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Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
4 open     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AboutOpen     Open Access  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access  
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Científica Estudiantil     Open Access  
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Herediana     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access  
Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)     Open Access  
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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Acta Medica International     Open Access  
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Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
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Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
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Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acupuncture and Natural Medicine     Open Access  
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / Health Sciences Journal of Adıyaman University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell and Gene Therapy     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Advances in Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
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Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access  
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Skeletal Muscle Function Assessment     Open Access  
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Thoracic and Critical Care Medicine     Open Access  
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AJOB Empirical Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AJSP: Reviews & Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ALERTA : Revista Científica del Instituto Nacional de Salud     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Althea Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Anatomica Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ankara Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası     Open Access  
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Clinical Hypertension     Open Access  
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Annals of Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives Medical Review Journal / Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi     Open Access  
Archives of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology     Open Access  
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access  
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASHA Leader     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  

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Addictive Behaviors Reports
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.755
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 9  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2352-8532
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Effect of Hypnotic Suggestion on Cognition and Craving in Smokers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 November 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Bollinger J.W., Beadling C.W., Waters A.JAbstractCigarette smoking remains an important public health concern, and novel smoking cessation interventions are needed. Craving for cigarettes is a well-established target for intervention. Recent research has identified cognitive processes associated with craving, such as attentional bias to smoking cues, as targets for intervention. One intervention that may be effective in reducing attentional bias is hypnotic suggestion. Using a counterbalanced within-subjects design in a sample of active smokers (N=33), this laboratory study examined if hypnotic suggestion can modify attention, assessed by the classic and smoking Stroop tasks, and craving. Hypnotic susceptibility was assessed using the Stanford Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility. There was no evidence that hypnotic susceptibility moderated the effect of hypnotic suggestion on the classic or smoking Stroop effects. However, hypnotic susceptibility did moderate the effect of hypnotic suggestion on craving, such that hypnotic suggestion reduced craving in individuals with high levels of susceptibility. Further research into the mechanisms by which hypnotic suggestion reduces craving is warranted.
  • Sources of youth access to JUUL vaping products in the United States

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Neil McKeganey, Christopher Russell, Evangelos Katsampouris, Farhana HaseenAbstractI*ntroductionThis study assessed sources of youth access to JUUL vaping products, the highest selling brand of the most commonly used tobacco product among adolescents in the United States.MethodsA cross-sectional online survey assessed use of JUUL vaping products in a non-probability, nationally representative sample of 9,865 adolescents aged 13-17 years in the United States. Past 30-day JUUL users (n = 1,537) were asked how they got the JUUL vaping products they had used in the past 30-days. Those who reported having bought JUUL products themselves were asked about the places and people from whom they had bought products. Population-weighted percentages and 95% confidence intervals are reported for each source of access.ResultsAn estimated 79.6% (95% CI = 77.5% to 81.6%) of current JUUL users obtained JUUL products from at least one social source (e.g. ‘someone bought for me, someone offered to me) in the past 30 days. By comparison, 20.0% [95% CI = 18.0% to 22.0%) of current users bought JUUL products themselves. Of 1,322 youth who reported obtaining JUUL products from at least one source or by buying products themselves in the past 30 days, 77.5% (95% CI = 75.3% to 79.8%) had obtained JUUL products exclusively from social sources (i.e. they did not buy products directly), 17.2% (95% CI = 15.2% to 19.3%) obtained JUUL products exclusively by buying the products themselves (i.e. they did not obtain products from any social sources), and 5.2% (95% CI = 4.0% to 6.4%) had obtained JUUL products both from social sources and from buying the products themselves. Among youth who bought JUUL products themselves, the most common place of purchase was ‘a gas station or convenience store’ [53.1% (95% CI = 47.5% to 58.6%)].ConclusionsYouth who are currently using JUUL vaping products obtain these products predominantly through social sources, such as friends and peers. Youth sources of access to JUUL vaping products appear to mirror youth sources of access to other tobacco products. Reducing youth use of JUUL vaping products will require a greater focus on measures that deter or penalize legal-age purchasers who give or sell products to minors.
  • Implementation of a contingency approach for people with co-occurring
           substance use and psychiatric disorders: acceptability and feasibility
           pilot study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Bianief Tchiloemba, Julie J. Desrosiers, Rositsa Boyadjieva, Didier Jutras-AswadAbstractIntroductionThe prevalence of co-occurrent substance use and psychiatric disorders is high. Contingency-based interventions have been shown to be effective in promoting adherence to treatment for people with substance use disorders but are among the least used evidence-based interventions for clients with comorbid psychiatric disorders, related to acceptability issues.ObjectiveThe present implementation study aims to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of a contingency approach in co-occurring disorders specialized treatment services.MethodologyFocus groups were conducted with health professionals and service users recruited from a specialized co-occurring disorder program (COD). Pre-intervention focus groups were conducted to select preferred modalities to implement the program. Post-intervention focus groups were conducted to document the satisfaction and benefits of the intervention. Throughout the study, program monitoring was conducted systematically to determine the gaps between planned and actual interventions.ResultsBoth health professionals consulted and service users agreed that the contingency approach could be integrated within usual co-occurring disorders treatment. In general, patients more readily accepted the contingency approach than health professionals. The higher functioning level group reported several benefits from the approach and implementation in its group sessions went as planned. Contingency approach was described by all participants as consistent with general treatment goals and led to patient’s awareness about their group attendance.ConclusionThis study highlights several challenges related to the implementation of a contingency approach. It also suggests that implementation of this approach could benefit from taking into account the needs and perspectives of service users.
  • On the Prevalence of Addicted or Problematic Gaming in Finland

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Veli-Matti Karhulahti, Raine KoskimaaAbstractWe bring attention to a notable unreported “gaming addiction” or “problem gaming” prevalence data set that adds significantly to both the DSM-5’s call for further Internet Gaming Disorder research as well as many other scientific encouragements for more wide-ranging reports on the topic.
  • Pilot study: Improving attention bias modification of alcohol cues through
           concealed gaze-contingent feedback in alcohol dependence

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Timo L. Kvamme, Mads U. Pedersen, Morten Overgaard, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Valerie VoonAbstractIn an attempt to improve attention bias modification (ABM), we tested whether an attentional training protocol which featured monetary operant conditioning of eye-gaze to avoid alcohol stimuli in alcohol-dependent patients could reduce attention, craving and relapse to alcohol. We employed a pilot randomized control trial (RCT) with 21 detoxified alcohol dependent patients (48.9±10 years of age, 9 male) from an inpatient and outpatient treatment centre. The novel operant concealed conditioning paradigm provided monetary reinforcements or punishments respective to eye-gaze patterns towards neutral or towards alcohol stimuli along with an 80% probability of a to-be-detected probe appearing following neutral stimuli (ET-ABM group). Patients in the control-group received random monetary feedback and a 50/50 ABM contingency. We compared AB on trained and untrained stimuli and addiction severity measures of obsessive thoughts and desires to alcohol following training. We further assessed addiction severity and relapse outcome at a 3-month follow-up. Results indicate that this form of attentional retraining only worked for the trained stimuli and did not generalize to untrained stimuli or to addiction severity measures or relapse outcome. Potential explanations for lack of generalization include the low sample size and imbalances on important prognostic variables between the active-group and control-group. We discuss progress and challenges for further research on cognitive training using eye-tracking based feedback.
  • Associations between self-esteem and smoking and excessive alcohol
           consumption in the UK: a cross-sectional study using the BBC UK Lab

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Szinay Dorothy, Tombor Ildiko, Garnett Claire, Boyt Neil, West RobertAbstractIntroductionThere is mixed evidence regarding the associations between self-esteem and smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. This study aimed to investigate whether self-esteem is associated with smoking status and alcohol consumption in a large sample of adults in the United Kingdom after adjusting for age, sex, socio-economic status and depressed mood.MethodsDesign: Cross-sectional correlational study conducted under the aegis of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) between 2009 and 2013.Participants: 187,398 respondents (67.9% female) with a mean age of 32.82 years (SD=12.41) providing complete data.Setting: UK.MeasuresOnline self-report questionnaire. The outcomes were smoking status (current smoker, ever smoker) and alcohol consumption (current drinker, excessive drinker); the input variable was self-esteem measured using a Single Item Self-Esteem Scale; covariates were age, sex, SES, and depressed mood measured using a single item question.ResultsThe odds of being an ever smoker and a current smoker were greater in people with lower self-esteem (AdjOR 0.97; 95% CI 0.95-0.99, Cohen’s d=-0.02; and AdjOR 0.96; 95% CI 0.94-0.99, Cohen’s d=-0.02 respectively). The odds of being a current drinker were lower in people with lower self-esteem (AdjOR 1.20, 95% CI 1.17-1.24, Cohen’s d=0.10) while being an excessive drinker was associated with lower self-esteem (β=-0.13, p
  • Positive urgency partially mediates the relationship between childhood
           adversity and problems associated with substance use in an undergraduate

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Nayani Ramakrishnan, Matthew McPhee, Alexandra Sosnowski, Vinitaa Rajasingaam, Suzanne ErbAbstractBackgroundChildhood adversity predicts the development of substance use problems in young adulthood. Building on past work examining the mediating role of impulsivity in the relationship between childhood maltreatment and substance use in alcohol and nicotine users, this study examined the relationship with other substances in a representative undergraduate sample. In addition, the study aimed to determine whether there was convergence in findings between different measures of childhood adversity and impulsivity.Method309 undergraduate students completed self-report questionnaires assessing childhood adversity (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire – CTQ; Adverse Childhood Experience Scale – ACE), impulsivity (Short UPPS-P; Barratt Impulsivity Scale – BIS-11) and problems associated with substance use (Drug Abuse Screening Test – DAST-10).ResultsThe SUPPS-P positive urgency facet partially mediated the relationship between CTQ and DAST-10 (b = 0.0039, 95% CI [0.0008, 0.0086]), as well as between ACE and DAST-10 (b = 0.015, 95% CI [0.0014, 0.0446]). The BIS-11 motor facet partially mediated the effect of CTQ on DAST-10 (b = 0.0017, 95% CI [0.0002, 0.0054]).ConclusionPositive urgency partially mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and substance use problems for both the CTQ and ACE. While these results are consistent with past studies showing a selective mediation effect of positive urgency in a sample of young adults, they are inconsistent with those showing a selective mediation effect of negative urgency in a sample of heavy drinkers. Together, these findings suggest that the relationship between childhood adversity, impulsivity, and substance use-related problems may be influenced by experience.
  • Hallucinogen Use is Associated with Mental Health and Addictive Problems
           and Impulsivity in University Students

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Jon E. Grant, Katherine Lust, Samuel R. ChamberlainAbstractBackgroundThis study examined the prevalence of hallucinogen use in a large sample of university students and its associations with mental health issues.Methods9,449 students received a 156-item anonymous online survey, which assessed the use of hallucinogens (ever or past year), alcohol and drug use, mental health issues, and impulsive and compulsive traits. Group differences were characterized using statistical tests (p values reported uncorrected, but only regarded as significant if surviving Bonferroni correction).Results3,525 university students (57.7% female) responded to the survey. The prevalence of past 12-month hallucinogen use in the sample was 4.7%, with an additional 6.4% reporting having used more than 12 months ago. Hallucinogen use was associated with the use of multiple other drugs (e.g., alcohol, opiates) (each p
  • Who is using and why: Prevalence and perceptions of using and not using
           electronic cigarettes in a statewide survey of adults

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Raymond G. Boyle, Sara Richter, Sharrilyn HelgertzAbstractThis statewide survey examined prevalence, reasons for using, discontinuing use, and not wanting to try e-cigarettes.MethodsParticipants (n=6052) were adult Minnesota residents. E-cigarette initiation and current use prevalence rates were calculated for demographic characteristics and smoking status. The percent of respondents endorsing a reason for trying e-cigarettes are reported overall and by smoking status. The percent of respondents endorsing each reason for discontinuing or not using e-cigarettes are reported for daily and occasional smokers. All descriptive analyses were weighted. To develop profiles of e-cigarette users, a latent class analysis (LCA) was undertaken.ResultsOverall, 20.7% of adults reported ever use and 4.6% were current users. Use varied notably by age and smoking status. Only 2.8% of never smokers were current e-cigarette users. Among young adults, 14.6% reported current use but most (70.0%) were never smokers. The reasons given for using e-cigarettes varied by smoking status. Curiosity was the top reason for all groups except recent former smokers, for whom cutting down or quitting other tobacco products was primary. Most smokers discontinuing e-cigarettes preferred cigarettes, and four-fifths of smokers who never tried e-cigarettes lacked interest. From the LCA four profiles were evident: young adult experimenters, curious adults, smokers trying to quit cigarettes, and dual users.ConclusionsInnovative higher nicotine content devices have sustained interest in e-cigarettes especially among young adults and smokers with a goal of cutting down or quitting smoking. Future regulations and communication should focus on reducing e-cigarette use among young adult nonsmokers.
  • Beer Advertisements and Adolescent Drinking Knowledge, Expectancies, and

