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  Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 7992 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2100 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access  
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)     Open Access  
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta Medica International     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acupuncture and Natural Medicine     Open Access  
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / Health Sciences Journal of Adıyaman University     Open Access  
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Medical Ethics     Open Access  
Advances in Medical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access  
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Skeletal Muscle Function Assessment     Open Access  
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
AJSP: Reviews & Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Althea Medical Journal     Open Access  
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Anatomica Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ankara Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası     Open Access  
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Hypertension     Open Access  
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Annals of Health Research     Open Access  
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives Medical Review Journal / Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi     Open Access  
Archives of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology     Open Access  
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access  
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASHA Leader     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine     Open Access  
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover
Annals of Biomedical Sciences
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1596-6569
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [265 journals]
  • Erratum: The editorial board has deemed it necessary to republish this
           manuscript, which was earlier published in a previous issue. The tables
           were inadvertently ommitted. Our sincere apologies: Reasons for failure
           and replacement of class I and class II
    • Authors: Y.O. Ajayi, B.O. Akinboboye
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate the reasons for failure of amalgam restorations in a teaching hospital.Method: A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information from patients presenting with failed amalgam restorations in the conservative clinic of a teaching hospital. The questionnaire wasadministered by trained dentists. A sample of 73 consecutive patients was evaluatedwithin a six month period. Information on patient’s age and gender, age of restoration was obtained. Intra oral examination was done to evaluate the type of restoration, reason for failure of restoration and treatment plan to restore the teeth.Result: A total of 73 teeth with failed amalgam restoration comprising of 35 class I and 38 class II amalgam restoration was evaluated. The most common cause of failure was bulk fracture of amalgam (70%) followed by recurrent caries (16.4%). There was no statistically significant difference between frequency of failed class I and class II amalgam restoration (p<0.05). 72.6% of the failed restorations could be restored with amalgam without requiring additional procedure such as root canal treatment, crown and core build up.Conclusion: The most common reason for failure of amalgam restoration is bulk fracture of amalgam which is a result of faulty cavity preparation.Keywords: Tooth restoration, amalgam failure, replacement
      PubDate: 2018-08-03
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Erratum: The editorial board has deemed it necessary to include the name
           of the third author R. Omoregie, in the undermentioned cover page of the
           manuscript. It was inadvertently omitted in volume 17, number 1, January
           2018. Our sincere apologies
    • Authors: F.O. Akinbo, R.O. Ibadin, R Omoregie, S.O. Olotu, I Agbonile, M.O. Efam
      Abstract: Aim: Plasmodium falciparum malaria is associated with mental disorders. Asymptomatic malaria is a condition where there are no symptoms but there is parasitaemia if blood is tested. This study aims to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors for asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia among out-patients of a mentally-ill health institution in Benin City, Nigeria.Materials and Methods: Thick blood films were made from blood specimens taken from 400 participants consisting of 300 mentally ill patients and 100 apparently healthy non-mentally ill subjects. Information on gender, age, marital status and occupation were obtained from the mentally ill patients. The thick blood films were used for malaria diagnosis, and the remaining blood samples were used for haemoglobin estimation using standard techniques. The data obtained from this study were analyzed using Chi square (X2) for comparing frequency data while the potential risk factors were calculated for using odd ratio.Results: Mental illness is significantly associated with asymptomatic malaria (Psychiatric vs non-psychiatric: 20% vs 5%: OR=4.750 95% CI=1.850, 12.196; P=0.0002). Among the mentally ill, asymptomatic malaria was significantly associated with anaemia (OR=17.458 95% CI=8.711, 35.349; P<0.0001). Mentally ill patients 61 years and above had significantly (P<0.0001) higher prevalence of asymptomatic malaria. Gender, marital status and occupation of the mentally ill patients did not significantly affect asymptomatic malaria (P>0.05).Conclusion: An overall prevalence of 20% of asymptomatic malaria was observed among the mentally ill and measures to eliminate asymptomatic malaria and associated complications among the mentally ill are advocated.Keywords: Benin City, Malaria infection, Psychiatric patients
