shane Kraus, Dawn W. Foster IntroductionThe proliferation of electronic devices, such as vape-pens, has provided alternative means for cannabis use. Research has found cannabis-vaping (i.e., vape-pen use) is associated with lower perceived risks and higher cannabis use. Knowledge of these products may increase likelihood of subsequent use. As policies for cannabis shift, beliefs that peers and family approve of this substance use (injunctive norms) increase and there has been an increase in vape-pen use among young adults (18–35 year olds); however, correlates thereof remain unknown. Young adults often engage in cross-substance use with cannabis and alcohol, making alcohol a potential correlate of cannabis vape-pen use and knowledge. Therefore, we examined alcohol use and other potential correlates of vape-pen use and knowledge among a sample of university students.MethodsThis secondary data analysis utilized surveys at multiple colleges in the U.S. (N = 270). Alcohol use, social anxiety, cannabis expectancies, injunctive and descriptive norms and facets of impulsivity were examined as correlates of vape-pen use and knowledge using bivariate correlations and logistic regressions.ResultsAlcohol use was correlated with cannabis vape-pen use and knowledge. Frequency of cannabis use, peer injunctive norms, and positive expectancies were associated with increased likelihood of vape-pen use. Lack of premeditation, a facet of impulsivity, was associated with cannabis vape-pen knowledge.ConclusionsGiven the unknown nature and consequences of cannabis vape-pens, the present findings offer valuable information on correlates of this behavior. Further, correlates of knowledge of vape-pens may point to areas for education and clinical intervention to prevent heavy cannabis vape-pen use.
       
  • Depressed female smokers have higher levels of soluble tumor necrosis
           factor receptor 1

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 7Author(s): Mauro Porcu, Regina Célia Bueno Rezende Machado, Mariana Urbano, Waldiceu A. Verri, Ana Carolina Rossaneis, Heber Odebrecht Vargas, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes AimTo examine clinical and biomarkers in depressed female smokers, in order to better clarify the process that link mood disorders, childhood trauma and smoking in women.MethodsThe clinical sample comprised women with unipolar or bipolar depression, divided into subgroups of smokers and never-smoker. The control groups comprised two subgroups non-depressed women, separated into smokers and never-smokers. A structured questionnaire was used to assess socio-demographic and clinical data. The following scales were used: 17-item version Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating scale (HAM-A), Sheehan disability scale, the Child Trauma Questionnaire. The following biomarkers were investigated: lipid profile, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides the Castelli's Risk indexes I and II; and cytokines, including interleukins (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF-R1).ResultsDepressed female smokers showed a number of significant positive correlations: emotional neglect and sTNF-R1 (p = 0.02); waist circumference and sTNF-R1 (p = 0.001); body mass index and sTNF-R1 (p 
       
  • Addictive behaviors and psychological distress among adolescents and
           emerging adults: A mediating role of peer group identification

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 7Author(s): Iina Savolainen, Markus Kaakinen, Anu Sirola, Atte Oksanen ObjectiveResearch suggests the sense of belonging to primary groups functions as an important social resource for youth well-being, but it can be compromised among those dealing with addiction. The current study examined how adolescents' and emerging adults' identification with a primary peer group consisting of friends, mediates the relationship between addictive behaviors and psychological distress.MethodThe study utilized demographically balanced survey data on 1200 Finnish participants aged 15 to 25 (mean age 21.29, 50% female). Measures were included for psychological distress, excessive drinking, excessive drug use, excessive gambling, excessive Internet use, and peer group identification.ResultsAll forms of addictive behaviors had a significant direct relationship with higher psychological distress. Excessive drug use, gambling and Internet use were associated with a weaker identification with a peer group, which predicted higher psychological distress. Contrary to the above findings, excessive drinking was linked to stronger peer group identification, mediating psychological distress downwards.ConclusionsThese findings support past research and provide a mediation model explanation onto how weaker social relations add to negative well-being consequences in different addictive behaviors, thus underlining the importance of expanding our understanding of social group outcomes among young individuals.
       
