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  Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 7439 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (1857 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access  
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access  
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Natural Medicine     Open Access  
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access  
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access  
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
AJSP: Reviews & Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access  
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ankara Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Fundeni Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Journal Khulna     Open Access  
Basal Ganglia     Hybrid Journal  
Basic Sciences of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BC Medical Journal     Free  
Benha Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bijblijven     Hybrid Journal  
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Addictive Behaviors Reports
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2352-8532
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • Creation and validation of the barriers to alcohol reduction (BAR) scale
           using classical test theory and item response theory

    • Authors: Zachary J. Kunicki; Melissa R. Schick; Nichea S. Spillane; Lisa L. Harlow
      Pages: 47 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): Zachary J. Kunicki, Melissa R. Schick, Nichea S. Spillane, Lisa L. Harlow
      Those who binge drink are at increased risk for alcohol-related consequences when compared to non-binge drinkers. Research shows individuals may face barriers to reducing their drinking behavior, but few measures exist to assess these barriers. This study created and validated the Barriers to Alcohol Reduction (BAR) scale. Participants were college students (n = 230) who endorsed at least one instance of past-month binge drinking (4+ drinks for women or 5+ drinks for men). Using classical test theory, exploratory structural equation modeling found a two-factor structure of personal/psychosocial barriers and perceived program barriers. The sub-factors, and full scale had reasonable internal consistency (i.e., coefficient omega = 0.78 (personal/psychosocial), 0.82 (program barriers), and 0.83 (full measure)). The BAR also showed evidence for convergent validity with the Brief Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire (r = 0.39, p < .001) and discriminant validity with Barriers to Physical Activity (r = −0.02, p = .81). Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis showed the two factors separately met the unidimensionality assumption, and provided further evidence for severity of the items on the two factors. Results suggest that the BAR measure appears reliable and valid for use in an undergraduate student population of binge drinkers. Future studies may want to re-examine this measure in a more diverse sample.

      PubDate: 2018-02-07T19:59:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2018.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
       
  • Dual diagnosis competencies: A systematic review of staff training
           literature

    • Authors: Melissa Petrakis; Rebecca Robinson; Kevan Myers; Simon Kroes; Sarah O'Connor
      Pages: 53 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): Melissa Petrakis, Rebecca Robinson, Kevan Myers, Simon Kroes, Sarah O'Connor
      Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature regarding approaches to staff training in dual diagnosis competencies. Methods A search was conducted using eight databases: Informit, Taylor & Francis, Springer, Proquest, Expand, Sage, Psych info, Elsevier and Cinahl. The year range was 2005 to April 2015. An additional manual search of reference lists was conducted to ensure relevant articles were not overlooked. Results Of 129 potential results, there were only 11 articles regarding staff training in dual diagnosis. The limited studies included problems: small sample sizes, selection biases, and questions as to validity of some capability instruments, and low inclusion of service user perspectives. Organisational challenges to greater uptake of staff training including agency size, agency willingness to change, and a need to change policies. Conclusions There is a pressing need for more research, and quality research, in this important area of knowledge translation, dissemination and implementation of evidence-based practices. In particular there is limited literature regarding the efficacy of dual diagnosis competency resources, and a gap as to use of the mentoring in dual diagnosis capacity building.

      PubDate: 2018-02-07T19:59:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
       
  • Relationship between tonic and phasic craving for alcohol

    • Authors: Emily E. Hartwell; Lara A. Ray
      Pages: 71 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): Emily E. Hartwell, Lara A. Ray
      Background Multiple measures are utilized to assess alcohol craving, often interchangeably. Little is known about the relationship between tonic and phasic craving. This study fills this gap in the literature by examining the association between tonic levels of alcohol craving and phasic craving for alcohol that is provoked by alcohol administration. Methods Forty-three non-treatment seeking problem drinkers underwent an initial interview and two laboratory testing sessions, where either alcohol or a saline placebo was administered intravenously. Tonic craving was assessed via the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) at the initial interview. Phasic craving was assessed during the laboratory sessions (i.e., alcohol and saline administrations, single blinded) at baseline and at 3 subsequent breath alcohol concentrations (0.02, 0.04, and 0.06 g/dl). Results There was a main effect of PACS in predicting phasic craving across both saline and alcohol administration conditions (p < 0.05). The OCDS was predictive of phasic craving when alcohol, but not saline, was administered (p = 0.058); the obsessive subscale (p = 0.01), but not the compulsive subscale (p > 0.10), predicted phasic craving during alcohol, as compared to saline administration. Conclusion In sum, tonic craving captured by the OCDS was predictive of phasic craving during alcohol administration whereas the PACS more generally captured the increase in phasic craving. Therefore, these measures of tonic craving may function differently in capturing the experience of phasic craving. Implications for the utilization of the PACS and OCDS as well as assessments of craving in alcoholism research are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T04:54:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2018.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
       
  • Addictive behaviors and psychological distress among adolescents and
           emerging adults: A mediating role of peer group identification

    • Authors: Iina Savolainen; Markus Kaakinen; Anu Sirola; Atte Oksanen
      Pages: 75 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Iina Savolainen, Markus Kaakinen, Anu Sirola, Atte Oksanen
      Objective Research suggests the sense of belonging to primary groups functions as an important social resource for youth well-being, but it can be compromised among those dealing with addiction. The current study examined how adolescents' and emerging adults' identification with a primary peer group consisting of friends, mediates the relationship between addictive behaviors and psychological distress. Method The study utilized demographically balanced survey data on 1200 Finnish participants aged 15 to 25 (mean age 21.29, 50% female). Measures were included for psychological distress, excessive drinking, excessive drug use, excessive gambling, excessive Internet use, and peer group identification. Results All forms of addictive behaviors had a significant direct relationship with higher psychological distress. Excessive drug use, gambling and Internet use were associated with a weaker identification with a peer group, which predicted higher psychological distress. Contrary to the above findings, excessive drinking was linked to stronger peer group identification, mediating psychological distress downwards. Conclusions These findings support past research and provide a mediation model explanation onto how weaker social relations add to negative well-being consequences in different addictive behaviors, thus underlining the importance of expanding our understanding of social group outcomes among young individuals.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T04:54:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2018.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
       
  • Comparing harm beliefs and risk perceptions among young adult waterpipe
           

    • Authors: Isaac M. Lipkus; Darren Mays
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Isaac M. Lipkus, Darren Mays
      Introduction Very little is known about how waterpipe tobacco smokers and nonsmokers compare on harm beliefs about waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) and how these beliefs are related to risk appraisals and intentions to engage in WTS. We investigated these issues among young adult waterpipe tobacco smokers, susceptible nonsmokers, and non-susceptible nonsmokers. Methods Young adults ages 18 to 30 who smoked waterpipe tobacco during the last 30 days or never used waterpipe tobacco were recruited online through Turkprime. Nonsmokers were grouped as susceptible or not. Participants completed measures of harm beliefs, risk appraisals (i.e., perceived risks and worry), and desire to quit among smokers or willingness/curiosity to try waterpipe among nonsmokers. Results Analyses were based on 247 smokers and 418 nonsmokers. Smokers endorsed most strongly harm beliefs that portrayed WTS as safe, followed by susceptible and then non-susceptible nonsmokers. Most harm beliefs were significantly related to risk appraisals, yet weakly associated with desire to quit or willingness/curiosity to try waterpipe tobacco, except among susceptible nonsmokers. Conclusions Greater efforts are needed to correct maladaptive beliefs about WTS harms, especially among smokers. Among susceptible nonsmokers, harm beliefs may be more influential in predicting willingness to try WTS than risk appraisals.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T04:54:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2018.03.003
       
  • The relationship between concussion and alcohol consumption among
           university athletes

    • Authors: Bradey Alcock; Caitlyn Gallant; Dawn Good
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Bradey Alcock, Caitlyn Gallant, Dawn Good
      Introduction This study investigated concussion as a potential risk factor for increased alcohol consumption in university athletes. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, 41 university students (37% with a history of concussion) completed self-report measures, while electrodermal activation (EDA) was recorded for each participant to capture baseline physiological arousal. Results As expected, concussion status significantly predicted alcohol consumption over and above athletic status, b = 0.34, p = 0.034, 95% CI [0.195, 4.832], such that those with a prior concussion history engaged in greater alcohol consumption. Importantly, concussion status also significantly predicted baseline physiological arousal, b = −0.39, p = 0.014, 95% CI [−0.979, −0.120], such that those with a history of concussion exhibited lower EDA. Conclusions Elevated alcohol consumption among athletes is a pronounced associate of concussion in sports and may be a behavioral reflection of disruption to the orbitofrontal cortex – an area implicated in inhibition.