      PubDate: 2018-08-03
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Every senatorial district needs a paediatric surgeon”: pioneer
           paediatric surgery experience
    • Authors: E.O. Udefiagbon, A Eighemhenrio, W.O. Akerele, D.O. Osifo
      Abstract: Background: Specialist paediatric surgical care is absent in most senatorial districts across the nation, either for the few numbers of paediatric surgeons in the country or for the perceived government policy to employ only general surgeons in general hospitals. The experience garnered in the first twenty months of specialist paediatric surgery practice in Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, the tertiary centre in Edo Central senatorial district highlights the necessity of having at least one paediatric surgeon in each senatorial district in Nigeria.Materials and Methods: A review of the first twenty months of Paediatric Surgery practice (September 2014 – April 2016) was compared with the last twenty months of General Surgery practice (January 2013 – August 2014). Surgeon-Paediatrician interaction and co-management of cases in both periods of study was compared with General Surgery practice using questionnaire administered to paediatricians in the facility who had worked actively with the two sets of surgeons.Results: The number of paediatric surgical cases seen in the clinic (593), admissions (211) and emergency cases (71) increased with specialist practice. These figures were more than doubled when compared with 254, 101 and 33 respectively recorded in the last twenty months of general surgeons practice. Surgeon-Paediatrician understanding, professional intermediation, co-management and referral system/response to call assessment for general surgeons were 59%, 65%, 69% and 64% respectively while that for paediatric surgeons were 84%, 83%, 77% and 97% respectively. Review of post-operative complications however was similar for paediatric surgeons compared to general surgeons.Conclusion: This pioneer experience shows that the cases seen have always existed in the locality; the awareness of the availability of specialist paediatric surgical care must have contributed to the increased hospital attendance. The better appreciation of the paediatric patient by paediatric surgeons is a likely factor in the improved co-management of cases with paediatricians. There is therefore the need for at least one paediatric surgeon in each senatorial district.Keywords: Paediatric surgical care, Paediatric Surgeon, Inter-specialty consultation, Senatorial district
      PubDate: 2018-08-03
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Decreased maternal levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 and transforming
           growth factor beta-1, during pregnancy in rats fed with low salt diet
    • Authors: G.O. Oludare, B.O. Iranloye, O.A. Sofola
      Abstract: Low birth weight has been reported in offspring of low salt fed rats.This study investigated the levels of maternal growth factors in rats fed with low salt and high salt diet and the outcome of their offspring. Seventy-two female rats were acclimatized and divided into three groups of control (0.3% salt), low salt diet (0.14% salt) and high salt diet (8% salt). Rats were fed for six weeks. Male rats were introduced to female rats in the 6th week for mating on proestrous evening. The levels of transforming growth factor β-1 (TGFβ-1) and Insulin like growth factor -1 (IGF-1) were measured at days 6, 8 and 19 of pregnancy.Birth weight, placenta weight and fetal weight (day 19) were decreased in low salt fed rats while placenta weight and fetal weight (Day 19) were increased in high salt fed rats. IGF-1 levels were decreased on days 8 and 19 of pregnancy in low salt fed rats while TGFβ-1 levels were also decreased on days 6, 8 and 19 of pregnancy in the low salt fed rats when compared with control.Growth of low salt offspring’s matched that of controls on day 6 of lactation while the growth of the control and low salt fed rats only reached same values as those of the offspring’s of high salt fed rats on day 15 of lactation. In conclusion,reduced fetal development and low birth weight in low salt fed rats is associated with reduced levels of IGF-1 and TGFβ-1 during pregnancy.Keywords: Salt; growth factors; transforming growth factor beta-1;insulin like growth factor-1; lactation; catch-up growth
      PubDate: 2018-08-03
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • A 4 year review of hand injury in children: experience from Benin City
    • Authors: F Ijekeye