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Douglas A. Gentile, Brooke J. Arterberry, Patrick K. Bender, Kristi A. CostabileAbstractObjective(1) To examine the degree to which overall beer advertising expenditure is related to youth brand awareness, preferences, and drinking behavior, and (2) to use multiple methods, including individual brand awareness and expectancies, to gain a broader understanding of the true effects of alcohol advertising on youth alcohol-related expectancies and behavior.MethodMixed psychological and advertising methods were used to examine how beer advertising is related to adolescents’ beer brand awareness, expectancies, and behavior. 1,588 7th-12th graders were surveyed in two states.ResultsThe amount of money spent advertising beer brands was positively correlated with adolescents’ brand awareness, preference, use, and loyalty behavior (all correlations above .65). Moreover, beer advertising-related variables predicted adolescents’ intention to drink and actual alcohol consumption, independent of peer and parent alcohol-related behavior and attitudes.ConclusionsThe results show that overall levels of advertising expenditures were strong predictors of adolescents’ beer brand awareness, preferences, use, and brand loyalty. Moreover, advertising-related variables were substantial predictors of adolescents’ intention to drink as an adult and current underage drinking behavior. Together, the present findings suggest that previous work may have underestimated the relationship between alcohol advertising and adolescents’ drinking behavior.
  • A Retrospective Study of the Role of Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics
           in Preventing Rehospitalization in Early Psychosis with Cannabis Use

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Emily Rozin, Vivek Vanaharam, Dale D'Mello, Scott Palazollo, Cathy AdamsAbstractBackgroundDespite compelling evidence that cannabis use is associated with neurocognitive deficits, loss of cerebral gray matter, relapse and rehospitalization, a substantial number of individuals with early psychosis continue to use recreational or medicinal marijuana. One identified pathway to relapse is non-adherence. Recurrent relapses modify the trajectory of illness and culminate in long-term disability. Long-acting antipsychotic medications are superior to oral equivalents in preventing relapse.PurposeThe current paper sought to examine the role of long-acting antipsychotics in preventing relapse in cannabis using early psychosis patients.MethodsThe present retrospective study, which was based in an early psychosis program in mid-Michigan, examined the association between patient perceptions of antipsychotic medication and subsequent rehospitalization, among cannabis users (n=244) and non-users (n=27). Patient perceptions of antipsychotic medications were assessed using a single question from the NAVIGATE Patient Self-Rating Form: “Between now and your next visit, do you think we should keep your medication the same, or consider changing the medication'”.ResultsCannabis users were substantially more likely to report dissatisfaction with antipsychotic medication (Pearson Chi-square 9.67, df=1.0, p
  • Pilot Study to Inform Young Adults About the Risks of Electronic
           Cigarettes Through Text Messaging

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Karen S. Calabro, Georges E. Khalil, Minxing Chen, Cheryl L. Perry, Alexander V. ProkhorovAbstractIntroductionYoung adults are rapidly adopting electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use. The popularity of e-cigarettes among young people can be attributed to heavy industry advertising and misleading health claims. Data indicate that young e-cigarette users who have never used conventional cigarettes may transition toward smoking combustible cigarettes. Communicating e-cigarette risks via text messaging is limited. This pilot study assessed the impact of exposure to 16 text messages on e-cigarette knowledge and risk perception. The short text messages delivered to participants conveyed e-cigarette use may lead to addiction to nicotine and explained the latest health-related findings.MethodsA two-group randomized pretest and posttest study was conducted among 95 racially, ethnically diverse young adults recruited from vocational training programs. Fifty percent of participants were randomized to receive either gain- or loss-framed messages. Knowledge and risk perceptions about e-cigarettes and tobacco use were assessed pre- and post-message exposure.ResultsParticipants had a mean age of 20.8 years, SD=1.7. Current use of e-cigarettes was reported by 10.5% (10/95) and 27.4% (26/95) used a variety of other tobacco products. Findings revealed significant increases in knowledge about e-cigarettes after exposure to the messages (range for ps: p < 04 to p < .0001). A statistically significant increase in perceived e-cigarette risk was found post-exposure (p =.002). Participants randomized to gain-framed messages reported a significantly higher perceived risk of using e-cigarettes post-exposure than did those who received loss-framed messages (p =.02).ConclusionsThis was a small-scale pilot requiring additional evidence to support the effectiveness of text messaging for increasing e-cigarette knowledge and risk perception. Future research may apply text messages to test new ways to educate young populations about tobacco use and consider addressing these messages to specific subgroups at high risk of use such as non-college bound young adults.
  • Exploring online problem gamblers' motivation to change

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Ayna B. Johansen, Pål Fylling Helland, Dag K. Wennesland, Edmund Henden, Håvar BrendryenAbstractBackgroundIn order to improve interventions for problem gambling, there is a need for studies that can highlight psychological factors that support the desire to reduce gambling.ObjectiveTo explore online problem gamblers' motivation for change by studying participants' reactions to an online treatment referral website designed to motivate at-risk gamblers to seek help.DesignA qualitative evaluation study, combining focus groups and in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using the general inductive approach.InformantsThe informants included 19 male, treatment- and non-treatment seeking, online gamblers who played a variety of games, including poker, sports betting and online casino.ResultsMotivation to change emerged as two processes including (a) empathy with others, which included projection of their thoughts and feelings onto others, and (b) dissonance between gambling behavior and ideal self-image. Dissonance included two subthemes: (i) dissonance due to positive feelings towards sports and athletics, and (ii) dissonance due to gambling among family.ConclusionsThe findings have implications for interventions designed to evoke motivation early in treatment of online problem gambling. Inducing problem gamblers to reflect on the thoughts and feelings of concerned significant others, real or fictional, could be a viable strategy to motivate online problem gamblers to consider change.
  • Effects of e-cigarettes versus nicotine replacement therapy on short-term
           smoking abstinence when delivered at a community pharmacy

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Sharon Cox, Lynne Dawkins, Jay Doshi, James CameronAbstractE-cigarettes (EC) are now the most popular quit aid in England but their effectiveness for cessation if offered at a pharmacy has not been tested. Here we test the effectiveness of offering an e-cigarette with and without nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) on 4–6-week quit rates in adult smokers seeking support from a community pharmacy. A between subject, six-week, prospective, cohort design. 115 smokers (female = 74; M age = 46.37, SD = 13.56) chose either an EC, EC + NRT or NRT alone, alongside standard behavioural support. Smokers opting for an EC alone or an EC + NRT were more likely to report complete abstinence from smoking at 4–6 weeks (62.2% and 61.5% respectively) compared to NRT alone (34.8%). An EC intervention was significantly more effective for smoking cessation than NRT in this community pharmacy. The results for e-cigarettes appear positive but with the caveat that participants chose their own products which may have introduced bias.
  • Tackling smoking among out of school youth in South Africa: An analysis of
           friendship ties

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): R. Desai, R.A.C. Ruiter, J. Schepers, S.P. Reddy, L.A.G. MerckenAbstractBackgroundFriendships during adolescence play a significant role in the initiation and maintenance of tobacco use. Smoking behaviour among adolescent friends has not been explored among out of school youth (OSY) in South Africa. Out of school youth (OSY), described as those between 13 and 20 years old, have not completed their schooling and are not currently enrolled in school, are at greater risk for tobacco use.AimThe main aim of this study is to examine whether the smoking behaviour of OSY is associated with that of their OSY friends.MethodsRespondent driven sampling was used to recruit OSY and their OSY friends. A mixed effects logistic regression with a random intercept across school-province combinations was used to analyse survey data. Race and gender were also incorporated into the analyses as effect moderators (n = 391).ResultsResults of this study confirm that cigarette smoking was common among OSY and their OSY friends, with 53.5% of the respondents smoking in the past month (SD = 0.44). When OSY friends were either all non-smokers or half their friends were non-smokers, Coloured (mixed race) OSY were less likely to smoke compared to Black African and Other (mostly Asian descent) OSY.ConclusionCultural norms and values associated with the different race groups may play a role in the smoking behaviour of out of school youth friends. Understanding this relationship is useful for identifying those OSY that are vulnerable to the behaviours that place them at risk of tobacco related morbidity and mortality.
  • Sensitivity to reward and punishment and alcohol outcomes: Metacognition
           as a moderator

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Rebecca E. Sistad, Raluca M. Simons, Jeffrey S. SimonsAbstractIntroductionThe purpose of this study was to examine associations between inhibitory (sensitivity to punishment [SP], adaptive metacognition) and facilitatory (sensitivity to reward [SR], maladaptive metacognition) factors of alcohol consumption and problems among young adults.MethodsThree hundred fifty-five young adults (ages 18–25, 61% female) recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk and a large public midwestern university in the United States self-administered a Web survey. Two multiple regression models were tested.ResultsSR significantly moderated the effects of SP and the maladaptive metacognition (MC) subscale Uncontrollability/Danger on alcohol consumption. Alcohol problems were also significantly predicted by SR and Uncontrollability/Danger. The interaction between SR and SP on alcohol problems was conditional upon levels of the maladaptive MC subscale Lack of Cognitive Confidence, with a significant moderating effect only at high levels of Lack of Cognitive Confidence.ConclusionsConsistent with the literature, individuals with high levels of SR coupled with low SP are at risk for increased alcohol consumption. This effect on drinking behaviors is further influenced by maladaptive MC, such that individuals characterized by high SR and low SP are significantly more likely to report more alcohol-related problems if they believe that worrying is dangerous and uncontrollable or lack cognitive confidence; however as SP increases, this effect significantly diminishes.
  • Internet addiction disorder detection of Chinese college students using
           several personality questionnaire data and support vector machine

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Zonglin Di, Xiaoliang Gong, Jingyu Shi, Hosameldin O.A. Ahmed, Asoke K. NandiAbstractWith the unprecedented development of the Internet, it also brings the challenge of Internet Addiction (IA), which is hard to diagnose and cure according to the state-of-art research. In this study, we explored the feasibility of machine learning methods to detect IA. We acquired a dataset consisting of 2397 Chinese college students from the University (Age: 19.17 ± 0.70, Male: 64.17%) who completed Brief Self Control Scale (BSCS), the 11th version of Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), Chinese Big Five Personality Inventory (CBF-PI) and Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS), where CBF-PI includes five sub-features (Openness, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism) and BSCS includes three sub-features (Attention, Motor and Non-planning). We applied Student's t-test on the dataset for feature selection and Support Vector Machines (SVMs) including C-SVM and ν-SVM with grid search for the classification and parameters optimization. This work illustrates that SVM is a reliable method for the assessment of IA and questionnaire data analysis. The best detection performance of IA is 96.32% which was obtained by C-SVM in the 6-feature dataset without normalization. Finally, the BIS-11, BSCS, Motor, Neuroticism, Non-planning, and Conscientiousness are shown to be promising features for the detection of IA.
  • The potential individual- and population-level benefits of encouraging
           drinkers to count their drinks

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Catherine F. Drane, Michelle I. Jongenelis, Penelope Hasking, Simone PettigrewAbstractIntroductionCross-sectional studies have established a link between overall engagement in protective behavioral strategies (PBSs) and reduced alcohol consumption. However, there are mixed results on the effectiveness of individual PBSs, with some found to result in increased consumption. A recent study examining the effects of PBS use over time found the ‘Count your drinks’ strategy to be most reliably associated with reduced alcohol consumption among 16 strategies. Given the apparent superior efficacy of this PBS, this exploratory study aimed to extend these results by (i) determining the extent to which increasing the frequency of PBS enactment is associated with alcohol consumption over time and (ii) predicting potential changes in population-level consumption resulting from higher levels of PBS use.Method1250 drinkers aged 18–70 years provided data at two time points relating to their drinking practices. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to model the relationship between changes in frequency of enactment of the ‘Count your drinks’ PBS and alcohol consumption. Coefficients were used to predict average reductions in alcohol consumption over one year associated with increased frequency of use of this PBS.ResultsLarger increases in the frequency of using the ‘Count your drinks’ PBS were associated with greater reductions in alcohol consumption. Exploratory extrapolation analyses demonstrated the potential for substantial reductions in overall alcohol consumption.ConclusionThe results suggest health promotion efforts designed to increase the frequency with which drinkers count their drinks could produce substantial annual decreases in alcohol consumption at both individual and population levels.
  • Cognitive mechanism of intimate interpersonal relationships and loneliness
           in internet-addicts: An ERP study

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Juan Hou, Yingying Jiang, Shuangyi Chen, Yingying Hou, Jingyi Wu, Ning Fan, Xiaoyi FangAbstractInterpersonal relationship and loneliness are important factors affecting internet addictive behavior of individuals. In the present study, we investigated intimate interpersonal relationships and loneliness in internet-addicts. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) of 32 internet addicts and 32 non internet-addicts. Participants viewed intimate-/conflict-relationship, happy/lonely, and neutral images. Results concerning attention probes showed that the accuracy rate of attention probes of internet-addicts was significantly lower than that of non internet-addicts; whereas, there was no significant difference in the reaction time of attention probes. Moreover, the differences in the mean amplitude and latency of P1, N1, N2P3, and LPP between internet-addicts and non internet-addicts were insignificant. Then, we found that the P1 amplitude of conflict images was significantly higher than that of intimate images among non internet-addicts; whereas internet-addicts indicated an insignificant difference between the two types of images. The P1 amplitude of lonely images was significantly higher than that of happy images among internet-addicts, but non internet-addicts were insignificant. The questionnaire data also obtained similar conclusions based on the EEG data. Finally, internet-addicts reported significantly higher loneliness scores than those of non internet-addicts. These results suggested that the social cognitive function of internet-addicts was probably impaired, especially in the cognition of interpersonal conflict. Furthermore, internet-addicts are likely to keep poor interpersonal relationships, which may induce more loneliness.
  • Assessing likelihood of product use for snus with modified-risk
           information among adult current cigarette smokers, former tobacco users,
           and never tobacco users