  • Ethnic variations in the relationship between multiple stress domains and
           use of several types of tobacco/nicotine products among a diverse sample
           of adults

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 7Author(s): Christopher J. Rogers, Myriam Forster, Jennifer B. Unger IntroductionFinancial strain and discrimination are consistent predictors of negative health outcomes and maladaptive coping behaviors, including tobacco use. Although there is considerable information exploring stress and smoking, limited research has examined the relationship between patterns of stress domains and specific tobacco/nicotine product use. Even fewer studies have assessed ethnic variations in these relationships.MethodsThis study investigated the relationship between discrimination and financial strain and current tobacco/nicotine product use and explored the ethnic variation in these relationships among diverse sample of US adults (N = 1068). Separate logistic regression models assessed associations between stress domains and tobacco/nicotine product use, adjusting for covariates (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, and household income). Due to statistically significant differences, the final set of models was stratified by race/ethnicity.ResultsHigher levels of discrimination were associated with higher odds of all three tobacco/nicotine product categories. Financial strain was positively associated with combustible tobacco and combined tobacco/nicotine product use. Financial strain was especially risky for Non-Hispanic Whites (AOR:1.191, 95%CI:1.083–1.309) and Blacks/African Americans (AOR:1.542, 95%CI:1.106–2.148), as compared to other groups, whereas discrimination was most detrimental for Asians/Pacific Islanders (AOR:3.827, 95%CI:1.832–7.997) and Hispanics/Latinas/Latinos (AOR:2.517, 95%CI:1.603–3.952).ConclusionsFindings suggest discrimination and financial stressors are risk factors for use of multiple tobacco/nicotine products, highlighting the importance of prevention research that accounts for these stressors. Because ethnic groups may respond differently to stress/strain, prevention research needs to identify cultural values, beliefs, and coping strategies that can buffer the negative consequences of discrimination and financial stressors.
       
  • Emotion dysregulation and negative affect: Laboratory and EMA
           investigations in smokers

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 7Author(s): Jessica M. MacIntyre, Aimee C. Ruscio, Emily Brede, Andrew J. Waters IntroductionDifficulties in emotion regulation are associated with addictive behaviors, including smoking. Difficulties in emotion regulation may underlie large, rapid changes in negative affect that can increase likelihood of relapse. We investigated the association between emotion regulation ability and negative affect in smokers assessed both in the laboratory and in the field using Ecological Momentary Assessment.MethodsAdult community smokers (N = 44) carried a personal digital assistant (PDA) for two weeks and were instructed to complete assessments of negative affect multiple times per day. Participants were instructed that they could smoke as much or as little as they liked. The Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) were completed at three lab visits.ResultsParticipants with higher average DERS scores reported greater negative affect at lab visits. When a participant reported a DERS score at a lab visit higher than their individual average, they also reported higher negative affect at that lab visit. Participants with higher baseline DERS scores reported more labile negative affect during EMA than those with lower baseline DERS scores, and they also reported a higher maximum level of negative affect during EMA.Discussion and conclusionsOverall, the findings suggest that changes in emotion regulation are associated with negative affect and that emotion regulation ability is related to both the intensity and lability of negative affect. A better understanding of momentary changes in emotion regulation and negative affect may lead to improved interventions for preventing substance use relapse.
       