      Abstract: Background: Children are, by nature, very inquisitive, adventurous and often rebellious to authority. This behavior often puts them in harms way. The hand, being an organ of manipulatory activity is usually deployed to use and often gets involved in injurious circumstances. Prompt evaluation and treatment of these injuries is required to prevent or limit loss of function.Patients and Methods: This is a 4-year retrospective study spanning from January 2010 to December 2013.It includes all consecutive cases of hand injuries seen in children presenting to the burns and plastic surgery unit of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City Nigeria during the 4-year period.Results: A total of 20 patients were seen in the period under review with a male: female ratio of 1.1:0.9. The mean age was 8.2 SD 5.6. Majority (45%) of the injuries were domestic; followed by motor vehicular accidents (MVA) with 20%. The right hand was affected in 55% and 20% in the left hand. 75% of the patients had right hand dominance, and 15% were left hand dominant. Primary wound suturing sufficed as treatment for 65% of cases. Debridement was done for 15% of cases. 20% of cases required more complex surgical repairs.Conclusion: Pediatric hand injuries are a real hazard, especially in the domestic setting. Children need to be guided and properly monitored at play in order to limit the risk of potentially debilitating hand injuries. Prompt and efficient care will help to restore function speedily.Keywords: children, hand injuries, Benin City
      PubDate: 2018-08-03
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Prevalence of microalbuminuria and its risk factors in type 2 diabetes
           patients
    • Authors: B.E. Kasia, E.S. Idogun
      Abstract: Background: Microalbuminuria represents an abnormally elevated urine albumin levels, although below the sensitivity of conventional semi-quantitative test strip. It is defined as urinary albumin excretion rate between 30-300mg/24hr or 20-200μl/min. Currently it is a marker both of nephropathy and cardiovascular risk in DM patients.Objectives: To determine the prevalence of microalbuminuria and its risk factors among type 2 diabetes mellitus and non diabetics.Patients and Methods: A total of 125 participants (males=47) and (females=78) were randomly selected for the study. The weight, height and blood pressure of the patients were measured and their blood and early morning urine samples were obtained for plasma glucose and albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) respectively. Microalbuminuria was diagnosed if ACR was between 30-300mg/g on 2 out of 3 occasions.Results: Prevalence of microalbuminuria was 68.4%.There were higher mean ACR values in the diabetics than non- diabetics (controls). The prevalence of microalbuminuria increased with increasing age. The mean ACR values were higher in the males than females. The Chi squared analysis revealed that microalbuminuria was correlated with age (p=0.001). No statistical correlation was found between microalbuminuria and sex (p=0.6889).Conclusion: Determination of Albumin: Creatinine Ratio is an easy method for screening of microalbuminuria, hence this is suggested for all diabetic patients especially those with hypertension and long term duration.Keywords: Prevalence, Microalbuminuria, Normoalbuminuria, ACR (Albumin: Creatinine Ratio), Type 2 DM.
      PubDate: 2018-08-03
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Patterns of cervical cytology in a sub-urban population of Delta State,
           Nigeria
    • Authors: E.I. Odokuma, R Odibo
      Abstract: Aim: This study was aimed at determining the cervical Cytologic patterns in a suburban population of women in Warri Delta State, Nigeria with papanicolaou’s technique.Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive study which involved an ex-Post-Facto Research design conducted in a suburban Health Center in Warri Delta State, Nigeria. A total number of 81 female volunteers whose age ranged from 20-90 years took part in the exercise. Consent for participant was obtained from each individual before they were enrolled to participate in the study Cytological smears were obtained from patients using conventional techniques. Processed samples were then analyzed by a cytopathologist who assessed the slides using the revised Bethesda system The frequencies obtained were presented in tables and test of association with age were determined with chi-square and Kruska-Wallis tests.Results: The results revealed that 82% (63) of the cases had no intraepithelial lesion or malignancy. This included 68% (52) of normal observations and 11(14%) of cells with atrophic changes. As shown in the table, 7% (5) samples were not suitable for cytological assessment while 10% (8) of the women were observed to possess low Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (LSIL), with only a single case (1%) of Atypical Squamous Cervical Lesion of Undetermined Significance (ASCUS) recorded. Five (5) cases 7% were documented to be unsuitable for cytological assessment.The result also showed that the mean age was 43.27 ± 12.16 years (SEM 1.35). The modal age was 48 years. Most cases of normal, LSIL and unsuitable samples occurred within the 31-40 year age group interval, unlike atrophic smears which were observed between 41-50 years. Only a single case of ASCUS was recorded, and it was in a 48 year old female. There was a significant effect of age on the observed patterns (p=0.003<0.001; Kruska –Wallis’s test).Conclusion: This study has established that majority of the women in the population had normal squamous cervical cytology smears. We have also revealed that low squamous intraepithelial lesion was the most prevalent squamous ecto-cervical lesion. Finally, regular awareness programmes are advocated to facilitate participation in cervical cytology screening to enable early medical intervention and appropriate management.Keywords: Koliocyte, Cervix, Squamous cell, LSIL, ASCUS