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Karen Gerlach, Saul Shiffman, Deena Battista, Michael Polster, Geoffrey CurtinAbstractIntroductionSwitching from cigarettes to snus by smokers unlikely to quit would be expected to benefit overall population health, with any potential benefit needing to be weighed against potential harms from snus use by tobacco non-users and smokers likely to quit. This study evaluates likelihood of snus use among tobacco users and non-users provided modified-risk information.MethodsAn online sample of 11,302 U.S. adults was randomized to view advertisements for snus that either provided modified-risk information or only described snus. Intent to purchase ratings were converted to projected purchase (use) rates using an empirically derived algorithm.ResultsProjected product use for snus was significantly higher among current smokers than former or never tobacco users (p 
  • Youth peer crowds and risk of cigarette use: The effects of dual peer
           crowd identification among hip hop youth

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Mario A. Navarro, Carolyn A. Stalgaitis, Matthew W. Walker, Dana E. WagnerAbstractIntroductionRecent research has found that the Hip Hop peer crowd has a strong link to risky health behaviors, including tobacco use. The current study expands on previous research on the Hip Hop peer crowd by investigating the nuances of the effects on cigarette risk that Hip Hop identification has in combination with other peer crowds.MethodsTargeted social media advertisements were used to recruit youth to complete an online survey. Participants (n = 4681) self-reported peer crowd identification via the I-Base Survey™, and cigarette smoking status. Smoking status was compared between peer crowd groups consisting of participants who had identification with only one peer crowd, and those who had identification with the Hip Hop peer crowd and one other crowd (i.e., Hip Hop dual peer crowd identification).ResultsSignificant differences in cigarette status were observed among the dual and single peer crowd groups. Specifically, differences in cigarette Non-susceptible Non-triers and Experimenters demonstrated that youth who identified as Mainstream Only were at lowest risk while youth who identified as Hip Hop/Alternative had the highest rates of cigarette experimentation. There were no differences between peer crowd groups on proportions of Susceptible Non-triers.ConclusionsExamining dual peer crowd identifications provides a nuanced understanding of risk. Dual identification with Hip Hop seems to have differential effects compared to solo identification with other crowds, whereby Hip Hop identification may increase cigarette experimentation when combined with another peer crowd. Findings demonstrate the potential of considering multiple peer crowd identification to inform public education campaign development.
  • Positive alcohol expectancies and injunctive drinking norms in drinking to
           cope motives and alcohol use among older adults

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Tomorrow D. Wilson, Linda Ann Wray, Rob J. TurrisiAbstractBackgroundStudies indicate older adults have increased risk for alcohol-related harms (e.g., risk for falls) that can manifest at lower levels of consumption than younger adults. Specifically, age-related changes in alcohol metabolism, physiology, increased morbidity, and potential interactions with medications to manage chronic conditions increases risk for related harms among older adults.PurposeThe present study used cross-sectional data to examine the associations between drinking to cope motives and positive alcohol expectancies, and injunctive drinking norms in older adults. We also explored the interaction between drinking to cope, positive expectancies and injunctive drinking norms on alcohol use.MethodsAdults aged 65 and older (N = 98) completed a series of measures assessing drinking to cope motives, positive alcohol expectancies, injunctive drinking norms, and past-month alcohol use.ResultsPositive alcohol expectancies were positively associated with drinking to cope motives. Drinking norms were not associated with coping motives. Moderating effects of expectancies varied on the link between coping motives and alcohol use. Greater endorsement of coping motives was associated with more alcohol consumption but only for those with low expectancies.ConclusionsBetter understanding of the complex interplay between drinking to cope motives, positive expectancies, and injunctive drinking norms of proximal as well as distal referents could foster improvement of clinical assessments to screen for risk factors of alcohol abuse and promote development of more age-salient measures of alcohol expectancies, norms, and motives.
  • Leisure activity and alcohol use among Ukrainian adolescents

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Nicholas Hryhorczuk, Alexander Zvinchuk, Zoreslava Shkiriak-Nyzhnyk, Nicole Gonzales, Daniel HryhorczukAbstractThe aim of this paper was to investigate associations between engagement in various types of leisure activity and alcohol use among Ukrainian adolescents. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1075 adolescents who were enrolled in the Family and Children of Ukraine birth cohort study using a self-administered questionnaire to determine how they prefer to spend their leisure time and their use of alcohol. Use of social media was associated with a higher risk of ever having used alcohol (OR = 2.11; 95%CI: [1.40–3.19]), used alcohol in the past 12 months (OR = 2.60; 95%CI [1.73–3.90]), and used alcohol in the past 30 days (OR = 2.35; 95%CI [1.50–3.70]). Visiting entertainment establishments (discos, recreation centers) was associated with a higher risk of ever used alcohol (OR = 1.84; 95%CI [1.33–2.56]), used alcohol in the past 12 months (OR = 2.09 95%CI (1.52–2.87), and used alcohol in the past 30 days (OR = 2.29; 95%CI [1.65–3.17]). Reading books was protective against using alcohol in the past 12 months (OR = 0.59; 95%CI [0.42–0.82] and the past 30 days (OR = 0.47; 95%CI [0.35–0.63]). Engaging in cultural leisure activities was protective against alcohol use in the past 30 days (OR = 0.72; 95% CI [0.54–0.95]). We conclude that among Ukrainian adolescents, engagement in sports, social media use and visiting entertainment establishments are associated with increased risk for alcohol use while reading books and engaging in cultural leisure activities are protective.
  • Stories of courage in a group of adults with Substance Use Disorder

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Ilaria Di Maggio, Sara Santilli, Laura NotaAbstractThe treatment for drug addiction is considered a difficult path for the most of patients. As matter of fact, individuals with Substance Use Disorder (SUD) experience numerous challenges before, during and after the treatment (e.g. tackling an unpredictable, uncertain and paradoxically negative future, tackling the anxiety and anticipatory fear of physical pain associated with abstinence; decide to go beyond self-justification and self-deception). Courage could be considered a positive and functional resource to help people with SUD to face challenges and difficulties related to treatment. In connection therewith, the aim of this study was to examine, using an embedded mix method analysis, the personal stories of courage of 80 individuals with SUD in order to identify the themes and types of courage used in their life. The analysis carried out showed that individuals with SUD reported more frequently stories of courage related to their SUD condition respect to other life situation. Moreover, the quantitative analysis showed that participants used more frequently psychological courage respect to moral and physical courage when these stories were referred to their SUD condition then other life situations.
  • Cognitive performance and mood after a normal night of drinking: A
           naturalistic alcohol hangover study in a non-student sample

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Lydia E. Devenney, Kieran B. Coyle, Joris C. VersterAbstractAimsThe alcohol hangover is typically investigated in student samples. However, alcohol hangovers are also reported by non-student drinkers, beyond the age and drinking behaviors of a student sample. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a normal night of alcohol consumption on next-day cognitive performance in a non-student sample.MethodsParticipants (N = 45) were recruited from a public drinking setting and participated in a naturalistic study comprising of a hangover test day and alcohol-free control day. On each test day, mood and hangover severity were assessed and participants completed a cognitive test battery consisting of a Stroop test, Eriksen's flanker test, spatial working memory test, free recall test, choice reaction time test, and intra-extra dimensional set shifting test.ResultsOn the hangover day, significantly impaired performance was revealed on all tests, except the intra-extra dimensional set shifting test. On the hangover day, significantly lower mood scores were observed for alertness and tranquility.ConclusionThe current study in a non-student sample confirms previous findings in student samples that cognitive functioning and mood are significantly impaired during alcohol hangover.
  • Convergence between the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale and diagnostic
           interview for the assessment of alcohol craving

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Emily E. Hartwell, Spencer Bujarski, ReJoyce Green, Lara A. RayAbstractIntroductionThe Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS) is one of the most widely used instruments to measure craving for alcohol. Recent research has suggested that scores on the PACS can be used as a “stand in” for the diagnostic criterion of alcohol craving with a proposed cutoff of>20 on the PACS indicating a “positive” alcohol craving symptom. The present study examined the convergence between the PACS and face-to-face diagnostic interview for the assessment of alcohol craving.MethodA sample of non-treatment seeking heavy drinkers (N = 338) enrolled in experimental studies of AUD completed the PACS as well as a face-to-face diagnostic interview for AUD, which included the craving item from the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA).ResultsUsing the PACS cut-off score of>20, 12.9% (N = 43) of the sample met criteria for alcohol craving compared to 21% (N = 74) of the sample meeting criteria based on the diagnostic interview. Using the PACS cutoff of>20, sensitivity (i.e., true positive rate) was 41% and specificity (i.e., true negative rate) was 95%. Exploratory analyses suggested that a cut-off score of ≥15 achieved the optimal balance of sensitivity (67%) and specificity (81%) in our sample.ConclusionsAdvancing the assessment of alcohol craving and the conversion from DSM-IV to DSM-5 diagnostic criteria represents an important research direction. The present study recommends that a PACS score cut off of ≥15 should be used as an indicator of clinically significant alcohol craving in community samples of non-treatment seekers.
  • Persistence of value-modulated attentional capture is associated with
           risky alcohol use

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Lucy Albertella, Poppy Watson, Murat Yücel, Mike E. Le PelleyAbstractBackgroundThis study examined how risky patterns of alcohol use might be related to the persistence of learned attentional capture during reversal of stimulus–reward contingencies.MethodsParticipants were 122 healthy adults (mean age 21 years, 66% female) who completed an assessment including a visual search task to measure value-modulated attentional capture, with a reversal phase following a period of initial training. The assessment also included questions about alcohol use.ResultsOverall, attentional capture was greater for distractors associated with high reward than for those associated with low reward, replicating previous findings of value-modulated attentional capture. When stimulus–reward contingencies were reversed, a higher persistence of learned attentional capture was associated with risky patterns of alcohol use.ConclusionThis result highlights how value-modulated attentional capture may persist and is associated with risky alcohol use in a non-clinical sample. Future research (potentially with clinical samples of heavy drinkers) aimed towards understanding the mechanisms that drive these reversal deficits, and their relation to other compulsive behaviours, may provide important insights into the development and maintenance of addictive behaviours.
  • An inverse relationship between perceived social support and substance use
           frequency in socially stigmatized populations

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Rachel Rapier, Scott McKernan, Christopher S. StaufferAbstractIntroductionSocial isolation and alcohol and substance use disorders (ASUD) have been identified as global health risks. Social support is protective against developing ASUD and is associated with beneficial addiction treatment outcomes. Socially stigmatized populations are at higher risk of both social isolation and ASUD, and the link between social support and substance use in these populations has been less researched than in general substance-using populations. We hypothesized that perceived social support, as measured by the Social Provisions Scale (SPS), would have an inverse relationship with frequency of substance use, from subsections of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) that estimate use over the past 30 days and over an individual's lifetime.MethodsUsing a cross-sectional design, we conducted secondary correlational analyses with pre-existing data to test our hypothesis in two separate samples made up of socially marginalized populations entering ASUD treatment programs. Sample 1: substance-using male prison inmates (n = 72, average age = 30.79) and Sample 2: primary methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (n = 86, average age = 43.41).ResultsSignificant negative correlations were found between SPS and lifetime use of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis (rs − 0.27, −0.39, −0.26; p-values 0.04, 0.001, 0.04, respectively) in Sample 1 and 30-day use of methamphetamine (rs − 0.28; p-value 0.008) in Sample 2.DiscussionDifferences in results between the samples (lifetime vs 30-day use) may reflect psychosocial and contextual differences impacting perceived social support. Our findings provide support for an important link between perceived social support and frequency of substance use in socially stigmatized populations.
  • High degree of uncertain reflective functioning in mothers with substance
           use disorder

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): Tore Bergby Handeland, Vidar Roald Kristiansen, Bjørn Lau, Ulrika Håkansson, Merete Glenne ØieAbstractAimsHaving a substance use disorder (SUD) is associated with impaired reflective functioning (RF) or mentalizing, implying reduced capacity to reflect on internal mental states of the self and others. This has adverse effects on parenting and the child's development. High uncertain RF style prevents an adequate RF due to a concrete, rigid way of mentalizing. High certain RF style prevents adequate RF by making individuals too certain that their view of the world is the true and only one, thereby implying no need to mentalize others' state of mind. We investigated the degree of certain RF and uncertain RF in mothers with SUD with the recently developed screening measure Reflective Functioning Questionnaire-8 (RFQ). Further, we measured the concurrent validity of the RFQ and the more commonly used Parent Development Interview (PDI) measuring a one-dimensional scale of RF.MethodsWe used the RFQ-8 to investigate the degree of certain RF (RFQc) and uncertain RF (RFQu) in 43 mothers with SUD. We measured the concurrent validity of the RFQ and the more commonly used PDI.ResultsOur sample had considerably higher uncertain RF compared to certain RF. The RFQu was significantly negatively associated with maternal RF measured with the PDI, while the RFQc was not.ConclusionHigh degree of uncertain RF in mothers with SUD was associated with an impaired maternal RF (PDI). Administering the RFQ-8 before treatment might be an effective way to screen for uncertain RF deficit, pinpointing what should be the focus in the mentalization-based therapy.
  • Ecological momentary assessment studies of comorbid PTSD and alcohol use:
           A narrative review