  • The relationship between concussion and alcohol consumption among
           university athletes

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 7Author(s): Bradey Alcock, Caitlyn Gallant, Dawn Good IntroductionThis study investigated concussion as a potential risk factor for increased alcohol consumption in university athletes.MethodsUsing a cross-sectional design, 41 university students (37% with a history of concussion) completed self-report measures, while electrodermal activation (EDA) was recorded for each participant to capture baseline physiological arousal.ResultsAs expected, concussion status significantly predicted alcohol consumption over and above athletic status, b = 0.34, p = 0.034, 95% CI [0.195, 4.832], such that those with a prior concussion history engaged in greater alcohol consumption. Importantly, concussion status also significantly predicted baseline physiological arousal, b = −0.39, p = 0.014, 95% CI [−0.979, −0.120], such that those with a history of concussion exhibited lower EDA.ConclusionsElevated alcohol consumption among athletes is a pronounced associate of concussion in sports and may be a behavioral reflection of disruption to the orbitofrontal cortex – an area implicated in inhibition.
       
  • Creation and validation of the barriers to alcohol reduction (BAR) scale
           using classical test theory and item response theory

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 7Author(s): Zachary J. Kunicki, Melissa R. Schick, Nichea S. Spillane, Lisa L. Harlow Those who binge drink are at increased risk for alcohol-related consequences when compared to non-binge drinkers. Research shows individuals may face barriers to reducing their drinking behavior, but few measures exist to assess these barriers. This study created and validated the Barriers to Alcohol Reduction (BAR) scale. Participants were college students (n = 230) who endorsed at least one instance of past-month binge drinking (4+ drinks for women or 5+ drinks for men). Using classical test theory, exploratory structural equation modeling found a two-factor structure of personal/psychosocial barriers and perceived program barriers. The sub-factors, and full scale had reasonable internal consistency (i.e., coefficient omega = 0.78 (personal/psychosocial), 0.82 (program barriers), and 0.83 (full measure)). The BAR also showed evidence for convergent validity with the Brief Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire (r = 0.39, p 
       
  • Anterior insula activation during inhibition to smoking cues is associated
           with ability to maintain tobacco abstinence

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 7Author(s): Jodi M. Gilman, Milena Radoman, Randi M. Schuster, Gladys Pachas, Nour Azzouz, Maurizio Fava, A. Eden Evins Relapse to smoking after initial abstinence is a major clinical challenge with significant public health consequences. At the brain and behavioral level, those who relapse to tobacco smoking have both greater cue-reactivity and lower inhibitory control than those who remain abstinent. Little is known about neural activation during inhibitory control tasks in the presence of drug-related cues. In the current study, tobacco smokers (SMK; n = 22) and non-smoking controls (CON; n = 19) completed a Go/NoGo task involving smoking cues during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. Following the scan session, smokers were required to quit smoking, and maintenance of abstinence was evaluated as part of a 12-week smoking cessation trial. We evaluated pre-cessation brain activity during NoGo trials in smokers who were versus were not able to quit smoking. We then compared fMRI and inhibitory control measures between smokers and non-smokers. We did not find differences between SMK and CON in performance or activation to smoking or neutral cues. However, compared to SMK who relapsed, SMK who attained biochemically-validated abstinence at the end of the smoking cessation trial had greater neural activation in the anterior insula during NoGo trials specifically with smoking-related cues. Results indicate that within SMK, decreased inhibitory control activation during direct exposure to drug-related stimuli may be a marker of difficulty quitting and relapse vulnerability.
       
  • The association between nicotine dependence and physical health among
           people receiving injectable diacetylmorphine or hydromorphone for the
           treatment of chronic opioid use disorder