      PubDate: 2018-08-03
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Pulmonary function test in the three trimesters of pregnancy of
           primigravid women in Benin-City
    • Authors: A Omorogiuwa, K Osazee
      Abstract: The advancing pregnancy of the primigravid pregnant women may have negative effect on lung function because of the presumably naïve compliance of the anterior abdominal. This study measured lung function such as; Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in One Second (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC ratio in the three trimesters of primigravid pregnancy. A total of 15 healthy volunteers who were attending Ante-natal clinic at the St Philomena catholic hospital were studied longitudinally. Lung function test was measured using a spirometer on the 12th week, 24th week and 36th week as first trimester, second trimester and third trimester respectively. The control subjects (n=15) were apparently healthy volunteers from the St Philomena School of Midwifery. The forced vital capacity in the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy were 3.26 ± 0.26L; 3.75± 0.30L and 3.25 ± 0.28L respectively and they were not statistically different (p > 0.05) from the non-pregnant control (3.21 ± 0.35L). However, the FEV1 in the second trimester (3.75± 0.30L) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control value of 2.62 ± 0.11L. The FEV1/FVC ratio in the second trimester pregnancy (82.90 ± 0.49%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control value of 81.60 ± 0.30%, FEV1/FVC ratio in the third trimester pregnancy (80.00 ± 0.36%) was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than the control value. The lung functions measured in the three trimesters of pregnancy were within normal range but optimal homeostasis was observed in the second trimester of pregnancy.Keywords: Pregnancy, Trimester, FVC, FEV1, FEV/FVC ratio
      PubDate: 2018-08-03
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Postmenopausal motherhood and IVF: the ethical challenge
    • Authors: K Osazee, E.S. Omozuwa
      Abstract: In the recent decades, women have rapidly involved in career development. Thus, the average age they seek pregnancy to be well over 40years. In light of the inverse relationship between fertility and age, a significant number of these women seekin-vitrofertilisation (IVF) to achieve pregnancy. The concept of IVF has established that postmenopausal women can get pregnant and give birth to children. However, seen as a variant reproductive norm. The practice has triggered concerns and criticisms about pressure on the limited donated oocytes and the various clinical challenges associated with postmenopausal motherhood and their offspring’s. Also, failure to have children at the appropriate time isseen as anact of selfishness. Arguably, most of the concerns are not peculiar to postmenopausal women. In the context of reproductive rights, this could be seen as anact of discrimination because the postmenopausal woman has the right to personal discretion.Keywords: Postmenopausal, IVF, ethics
      PubDate: 2018-08-03
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • The prevalence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from clinical
           specimens in Benin City, Nigeria
    • Authors: E.O. Oladugba, H.O. Ogefere, R Omoregie
      Abstract: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a yeast of industrial value, has recently been reported to cause infections. Against the background of lack of data on the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in clinical specimens in our environment, this study was conducted to determine its prevalence from clinical specimens and its susceptibility profile. Five hundred and nineteen (519) clinical specimens were processed to recover yeast isolates. The yeast isolates were identified and antifungal disc susceptibility profile was performed on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates using standard techniques. Of the total specimen processed, 223 (42.97%) yielded growth of yeast isolates. The prevalence of yeast isolates differs significantly (P < 0.0001) in relation to clinical specimens with catheter tips habouring the highest (80.00%). The prevalence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was 58.83% and it differs significantly (P = 0.0313) among the various clinical specimens. With Catheter tips specimens and aspirates yielded the highest growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiea (10% each). Age and genders did not significantly affect the prevalence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (P > 0.05). In-patients, have a significantly 3 – 31-fold increase risk of habouring Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates (OR = 9.808 95% C.I = 3.118, 30.819; (P < 0.0001) than the out- patients studied. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates were all sensitive to amphotericin B and nystatin. An overall prevalence of 5.83% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was observed in this study. In-patients are 9.8 times more likely to habour Saccharomyces cerevisiae than out-patients. Routine surveillance for Saccharomyces isolates in clinical specimens is advocated.