      PubDate: 2018-02-07T19:59:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2018.02.001
       
  • Anterior insula activation during inhibition to smoking cues is associated
           with ability to maintain tobacco abstinence

    • Authors: Jodi M. Gilman; Milena Radoman; Randi M. Schuster; Gladys Pachas; Nour Azzouz; Maurizio Fava; A. Eden Evins
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Jodi M. Gilman, Milena Radoman, Randi M. Schuster, Gladys Pachas, Nour Azzouz, Maurizio Fava, A. Eden Evins
      Relapse to smoking after initial abstinence is a major clinical challenge with significant public health consequences. At the brain and behavioral level, those who relapse to tobacco smoking have both greater cue-reactivity and lower inhibitory control than those who remain abstinent. Little is known about neural activation during inhibitory control tasks in the presence of drug-related cues. In the current study, tobacco smokers (SMK; n = 22) and non-smoking controls (CON; n = 19) completed a Go/NoGo task involving smoking cues during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. Following the scan session, smokers were required to quit smoking, and maintenance of abstinence was evaluated as part of a 12-week smoking cessation trial. We evaluated pre-cessation brain activity during NoGo trials in smokers who were versus were not able to quit smoking. We then compared fMRI and inhibitory control measures between smokers and non-smokers. We did not find differences between SMK and CON in performance or activation to smoking or neutral cues. However, compared to SMK who relapsed, SMK who attained biochemically-validated abstinence at the end of the smoking cessation trial had greater neural activation in the anterior insula during NoGo trials specifically with smoking-related cues. Results indicate that within SMK, decreased inhibitory control activation during direct exposure to drug-related stimuli may be a marker of difficulty quitting and relapse vulnerability.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T11:21:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2018.01.002
       
  • Emotion dysregulation and negative affect: Laboratory and EMA
           investigations in smokers

    • Authors: Jessica M. MacIntyre; Aimee Ruscio; Emily Brede; Andrew J. Waters
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Jessica M. MacIntyre, Aimee Ruscio, Emily Brede, Andrew J. Waters
      Introduction Difficulties in emotion regulation are associated with addictive behaviors, including smoking. Difficulties in emotion regulation may underlie large, rapid changes in negative affect that can increase likelihood of relapse. We investigated the association between emotion regulation ability and negative affect in smokers assessed both in the laboratory and in the field using Ecological Momentary Assessment. Methods Adult community smokers (N = 44) carried a personal digital assistant (PDA) for two weeks and were instructed to complete assessments of negative affect multiple times per day. Participants were instructed that they could smoke as much or as little as they liked. The Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) were completed at 3 lab visits. Results Participants with higher average DERS scores reported greater negative affect at lab visits. When a participant reported a DERS score at a lab visit higher than their individual average, they also reported higher negative affect at that lab visit. Participants with higher baseline DERS scores reported more labile negative affect during EMA than those with lower baseline DERS scores, and they also reported a higher maximum level of negative affect during EMA. Discussion and conclusions Overall, the findings suggest that changes in emotion regulation are associated with negative affect and that emotion regulation ability is related to the both the intensity and lability of negative affect. A better understanding of momentary changes in emotion regulation and negative affect may lead to improved interventions for preventing substance use relapse.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T11:21:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2018.01.001
       
  • Association between drug use and urban violence: Data from the II
           Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey (BNADS)

    • Authors: Renata Rigacci Abdalla; Luciana Massaro; André de Queiroz Constantino Miguel; Ronaldo Laranjeira; Raul Caetano; Clarice S. Madruga
      Pages: 8 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): Renata Rigacci Abdalla, Luciana Massaro, André de Queiroz Constantino Miguel, Ronaldo Laranjeira, Raul Caetano, Clarice S. Madruga
      Objective To investigate the association of alcohol and cocaine use with urban violence (both as victim and as perpetrator) in a representative sample of the Brazilian population. Method The Second Brazilian Alcohol and Drugs Survey (II BNADS) interviewed 4607 individuals aged 14years and older from the Brazilian household population including an oversample of 1157 adolescents (14 to 18years old). The survey gathered information on alcohol, tobacco and illegal substances use as well as on risk factors for abuse and dependence, behaviors associated with the use of substances and the possible consequences, as urban violence indicators. Results Approximately 9.3% of the Brazilian population has been victim of at least one form of urban violence. This proportion increases to 19.7% among cocaine users and to 18.1% among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD). Perpetration of violence was reported by 6.2% of the sample. Cocaine use and AUD increased in almost four times the chances of being an aggressor. Being religious and married decreased the chances of being a victim and/or perpetrador of urban violence. Higher education also decreased the chances of involvement in both victimization or perpetration of violence. Both Parallel Mediation Models considering cocaine use as a predictor of urban violence (victimization or perpetration) were valid and alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms were mediators of this relationship. Conclusions This study presents relevant data of interest to Brazil as this country is one of the major consumer market of cocaine and also is among the most violent countries worldwide.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T11:24:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2017)
       
  • Alcohol and tobacco use among methadone maintenance patients in Vietnamese
           rural mountainside areas

    • Authors: Bach Xuan Tran; Huong Lan Thi Nguyen; Quynh Ngoc Hoang Le; Hue Thi Mai; Chau Ngo; Canh Dinh Hoang; Hai Hong Nguyen; Hai Quan Le; Hung Van Nguyen; Huong Thi Le; Tho Dinh Tran; Nabil Zary; Carl A. Latkin; Thuc Minh Thi Vu; Roger C.M. Ho; Melvyn W.B. Zhang
      Pages: 19 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): Bach Xuan Tran, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Quynh Ngoc Hoang Le, Hue Thi Mai, Chau Ngo, Canh Dinh Hoang, Hai Hong Nguyen, Hai Quan Le, Hung Van Nguyen, Huong Thi Le, Tho Dinh Tran, Nabil Zary, Carl A. Latkin, Thuc Minh Thi Vu, Roger C.M. Ho, Melvyn W.B. Zhang
      Introduction The expansion of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program requires more data about the factors affecting the effectiveness of treatment, especially behavioral data such as smoking and alcohol use among patients. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol consumption and identify related factors among MMT patients in the Vietnamese rural mountainside. Methods We interviewed 241 MMT patients in two clinics in Tuyen Quang, a mountainous province in Vietnam. Patients were asked to report the smoking status (current smoker or not), nicotine dependence (by Fagerström test for nicotine dependence - FTND) and alcohol use (by using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test – AUDIT-C). EuroQol-5 dimensions-5 levels (EQ-5D-5L) and EQ-Visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) were employed to measure health-related quality of life. Multivariate logistic and Tobit regressions were used to identify the associated factors. Results The majority of respondents were current smokers (75.7%) and a low proportion were hazardous drinkers (18.3%). People receiving treatment in a rural clinic (OR=0.45; 95%CI=0.22–0.92) and had problems in usual activities (OR=0.20; 95%CI=0.06–0.70) were less likely to be smokers. Q-VAS score (Coef.=0.03; 95%CI=0.02–0.05) and having problems in mobility (Coef.=0.72; 95%CI=0.03–1.42) was found to be associated with the increase of nicotine dependence. In terms of alcohol drinking, people with other jobs were more likely to drink hazardously compared to unemployed patients (OR=2.86; 95%CI=1.20–6.82). Similarly, patients having higher duration of MMT had higher likelihood of being hazardous drinkers (OR=1.07; 95%CI=1.01–1.13). Conclusions This study highlights the low rate of alcohol abusers but a considerably high proportion of current smokers among MMT patients in the rural mountainside area. Alcohol and tobacco counseling programs combined with social and family support also play an essential role in alcohol and tobacco control. In addition, implementing mass community-based behavioral change campaigns to reduce drug addiction-related stigmatization should also be prioritized.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T11:21:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2017)
       
  • Vietnamese validation of the short version of Internet Addiction Test

    • Authors: Bach Xuan Tran; Hue Thi Mai; Long Hoang Nguyen; Cuong Tat Nguyen; Carl A. Latkin; Melvyn W.B. Zhang; Roger C.M. Ho
      Pages: 45 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Bach Xuan Tran, Hue Thi Mai, Long Hoang Nguyen, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Carl A. Latkin, Melvyn W.B. Zhang, Roger C.M. Ho
      Background and aims The main goal of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Vietnamese version of the short-version of Internet Addiction Test (s-IAT) and to assess the relationship between s-IAT scores and demographics, health related qualify of life and perceived stress scores in young Vietnamese. Methods The Vietnamese version of s-IAT was administered to a sample of 589 participants. Exploratory factor and reliability analyses were performed. Regression analysis was used to identify the associated factors. Results The two-factor model of Vietnamese version of s-IAT demonstrated good psychometric properties. The internal consistency of Factor 1 (loss of control/time management) was high (Cronbach's alpha=0.82) and Factor 2 (craving/social problems) was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha=0.75). Findings indicated that 20.9% youths were addicted to the Internet. Regression analysis revealed significant associations between Internet addiction and having problems in self-care, lower quality of life and high perceived stress scores. Discussion and conclusions The Vietnamese version of s-IAT is a valid and reliable instrument to assess IA in Vietnamese population. Due to the high prevalence of IA among Vietnamese youths, IA should be paid attention in future intervention programs. s-IAT can be a useful screening tool for IA to promptly inform and treat the IA among Vietnamese youths.