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): A.R. Lane, A.J. Waters, A.C. BlackAbstractIntroductionPTSD and harmful alcohol use, including alcohol use disorder (AUD), frequently co-occur. Recent research has used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine the associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol-related variables, such as craving for alcohol, alcohol use, and the presence of alcohol-related problems. The overall purpose of this narrative review is to summarize this emerging literature.MethodsInclusion criteria for studies were: 1) Use of ecological momentary assessment as the method for gathering data on alcohol use and/or craving in populations with both problematic alcohol use and PTSD, and the inclusion of an assessment of both PTSD symptoms and at least one alcohol use variable during EMA; and 2) At screening, participants were required to meet study criteria for a) elevated PTSD symptoms or trauma exposure, and b) alcohol use.ResultsThe pertinent extant literature is reviewed in terms of four underlying themes: Methodological considerations of EMA research in a population with PTSD symptoms and harmful alcohol use; Associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol use variable/s; Moderators of PTSD-alcohol use associations; Mediators of PTSD-alcohol use associations.ConclusionsCollectively, studies provide support for the self-medication hypothesis. Several variables were found to moderate association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol-related variables. EMA data may ultimately be useful in identifying when individuals are at risk for harm due to increased symptoms or alcohol misuse and may inform treatment approaches administered remotely.
  • The acceptability of smokeless tobacco products depends on nicotine levels

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10Author(s): R. Cruz-Cano, M. Rangel-Gomez, C. Van Wagoner, A. Kidanu, M.C. Brinkman, P.I. ClarkAbstractUnderstanding the role nicotine plays in initiating and sustaining addiction has been of interest for the scientific community and general population, with the idea that low levels of nicotine will reduce abuse liability associated with smokeless tobacco products. Previously, research has relied on subjective assessments to determine consumer acceptability, but these measures cannot provide a characterization of the physiological responses associated with nicotine use. Consumer acceptability arises from psychological and neurophysiological factors, thus establishing the need to use subjective and objective measurements in conjunction. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of the subjective and objective effects of smokeless tobacco product use with varying levels of nicotine. EEG data were recorded before and after the use of four different smokeless tobacco products and one control product over five separate visits, with participants arriving to each visit after 12 h of tobacco abstinence. These products have distinct consumer acceptability levels and patterns of use characteristics ranging from starter products to those used primarily by established users. Subjective results showed that smokeless tobacco products with higher levels of nicotine were more successful in reducing craving and more reinforcing than those with lower levels. These results were concordant with the activity present in the EEG recordings where products with high nicotine levels produced larger changes in the amplitude of the event-related signal than those with low levels. This study is fundamental in understanding the relationship between subjective and objective smokeless tobacco acceptability measurements, as mediated by the different levels of nicotine in each product.
  • Self-reported sexually-transmitted infections and criminal justice
           involvement among women who use drugs

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Andrea K. Knittel, Jennifer LorvickAbstractBackgroundWomen involved in the criminal justice system in the United States have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI). It is unknown whether criminal justice involvement is a marker for other risk behavior, such as sex exchange or drug use, or criminal justice involvement itself increases risk directly.MethodsThis study examines the relationship between STI and the frequency and duration of arrest, probation, and incarceration in a sample of women who use drugs (n = 394) in Oakland, California who reported having been tested for STI in the past six months. Logistic regression models of STI using criminal justice measures as independent variables were used, and subsequent estimates were adjusted for demographics, sex exchange, specific drugs used, and number of sexual partners.ResultsAny time spent in jail in the past year was associated with higher odds of recent STI (UOR = 2.28, 95%CI [1.41–3.51]), and short incarcerations (2–3 weeks) in jail most substantially increased the odds of an STI diagnosis (UOR = 7.65, 95%CI [1.03, 56.68]). Arrest and probation were not significantly associated with STI. After adjusting for the covariates, particularly sex exchange and opioid use, none of the criminal justice-related variables were significantly associated with STI.ConclusionsA substantial portion of the increased risk of STI that is associated with criminal justice involvement for women who use drugs is likely due to sex exchange. Longitudinal studies are needed to temporally separate criminal justice exposures, drug use, sex exchange, and STI outcomes.
  • Perfectionism and self-medication as mediators of the links between
           parenting styles and drinking outcomes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): J.A. Patock-Peckham, W.R. CorbinObjectivePerfectionism reflects unreasonably high expectations for oneself that are rarely obtainable leading to negative affect. The self-medication model suggests that alcohol consumption is negatively reinforced and subsequently escalated due to reductions in negative affect when drinking (Hersh & Hussong, 2009). Wang (2010) found that parents directly influence perfectionism levels. Parents have also been found to indirectly influence alcohol-related problems (Patock-Peckham & Morgan-Lopez, 2006, 2009). The current study sought to examine the indirect effects of parenting on alcohol-related problems and alcohol use quantity/frequency through perfectionism dimensions, (i.e. order, discrepancy, and high standards) depression, and self-medication motives for drinking. We hypothesized that more critical parenting and perfectionism discrepancy would be associated with heavier drinking by increasing depressive symptoms and promoting drinking for negative reinforcement.MethodA structural equation model with 419 university volunteers was utilized to test our mediational hypotheses.ResultsThe analyses identified an indirect link between maternal authoritarian parenting and alcohol-related problems operating through perfectionism discrepancy. Higher levels of maternal authoritarian parenting were associated with greater perfectionism discrepancy which contributed to higher levels of depression, and in turn, stronger self-medication motives, as well as more alcohol-related problems.ConclusionsMaternal authoritarian parenting style is directly linked to perfectionism discrepancy along the self-medication pathway to alcohol-related problems. Our results suggest that the reduction of perfectionism discrepancy may be a good therapeutic target for depression as well as inform the development of parent or individual based prevention efforts to reduce risk for alcohol-related problems.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • Alcohol consumption, life satisfaction and mental health among Norwegian
           college and university students

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Solbjørg Makalani Myrtveit Sæther, Marit Knapstad, Kristin Gärtner Askeland, Jens Christoffer SkogenAbstractObjectiveHigh-level alcohol consumption is common in, and central to, the student community. Among adults, high-level alcohol consumption, and sometimes also low, has been associated with poorer social integration and mental health. We aimed to investigate how alcohol consumption relates to life satisfaction and mental health among students in higher education.MethodsData from the Norwegian study of students' health and well-being (SHoT, 2014, n = 9632) were used. Associations between alcohol consumption (AUDIT; abstainers, low risk, risky and hazardous consumption) and life satisfaction and mental health complaints, as well as number of close friends, and social and emotional loneliness were investigated using linear regression models. Crude models and models adjusted for age, gender and relationship status were conducted.ResultsStudents reporting hazardous consumption reported lower life satisfaction, more mental health complaints, and more emotional and social loneliness than students with low risk consumption. Students reporting risky consumption reported slightly reduced life satisfaction and more mental health complaints, but more close friends and less social loneliness. Abstainers did not report reduced life satisfaction or more mental health complaints, despite reporting fewer close friends and more social loneliness.ConclusionHigh-level alcohol consumption among students might indicate increased risk of several problems in the future – but also currently. Our findings further imply that the quality of friendships might be more important for life satisfaction and mental health than the number of friends, but also that social integration in student communities might be more difficult for students who do not drink.
  • Psychiatric symptoms and recent opioid-related overdose: Results from a
           secondary analysis of an intervention study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Michael Fendrich, Jessica Becker, Jennifer Hernandez-MeierAbstractBackgroundDrug overdose (OD) is the leading cause of accidental death in the United States and most of these deaths involve opioids. Despite research linking opioid abuse to mental illness, and evidence suggesting a large portion of opioid OD deaths are suicides, OD prevention strategies scarcely take into account mental health risk factors.MethodsWe examined a sample of heroin and other opioid users enrolled in an intervention study to determine the prevalence of overdose, the prevalence of suicide attempts in overdose, and whether those with higher levels of psychiatric symptomatology would be more likely to experience a recent OD compared to other opioid users. By performing bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression models that controlled for poly drug use, criminal justice status, age, race, gender, and education, we evaluated the association of severe depression, severe anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and, psychosis and past three-month OD.ResultsJust over 12% (45/368) of recent opioid users reported a recent overdose. Four of these recent overdose victims reported that the overdose was a suicide attempt. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that severe depression (odds ratio 2.46; 95% CI: 1.24, 4.89), PTSD (odds ratio: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.37–5.60) and psychosis (odds ratio 2.39; 95% CI: 1.10–5.15) were significantly associated with elevated odds for OD.ConclusionsFindings suggest systematic mental health symptom screening and connection to mental health treatment for opioid users—especially those identified with OD—may be critical for OD prevention.
  • Corrigendum to “Three-month effects of Project EX: A smoking
           intervention pilot program with Korean adolescents” [Addict. Behav. Rep.
           9 (2019) 100152]

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Sheila Yu, Artur Galimov, Steve Sussman, Goo Churl Jeong, Sung Rae Shin
  • An examination of problematic mobile phone use in the United Arab
           Emirates: Prevalence, correlates, and predictors in a college-aged sample
           of young adults

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Zahir Vally, Fatima El HichamiAbstractDespite a number of benefits, mobile phones can carry many deleterious effects. We aimed to determine the extent of problematic mobile phone use in a sample of college-aged young adults in the United Arab Emirates. We also examined whether a number of factors were correlated with and predicted problematic use. We conducted a cross-sectional, correlational study in which a sample of 350 young adults (M = 20.70, SD = 2.14, range: 18–33 years) completed a survey that included socio-demographic variables, and measures of problematic mobile phone use (MPPUS-10), depression, and low self-esteem. One third of the sample evidenced scores indicative of problematic mobile phone use (M = 47.14, SD = 19.98). Logistic regression identified female gender, increasing daily time using the mobile phone, and elevated depressive symptomology predicted higher MPPUS-10 scores. The MPPUS-10 evidenced acceptable reliability and validity in this sample. The prevalence of problematic mobile phone use was considerable in this sample, higher in comparison to previous reports from Europe and the Far East.
  • Fear of missing out (FoMO) and rumination mediate relations between social
           anxiety and problematic Facebook use

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Abigail E. Dempsey, Kelsey D. O'Brien, Mojisola F. Tiamiyu, Jon D. ElhaiAbstractIntroductionPrior research has found that psychopathology constructs such as depression and anxiety are associated with problematic use of Facebook (PFU). In the present study, we examined a structural equation model whereby depression, social anxiety and lower life satisfaction predicted PFU severity, while analyzing mediating variables including rumination, fear of missing out (FoMO), and frequency of Facebook use, as well as age and gender as covariates.MethodParticipants were 296 college students administered a web survey of instruments measuring these constructs.ResultsModeling results demonstrate that FoMO and rumination were significantly related to PFU severity. Facebook use frequency was related to PFU severity. FoMO and rumination each mediated relations between social anxiety and PFU severity.ConclusionsResults are discussed in the context of prior work on FoMO and excessive technology use, as well as several relevant theoretical frameworks.
  • Psychosocial characteristics of smoking patterns among young adult Samoans
           and Tongans in California

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Michelle A. Rainer, Bin Xie, Melanie Sabado-Liwag, Patchareeya P. Kwan, James Russell Pike, Nasya S. Tan, Dorothy Etimani S. Vaivao, Vanessa Tui'one May, Jane Ka'ala Pang, Victor Kaiwi Pang, Tupou Bo Toilolo, Sora Park Tanjasiri, Paula Healani PalmerAbstractIntroductionDespite the high burden of tobacco-related diseases experienced by Samoans and Tongans, there is relatively little understanding of the factors that influence their smoking behaviors which could inform effective smoking cessation strategies. This study examined several psychosocial characteristics that intertwine to predict smoking patterns in these Pacific Islander subgroups.MethodsSamoans and Tongans between the ages of 18 and 33, who consumed at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and were current smokers, were categorized as light, moderate, or heavy smokers. Baseline data from a randomized controlled smoking cessation trial were analyzed. Participants (n = 278) were measured on self-efficacy, perceived stress, sensation seeking, hostility, depression, and impulsivity. Least square means estimated from General Linear Models were used to compare psychosocial characteristics across smoking groups, as well as by gender and ethnicity.ResultsSamoan male heavy smokers reported higher levels of self-efficacy compared to light smokers, and greater stress, hostility, depression, and urgency over moderate smokers. Samoan female heavy smokers demonstrated greater stress and hostility than moderate and light smokers. Tongan female heavy and light smokers had significantly elevated levels of sensation seeking compared to moderate smokers. Tongan male smokers did not display any meaningful associations with these psychosocial constructs.ConclusionsThis study underscores the important distinctions between smoking patterns, gender, and ethnic subgroups. Interventions that rely on aggregated smoking profiles or general Pacific Islander data may not adequately address the complex array of mental health factors that contribute to tobacco use.
  • Television gambling advertisements: Extent and content of gambling
           advertisements with a focus on potential high-risk commercial messages

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): A. Håkansson, C. WidinghoffAbstractBackgroundIn problem gambling, recent years have seen an expansion of online gambling in treatment-seeking patients. Television advertising may promote risky gambling, and this study aimed to assess gambling-related advertisements, with respect to potentially risky messages, in a country with high rates of online gambling among treatment seekers, for online casino particularly in treatment-seeking women.MethodsA total of 144 h in six commercial television channels were studied with respect to frequency, extent and content of gambling-related advertisements, which were analyzed with respect to potentially risky messages and specific target groups, and compared with respect to legal status of gambling companies and for online casino gambling vs other gambling types. Aspects to analyze were elected theoretically and based on acceptable inter-rater agreement between the authors.ResultsNineteen percent (11–28% across different channels) of advertisements promoted gambling, with online casino being by far the most common type of gambling exposed. Messages promoting ease to gamble (including bonuses and rapid cash-out messages) and a female focus were significantly more common in online casino gambling and in non-licensed companies, whereas sports-related messages were more common in licensed companies. Gambling-related advertisements were also common in relation to family movies, and appeared even during children's programs.ConclusionsOnline casino was by far the most common type of televised gambling advertisements. Several risky messages were identified, and female gender, as well as messages promoting the rapidity and facility of gambling, were more commonly addressed by online casino companies. Public health aspects are discussed.
  • A comparison of implicit and explicit reward learning in low risk alcohol
           users versus people who binge drink and people with alcohol dependence