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 7Author(s): Heather Palis, Kirsten Marchand, Mohammad Karamouzian, Scott MacDonald, Scott Harrison, Daphne Guh, Kurt Lock, Suzanne Brissette, Aslam H. Anis, Michael Krausz, David C. Marsh, Martin T. Schechter, Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes IntroductionPeople with chronic opioid use disorder often present to treatment with individual and structural vulnerabilities and remain at risk of reporting adverse health outcomes. This risk is greatly compounded by tobacco smoking, which is highly prevalent among people with chronic opioid use disorder. Despite the known burden of tobacco smoking on health, the relationship between nicotine dependence and health has not been studied among those receiving injectable opioid agonist treatment. As such, the present study aims to explore the association between nicotine dependence and physical health among participants of the Study to Assess Longer-Term Opioid Medication Effectiveness (SALOME) at baseline and six-months.MethodsSALOME was a double-blind phase III clinical trial testing the non-inferiority of injectable hydromorphone to injectable diacetylmorphine for chronic opioid use disorder. Participants reporting tobacco smoking were included in a linear regression analysis of physical health at baseline (before receiving treatment) and at six-months.ResultsAt baseline, nicotine dependence score, lifetime history of emotional, physical, or sexual abuse and prior month safe injection site access were independently and significantly associated with physical health. At six-months nicotine dependence score was the only variable that maintained this significant and independent association with physical health.ConclusionsFindings indicate that after six-months, the injectable treatment effectively brought equity to patients' physical health status, yet the association with nicotine dependence remained. Findings could inform whether the provision of treatment for nicotine dependence should be made a priority in settings where injectable opioid agonist treatment is delivered to achieve improvements in overall physical health in this population.
       
  • Drug, nicotine, and alcohol use among exercisers: Does substance addiction
           co-occur with exercise addiction'

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 7Author(s): Attila Szabo, Mark D. Griffiths, Rikke Aarhus Høglid, Zsolt Demetrovics BackgroundScholastic works suggest that those at risk for exercise addiction are also often addicted to illicit drugs, nicotine, and/or alcohol, but empirical evidence is lacking.AimsThe aim of the present work was to examine the co-occurrence of illicit drug, nicotine, and alcohol use frequency (prevalence of users) and severity (level of problem in users) among exercisers classified at three levels of risk for exercise addiction: (i) asymptomatic, (ii) symptomatic, and (iii) at-risk.MethodsA sample of 538 regular exercisers were surveyed via the Qualtrics research platform. They completed the (i) Drug Use Disorder Identification Test, (ii) Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, (iii) Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and (iv) Exercise Addition Inventory.ResultsA large proportion (n = 59; 10.97%) of the sample was found to be at risk for exercise addiction. The proportion of drug and alcohol users among these participants did not differ from the rest of the sample. However, the incidence of nicotine consumption was lowest among them. The severity of problematic substance use did not differ across the groups.ConclusionsThese findings suggest that substance addiction and the risk for exercise addiction are unrelated. In fact, those at risk for exercise addiction exhibited the healthiest profile related to the prevalence of smoking.
       
  • Alcohol and tobacco use among methadone maintenance patients in Vietnamese
           rural mountainside areas

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 7Author(s): Bach Xuan Tran, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Quynh Ngoc Hoang Le, Hue Thi Mai, Chau Ngo, Canh Dinh Hoang, Hai Hong Nguyen, Hai Quan Le, Hung Van Nguyen, Huong Thi Le, Tho Dinh Tran, Nabil Zary, Carl A. Latkin, Thuc Minh Thi Vu, Roger C.M. Ho, Melvyn W.B. Zhang IntroductionThe expansion of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program requires more data about the factors affecting the effectiveness of treatment, especially behavioral data such as smoking and alcohol use among patients. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol consumption and identify related factors among MMT patients in the Vietnamese rural mountainside.MethodsWe interviewed 241 MMT patients in two clinics in Tuyen Quang, a mountainous province in Vietnam. Patients were asked to report the smoking status (current smoker or not), nicotine dependence (by Fagerström test for nicotine dependence - FTND) and alcohol use (by using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test – AUDIT-C). EuroQol-5 dimensions-5 levels (EQ-5D-5L) and EQ-Visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) were employed to measure health-related quality of life. Multivariate logistic and Tobit regressions were used to identify the associated factors.ResultsThe majority of respondents were current smokers (75.7%) and a low proportion were hazardous drinkers (18.3%). People receiving treatment in a rural clinic (OR = 0.45; 95%CI = 0.22–0.92) and had problems in usual activities (OR = 0.20; 95%CI = 0.06–0.70) were less likely to be smokers. Q-VAS score (Coef. = 0.03; 95%CI = 0.02–0.05) and having problems in mobility (Coef. = 0.72; 95%CI = 0.03–1.42) was found to be associated with the increase of nicotine dependence. In terms of alcohol drinking, people with other jobs were more likely to drink hazardously compared to unemployed patients (OR = 2.86; 95%CI = 1.20–6.82). Similarly, patients having higher duration of MMT had higher likelihood of being hazardous drinkers (OR = 1.07; 95%CI = 1.01–1.13).ConclusionsThis study highlights the low rate of alcohol abusers but a considerably high proportion of current smokers among MMT patients in the rural mountainside area. Alcohol and tobacco counseling programs combined with social and family support also play an essential role in alcohol and tobacco control. In addition, implementing mass community-based behavioral change campaigns to reduce drug addiction-related stigmatization should also be prioritized.
       