      PubDate: 2017-07-16T15:55:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • The associations among personality, alcohol-related Protective Behavioural
           Strategies (PBS), alcohol consumption and sexual intercourse in Irish,
           female college students

    • Authors: Sinéad Moylett; Brian M. Hughes
      Pages: 56 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Sinéad Moylett, Brian M. Hughes
      Introduction The study presented one of the first examinations of the associations among personality, alcohol-related protective behavioural strategies (PBS), alcohol consumption, sexual intercourse and sex-related alcohol negative consequences in Irish, female college students (n =522). Methods A cross-sectional observational design was employed and participants completed the study online. Participants completed measures of personality, alcohol-related PBS, alcohol consumption and sexual intercourse. Hierarchical multiple regression was utilised to access the associations between such measures. Results From the analyses, it was found that age, frequency of sexual intercourse, frequency of alcohol consumption, level of alcohol consumption and openness were all significantly related to the use of alcohol-related protective behavioural strategies, and in turn, sex-related negative consequences. However, inconsistent findings with other personality dimensions to those of previous research were noted. Conclusions The findings of this study posited that the use of PBS has a key role to play in the levels of sexual intercourse and alcohol consumption, age and openness, and the associated negative sexual consequences in Irish, female college students.

      PubDate: 2017-08-24T17:15:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Alcohol related mental imagery: The effects of a priming dose in at risk
           drinkers

    • Authors: Michael Yates; Sunjeev K. Kamboj
      Pages: 71 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Michael Yates, Sunjeev K. Kamboj
      Objectives Drug related mental imagery is proposed to play a central role in addictive behaviour. However, little is known about such cognition or how it is pharmacologically modulated. Here, we test theoretical predictions of the ‘elaborated intrusion’ theory by comparing neutral with alcohol related mental imagery, and examine the effects of low dose alcohol on phenomenological aspects of this imagery. Methods Alcohol related and neutral imagery was assessed after at risk drinkers (n=40) consumed alcohol (0.3g/kg) or placebo, in a crossover design. Sensory and visuospatial qualities of imagery, along with associated craving, positive affect and ‘mind wandering’ were assessed. Results Alcohol related mental imagery was rated as more vivid and sensorially rich, effects that were larger following the priming dose of alcohol. In addition, mind wandering was substantially lower during alcohol versus neutral imagery, especially after alcohol consumption. First person perspective was more prevalent for alcohol imagery after alcohol, although the Drink×Imagery type interaction did not reach statistical significance. However, first person imagery was associated with higher levels of craving during alcohol related imagery. Conclusions Alcohol related mental imagery differs phenomenologically from neutral imagery on a number of dimensions. Priming with alcohol may enable cognitive elaboration by biasing the output of controlled cognitive processing towards enhanced sensory elaboration and increased attention to alcohol related cognition. These feedforward effects may be involved in focusing cognitive and behavioural resources on alcohol acquisition/consumption through the elaboration and rehearsal of relevant goals and plans.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T18:28:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • A qualitative exploration of social support during treatment for severe
           alcohol use disorder and recovery

    • Authors: Alyssa T. Brooks; Miriam Magaña Lòpez; Alexandra Ranucci; Michael Krumlauf; Gwenyth R. Wallen
      Pages: 76 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Alyssa T. Brooks, Miriam Magaña Lòpez, Alexandra Ranucci, Michael Krumlauf, Gwenyth R. Wallen
      Introduction Severe alcohol use disorder (AUD) affects multiple aspects of an individual's life as well as their loved ones' lives. Perceived social support has the potential to help or hinder recovery efforts. Methods In this analysis we seek to understand the changes of social networks among individuals with severe AUD (n=33) throughout their recovery process and the potential relationship between the quality and nature of those networks and sustained sobriety as they transition from an inpatient research facility providing rehabilitation treatment back to the community. Interviews were conducted in 2014 and 2015. We conducted in-depth thematic analysis of themes related to social support using an exploratory approach. Results The most common types of social support mentioned in both inpatient and outpatient settings were instrumental and emotional. Participants most frequently mentioned Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), an abstinence-based support system, as a source of support and often used the inpatient program as an exemplar when describing their ideal social networks. Conclusion These data provide insight into the complexity of the issues and barriers that individuals in recovery may be facing across “transition periods.” From an intervention standpoint, it may be beneficial to focus on helping people choose environments and their accompanying social contexts and networks that are most conducive to recovery. Further elucidating the concept of social support and its role in recovery could provide information on unique needs of individuals and guide clinicians in engaging patients to develop new or sustain healthy existing social networks that result in continued sobriety.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T11:24:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Improving cerebral oxygenation, cognition and autonomic nervous system
           

    • Authors: Daniel Aranha Cabral; Kell Grandjean da Costa; Alexandre Hideki Okano; Hassan Mohamed Elsangedy; Vanessa Paula Rachetti; Eduardo Bodnariuc Fontes
      Pages: 83 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Daniel Aranha Cabral, Kell Grandjean da Costa, Alexandre Hideki Okano, Hassan Mohamed Elsangedy, Vanessa Paula Rachetti, Eduardo Bodnariuc Fontes
      The abusive use of alcohol has shown to be associated to cerebral damage, impaired cognition, poor autonomic nervous control, impaired cardiovascular health, increased levels of stress and anxiety, depression symptoms and poor quality of life. Aerobic exercise has shown to be an efficient tool to reduce and overcome these issues. In this case report, a patient (forty-four years old, male) under treatment in public psychiatric hospital, classified as having a substance use disorder, underwent a three-month running program. The maximal oxygen consumption increased from 24.2ml/kg/min to 30.1ml/kg/min, running time increased from 6min to 45min (650%) and distance covered from 765m to 8700m (1037.2%). In prefrontal cortex oxygenation, oxyhemoglobin levels improved by 76.1%, deoxyhemoglobin decreased 96.9% and total hemoglobin increased 78.8% during exercise. Reaction time in the cognitive test during rest decreased 23%, and the number of correct answers increased by 266.6%. Parasympathetic cardiac parameters increased in several heart rate variability indices. Thus, we conclude that running exercise performed by an alcoholic patient hospitalized in a psychiatric hospital improves cerebral function, cognition and cardiovascular health.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T18:28:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Is exercise addiction in fitness centers a socially accepted behavior'