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Yvonne Paelecke-Habermann, Marko Paelecke, Juliane Mauth, Juliane Tschisgale, Johannes Lindenmeyer, Andrea KüblerAbstractChronic alcohol use leads to specific neurobiological alterations in the dopaminergic brain reward system, which probably are leading to a reward deficiency syndrome in alcohol dependence. The purpose of our study was to examine the effects of such hypothesized neurobiological alterations on the behavioral level, and more precisely on the implicit and explicit reward learning. Alcohol users were classified as dependent drinkers (using the DSM-IV criteria), binge drinkers (using criteria of the USA National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) or low-risk drinkers (following recommendations of the Scientific board of trustees of the German Health Ministry). The final sample (n = 94) consisted of 36 low-risk alcohol users, 37 binge drinkers and 21 abstinent alcohol dependent patients. Participants were administered a probabilistic implicit reward learning task and an explicit reward- and punishment-based trial-and-error-learning task. Alcohol dependent patients showed a lower performance in implicit and explicit reward learning than low risk drinkers. Binge drinkers learned less than low-risk drinkers in the implicit learning task. The results support the assumption that binge drinking and alcohol dependence are related to a chronic reward deficit. Binge drinking accompanied by implicit reward learning deficits could increase the risk for the development of an alcohol dependence.
  • Saying yes or no to physical activity – A comparative cohort analysis of
           patients seeking treatment for Alcohol Use Disorder

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Randi Bilberg, Kirsten Kaya Roessler, Anette Søgaard NielsenAbstractIntroductionEngaging individuals, suffering from alcohol use disorder (AUD), in a physical activity can be a challenge, and often it is a limitation of the quality of studies on the topic. The aim of the present study is to investigate differences between participants and non-participants in a randomized controlled trial on the effect of physical exercise as add-on to treatment as usual (TAU) to treatment for alcohol use disorder, thereby identifying potential factors that may predict lack of willingness or ability to consider increasing the level of physical activity.MethodThe Healthy Lifestyle Study was a randomized controlled trial with three arms, of which two included adding physical activities to treatment for AUD as usual. All patients from an outpatient alcohol treatment clinic were invited to participate in the study. 172 accepted participation, and 384 patients either did not show up for information about the study or declined to participate. All patients in the treatment clinic were assessed by means of European Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI).ResultsThe only predictor of participation in the study was the drinking pattern. Patients, who had been drinking every day for the last 6 months were less likely to participate in the study (OR 0.7 CI 0.4–0.9). Neither somatic nor psychiatric health seemed to impact whether or not the patients participated in the study.ConclusionNon-participants did not differ from participants in this study except in their drinking pattern.
  • Igniting activation: Using unannounced standardized patients to measure
           patient activation in smoking cessation

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Jeffrey A. Wilhite, Frida Velcani, Amanda Watsula-Morley, Kathleen Hanley, Lisa Altshuler, Adina Kalet, Sondra Zabar, Colleen C. GillespieAbstractIntroductionDespite a decline, smoking rates have remained high, especially in communities with lower income, education, and limited insurance options. Evidence shows that physician-initiated counseling on smoking cessation is effective and saves lives, and that specific skills are needed to appropriately lead this type of patient-physician communication. Residency is a critical moment for future physicians and may be the optimal time to learn, practice, and refine this skillset. Unannounced Standardized Patients (USPs) have been found to be effective, incognito evaluators of resident practices.MethodsThis study introduced rigorously trained actors (USPs) into two urban, safety-net clinics to assess resident ability to engage, activate, and counsel a pre-contemplative smoker. A complementary chart review assessed appropriate documentation in the patient's electronic health record (EHR) and its relationship to counseling style and prescribing practices.ResultsResident scores (% well done) on patient education and engagement were low (33% and 23%, respectively). Residents who coupled cessation advice with an open discussion style activated their patients more than those who solely advised cessation across all comparable measures. On EHR documentation, residents who accurately documented smoking history were more likely to directly advise their patient to quit smoking when compared to residents who did not document (t(97) = 2.828, p = .006, Cohen's D = 0.56).ConclusionsResults highlight the need to reinforce training in patient-centered approaches including motivational interviewing, counseling, and shared decision-making. Future research should focus on the effects of smokers in pre-contemplation on physician counseling style and examine the relationship between medical training and provider communication to guide interventions.
  • Publisher's Note

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s):
  • Alcohol's harms to others in Wales, United Kingdom: Nature, magnitude and
           associations with mental well-being

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Zara Quigg, Mark A. Bellis, Hannah Grey, Jane Webster, Karen HughesAbstractAimTo explore the nature and magnitude of alcohol's harms to others (AHTOs), and associations with mental well-being.MethodsCross-sectional survey implemented amongst 891 randomly selected Welsh residents (aged 18+ years), via computer assisted telephone interviews. Questions established past 12-month experience of nine direct harms resulting from another person's alcohol consumption (e.g. violence) and five linked outcomes (e.g. concern for a child). The source (e.g. partner/stranger) and frequency of the AHTO were collected, and respondents' socio-demographics, drinking behaviours and mental well-being status.ResultsDuring the past 12 months, 43.5% of respondents had experienced at least one direct harm (45.5% at least one direct harm/linked outcome). In demographically adjusted analyses, the odds of experiencing any direct harm decreased sequentially as age group increased (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AORs]: 1.9 [age 65–74 years] - 4.2 [age 18–34 years]), and was higher amongst binge drinkers (AOR, 1.5, p 
  • The relative contribution of motives and maladaptive cognitions to levels
           of Internet Gaming Disorder

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Socayna Moudiab, Marcantonio M. SpadaAbstractThis study aimed at determining whether motives and/or maladaptive cognitions would predict levels of Internet Gaming Disorder independently of negative affect and problematic Internet use. Seventy-nine Internet gamers completed the following questionnaires: Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test, Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire Short Form, Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale 21, Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire, and Maladaptive Gaming-Related Cognitions Scale. Results showed that all variables were positively and significantly correlated with levels of Internet Gaming Disorder with the exception of motives relating to recreation. Furthermore, a hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that motives relating to coping and skills development and maladaptive cognitions relating to overvaluing of game rewards were the only significant predictors of levels of Internet Gaming Disorder when controlling for negative affect and problematic Internet use. The implications of these findings are discussed.
  • Pilot randomized controlled trial of an online intervention for problem

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): John A. Cunningham, Alexandra Godinho, David C. HodginsAbstractIntroductionThis pilot randomized controlled trial sought to evaluate whether an online intervention for problem gambling could lead to improved gambling outcomes compared to a no intervention control. Participants were recruited through a crowdsourcing platform.MethodsParticipants were recruited to complete an online survey about their gambling through the Mechanical Turk platform. Those who scored 5 or more on the Problem Gambling Severity Index and were thinking about quitting or reducing their gambling were invited to complete 6-week and 6-month follow-ups. Each potential participant who agreed was sent a unique password. Participants who used their password to log onto the study portal were randomized to either access an online intervention for gambling or to a no intervention control.ResultsA total of 321 participants were recruited, of which 87% and 88% were followed-up at 6 weeks and 6 months, respectively. Outcome analyses revealed that, while there were reductions in gambling from baseline to follow-ups, there was no significant observable impact of the online gambling intervention, as compared to a no intervention control condition.ConclusionsWhile the current trial observed no impact of the intervention, replication is merited with a larger sample size, and with participants who are not recruited through a crowdsourcing platform.Trial registration: NCT03124589
  • Psychosocial well-being and efforts to quit smoking in pregnant women of
           South-Central Appalachia

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Brittney Stubbs, Valerie Hoots, Andrea Clements, Beth BaileyAbstractIntroductionPsychosocial well-being variables from the Tennessee Intervention for Pregnant Smokers (TIPS) study, a longitudinal smoking cessation study in South-Central Appalachia, were investigated as potential predictors of smoking status.MethodsA sample of 1031 pregnant women participated in an expanded 5A's (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange) program, from 2008 to 2011. Measures of stress, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and disordered eating collected by interview during the first trimester, or during the third trimester in a combined interview if participants began prenatal care late, were hypothesized to differ among three groups of participants: pregnant women who never smoked, pregnant women who smoked but quit prior to birth, and pregnant women who smoked and did not quit prior to birth. Smoking status was measured throughout the study. Whether or not a participant quit smoking was assessed at delivery.ResultsNon-smokers were lowest in stress F(2,1027) = 46.38, p 
  • Evaluation of a family-oriented parenting intervention for
           methamphetamine-involved mothers and fathers – The SHIFT Parent Training

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Janina Dyba, Diana Moesgen, Michael Klein, Fabian Pels, Birgit LeyendeckerAbstractIntroductionA large number of people who use crystal methamphetamine in Germany are parents of young children. In the context of methamphetamine use, family situations and parenting are frequently impacted, and children are at risk of developing behavioral or emotional difficulties. SHIFT Parent Training was developed as a parenting intervention targeted specifically to the needs of methamphetamine-involved parents. The eight-session group training is delivered in substance use treatment settings and aims to foster abstinence and improve parenting skills and resilience within the families.MethodsThe primary goal of this pilot study was to assess the initial effectiveness and acceptance of the SHIFT intervention. The quasi-experimental study design included pre-, post- and 6-month follow-up measurements. Sixty-eight methamphetamine-involved parents participated in all stages of the study. Substance use, parenting practices, and family functioning and resilience were primary effectiveness outcome measures. Additionally, acceptance was assessed by participants' and professionals' feedback.ResultsSubstance use problems were significantly lower in the intervention condition at the 6-month follow-up. Positive parenting of mothers and fathers also increased in the intervention group directly after participation. Both the intervention and control groups showed significant improvements in family functioning, parenting stress and children's behavioral issues. Participants and facilitators reported that they were highly satisfied with the program.ConclusionOur findings suggest that SHIFT Parent Training is an effective intervention and is well-accepted among parents and health professionals. The program improves relevant aspects of substance use-related issues and parenting and therefore poses a valuable addition to support services for methamphetamine-involved families.
  • A structural MRI study of differential neuromorphometric characteristics
           of binge and heavy drinking

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Arkadiy L. Maksimovskiy, Catherine B. Fortier, William P. Milberg, Regina E. McGlincheyBackgroundAlcohol misuse often manifests in two different patterns of drinking; Binge Drinking (BD; ≥4 (women) or ≥ 5 (men) drinks/day, ≤12 days/month) or Heavy Drinking (HD; ≥3 (women) or ≥4 (men) drinks/day, ≥16 days/month). Although direct comparisons have not been made, structural MRI studies indicate that the two types of drinking behaviors might be associated with different neuromorphometric characteristics.MethodsThis study used a cross-sectional design to compare brain structure (using MRI derived subcortical volume and cortical thickness measures) between participants with histories of BD (N = 16), HD (N = 15), and Healthy Controls (HC; N = 21). Whole-brain analyses were used to quantify group differences in subcortical volume and cortical thickness. Resulting cortical thickness clusters were quantified for their areas of overlap with resting-state network parcellations.ResultsBD was associated with decreased volumes of the bilateral global pallidus and decreased cortical thickness within the left superior-parietal cluster (p 
  • Validation of a substance craving questionnaire (SCQ) in Italian

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Natale Salvatore Bonfiglio, Roberta Renati, Mirian Agus, Maria Pietronilla PennaAbstractBackgroundThis study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Substance Craving Questionnaire (SCQ-NOW), extended version of the Cocaine Craving Questionnaire (CCQ-NOW), defined as a multidimensional measure assessing the craving about cocaine, as conceptualized by Tiffany, Singleton, Haertzen, and Henningfield (1993).Method344 substance addicts (age 38.56 ± 10.63 years old; 20.6% females) took part in the research. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed that the Italian SCQ-NOW retains good psychometric properties, supporting the conception of substances craving as a multifold concept.ResultsThe internal consistencies were good; correlations between the SCQ-NOW, the Symptom Check List 90 – R (SCL-90-R), and the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) were consistent with literature.ConclusionOur findings confirm the application of SCQ-NOW as a psychometric useful measure of the craving in the Italian context, highlighting its validity and reliability. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.
  • Association between altitude, prescription opioid misuse, and fatal

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Hendrik J. Ombach, Lindsay S. Scholl, Amanda V. Bakian, Kai T. Renshaw, Young-Hoon Sung, Perry F. Renshaw, Shami KanekarAbstractObjectivePrescription opioid misuse and fatal overdoses have increased significantly over the last two decades. Living at altitude has been linked to greater reward benefits of other drugs of abuse, and living at altitude may also exacerbate the respiratory depression linked to opioid use. Therefore, we examined the relationships between living at altitude, and prescription opioid misuse and fatal overdoses.MethodState-level past year rates of prescription opioid misuse were retrieved from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. County-level overdose data were extracted from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multiple linear regression models were fit to determine the relationship between average state elevation and state rates of opioid misuse. Logistic regression models were fit to determine the relationship between county elevation and county-level fatal opioid overdose prevalence.ResultsAfter controlling for state opioid prescribing rates and other confounders, we identified a significant positive association between mean state altitude and state-level opioid misuse rates for women, but not men. We also found a significant positive association between county-level altitude and prevalence of fatal opioid overdose.ConclusionsLiving at altitude is thus demographically associated with increasing rates of misuse of prescription opioids, as well as of cocaine and methamphetamine. Animal studies suggest that the hypobaric hypoxia exposure involved with living at altitude may disrupt brain neurochemistry, to increase reward benefits of drugs of abuse. This increased misuse of both stimulants and opioids may increase likelihood of overdose at altitude, with overdoses by opioid use also potentially facilitated by altitude-related hypoxia.
  • Support person interventions to increase use of quitline services among
           racially diverse low-income smokers: A pilot study