  • Online activities, prevalence of Internet addiction and risk factors
           related to family and school among adolescents in China

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 7Author(s): Miao Xin, Jiang Xing, Wang Pengfei, Li Houru, Wang Mengcheng, Zeng Hong AimsTo investigate the online activities, prevalence of Internet Addiction in relation to demographic characteristics and risk factors related to family and school among adolescents.MethodsA total of 6468 10–18 year old adolescents recruited from local schools in Guangzhou, China were selected by adopting multi-stage stratified random sampling (female/male: 2886/3582; mean age:13.78 ± 2.43). Participants completed a structured questionnaire.ResultsThe overall prevalence of Internet Addiction was 26.50%, with severe addiction being 0.96%. Internet Addiction was higher among males than females (30.6% versus 21.2%). Older grade students reported more Internet addiction rate (χ2 = 431.25, P 
       
  • Association between drug use and urban violence: Data from the II
           Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey (BNADS)

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 7Author(s): Renata Rigacci Abdalla, Luciana Massaro, André de Queiroz Constantino Miguel, Ronaldo Laranjeira, Raul Caetano, Clarice S. Madruga ObjectiveTo investigate the association of alcohol and cocaine use with urban violence (both as victim and as perpetrator) in a representative sample of the Brazilian population.MethodThe Second Brazilian Alcohol and Drugs Survey (II BNADS) interviewed 4607 individuals aged 14 years and older from the Brazilian household population including an oversample of 1157 adolescents (14 to 18 years old). The survey gathered information on alcohol, tobacco and illegal substances use as well as on risk factors for abuse and dependence, behaviors associated with the use of substances and the possible consequences, as urban violence indicators.ResultsApproximately 9.3% of the Brazilian population has been victim of at least one form of urban violence. This proportion increases to 19.7% among cocaine users and to 18.1% among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD). Perpetration of violence was reported by 6.2% of the sample. Cocaine use and AUD increased in almost four times the chances of being an aggressor. Being religious and married decreased the chances of being a victim and/or perpetrador of urban violence. Higher education also decreased the chances of involvement in both victimization or perpetration of violence. Both Parallel Mediation Models considering cocaine use as a predictor of urban violence (victimization or perpetration) were valid and alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms were mediators of this relationship.ConclusionsThis study presents relevant data of interest to Brazil as this country is one of the major consumer market of cocaine and also is among the most violent countries worldwide.
       