    • Authors: Mia Beck Lichtenstein; Bolette Emborg; Simone Daugaard Hemmingsen; Nina Beck Hansen
      Pages: 102 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Mia Beck Lichtenstein, Bolette Emborg, Simone Daugaard Hemmingsen, Nina Beck Hansen
      Background Fitness exercise is popular and associated with improved health and social status. Taken to extremes, however, exercise can become an addiction. One suggested symptom of exercise addiction is “conflicts” with family and friends. However, it may be difficult to recognize excessive exercise patterns if they are accepted and encouraged by relatives. The aim of this study was to explore if fitness exercisers with a high risk of addiction experienced the same level of exercise support as exercisers with a low risk of addiction. Furthermore, we wanted to examine if social support affected the subjective reporting of “conflicts”. Method A total of 577 fitness exercisers completed the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI) and two questions asking about “exercise support from family and friends” and “present eating disorder”. Results Exercisers at high risk of exercise addiction reported the same level of support from relatives as those at low risk. Exercisers with high levels of exercise support reported significantly fewer conflicts, even if they were at high risk of addiction. If an eating disorder was present, the level of exercise support was significantly reduced. Conclusion Exercise addiction might be difficult to identify with the general behavioral addiction symptom “conflict”, since exercise is socially accepted even in subjects with high risk of exercise addiction. If an eating disorder is present, the exercise routines seem to be interpreted as socially undesirable. Screening for exercise addiction with the EAI should take into account that fitness exercisers rarely report conflicts, which could result in false negative cases.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T18:20:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Video game addiction and psychological distress among expatriate
           adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Nazmus Saquib; Juliann Saquib; AbdulWaris Wahid; Abdulrahman Akmal Ahmed; Hamad Emad Dhuhayr; Mohamed Saddik Zaghloul; Mohammed Ewid; Abdulrahman Al-Mazrou
      Pages: 112 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Nazmus Saquib, Juliann Saquib, AbdulWaris Wahid, Abdulrahman Akmal Ahmed, Hamad Emad Dhuhayr, Mohamed Saddik Zaghloul, Mohammed Ewid, Abdulrahman Al-Mazrou
      Introduction Few studies have estimated screen time among Arab adolescents, and no studies, to date, have published data on addiction to video games or Internet games among Arab adolescents. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of addiction to video games and its correlation with mental health in a sample of expatriate high school students from the Al-Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. Methods The survey was conducted in 2016 among 276 students enrolled in ninth through twelfth grades in the International Schools in Buraidah, Al-Qassim. Students who returned signed consent forms from their parents filled out a self-administered questionnaire that included validated scales on addiction to video games, general health, and lifestyle. Results The proportion between the sexes and the schools were roughly equal. Around 32% were overweight or obese, 75% had screen time≥2h/day, and 20% slept<5h/night. Sixteen per cent (16%) were addicted to video games and 54% had psychological distress. Addiction to video games was strongly associated with psychological distress (OR=4.1, 95% CI=1.80, 9.47). Other significant correlates were female gender, higher screen time, and shorter sleep hours. Conclusions The proportion of students with psychological distress was high. Future studies should investigate other potential correlates of distress such personal traits, family relations, and academic performance.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T11:24:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Metacognitions or distress intolerance: The mediating role in the
           

    • Authors: Mehdi Akbari
      Pages: 128 - 133
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Mehdi Akbari
      Objective Given the relevance of problematic Internet use (PIU) to everyday life, its relationship to emotional dysregulation and the importance of metacognitions and distress intolerance in process and intermediaries research, this study examined which of metacognitions and distress intolerance acts as an intermediary between emotional dysregulation and PIU. Methods In the current study, 413 undergraduate students from the University of Tehran, Iran (202 females; mean age=20.13) voluntarily completed a questionnaire package which included the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 (MCQ-30(, and Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS). The data were then analyzed using structural equation modeling by LISREL software. Results Significant correlations were found between PIU and emotional dysregulation and both distress intolerance and metacognitions (P <0.001). Structural equation modeling and path analysis results fit well to the data (χ2/df=1.73; p <0.001; RMSEA=0.05; SRMR=0.04; CFI=0.97; NFI=0.95). The results of the mediational model indicated that emotional dysregulation has an indirect impact via metacognition (β=0.31; SE=0.02) and distress tolerance (β=−0.60; SE=0.03) on PIU. The analysis also revealed a significant direct impact of emotional dysregulation on PIU, although this impact is much less than the indirect impact. The variables in this model accounted for 62% of the variance in participants' PIU levels. Conclusion The results of this study provide evidence for the impact of emotional dysregulation on PIU through metacognitions and distress intolerance. Also, these findings emphasize that distress intolerance has a more significant mediating role than metacognition in the relationship between emotional dysregulation and PIU.

      PubDate: 2017-11-04T03:05:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Online-specific fear of missing out and Internet-use expectancies
           contribute to symptoms of Internet-communication disorder

    • Authors: Elisa Wegmann; Ursula Oberst; Benjamin Stodt; Matthias Brand
      Pages: 33 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Elisa Wegmann, Ursula Oberst, Benjamin Stodt, Matthias Brand
      Some of the most frequently used online applications are Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter. These applications allow individuals to communicate with other users, to share information or pictures, and to stay in contact with friends all over the world. However, a growing number of users suffer from negative consequences due to their excessive use of these applications, which can be referred to as Internet-communication disorder. The frequent use and easy access of these applications may also trigger the individual's fear of missing out on content when not accessing these applications. Using a sample of 270 participants, a structural equation model was analyzed to investigate the role of psychopathological symptoms and the fear of missing out on expectancies towards Internet-communication applications in the development of symptoms of an Internet-communication disorder. The results suggest that psychopathological symptoms predict higher fear of missing out on the individual's Internet-communication applications and higher expectancies to use these applications as a helpful tool to escape from negative feelings. These specific cognitions mediate the effect of psychopathological symptoms on Internet-communication disorder. Our results are in line with the theoretical model by Brand et al. (2016) as they show how Internet-related cognitive bias mediates the relationship between a person's core characteristics (e.g., psychopathological symptoms) and Internet-communication disorder. However, further studies should investigate the role of the fear of missing out as a specific predisposition, as well as specific cognition in the online context.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T11:24:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2017)
       
  • Systematic review of Australian policing interventions to reduce
           alcohol-related violence — A maxillofacial perspective

    • Authors: Timothy Liu; Jason Ferris; Angela Higginson; Anthony Lynham
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Timothy Liu, Jason Ferris, Angela Higginson, Anthony Lynham
      Alcohol-related violence remains to be a health concern, and the oral and maxillofacial surgeons are routinely exposed to its impact on the victims and the healthcare system. At a community level, various policing interventions have been implemented to address this violent crime in and around licensed premises. Current study sought to examine the effectiveness of these interventions in Australia. Ten eligible studies, that evaluated the impact of 15 Australian policing interventions on reducing alcohol-related violence in the night-time economy, were included in this systematic review. Due to the heterogeneity of the study designs and the insufficiency of the reported data, quantitative meta-analysis of the findings was precluded. Instead, a critical narrative approach was used. Police-recorded assault rate was the primary outcome measured to assess the level of alcohol-related violence, which was influenced by the level of police duties implemented during the intervention period. The overall evidence base to support Australian policing interventions was found to be poor and was limited by the low-quality study design observed in the majority of the included studies. However, there is some evidence to suggest interventions involving proactive policing to be more effective than traditional reactive policing. There was also an increased emphasis on developing policing interventions in collaborative partnerships, demonstrating the synergistic benefits in crime prevention through community partnerships, where communities were encouraged to take ownerships of their own problems and develop targeted responses to alcohol-related violence rather than a one-size-fits-all approach. Further research is required to define their effectiveness with the use of more appropriate and robust methodologies.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T11:24:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2016.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2017)
       
  • Drug, nicotine, and alcohol use among exercisers: Does substance addiction
           co-occur with exercise addiction'

    • Authors: Attila Szabo; Mark D. Griffiths; Rikke Aarhus Høglid; Zsolt Demetrovics
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Attila Szabo, Mark D. Griffiths, Rikke Aarhus Høglid, Zsolt Demetrovics
      Background Scholastic works suggest that those at risk for exercise addiction are also often addicted to illicit drugs, nicotine, and/or alcohol, but empirical evidence is lacking. Aims The aim of the present work was to examine the co-occurrence of illicit drug, nicotine, and alcohol use frequency (prevalence of users) and severity (level of problem in users) among exercisers classified at three levels of risk for exercise addiction: (i) asymptomatic, (ii) symptomatic, and (iii) at-risk. Methods A sample of 538 regular exercisers were surveyed via the Qualtrics research platform. They completed the (i) Drug Use Disorder Identification Test, (ii) Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, (iii) Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and (iv) Exercise Addition Inventory. Results A large proportion (n=59; 10.97%) of the sample was found to be at risk for exercise addiction. The proportion of drug and alcohol users among these participants did not differ from the rest of the sample. However, the incidence of nicotine consumption was lowest among them. The severity of problematic substance use did not differ across the groups. Conclusions These findings suggest that substance addiction and the risk for exercise addiction are unrelated. In fact, those at risk for exercise addiction exhibited the healthiest profile related to the prevalence of smoking.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T13:45:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.12.001
       
  • Correlates of cannabis vape-pen use and knowledge among U.S. college
           students