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Christi A. Patten, Steven Fu, Katrina Vickerman, Martha J. Bock, David Nelson, Shu-Hong Zhu, Joyce E. Balls-Berry, Alula Jimenez Torres, Tabetha A. Brockman, Christine A. Hughes, Abigail E. Klein, Miguel Valdez-Soto, Paula A. KellerAbstractIntroductionSocial support from nonsmokers may have a role in prompting smokers to use evidence-based cessation treatment. Prior studies found that an intervention for nonsmoking support persons (SPs) was effective for promoting smokers' use of free, state quitline services. This pilot study adapted and assessed feasibility of this intervention for a racially diverse, low-income population.MethodsSingle group, non-randomized design enrolling SP-smoker dyads with low income status enrolled in one of three study “waves” of 10 pairs each. Participants were recruited using flyers and in-person outreach methods. The SP intervention included a 1-session coaching call and written materials; study waves 2 and 3 also included text messaging and a monetary incentive for smokers who used quitline services. Using content analysis, the intervention was iteratively adapted based on SP feedback. Baseline measures assessed socio-demographics, dyad and tobacco use characteristics. Follow-up assessments were conducted among SPs at 1-month follow-up and among smokers at 3-months follow-up. Feasibility indicators were recruitment, retention, and SP intervention acceptability and adherence. Secondary outcomes were smokers' use of any quitline service verified by quitline staff and 7-day, point prevalence, biochemically verified smoking abstinence at 3 months.ResultsRecruitment of 30 dyads was feasible; in-person recruitment methods were the most successful. SPs who completed follow-up assessments found the intervention acceptable, suggesting only minor content modifications, and they perceived the quitline information as novel. But the study had some feasibility challenges (e.g., SP coaching call completion: 60% and SP study retention: 53%). At 3 months, 2 smokers (7%) had used any quitline service and 13% were biochemically confirmed smoking abstinent.ConclusionsThis pilot study demonstrated feasibility of recruiting SP-smoker dyads from diverse, low-income communities. While the intervention was well received, its delivery was not feasible in this population. Results suggest that further consumer adaptation of the intervention is needed among both SPs and smokers.
  • Learning functions in short-term cocaine users

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Danusha Selva Kumar, Elysia Benedict, Olivia Wu, Eric Rubin, Mark A. Gluck, Richard W. Foltin, Catherine E. Myers, Nehal P. VadhanAbstractObjectiveThis study examined learning functions in short-term cocaine users and control participants.MethodSeventeen active cocaine users (reporting 3.5 mean years of cocaine use) and seventeen non-cocaine-using controls (with similar reported levels of alcohol and marijuana use) were compared on tasks measuring different aspects of learning.ResultsThe cocaine users performed more poorly on the Weather Prediction and List-Learning tasks, as well as supplementary executive and psychomotor function tasks, than controls.ConclusionsIndividuals with a relatively short duration of cocaine use exhibited moderate weaknesses in probabilistic category learning, verbal learning and psychomotor functions, relative to controls. These weaknesses may underpin difficulty in learning from the probabilistic consequences of behavior and hinder the ability to respond to cognitive-behavioral treatments.
  • A latent class analysis of the past-30-day substance use patterns among
           lifetime cocaine users: Findings from a community sample in North Central

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Yiyang Liu, Amy L. Elliott, Mirsada Serdarevic, Robert F. Leeman, Linda B. CottlerAbstractObjectivesCocaine use is increasing and many cocaine users engage in polysubstance use. Within polysubstance use, relationships among use of individual substances are necessarily complex. To address this complexity, we used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify patterns of polysubstance use among lifetime cocaine users and examine associations among these patterns, demographics, and risk profiles.MethodsMembers of HealthStreet, an ongoing community engagement program, were asked about lifetime and past 30-day use of cocaine, alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and prescription medications, mental health conditions, recent Emergency Department (ED) visits and demographics. LCA was used to identify classes of past 30-day polysubstance use among individuals who endorsed lifetime cocaine use. Multinomial logistic regression identified factors associated with these classes.ResultsAmong 1797 lifetime cocaine users, a five-class LCA model was identified: 1) past 30-day tobacco use only (45%), 2) past 30-day alcohol, marijuana and tobacco use (31%), 3) past 30-day tobacco, prescription opioid and sedative use (13%), 4) past 30-day cocaine, alcohol, marijuana and tobacco use (9%), 5) past 30-day cocaine and multiple polysubstance use (2%). Demographics, ED visits and mental health conditions were associated with class membership.ConclusionsApproximately 11% of lifetime cocaine users used cocaine in the past 30 days with two different concurrent substance use patterns. Prescription medication (opioids and sedatives) and complex polysubstance use patterns were stronger indicators of negative outcomes than current cocaine use. Cocaine was not used frequently with other stimulants. In addition to polysubstance use, prescription medication use should be targeted for intervention among lifetime cocaine users.
  • Predictors of quickly progressing from initiating alcohol use to engaging
           in binge drinking among adolescents

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Meghan E. Morean, Julia Peterson, Alexa L'InsalataAbstractBackgroundA short delay to first intoxication confers alcohol-related risk, but risk factors for a short delay have yet to be examined.Methods230 high school students (55.7% male; age 16.52 [1.19] years; 70.9% White) were surveyed about alcohol use. We examined whether sex, race, parental history of alcohol problems, age of onset, type of alcohol consumed, drinking company, and subjective response to alcohol were associated with 1) delay to first binge episode and 2) binge drinking status (i.e., never bingers, individuals who binge drank on their first drinking occasion, and individuals who binge drank at a later date). Finally, we examined whether first-occasion bingers reported heavier drinking and alcohol-related problems than later-occasion and never bingers.ResultsOverall, a shorter delay was associated with being male an older age of onset, and, during one's first drinking experience, consuming liquor, drinking with friends or alone, and experiencing high arousal negative alcohol effects. First-occasion bingers were more likely to be male, consume liquor, and experience stronger high arousal positive and negative alcohol effects than never bingers and to have a later age of onset, experience stronger high arousal negative, and weaker low arousal negative alcohol effects than later-occasion bingers. First-occasion bingers also reported heavier current drinking and more alcohol-related problems.ConclusionsCharacteristics of underage drinkers that confer risk for a shorter delay and first-occasion binging may provide fruitful targets for intervention, as efforts to delay binge drinking may mitigate alcohol-related risk associated with underage alcohol use.
  • Content, perceptions and impact of alcoholic drink promotions in nightlife
           venues that are targeted towards students

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Kim Ross-Houle, Zara QuiggAbstractBackgroundBinge drinking is generally considered socially acceptable for students across Western culture. Social norms within the student population have meant that excessive drinking plays a key role in socialising and reinforcing peer group identity. Research has highlighted the United Kingdom (UK) as having elevated levels of alcohol consumption especially within the student population, and the role that drink promotions have in influencing consumption practices. This paper considers promotions of alcoholic drinks in UK nightlife venues and student perceptions of these promotions. Bourdieu's concepts of social and cultural capital are applied to the findings.MethodContent analysis of social media posts by nightlife venues (n = 12), observations of nightlife venues (n = 20) and semi-structured focus groups and paired interviews with 32 undergraduate students, from one city in the North West of England.ResultsNightlife venues target promotions of alcoholic drinks at students through social media, advertisements throughout nightlife venues, and by promoters outside of venues. These promotions will often influence the course of a night out in terms of venues visited and the drinks consumed. Alcohol holds importance within mainstream student culture; it plays a key role in achieving cultural capital and is a means for students to obtain social capital through the creation of shared experiences, which are key for those who are new to university.ConclusionsNightlife venues will target alcoholic drink promotions at students and will use the notion of creating a shared experience as part of this targeted promotion. This contributes to the overall social and cultural capital that alcohol holds within the student population. This is an important consideration for alcohol policy – it demonstrates how prevention activities need to take into consideration the importance of shared experiences for the students; alternatives to excessive alcohol consumption need to offer a similar opportunity.
  • Process evaluation of counseling delivered by a patient navigator in an
           efficacious smoking cessation intervention among low-income primary care

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Lisa M. Quintiliani, Ve Truong, Melanie E. Ulrich, Jennifer Murillo, Cheryl Jean, Ziming Xuan, Karen E. LasserAbstractIntroductionThis exploratory study examined the relationship between receipt of counseling by a patient navigator and socio-demographic characteristics of primary care patients enrolled in a smoking cessation trial.MethodsWe grouped intervention participants (n = 177) into two categories: 1) no or some contact with the navigator or 2) minimum counseling intervention dose or higher delivered.ResultsIn logistic regression analyses, controlling for patient race/ethnicity, education, age, gender, household annual income, stress/chaos/hassles composite score, heavy smoking, and substance use, non-Hispanic white participants had lower odds (aOR 0.30; 95% CI 0.13–0.70, p 
  • Dealing with gender-related and general stress: Substance use among
           Brazilian transgender youth

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Anna Martha Vaitses Fontanari, Paola Fagundes Pase, Siobhan Churchill, Bianca Machado Borba Soll, Karine Schwarz, Maiko Abel Schneider, Angelo Brandelli Costa, Maria Inês Rodrigues LobatoIntroductionAdolescent substance use is a major public health concern since it enhances adolescent morbidity and mortality, affecting adulthood health and well-being. Although current evidence shows a high risk for substance use among transgender populations, to date, few studies evaluate substance use among transgender youth.MethodBrazilian transgender youth (ages between 16 and 25 years old) answered an online questionnaire measuring demographics, substance use and modifiable factors associated with drug use to deal with general stress, gender-related stress, and recreational use.ResultsCannabis was the most frequent substance used among transgender youth (20.88%; CI 95% 23.71–36.19), whereas 11.45% (CI 95% 11.38–21.47) of volunteers disclosed use of pain medication, such as codeine, and 5.05% (CI 95% 3.71–10.78) revealed use of sedatives and tranquilizers in the last 30 days. ADH medication (not prescribed), as well as cocaine and other drugs (such as antihistamines and Hookah), was also reported by 2.36% (CI 95% 0.92–5.84), 2.69% (CI 95% 1.24–6.49) and 4.04% (CI 95% 2.61–8.98) of transgender youth.ConclusionA logistic regression model showed that discrimination and home instability were the primary determinants of vulnerable to substance use among youth. Therefore, the harm reduction strategies must affect the social and physical aspects of transgender youth lives.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • Experiences of responsible gambling tools among non-problem gamblers: A
           survey of active customers of an online gambling platform

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Ekaterina Ivanova, Jonas Rafi, Philip Lindner, Per CarlbringAbstractIntroductionResponsible gambling (RG) tools, aiming at helping gamblers to avoid gambling-related harms, are common in online gambling platforms. Gambling industry, policy makers, and researchers have warned that RG tools can potentially disturb recreational gamblers, channeling them to less protective operators. No evidence exists to support these concerns, and they can hinder the development of effective RG tools. The current study aimed to investigate the recreational gamblers' experiences of RG tools.MethodsA total of 10,200 active customers of an online gambling service were invited to complete an online survey and rate their overall reactions, attitudes, disturbance and irritation towards RG tools, as well as their inclination to abandon a gambling service due to overexposure to RG tools. N = 1223 surveys were completed.ResultsNon-problem gamblers had positive experiences of RG tools. Moderate-risk gamblers had more positive overall reaction and less irritation to previous experiences of RG tools compared to non-problem gamblers. Problem gamblers had least positive attitudes, most disturbance and most irritation towards RG pictures. Non-problem gamblers had lowest rates of having abandoned a service because of perceived overexposure to RG tools (5.2% compared to 25.9% of problem gamblers), with a significant between-group difference (OR [95% CI] = 7.17 [3.61–14.23], p 
  • Stop smoking practitioner consensus on barriers and facilitators to
           smoking cessation in pregnancy and how to address these: A modified Delphi