  • Towards an understanding of self-directed language as a mechanism of
           behavior change: A novel strategy for eliciting client language under
           laboratory conditions

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 7Author(s): Benjamin O. Ladd, Tracey A. Garcia, Kristen G. Anderson IntroductionChange talk (CT) and sustain talk (ST) are thought to reflect underlying motivation and be important mechanisms of behavior change (MOBCs). However, greater specificity and experimental rigor is needed to establish CT and ST as MOBCs. Testing the effects of self-directed language under laboratory conditions is one promising avenue. The current study presents a replication and extension of research examining the feasibility for using simulation tasks to elicit self-directed language.MethodsFirst-year college students (N = 92) responded to the Collegiate Simulated Intoxication Digital Elicitation, a validated task for assessing decision-making in college drinking. Verbal responses elicited via free-response and structured interview formats were coded based on established definitions of CT and ST, with minor modifications to reflect the non-treatment context. Associations between self-directed language and alcohol use at baseline and eight months were examined. Additionally, this study examined whether a contextually-based measure of decision-making, behavioral willingness, mediated relationships between self-directed language and alcohol outcome.ResultsHealthy talk and unhealthy talk independently were associated with baseline alcohol use across both elicitation formats. Only healthy talk during the free-response elicitation was associated with alcohol use at follow up; both healthy talk and unhealthy talk during the interview elicitation were associated with 8-month alcohol use. Behavioral willingness significantly mediated the relationship between percent healthy talk and alcohol outcome.ConclusionsFindings support the utility of studying self-directed language under laboratory conditions and suggest that such methods may provide a fruitful strategy to further understand the role of self-directed language as a MOBC.
       
  • Comparing harm beliefs and risk perceptions among young adult waterpipe
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 7Author(s): Isaac M. Lipkus, Darren Mays IntroductionVery little is known about how waterpipe tobacco smokers and nonsmokers compare on harm beliefs about waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) and how these beliefs are related to risk appraisals and intentions to engage in WTS. We investigated these issues among young adult waterpipe tobacco smokers, susceptible nonsmokers, and non-susceptible nonsmokers.MethodsYoung adults ages 18 to 30 who smoked waterpipe tobacco during the last 30 days or never used waterpipe tobacco were recruited online through Turkprime. Nonsmokers were grouped as susceptible or not. Participants completed measures of harm beliefs, risk appraisals (i.e., perceived risks and worry), and desire to quit among smokers or willingness/curiosity to try waterpipe among nonsmokers.ResultsAnalyses were based on 247 smokers and 418 nonsmokers. Smokers endorsed most strongly harm beliefs that portrayed WTS as safe, followed by susceptible and then non-susceptible nonsmokers. Most harm beliefs were significantly related to risk appraisals, yet weakly associated with desire to quit or willingness/curiosity to try waterpipe tobacco, except among susceptible nonsmokers.ConclusionsGreater efforts are needed to correct maladaptive beliefs about WTS harms, especially among smokers. Among susceptible nonsmokers, harm beliefs may be more influential in predicting willingness to try WTS than risk appraisals.
       
  • Relationship between tonic and phasic craving for alcohol

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 7Author(s): Emily E. Hartwell, Lara A. Ray BackgroundMultiple measures are utilized to assess alcohol craving, often interchangeably. Little is known about the relationship between tonic and phasic craving. This study fills this gap in the literature by examining the association between tonic levels of alcohol craving and phasic craving for alcohol that is provoked by alcohol administration.MethodsForty-three non-treatment seeking problem drinkers underwent an initial interview and two laboratory testing sessions, where either alcohol or a saline placebo was administered intravenously. Tonic craving was assessed via the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) at the initial interview. Phasic craving was assessed during the laboratory sessions (i.e., alcohol and saline administrations, single blinded) at baseline and at 3 subsequent breath alcohol concentrations (0.02, 0.04, and 0.06 g/dl).ResultsThere was a main effect of PACS in predicting phasic craving across both saline and alcohol administration conditions (p  0.10), predicted phasic craving during alcohol, as compared to saline administration.ConclusionIn sum, tonic craving captured by the OCDS was predictive of phasic craving during alcohol administration whereas the PACS more generally captured the increase in phasic craving. Therefore, these measures of tonic craving may function differently in capturing the experience of phasic craving. Implications for the utilization of the PACS and OCDS as well as assessments of craving in alcoholism research are discussed.
       
 
 
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