    • Authors: Tessa Frohe; Robert F. Leeman; Julie Patock-Peckham; Anthony Ecker; Shane Kraus; Dawn W. Foster
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Tessa Frohe, Robert F. Leeman, Julie Patock-Peckham, Anthony Ecker, Shane Kraus, Dawn W. Foster
      Introduction The proliferation of electronic devices, such as vape-pens, has provided alternative means for cannabis use. Research has found cannabis-vaping (i.e., vape-pen use) is associated with lower perceived risks and higher cannabis use. Knowledge of these products may increase likelihood of subsequent use. As policies for cannabis shift, beliefs that peers and family approve of this substance use (injunctive norms) increase and there has been an increase in vape-pen use among young adults (18–35year olds); however, correlates thereof remain unknown. Young adults often engage in cross-substance use with cannabis and alcohol, making alcohol a potential correlate of cannabis vape-pen use and knowledge. Therefore, we examined alcohol use and other potential correlates of vape-pen use and knowledge among a sample of university students. Methods This secondary data analysis utilized surveys at multiple colleges in the U.S. (N=270). Alcohol use, social anxiety, cannabis expectancies, injunctive and descriptive norms and facets of impulsivity were examined as correlates of vape-pen use and knowledge using bivariate correlations and logistic regressions. Results Alcohol use was correlated with cannabis vape-pen use and knowledge. Frequency of cannabis use, peer injunctive norms, and positive expectancies were associated with increased likelihood of vape-pen use. Lack of premeditation, a facet of impulsivity, was associated with cannabis vape-pen knowledge. Conclusions Given the unknown nature and consequences of cannabis vape-pens, the present findings offer valuable information on correlates of this behavior. Further, correlates of knowledge of vape-pens may point to areas for education and clinical intervention to prevent heavy cannabis vape-pen use.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T11:21:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.11.004
       
  • The prevalence and associated factors of new psychoactive substance use: A
           2016 Thailand national household survey

    • Authors: Rungsiya Wonguppa; Manop Kanato
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Rungsiya Wonguppa, Manop Kanato
      Introduction Analyzing the situation and risk factors associated with using new psychoactive substances (NPS) is essential for preventing and controlling health consequences. This study explored the prevalence and associated factors of NPS use in the Thai population. Methods This descriptive study was conducted in participants (N=30,411, mean age=42.4±13.4years, range=15–64years, 50.3% women) from urban and rural areas of Thailand. The participants were chosen using multistage sampling for large populations. The data were collected in July–December 2016 and analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, chi-square, multiple logistic regression, and odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results The prevalence of lifetime NPS use was 49.7% (95% CI, 49.1–51.3), past-year use was 31.3% (95% CI, 30.8–31.8), and current (past-month) use was 14.9% (95% CI, 14.5–15.3). Among current users, 29.5% were habitual users (over 20days). The factors associated with current NPS use were sex (male/female) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.145; 95% CI, 1.075–1.221; p<0.001), age group (25–64/15–24years) (AOR=1.126; 95% CI, 1.090–1.358; p<0.001), educational attainment (elementary or secondary education and higher) (AOR=1.634; 95% CI, 1.529–1.747; p<0.001), and employment status (AOR=1.842; 95% CI, 1.683–2.016; p<0.001). Conclusions The prevalence of NPS use in Thailand is high, which reflects abuse behavior that could potentially harm users. Understanding the prevalence and risk factors of NPS use could benefit policymakers.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T11:24:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.11.001
       
  • Towards an understanding of self-directed language as a mechanism of
           behavior change: A novel strategy for eliciting client language under
           laboratory conditions

    • Authors: Benjamin Ladd; Tracey Garcia Kristen Anderson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Benjamin O. Ladd, Tracey A. Garcia, Kristen G. Anderson
      Introduction Change talk (CT) and sustain talk (ST) are thought to reflect underlying motivation and be important mechanisms of behavior change (MOBCs). However, greater specificity and experimental rigor is needed to establish CT and ST as MOBCs. Testing the effects of self-directed language under laboratory conditions is one promising avenue. The current study presents a replication and extension of research examining the feasibility for using simulation tasks to elicit self-directed language. Methods First-year college students (N =92) responded to the Collegiate Simulated Intoxication Digital Elicitation, a validated task for assessing decision-making in college drinking. Verbal responses elicited via free-response and structured interview formats were coded based on established definitions of CT and ST, with minor modifications to reflect the non-treatment context. Associations between self-directed language and alcohol use at baseline and eight months were examined. Additionally, this study examined whether a contextually-based measure of decision-making, behavioral willingness, mediated relationships between self-directed language and alcohol outcome. Results Healthy talk and unhealthy talk independently were associated with baseline alcohol use across both elicitation formats. Only healthy talk during the free-response elicitation was associated with alcohol use at follow up; both healthy talk and unhealthy talk during the interview elicitation were associated with 8-month alcohol use. Behavioral willingness significantly mediated the relationship between percent healthy talk and alcohol outcome. Conclusions Findings support the utility of studying self-directed language under laboratory conditions and suggest that such methods may provide a fruitful strategy to further understand the role of self-directed language as a MOBC.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T10:50:57Z
       
  • Online activities, prevalence of Internet addiction and risk factors
           related to family and school among adolescents in China

    • Authors: Miao Xin; Jiang Xing; Wang Pengfei; Li Houru; Wang Mengcheng; Zeng Hong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Miao Xin, Jiang Xing, Wang Pengfei, Li Houru, Wang Mengcheng, Zeng Hong
      Aims To investigate the online activities, prevalence of Internet Addiction in relation to demographic characteristics and risk factors related to family and school among adolescents. Methods A total of 6468 10–18year old adolescents recruited from local schools in Guangzhou, China were selected by adopting multi-stage stratified random sampling (female/male: 2886/3582; mean age:13.78±2.43). Participants completed a structured questionnaire. Results The overall prevalence of Internet Addiction was 26.50%, with severe addiction being 0.96%. Internet Addiction was higher among males than females (30.6% versus 21.2%). Older grade students reported more Internet addiction rate (χ 2 =431.25, P <0.001). The five highest-ranked online activities were social networking (94.73%), school work (86.53%), entertainment (82.44%), Internet gaming (73.42%) and shopping online (33.67%). A negative relationship with teachers (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.20–1.53), a negative relationship between two parents (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.18–1.37), and poor academic performance (OR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.17–1.35), showed the highest relative risks for Internet addiction. Conclusions Severe Internet Addiction is not common, but mild Internet addiction was reported by more than one fourth of all participants. The rates of Internet Addiction varied by gender, grade, the quality of family relationships and school situation, suggesting these factors should be considered when designing and implementing interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-10-26T13:39:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.10.003
       
  • Validation of a Swedish version of the short UPPS-P impulsive behavior
           scale among young adults

    • Authors: Benjamin Claréus; Daiva Daukantaitė; Margit Wångby-Lundh; Lars-Gunnar Lundh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Benjamin Claréus, Daiva Daukantaitė, Margit Wångby-Lundh, Lars-Gunnar Lundh
      The UPPS-P model of impulsivity proposes that impulsivity comprises five distinct facets—negative urgency, positive urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking. The UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale has been used to measure these facets. The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the 20-item UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (SUPPS-P). The sample comprised 343 Swedish young adults (M age =24.21, SD =2.01; 27% men, 2% other or undisclosed gender identity) who answered a questionnaire including the SUPPS-P; Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21); and questions regarding their alcohol consumption and substance use. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a 5-factor, inter-correlated model, where each subscale of the SUPPS-P constitutes one latent variable. The convergent validity was established by replicating previously found correlations between the different impulsivity facets and depression, anxiety, frequency of alcohol consumption, and substance use. The internal consistency was acceptable for all the SUPPS-P subscales (Cronbach's α=0.65–0.78, McDonald's ω=0.65–0.79), except lack of perseverance (Cronbach's α=0.60, McDonald's ω=0.61). Thus, while the Swedish version of the SUPPS-P is suitable for assessing impulsivity in Swedish young adult samples, further research is needed to improve the psychometric properties of the lack of perseverance subscale.