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Libby Fergie, Katarzyna A. Campbell, Tom Coleman-Haynes, Michael Ussher, Sue Cooper, Tim ColemanAbstractIntroductionPregnant women can experience barriers and facilitators towards achieving smoking cessation. We sought consensus from smoking cessation practitioners on how influential pre-identified barriers and facilitators can be on pregnant women's smoking behaviour, and how difficult these might be to manage. Suggestions for techniques that could help overcome the barriers or enhance the facilitators were elicited and consensus sought on the appropriateness for their use in practice.MethodsForty-four practitioners who provided cessation support to pregnant women completed a three-round modified Delphi survey. Round one sought consensus on the ‘influence’ and ‘difficulty’ of the barriers and facilitators, and gathered respondents' suggestions on ways to address these. Rounds two and three sought further consensus on the barriers and facilitators and on ‘appropriateness’ of the respondent-suggested techniques. The techniques were coded for behaviour change techniques (BCTs) content using existing taxonomies.ResultsBarriers and facilitators considered to be the most important mainly related to the influence of significant others and the women's motivation & self-efficacy. Having a supportive partner was considered the most influential, whereas lack of support from partner was the only barrier that reached consensus as being difficult to manage. Barriers relating to social norms were also considered influential, however these received poor coverage of respondent-suggested techniques. Those considered the easiest to address mainly related to aspects of cessation support, including misconceptions surrounding the use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Barriers and facilitators relating to the women's motivation & self-efficacy, such as the want to protect the baby, were also considered as being particularly easy to address. Fifty of the 54 respondent-suggested techniques reached consensus as being appropriate. Those considered the most appropriate ranged from providing support early, giving correct information on NRT, highlighting risks and benefits and reinforcing motivating beliefs. Thirty-three BCTs were identified from the respondent-suggested techniques. ‘Social support (unspecified)’, ‘Tailor interactions appropriately’ and ‘Problem solving’ were the most frequently coded BCTs.ConclusionsInvolving partners in quit attempts was advocated. Existing support could be potentially improved by establishing appropriate ways to address barriers relating to pregnant smokers' ‘social norms’. In general, providing consistent and motivating support seemed favourable.
  • Graduate degree completion: Associations with alcohol and marijuana use
           before and after enrollment

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Hannah K. Allen, Flavius Lilly, Kenneth H. Beck, Kathryn B. Vincent, Amelia M. ArriaAbstractResearch has shown that alcohol and marijuana use are associated with academic performance difficulties, but the relationship to completion of a graduate degree has not been explored. Undergraduate students (n = 1253) were assessed during their first year of college and annually thereafter until age 29. Among the subset of the original sample who enrolled in graduate school (n = 520), measures of alcohol and marijuana use were averaged separately for the time periods before and after graduate school enrollment. Logistic regression models were developed to examine the associations between these variables and graduate degree completion, adjusting for other factors. In general, a minority of the sample were excessive drinkers or frequent marijuana users. The majority of drinkers (70%) drank an average of twice a week or less each year, and 62% of marijuana users used marijuana once a month or less each year. After adjusting for demographic and program characteristics, marijuana use frequency after graduate school enrollment was negatively associated with odds of graduate degree completion. Alcohol use frequency before graduate school enrollment was positively associated with odds of graduate degree completion. Results add to the growing body of literature on marijuana use and decreased academic achievement, but results should be interpreted with caution given the small, but significant, effect sizes found. The positive association between alcohol use frequency and degree completion might be attributed to engagement in the academic environment. Future studies should examine the potential mechanisms through which alcohol and marijuana use are related to the academic achievement of graduate students.
  • Associations between attention deficit hyperactivity and internet gaming
           disorder symptoms: Is there consistency across types of symptoms, gender
           and countries'

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Vasilis Stavropoulos, Baxter L.M. Adams, Charlotte L. Beard, Emma Dumble, Steven Trawley, Rapson Gomez, Halley M. PontesAbstractBackgroundVideogame addiction has been suggested as a tentative disorder in 2013 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and was recently officially recognized as a mental health disorder by the World Health Organization (WHO). Although a few studies have identified attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a key risk factor for Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD), the interplay between ADHD and IGD symptoms with gender differences across cultures remains to be further examined.ObjectiveThis study examined the moderating effects of gender in the association between ADHD and IGD across two nations.MethodA cross-sectional online survey was developed to recruit 164 Australian (Mage = 23.01, SD = 3.35, Minage = 18, Maxage = 31, Males n = 121, 73.80%) and 457 U.S.-North American (Mage = 25.25 years, SD = 2.76, Minage = 18 years, Maxage = 29 years, Males = 265, 57.98%) Massively Multiplayer Online (MMO) players aged between 18 and 29 years.ResultsThe hierarchical linear regression, moderation and moderated moderation analyses revealed that participants presenting greater inattention and hyperactivity symptoms exhibited higher levels of IGD-related behaviors in the two samples. Moreover, these associations differed across genders between the two countries. Specifically, more hyperactive-impulsive, as well as inattentive males in the USA presented higher levels of disordered gaming.ConclusionThe results highlight the need for more cross-cultural and symptom-focused research in the broader IGD field.
  • Health-related internet use among opioid treatment patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Carmen L. Masson, Ida Q. Chen, Jacob A. Levine, Michael S. Shopshire, James L. SorensenAbstractThe Internet and smartphones have become commonplace and can be effective in overcoming traditional barriers to accessing health information about substance use disorders (SUD), and their prevention or treatment. Little is known, however, about specific factors that may influence the use of these technologies among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations with SUDs. This study characterized the use of digital technologies and the Internet among individuals receiving treatment for opioid use disorder, focusing on identifying predictors of Internet use for health-related purposes. Participants came from an urban opioid replacement therapy program and completed a face-to-face survey on Internet and technology use. We examined the association between online health information seeking and technology acceptance variables, including perceived usefulness, effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitating conditions (e.g., availability of devices/services and technical support). Participants (N = 178, ages 18–64) endorsed high rates of current smartphone ownership (94%) and everyday Internet use (67%). 88% of participants reported searching online for information about health or medical topics in the past 3 months. Predictors of Internet use for health-related purposes were higher technology acceptance for mobile Internet use, younger age, current employment, and less bodily pain. Our results demonstrate high acceptance and use of mobile technology and the Internet among this sample of socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals with SUDs. However, these findings also highlight the importance of identifying barriers that disadvantaged groups face in using mobile technologies when designing technology-based interventions for this population.
  • Substance use and impaired driving prevalence among Francophone and
           Anglophone postsecondary students in Western Canada

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Ndeye Rokhaya Gueye, Monique Bohémier, Danielle de MoissacAbstractIntroductionSubstance use and impaired driving increase risk of motor vehicle crashes and deaths. Individual, socio-economic and -cultural factors are associated with these at-risk behaviors; however, little is known if differences exist between the Anglophone majority and minority Francophone populations in Canada. This article describes prevalence of substance use, impaired driving and driving practices by postsecondary student and compares Francophones and Anglophones with respect to these behaviors.MethodsPostsecondary students between 18 and 24 years attending a Francophone university in Western Canada completed a paper-based survey during class-time.ResultsPrevalence of alcohol consumption, binge drinking and marijuana use in the past month were 88.6%, 64.2% and 22.7% respectively. Francophone participants were more likely to consume more alcohol, participate in drinking games, and consume marijuana during the past month than Anglophones. They were also more likely to report impaired-driving, speeding, distracted driving and being passenger in a motor vehicle driven by an impaired driver.ConclusionAwareness campaigns on campus highlighting the risks of substance use and unsafe driving practices should be strengthened and target Francophone students in linguistic minority communities.
  • Relationship between social media engagement and e-cigarette policy

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Anuja Majmundar, Chih-Ping Chou, Tess B. Cruz, Jennifer B. UngerAbstractIntroductionGiven increasing efforts to regulate e-cigarettes, it is important to understand factors associated with support for tobacco regulatory policies. We investigate such factors found in social media and hypothesize that greater online engagement with tobacco content would be associated with less support for e-cigarette regulatory policies.MethodsWe constructed social networks of Twitter users who tweet about tobacco and categorized them using a combination of social network and Twitter metrics. Twitter users were identified as representing leaders, followers or general users in online discussions of tobacco products, and invited to complete an online survey. Participants responded to questions about their engagement with tobacco-related content online, degree of support for e-cigarette regulations, exposure to tobacco marketing, e-cigarette use and other demographic information. We examined links between their reported engagement with tobacco-related content and support for e-cigarette regulatory policies using structural equation modelling.ResultsThe analytic sample consisted of 470 participants. The conceptualized structural equation model had a good fit (χ2 (32) = 24.85, p = 0.09, CFI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.03). Findings support our hypothesis: engagement with online tobacco content was negatively associated with support for e-cigarette policies, while controlling for e-cigarette use, tobacco marketing exposure, social media use frequency and demographic factors.ConclusionsFindings suggest that our hypothesis was supported. Twitter users engaging with tobacco-related content and harboring negative attitudes toward e-cigarette regulatory policies could be an important audience segment to reach with tailored e-cigarette policy education messages.
  • Adolescent smoking: The relationship between cigarette consumption and BMI

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Molly JacobsAbstractBackgroundStudies relating cigarette smoking and body weight yield conflicting results. Weight-lowering effects in women and men have been associated with smoking, however, no effects on weight have been proven. This study examined the association between cigarette smoking and relative weight in adolescent males and females as they age into young adults.MethodsData from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth—a nationally representative survey conducted annually—was used for this analysis. The sample consists of 4225 males and females observed annually from 1997 at age 12 to 17 through 2011 at age 27 to 31. Hierarchical generalized models (HGM) assess the impact of smoking on the likelihood of having higher BMI controlling for demographic, household and environmental impacts. The second estimation considers the possibility that smoking is endogenous and utilizes a multinomial instrument (IV) for smoking level.ResultsHGM models reveal a negative association between cigarette smoking and BMI for both males and females. Individuals who smoke more have lower BMI compared to infrequent or non-smokers. General health rating, region of residence and income were used instrument for smoking in a linear two-stage IV specification. The instrument is highly correlated with BMI and results mirror the HGM. Finally, models run on early, middle and advanced adolescents show that the relationship diminishes over time. The relationship between BMI and smoking decreases as females age but increases for males.ConclusionsEmpirical models confirm an association cigarette consumption and BMI in both males and females. This negative relationship varies with age. It is important to identify health risks—obesity—and modifiable risk factors—smoking—that contribute to health disparities among adolescents. However, the increase in one risky behavior leading to the decrease in the prevalence of the other, complicates the issue. The higher prevalence of frequent cigarette uses among both adolescents and young adults of lower BMI suggest that smoking could be used curb or suppress appetite.
  • Three-month effects of Project EX: A smoking intervention pilot program
           with Korean adolescents

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Sheila Yu, Artur Galimov, Steve Sussman, Goo Churl Jeong, Sung Rae ShinAbstractDespite current prevention and cessation efforts, adolescent smoking remains a pressing issue worldwide, including in Korea. The current study evaluates Project EX-Korea, a teen tobacco use cessation program, three months after baseline. The quasi-experimental trial intervention involved 160 smokers in 10th to 12th grade, 85 from the program condition schools and 75 from the control. At three-month follow-up, the intent-to-treat (ITT) quit rate in the program group (30.2%) was 3.6 times that of the rate in the standard care control group (9.2%; p 
  • An exploration into “do-it-yourself” (DIY) e-liquid mixing: Users'
           motivations, practices and product laboratory analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Sharon Cox, Noel J. Leigh, Taylor S. Vanderbush, Emma Choo, Maciej L. Goniewicz, Lynne DawkinsAbstractBackgroundE-liquids are commercially available and manufactured, however some users of e-cigarettes prefer to prepare them at home (Do-it-Yourself; DIY) using individual ingredients. To date there is a paucity of research on how and why users make their own e-liquids.MethodsForty-one European and US based exclusive users of e-cigarettes (ex-smokers) were individually interviewed. Structured interviews focused on motivations for home-mixing, practices, buying habits and broader themes around reasons for long-term vaping. We also measured nicotine and solvent concentrations and analysed 33 DIY e-liquids collected from 16 participants for nicotine, solvents, flavourings, and potentially harmful chemicals.ResultsThere were four main reasons for DIY: 1) economical (financial savings), 2) self-control over manufacturing process, 3) novelty, fun and 4) higher nicotine concentrations. Twelve out of 16 participants achieved nicotine concentration within 20% of their intended limit. Samples from five participants were above the EU Tobacco Products Directive's (TPD) 20 mg/ml nicotine concentration upper limit. Most samples contained more vegetable glycerine (VG) than propylene glycol (PG) and the most commonly used flavourings were dessert, e.g., vanilla and caramel. Chemical analysis also revealed presence of several potentially harmful chemicals and respiratory irritants, including cinnamaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and acetoin.ConclusionDIY may offer users of e-cigarettes a long-term affordable practical method of vaping. Recommended safety advice needs to reflect actual and fast moving user behaviour.
  • Linking Internet Communication and Smartphone Use Disorder by taking a
           closer look at the Facebook and WhatsApp applications

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Peng Sha, Rayna Sariyska, René Riedl, Bernd Lachmann, Christian MontagAbstractIntroductionSmartphones are ubiquitous in the digital society. Although this powerful device is useful because it supports and simplifies many tasks in everyday life, a growing number of researchers is concerned that smartphones might have detrimental effects on the human brain and related psychological processes. Evidence indicates that social media platforms such as WhatsApp and Facebook are essential drivers of smartphone usage. Thus, a critical, yet unexplored issue is how excessive use of those platforms is related to Smartphone Use Disorder (SUD). Furthermore, since the roles of life satisfaction and fear of missing out (FoMo) have been demonstrated to be of particular importance for Internet Use and Internet Communication Disorder, those constructs were examined in the context of SUD.MethodsIn total, n = 2299 participants filled in questionnaires assessing SUD, WhatsApp and Facebook Use Disorder, FoMO, life satisfaction, and reported owning a WhatsApp and Facebook account.ResultsThe study revealed that SUD was linked to WhatsApp Use Disorder, and to a lesser extent, to Facebook Use Disorder. Associations between SUD and WhatsApp Use Disorder were most strongly pronounced in females. Additionally, FoMo predicted SUD, WhatsApp, Facebook Use Disorder, and (fully) mediated the relationship between life satisfaction and those variables.ConclusionThe findings of the present study suggest that WhatsApp use plays an important role to understand SUD. Regarding the mediating role of FoMO, the present work might help disentangle inconsistent results on the link between life satisfaction and (excessive) social networking sites use.
  • Need fulfilment and internet gaming disorder: A preliminary integrative