      PubDate: 2017-10-19T12:59:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.10.001
       
  • The association between financial literacy and Problematic Internet
           Shopping in a multinational sample

    • Authors: Lawrence T. Lam; Mary K. Lam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Lawrence T. Lam, Mary K. Lam
      Purpose To examine the association between financial literacy and Problematic Internet Shopping in adults. Methods This cross-sectional online survey recruited participants, aged between 18 and 60years, through an online research facility. The sample consisted of multinational participants from mainly three continents including Europe, North America, and Asia. Problematic Internet Shopping was assessed using the Bergen Shopping Addiction Scale (BSAS). Financial Literacy was measured by the Financial Literacy subscale of the Financial Wellbeing Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to elucidate the relationship between the study and outcome variables with adjustment for other potential risk factors. Results Of the total of 997 respondents with an average age of 30.9 (s.d.=8.8), 135 (13.8%) could be classified as having a high risk of being Problematic Internet Shoppers. Results from the multiple regression analyses suggested a significant and negative relationship between financial literacy and Problematic Internet Shopping with a regression coefficient of −0.13, after controlling for the effects of potential risk factors such as age, region of birth, employment, income, shopping frequency, self-regulation and anxiety (t=−6.42, p<0.001). Conclusions The clinical management of PIS should include a financial counselling as a component of the treatment regime. Enhancement of financial literacy in the general population, particularly among young people, will likely have a positive effect on the occurrence of PIS.

      PubDate: 2017-10-19T12:59:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.10.002
       
  • Characteristics of adherence to methadone maintenance treatment over a
           15-year period among homeless adults experiencing mental illness

    • Authors: Milad Parpouchi; Akm Moniruzzaman; Stefanie N. Rezansoff; Angela Russolillo; Julian M. Somers
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Milad Parpouchi, Akm Moniruzzaman, Stefanie N. Rezansoff, Angela Russolillo, Julian M. Somers
      Background Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has important protective effects related to reduced illicit opioid use, infectious disease transmission, and overdose mortality. Adherence to MMT has not been examined among homeless people. We measured MMT adherence and reported relevant characteristics among homeless adults experiencing mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Material and methods Homeless adults living with mental illness who had received MMT prior to the baseline interview of the Vancouver At Home study (n =78) were included in analyses. The medication possession ratio (MPR) was used to estimate MMT adherence from retrospective administrative pharmacy and public health insurance data collected across 15years. Independent sample t tests and one-way ANOVA were used to test for significant differences in MMT MPR by participant characteristics. Results Mean MMT MPR was 0.47. A large proportion of participants reported blood-borne infectious disease, three or more chronic physical health conditions, and substance use. Being single and never married was associated with significantly lower MMT MPR (0.40 vs. 0.55, p =0.036), while living with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or a mood disorder with psychotic features was associated with significantly higher MMT MPR (0.54 vs. 0.37, p =0.022). Daily drug use (excluding alcohol) was associated with significantly lower MMT MPR (0.39 vs. 0.54, p =0.051). Conclusions The level of adherence to MMT was very low among homeless adults experiencing mental illness. Efforts are needed to improve adherence to MMT as a means of reducing illicit substance use, preventing overdose deaths, and attenuating infectious disease transmission.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T18:20:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.09.001
       
  • One-year abstinence improves ADHD symptoms among patients with
           polysubstance use disorder

    • Authors: Egon Hagen; Aleksander H. Erga; Sverre M. Nesvåg; James R. McKay; Astri J. Lundervold; Espen Walderhaug
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Egon Hagen, Aleksander H. Erga, Sverre M. Nesvåg, James R. McKay, Astri J. Lundervold, Espen Walderhaug
      Introduction Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common comorbid disorder in patients suffering from substance use disorder (SUD). Individuals with co-occurring SUD and ADHD are more likely than SUD patients without ADHD to have developed SUD at a younger age, be polysubstance users, and need inpatient treatment more often. The present study investigates whether individuals with polysubstance use disorder who remain abstinent for a year after entering treatment have a more substantial reduction in ADHD symptoms than those who relapsed and controls. Material and methods Subjects were SUD patients (N=115) and healthy controls (N=34). ADHD symptoms were assessed using the adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Substance use was assessed by self-reports on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT). Participants were defined as having relapsed if they had an AUDIT score≥8 or a DUDIT score≥2 for women and≥6 for men. Results Patients who remained abstinent for one year reported a substantial reduction of ADHD symptoms compared to patients who relapsed and controls. Conclusions Abstinence alleviates ADHD symptoms among patients with polysubstance use disorder. We suggest that confirmation of an ADHD diagnosis should follow a period of abstinence to avoid identification of false-positive cases.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T18:28:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.08.005
       
  • The direct and indirect effect of loneliness on the development of
           adolescent alcohol use in the United Kingdom

    • Authors: Michael T. McKay; Svenja Konowalczyk; James R. Andretta; Jon C. Cole
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Michael T. McKay, Svenja Konowalczyk, James R. Andretta, Jon C. Cole
      Alcohol use among adolescents in the United Kingdom (UK) remains relatively high compared to those in other European countries. The present study sought to examine both the direct and indirect effect of loneliness on drinking behavior. Participants were school children (mean age 13.5years at Time 1) participating in a Randomized Controlled Trial in the UK, who completed a battery of questionnaires examining alcohol-use indicators, loneliness, self-efficacy and sensation seeking at Time 1 and at +12months. Loneliness at Time 1 had a substantive, though largely indirect (i.e., via self-efficacy and sensation seeking covariates), impact on alcohol-related harm at +12months. Furthermore, Loneliness interacted with gender in the prediction of context of alcohol use, where being female and experiencing loneliness put an individual at a greater risk of unsupervised drinking. Females experiencing loneliness were also 2.5 times as likely to have had a drink in the past 30days, and around 2.5 times as likely to have ever consumed a full drink, when compared to their male peers. The current results indicate that loneliness is an important but complex factor in adolescent drinking. There are important implications for the development of interventions to prevent underage drinking, not least that it is not appropriate to consider all underage drinkers as socially marginalised. However, for those that are, the self-medication hypothesis is potentially relevant through emotional self-efficacy.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.07.003
       
  • Strong preference for mint snus flavor among research participants

    • Authors: Liane M. Schneller; Bruce R. Lindgren; Peter G. Shields; Dorothy K. Hatsukami; Richard J. O'Connor
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Liane M. Schneller, Bruce R. Lindgren, Peter G. Shields, Dorothy K. Hatsukami, Richard J. O'Connor
      Introduction The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 allows the US FDA to regulate tobacco products, including the banning of characterizing flavors, such as fruit and candy, cigarettes. The availability of mint flavored snus may facilitate the use of the product if consumers find it more palatable with respect to taste, odor, pleasantness, and intensity. Methods This study assessed product evaluation (PES), odor identification, odor intensity, and odor hedonics among 151 smokers enrolled in a clinical trial of snus substitution for cigarettes. Results Far more participants selected Winterchill (N=110) than Robust (N=41), regardless of their menthol cigarette smoking status. Nicotine dependence was higher among those who selected Winterchill (4 vs 3 on Fagerstrom scale, p=0.017). Those who found Winterchill to be more satisfying, less aversive, and having a more intense, more pleasant odor than Robust were substantially more likely to select Winterchill for their one week trial. Conclusions Findings indicate that subjective effect measures such as the PES and DEQ are capable of differentiating products in terms of flavor preference, and that smokers express a strong preference for mint flavored snus.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.07.004
       
  • Smartphone addiction, daily interruptions and self-reported productivity

    • Authors: Éilish Duke; Christian Montag
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Éilish Duke, Christian Montag
      The advent of the smartphone has dramatically altered how we communicate, navigate, work and entertain ourselves. While the advantages of this new technology are clear, constant use may also bring negative consequences, such as a loss of productivity due to interruptions in work life. A link between smartphone overuse and loss of productivity has often been hypothesized, but empirical evidence on this question is scarce. The present study addressed this question by collecting self-report data from N =262 participants, assessing private and work-related smartphone use, smartphone addiction and self-rated productivity. Our results indicate a moderate relationship between smartphone addiction and a self-reported decrease in productivity due to spending time on the smartphone during work, as well as with the number of work hours lost to smartphone use. Smartphone addiction was also related to a greater amount of leisure time spent on the smartphone and was strongly related to a negative impact of smartphone use on daily non-work related activities. These data support the idea that tendencies towards smartphone addiction and overt checking of the smartphone could result in less productivity both in the workplace and at home. Results are discussed in relation to productivity and technostress.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T16:25:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.07.002
       
  • Adolescent drinking in different contexts: What behaviors do parents
           control?

    • Authors: Sharon Lipperman-Kreda; Paul J. Gruenewald; Melina Bersamin; Christina F. Mair; Joel W. Grube
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Sharon Lipperman-Kreda, Paul J. Gruenewald, Melina Bersamin, Christina F. Mair, Joel W. Grube
      Previous research suggests that the context in which drinking occurs contribute to specific alcohol-related problems. In the current study we assessed how often adolescents attended different contexts in which they could drink, how often they drank in those contexts, and whether drinking patterns and parental monitoring were related to alcohol use in those contexts. We collected survey data from 1217 adolescents 15–18years of age in 24 midsized California cities. Measures included past-year frequencies of attending and drinking in restaurants, bars/nightclubs, and outdoor places, typical hours spent at home (i.e., own home or someone else's home), perceptions of parental control and disclosure to parents about free time activities, and demographics. Multilevel zero-inflated negative binomial models were used to assess associations between drinking patterns, parental control, and disclosure and frequency of attending and drinking in specific contexts. There were large variations in attending contexts in which drinking could take place. More frequent drinking was related to less time spent at home, while heavier drinking was associated with more time spent at home. Parental control was related to less frequent attendance at bars/nightclubs, and disclosure to less frequent involvement in outdoor activities and spending more time at home. Among drinkers, frequencies of attendance were strongly related to frequencies of drinking in all contexts except the home. Parental control and disclosure were related to more frequent drinking at restaurants and exposure to bars/nightclubs and drinking at outdoor activities. Parental monitoring may reduce exposure to risks by shifting adolescent contexts for alcohol use.

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T18:32:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.05.003
       
  • Is the concept of compulsion useful in the explanation or description of
           addictive behaviour and experience?

    • Authors: Nick Heather
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Nick Heather
      The concept of compulsion, in which addictive behaviour is said to be carried out against the will, is central to the disease theory of addiction and ubiquitous in modern definitions. The aims of this article are: (i) to describe various meanings of compulsion in the literature; (ii) to compare the part thought to be played by compulsion in addiction with its suggested role in obsessive-compulsive disorder; (iii) to critically examine the place of compulsion in influential neurobiological accounts of addiction; (iv) to summarise the empirical evidence bearing on the usefulness of the compulsion concept, evidence that seems at first sight incompatible with the notion of compulsion. This is followed by a discussion of which possible meanings of compulsion can survive an empirical test and what role they might play in understanding addiction, paying particular attention to a distinction between strong and weak senses of compulsion. A conclusion is that addictive behaviour cannot be considered compulsive at the time it is carried out, though other possible meanings of compulsion as an explanation or description of addictive behaviour and experience are discussed. Among other conclusions, it is suggested that, although in some senses of the term it may seem arbitrary whether or not ‘compulsion’ should be retained, its use has important consequences for the public understanding of addiction, and is likely to deter people's attempts to overcome their addictions and their chances of success.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T16:33:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.05.002
       
  • Pharmacogenomics-guided policy in opioid use disorder (OUD) management: An
           ethnically-diverse case-based approach

    • Authors: Edwin Chapman; Earl B. Ettienne; Mary Maneno; Adaku Ofoegbu; Bradford Wilson; Beverlyn Settles-Reaves; Melissa Clarke; Georgia Dunston; Kevin Rosenblatt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Edwin Chapman, Earl B. Ettienne, Mary Maneno, Adaku Ofoegbu, Bradford Wilson, Beverlyn Settles-Reaves, Melissa Clarke, Georgia Dunston, Kevin Rosenblatt
      Introduction Opioid use disorder (OUD) is characterized by a problematic pattern of opioid use leading to clinically-significant impairment or distress. Opioid agonist treatment is an integral component of OUD management, and buprenorphine is often utilized in OUD management due to strong clinical evidence for efficacy. However, interindividual genetic differences in buprenorphine metabolism may result in variable treatment response, leaving some patients undertreated and at increased risk for relapse. Clinical pharmacogenomics studies the effect that inherited genetic variations have on drug response. Our objective is to demonstrate the impact of pharmacogenetic testing on OUD management outcomes. Methods We analyzed a patient who reported discomfort at daily buprenorphine dose of 24mg, which was a mandated daily maximum by the pharmacy benefits manager. Regular urine screenings were conducted to detect the presence of unauthorized substances, and pharmacogenetic testing was used to determine the appropriate dose of buprenorphine for OUD management. Results At the 24mg buprenorphine daily dose, the patient had multiple relapses with unauthorized substances. Pharmacogenetic testing revealed that the patient exhibited a cytochrome P450 3A4 ultrarapid metabolizer phenotype, which necessitated a higher than recommended daily dose of buprenorphine (32mg) for adequate OUD management. The patient exhibited a reduction in the number of relapses on the pharmacogenetic-based dose recommendation compared to standard dosing. Conclusion Pharmacogenomic testing as clinical decision support helped to individualize OUD management. Collaboration by key stakeholders is essential to establishing pharmacogenetic testing as standard of care in OUD management.

      PubDate: 2017-05-10T15:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.05.001
       
  • Alcohol reduction in the first trimester is unrelated to smoking, patient
           or pregnancy characteristics

    • Authors: Kristen A. Schmidt; Andrew J. Lancia; Saad Alvi; Jean C. Aldag
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Kristen A. Schmidt, Andrew J. Lancia, Saad Alvi, Jean C. Aldag
      Introduction Studies show alcohol-preferring mice reduce their alcohol intake during pregnancy; this study questions if the same is true for humans. The current investigation compares women's pre-pregnancy and first trimester alcohol consumption, examines if women with problem drinking diminish their alcohol intake during pregnancy, and determines if prenatal alcohol reduction is associated with characteristics of pregnancy, patients or smoking. Methods 126 participants in weeks 1–12 of pregnancy, recruited from Obstetric and Family Practices, completed a survey during their initial prenatal visit including two gender-specific AUDITs (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Tests) querying current and pre-pregnancy alcohol use. AUDIT-C (AUDIT items 1–3) scores measuring pre-pregnancy and first trimester alcohol consumption were compared, analyzed and tested using general linear model repeated. A p≤0.05 was accepted as significant. Results Most participants were multiparous, Caucasian high school graduates experiencing nausea and vomiting. Pre-pregnancy alcohol use was significantly (p=0.019, Fisher's exact) higher among women seeing obstetricians. Pre-pregnancy AUDIT-C scores (m (mean)=2.22, sd (standard deviation)=2.19) were significantly higher (p<0.001) than first trimester scores (m=0.143, sd=0.532). Among 49 with pre-pregnancy AUDIT-C scores≥3, 45/49 (92%) reduced their alcohol use to zero during the first trimester. Age, race, education, marital status, parity, nausea and vomiting, gestational age and smoking were non-factors in score reduction. Conclusions Women reported reducing their alcohol consumption during pregnancy, including those screening positive for pre-pregnancy problem drinking. First trimester alcohol reduction cannot be accounted for by smoking, patient or pregnancy characteristics; public health initiatives, psychological factors and hormonal mechanisms may be implicated.

      PubDate: 2017-04-29T13:01:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.04.003
       
  • Predicting early onset of intoxication versus drinking—A
           population-based prospective study of Norwegian adolescents

    • Authors: Enstad Willy; Pedersen Wendy Nilsen Tilmann von Soest
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Frøydis Enstad, Willy Pedersen, Wendy Nilsen, Tilmann von Soest
      Aims Recent research suggests that early onset of intoxication (EOI) may be of greater importance for a wide range of subsequent adverse outcomes than early drinking experiences without intoxication. However, research on antecedents of EOI is scarce. The present study identifies predictors of EOI and whether they differ from those of early onset of drinking (EOD). Methods Data was drawn from the prospective Tracking Opportunities and Problems (TOPP) study of Norwegian families (n =382), which followed up mothers and their children with six data collections from childhood (age 1.5) to adolescence (age 14.5). Self-reports from the adolescents (parenting practices, adolescent's conduct problems and friends' deviant behaviour) and their mothers (adolescent temperament, socio-economic factors and household alcohol problems) were used to identify predictors of EOI and EOD. Findings A variety of temperamental, socio-economic, and family factors predicted EOI, whereas EOD was predicted of substantially fewer variables. Particularly, when controlling for relevant covariates, low levels of shyness, own conduct problems and having friends with deviant behaviour prospectively predicted EOI, but not EOD. Conclusions Future research and prevention efforts should take into consideration that EOI and EOD without getting drunk appear to be predicted by different risk factors in childhood and adolescence.