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Matthew Scerri, Alastair Anderson, Vasileios Stavropoulos, Elwin HuAbstractBackgroundThe need for a better understanding of the risk factors underpinning disordered gaming has been consistently emphasized. Although, gaming may offer a simple and straightforward means of alleviating distress, relying on gaming to address one's unmet psychological needs could invite problematic usage. Self-determination theory highlights the significance of three universally inherent psychological needs for relatedness, competency, and autonomy. A motivation to engage in gaming may be to address unmet needs and may become problematic.ObjectiveThis study aimed to assess whether experienced levels of loneliness, depression and self-esteem mediate the association between Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) behaviours and Need-Fulfilment deficits.MethodThe participants comprised of 149 adults (83 males, 66 females), aged between 18 and 62 years. A series of self-reported questionaries assessing their levels of IGD behaviours, depression, loneliness, self-esteem and need-fulfilment were completed.ResultsNeed-fulfilment deficits were linked to higher IGD behaviours. Interestingly, this association was mediated by the reported levels of self-esteem and depression and not loneliness.ConclusionsThe findings lend further empirical support for the mediating role of psychological distress between need fulfilment deficits and IGD behaviours.
  • The cross-cultural expression of internet gaming distress in North
           America, Europe, and China

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Jeffrey G. Snodgrass, Wen Zhao, Michael G. Lacy, Shaozeng Zhang, Rachel TateAbstractWe compare the forms online gaming-related distress takes cross-culturally, and examine how much such distress resembles the World Health Organization's (WHO) “Gaming disorder,” understood to be an “addiction.” Our preliminary exploratory factor analysis (EFA) in North America (n = 2025), Europe (n = 1198), and China (n = 841) revealed a constant four-factor structure across the three regions, with classic “addiction” symptoms always clustering together on the first and most important factor, though with some variability in regional factors' exact item composition. In the present study, we use second-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to further examine this factor structure and the cultural similarities and differences. Specifically, we focus on confirming the regional structure and composition of an ethnographically developed 21-item gaming distress scale, which contains a wider symptoms pool than typical gaming disorder scales, and thus allows us to better separate generalized gaming distress's “addictive” from other culturally-influenced “problem” experiences and behaviors in each regional case. We use propensity score matching to separate the impact on gaming-related distress of regional culture from demographic variables (North America/Europe: n = 1043 pairs; North America/China: n = 535 pairs). Although our results support current WHO formulations of gaming-related distress as an addictive disorder, we show how cultural forces can shape how “addictive” and “problem” gaming are experienced and thus psychiatrically presented in different parts of the world. In particular, generalized gaming distress's addictive and problematic dimensions seem to be shaped by culture-specific expressions of achievement motivations, social connection and disconnection, and unique psychosomatic experiences.
  • Smoking, alcohol consumption and mental health: Data from the Brazilian
           study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Vanessa Roriz Ferreira, Thiago Veiga Jardim, Ana Luiza Lima Sousa, Brunella Mendonça Chinem Rosa, Paulo César Veiga JardimAbstractIntroductionPrevious researches have indicated a strong association of alcohol and tobacco use with psychiatric disorders, but the relationship with depression and anxiety symptoms is still uncertain. We investigated the association of psychological distress and alcohol consumption, tobacco use and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) among adolescents in a developing country.MethodsThe authors evaluated 73,399 individuals (12–17 years) who participated in the Cardiovascular Risks Study in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national and school-based study, carried out in 124 Brazilian municipalities. The variables considered were alcoholic beverages (experimentation, consumption in the previous month and frequency of use) and smoking (experimentation, current smoking habits, frequent smoking and SHS exposure). Psychological distress was defined as a score ≥ 3 points in GHQ-12. Analyses included multiple logistic regression modeling.ResultsThe frequency of individuals with psychological distress was higher in the group who smoked for at least 7 consecutive days (53.3% vs 31.2%; OR: 2.17; 95%CI: 1.65–2.86), were exposed to SHS indoors (37.8% vs 29.8%; OR:1.30; 95%CI: 1.14–1.48), and outdoors (37.7% vs 26.6%; OR: 1.49; 95%CI: 1.28–1.74), and among young people who consumed at least 1 drink of alcohol in the previous 30 days (42.4% vs 28.6%; OR: 1.70; 95%CI: 1.46–1.97), when compared to adolescents not exposed.ConclusionsSmoking (passively and actively) and the consumption of alcoholic beverages are associated to psychological distress in the adolescent population. Avoiding smoking and the use of alcohol may have beneficial effects on the mental health. Our data reinforce the urgent necessity to prevent effectively underage access to legal drugs in Brazil.
  • Cultural socialization and alcohol use: The mediating role of alcohol
           expectancies among racial/ethnic minority youth

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Tamika C.B. Zapolski, Richelle L. CliftonAbstractIntroductionCultural socialization is associated with reduced risk for several health outcomes among racial/ethnic minority youth. However, to date, less is known about its effect on substance use or the mechanisms through which this process may operate. The current study aimed to examine the effect of cultural socialization on alcohol use through alcohol expectancies among racial/ethnic minority youth.Methods113 minority adolescents (69.9% African American; 13.3% Hispanic; 10.6% Multiracial; 2.7% American Indian/Alaskan Native) between ages 12 and 18 (mean age 15) were recruited from community-based after school centers. Participants completed measures on cultural socialization, four alcohol expectancy domains (i.e., positive social, wild and crazy, negative arousal, and sedation), and past year alcohol use.ResultsA significant indirect pathway between cultural socialization, alcohol expectancies and alcohol use was found for negative arousal expectancies (b = −0.160, Boot CI [95] = −0.413, −0.021). Indirect paths were non-significant for the other three alcohol expectancies.ConclusionsOur findings suggest that cultural socialization can help reduce alcohol use among racial/ethnic minority adolescents, in part though influencing negative arousal expectancies. Given evidence that alcohol expectancies play an important and long-lasting role in alcohol use across development, incorporating cultural socialization into intervention programming for racial/ethnic minority youth may prove beneficial to reduce risk for alcohol use.
  • Age of initiation of cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among
           western Alaska Native people: Secondary analysis of the WATCH study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Christi A. Patten, Kathryn R. Koller, Christie A. Flanagan, Gretchen E. Day, Jason G. Umans, Melissa A. Austin, Scarlett E. Hopkins, Bert BoyerAbstractObjectiveThis study examined self-reported age of tobacco initiation (cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco [ST] use) and explored potential sex and generational group influences on tobacco use onset among Alaska Native (AN) adult ever tobacco users.MethodsSecondary analysis of consolidated data from the Western Alaska Tribal Collaborative for Health (WATCH) study comprised 2800 AN adult ever tobacco users (1490 women, 1310 men; mean age = 39.2 years) from two rural western Alaska regions. ST use data were limited to one region. Logistic regression was used to examine potential sex and generational group (age 18–29, 30–49, ≥50) effects on initiation at ≤13 years of age.ResultsThirty-seven percent of the sample reported using any tobacco product by age 13 years. Initiation of any ST use by age 13 was greater than for cigarette smoking (52.7% vs. 18.2%), and women were more likely than men to report initiation of any ST use at ≤13 years (52.6% vs. 38.4%). Nearly one-third of ever smokers (31%) initiated in young adulthood (ages 18–29). For ST use, logistic regression analyses revealed significant sex differences (women more likely to initiate by 13 years of age than men) and generational group effects with younger and middle age groups more likely to report initiation ≤13 years compared to the eldest participants. For smoking, no sex differences were observed but the youngest generational group was more likely to report initiation by age 13 compared to the eldest group.ConclusionsEarlier age of tobacco initiation is found among younger generations of AN people. Findings highlight the need to focus prevention efforts on initiation of smoking in young adulthood and uptake of ST use among girls.
  • Predicting smokeless tobacco initiation and re-initiation in the United
           States Air Force

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Andrew Dunkle, Ryan Kalpinski, Jon Ebbert, Wayne Talcott, Robert Klesges, Melissa A. LittleAbstractIntroductionActive Duty United States Air Force (USAF) members have substantially higher rates of smokeless tobacco (ST) use than the general population.MethodsWe longitudinally assessed demographics, tobacco use, intrapersonal factors, and interpersonal factors to determine associations with the initiation or re-initiation of ST in the year following a period of forced abstinence among 2188 newly recruited Airmen. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between baseline predictors and ST use at one-year follow-up.ResultsIn the final multivariate models compared to never users, the strongest predictors of ST use initiation after BMT were male gender (adjusted OR 8.93, 95% CI 3.82, 20.88), pre-BMT cigarette and cigar use (adjusted OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.00, 2.57; adjusted OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.66, 3.81 respectively). Compared to former ST users, the strongest predictors of re-initiation were male gender (adjusted OR 10.68, 95% CI 2.25, 50.62) and intentions to use ST (adjusted OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.42, 3.12). Compared to initiators of ST, the strongest predictors of re-initiation were intentions to use ST and peer use (adjusted OR 3.26, 95% CI 1.94, 5.49; OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.92, 3.41 respectively).ConclusionsOur results suggest that initiators may be exploring and viewing ST as a less harmful alternative to cigarette smoking and ST users reporting intentions to use ST in the future often return to use. The development of interventions able to disrupt the link between intentions to use tobacco and future tobacco use in the USAF is vital.
  • An exploration of the barriers to attendance at the English Stop Smoking

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Dimitra Kale, Hazel Gilbert, Stephen SuttonAbstractIntroductionDespite the availability of effective stop smoking assistance, most smokers do not utilise formal cessation programmes such as the English Stop Smoking Services (SSS). We modified the Treatment Barriers Questionnaire (TBQ), developed in the USA, and distributed it to a sample of English smokers to explore the most important barriers to the use of the SSS.MethodsParticipants of Start2quit, a randomised controlled trial aiming to increase attendance at the SSS using tailored risk information and ‘taster’ sessions, who reported at follow-up that they had not attended the SSS, were asked to complete the TBQ; 672 (76.9% response rate) were retained for analysis. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was conducted to examine the structure of the data. Multiple linear regressions were used to determine whether any participant characteristics were associated with particular barriers.ResultsThe most commonly endorsed items related to a lack of information on and a lack of confidence in the efficacy of the SSS. PCA yielded seven factors: Work and time constraints (Factor1); Smokers should quit on their own (Factor2); Nothing can help in quitting smoking(Factor3); Disinterest in quitting (Factor4); Lack of social support to attend (Factor5); Lack of privacy at programmes (Factor6); Lack of information and perceived availability (Factor7). Age was associated with Factors 1, 3 and 4, motivation to quit with Factors 2 and 4, and confidence in quitting with Factors 1, 2, and 3.ConclusionsThe findings suggest that many barriers exist, and they vary according to smoker demographics and characteristics, pointing to the need for tailored recruitment strategies.Trial registrationISRCTN76561916.
  • A preliminary cross-cultural study of Hikikomori and Internet Gaming
           Disorder: The moderating effects of game-playing time and living with

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Vasileios Stavropoulos, Emma Ela Anderson, Charlotte Beard, Mohammed Qasim Latifi, Daria Kuss, Mark GriffithsAbstractBackgroundInternet Gaming Disorder (IGD) and Hikikomori (an extreme form of social real-life withdrawal, where individuals isolate themselves from society) have both been suggested as mental disorders that require further clinical research, particularly among young adult populations.ObjectiveTo add to the extant literature, the present study used a cross-cultural, cross-sectional design to investigate the association between Hikikomori and IGD, and the potential moderating effects of reported game-playing time and living with parents.MethodTwo online samples of 153 Australian and 457 U.S.-North American young adult players of Massively Multiplayer Online (MMO) games were collected. The nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form (IGDS-SF9), and the Hikikomori Social Withdrawal Scale were administered to dimensionally assess IGD and Hikikomori, respectively.ResultsLinear regression analyses confirmed that Hikikomori symptoms are associated with IGD. Additionally, moderation analyses indicated that the association was exacerbated by longer game playing time across both populations. Gamers living with their parents was a significant moderator of the relationship for the Australian sample.ConclusionsExtreme real-life social withdrawal and IGD are related, and this association is exacerbated for those who spend more time playing MMOs per day, and, for Australian participants, living with their parents.
  • Internet gaming disorder: Feeling the flow of social games

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Elwin Hu, Vasileios Stavropoulos, Alastair Anderson, Matthew Scerri, James CollardAbstractIntroductionGaming Disorder (GD) was added to the recent publication of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) by the World Health Organization. This aligns with recommendations of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5), issued by the American Psychiatric Association. Accordingly, further relevant research has been invited. The interplay between preference for online social game genres, the degree of online Flow (or immersive pleasure) experienced, and the gamer's biological gender were examined here as contributing factors of IGD.MethodA normative sample of adult internet gamers was collected online (N = 237, Age = 18–59, Males = 157; 66%; Females = 80; 34%). Participants completed the nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form (IGDS-SF9), the Online Flow Questionnaire (OFQ), and also self-reported demographics and internet/gaming behaviours.ResultsMediation and moderated mediation analyses indicated that the level of online Flow experienced considerably mediated the association between the preference for social games genres and the intensity of IGD behaviours across both biological genders.ConclusionsResults suggest that the level of online Flow experienced constitutes a risk factor in relation to the development of IGD. Furthermore, games which mandate social interaction with others present to be conducive to online Flow, and thus enhancing IGD risk irrespective of the biological gender of the gamer. Implications and limitations of the study are discussed.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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