      PubDate: 2017-04-14T20:28:46Z
       
  • Free will in addictive behaviors: A matter of definition

    • Authors: W. Miles Cox; Eric Klinger; Javad Salehi Fadardi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): W. Miles Cox, Eric Klinger, Javad Salehi Fadardi
      Certain people are at risk for using alcohol or other drugs excessively and for developing problems with their use. Their susceptibility might arise from a variety of factors, including their genetic make-up, brain chemistry, family background, personality and other psychological variables, and environmental and sociocultural variables. Moreover, after substance use has become established, there are additional cognitive-motivational variables (e.g., substance-related attentional bias) that contribute to enacting behaviors consistent with the person's motivation to acquire and use the substance. People who are at such risk are likely to choose to use addictive substances even though doing so entails negative consequences. In the sense of complete freedom from being determined by causal factors, we believe that there is no such thing as free will, but defined as ability to make choices from among multiple options, even though the choices are ultimately governed by natural processes, addicted individuals are free to choose. Although they might appear unable to exercise this kind of free will in decisions about their substance use, addictive behaviors are ultimately always goal-directed and voluntary. Such goal pursuits manifest considerable flexibility. Even some severely addicted individuals can cease their use when the value of continuing the use abruptly declines or when the subjective cost of continuing the use is too great with respect to the incentives in other areas of their lives. Formal treatment strategies (e.g., contingency management, Systematic Motivational Counseling, cognitive training) can also be used to facilitate this reversal.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T15:58:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.03.001
       
  • Smoke signals: The decline of brand identity predicts reduced smoking
           behaviour following the introduction of plain packaging

    • Authors: Hugh Webb; Benjamin M. Jones; Kathleen McNeill; Li Lim; Andrew J. Frain; Kerry J. O'Brien; Daniel P. Skorich; Peta Hoffmann; Tegan Cruwys
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Hugh Webb, Benjamin M. Jones, Kathleen McNeill, Li Lim, Andrew J. Frain, Kerry J. O'Brien, Daniel P. Skorich, Peta Hoffmann, Tegan Cruwys
      This study tests a social identity based mechanism for the effectiveness of plain tobacco packaging legislation, introduced in Australia in December 2012, to reduce cigarette smoking. 178 Australian smokers rated their sense of identification with fellow smokers of their brand, positive brand stereotypes, quitting behaviours and intentions, and smoking intensity, both before and seven months after the policy change. Mediation analyses showed that smokers, especially those who initially identified strongly with their brand, experienced a significant decrease in their brand identity following the introduction of plain packaging and this was associated with lower smoking behaviours and increased intentions to quit. The findings provide the first quantitative evidence that brand identities may help maintain smoking behaviour, and suggest the role of social-psychological processes in the effectiveness of public health policy.

      PubDate: 2017-02-19T19:35:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.02.003
       
  • Individual differences in implicit learning abilities and impulsive
           behavior in the context of Internet addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder
           under the consideration of gender

    • Authors: Rayna Sariyska; Bernd Lachmann; Sebastian Markett; Martin Reuter; Christian Montag
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Rayna Sariyska, Bernd Lachmann, Sebastian Markett, Martin Reuter, Christian Montag


      PubDate: 2017-02-12T18:30:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.02.002
       
  • Do addicts have free will? An empirical approach to a vexing question

    • Authors: Gene M. Heyman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Gene M. Heyman
      Introduction This paper addresses two overlapping questions: Do addicts have the capacity to voluntarily quit drugs? And do individuals knowingly pursue courses of action that they realize are bad for them, such as excessive drug use? Methods I propose two testable versions of free will. First, activities that vary as a function of their consequences (e.g., costs and benefits) are widely accepted as voluntary activities. Thus, we can ask if drug use in addicts is susceptible to its consequences. For instance, do laws that promise legal sanctions for drug use reduce drug use in addicts? Second, the philosopher Harry Frankfurt proposed a definition of free will that takes into account desires and self-reflection. I propose that addicts who do not want to desire drugs and successfully stop craving drugs pass his test. Results Dependence on illicit drugs typically ends after about four to six years. Dependence on cigarettes and alcohol persists for much longer, but most smokers and alcoholics eventually voluntarily quit using. Smokers and heroin addicts can voluntarily regulate their drug cravings as a function of the availability of their drug of choice. They have the capacity to pass Frankfurt's test of free will. Conclusions Addicts have free will as defined by the capacity to voluntary quit using drugs and to voluntarily regulate their cravings.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T18:30:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.02.001
       
  • Social determinants of HIV/HCV co-infection: A case study from people who
           inject drugs in rural Puerto Rico

    • Authors: Roberto Abadie; Melissa Welch-Lazoritz; Khan Bilal; Kirk Dombrowski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Roberto Abadie, Melissa Welch-Lazoritz, Khan Bilal, Kirk Dombrowski


      PubDate: 2017-02-05T17:24:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.01.004
       
  • Addiction, cigarette smoking, and voluntary control of action: Do
           cigarette smokers lose their free will?

    • Authors: Roy F. Baumeister
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Roy F. Baumeister
      Opinions differ widely as to whether addicts lose the ability to control their behavior and employ free will. This article reviews empirical findings regarding multiple questions relevant to the issue of free will among addicted smokers: Is smoking voluntary behavior? Can people quit smoking? Why don't people quit smoking? Why do smokers relapse when they try to quit? Do addicted smokers suffer from irresistible cravings? Are there some people who cannot quit? Are there conditions that make resistance impossible? Why would they smoke knowing it can kill them? The evidence reviewed here seems most consistent with the view that smokers retain control over their actions but cannot easily stop having frequent desires to smoke.

      PubDate: 2017-01-30T07:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.01.003
       
  • Ordinary people associate addiction with loss of free will

    • Authors: Andrew J. Vonasch; Cory J. Clark; Stephan Lau; Kathleen D. Vohs; Roy F. Baumeister
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Andrew J. Vonasch, Cory J. Clark, Stephan Lau, Kathleen D. Vohs, Roy F. Baumeister
      Introduction It is widely believed that addiction entails a loss of free will, even though this point is controversial among scholars. There is arguably a downside to this belief, in that addicts who believe they lack the free will to quit an addiction might therefore fail to quit an addiction. Methods A correlational study tested the relationship between belief in free will and addiction. Follow-up studies tested steps of a potential mechanism: 1) people think drugs undermine free will 2) people believe addiction undermines free will more when doing so serves the self 3) disbelief in free will leads people to perceive various temptations as more addictive. Results People with lower belief in free will were more likely to have a history of addiction to alcohol and other drugs, and also less likely to have successfully quit alcohol. People believe that drugs undermine free will, and they use this belief to self-servingly attribute less free will to their bad actions than to good ones. Low belief in free will also increases perceptions that things are addictive. Conclusions Addiction is widely seen as loss of free will. The belief can be used in self-serving ways that may undermine people's efforts to quit.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T08:20:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.01.002
       
  • Hangover resistance in a Canadian University student population

    • Authors: L. Darren Kruisselbrink; Adriana C. Bervoets; Suzanne de Klerk; Aurora J.A.E. van de Loo; Joris C. Verster
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): L. Darren Kruisselbrink, Adriana C. Bervoets, Suzanne de Klerk, Aurora J.A.E. van de Loo, Joris C. Verster
      Background Resistance to alcohol hangover may be a risk factor for alcohol use disorder. Previous research to establish the prevalence of hangover resistance in a drinking population has either not used comparable intoxication levels or has considered hangover resistance over a limited time frame. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of lifetime hangover negative (LHN) drinkers across comparable eBAC values ranging from 0 to 500mg/dl. Methods Students at an eastern Canadian university were surveyed about their heaviest drinking episode in the past month and indicated whether they had ever experienced a hangover in their lifetime (LHN) and, if they had, the hangover severity they experienced the next day. eBACs were calculated and the percentage of LHN drinkers was computed at each 10mg/dl eBAC increment from 0 to 500mg/dl. Results Most LHN drinkers (58% female, 71% male) had an eBAC on their heaviest drinking occasion below 80mg/dl. Above eBACs of 80mg/dl, 5.8% of female and 5.1% of male drinkers were lifetime hangover negative. Conclusions The results suggest that only a small percentage of heavy drinkers lay claim to being lifetime hangover negative.

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T23:14:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.01.001
       
 
 
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