      PubDate: 2018-08-03
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Comparison of cations (magnesium and calcium) concentration in caprine and
           porcine vitreous humour at post mortem intervals
    • Authors: O.M. Ojo, O.B. Ajayi, G.O. George, J.C. Ekeh
      Abstract: Postmortem interval (PMI) is the time elapsed between death of a person and the time of autopsy. Chemical changes occur immediately or later after death, these changes occur in various body fluids including the vitreous humour of the eye. The Vitreous humor contains various measurable electrolytes and other entities and several studies have tried to establish the concentration of these electrolytes in the vitreous humour and the potential utility of these electrolytes in estimating the time of death. The purpose of this study was to determine, establish and compare the caprine and porcine vitreous humour concentration of magnesium and calcium at various post mortem intervals (0, 24, 48, 72hours). This research is a laboratory-based experimental study. 20 pairs of health caprine and porcine eyes each were gotten from freshly slaughtered pigs and goats from the abattoir at Aduwawa, Benin city, Edo State. Thereafter, the vitreous humor was carefully aspirated from the enucleated eyes and kept in sterile tubes and biochemically analyzed at different intervals (0hour, 24hours, 48hours and 72hours) respectively. The data obtained from the experiment was analyzed using One Way Analysis of Variance and Spearman Correlation as processed by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0. The results showed a significant difference (P<0.05) in the concentration of these cations between porcine and caprine vitreous humour at post mortem intervals. In conclusion, post mortem changes result in change in the vitreous concentration of magnesium and calcium in both porcine and caprine animals with the concentrations varying with increasing post mortem interval.Keywords: Post mortem interval, vitreous humor, magnesium, calcium, caprine and porcine
      PubDate: 2018-08-03
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Pattern of eye diseases and awareness of diabetic eye complications among
           diabetics in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria
    • Authors: M.U. Olowolaiemo, O.M. Uhumwangho, A.I. Osahon
      Abstract: Objectives: To determine the pattern of eye disease among diabetics in a tertiary hospital in southern NigeriaMaterials and Methods: A total of 215 diabetic adults were enrolled. Clinical and laboratory data at presentation which included type of diabetes and duration from diagnosis, medical and ocular history and ocular examination was obtained.Results: There was a male: female ratio of 1:2. The mean duration of diabetes was 9.1±7.2 years (range 1 month to 41 years). A total of 208 (96.7%) of the patients had type 2 diabetes mellitus. Only 24 patients (11.2%) did not have formal education. The most common eye diseases observed were cataract 54 (12.6%), Mild non proliferative diabetic retinopathy 47 (10.9%), glaucoma 37 (8.6%) and Age related macular degeneration 34 (7.9%). A total of 151(70.2%) had ocular diseases and 109 (50.7%) had diabetes related eye disease. A total of 346 eyes (80.5%) had normal best corrected visual acuity. The awareness of the ocular complications of diabetes mellitus was associated with the level of education (p<0.001).Conclusion: Ocular diseases are a significant cause of morbidity and visual impairment among diabetics.Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Diabetic eye complications
      PubDate: 2018-08-03
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Variation in liver enzymes in cosmetologists, heavy cosmetic users and
           cosmetic naïve individuals in Benin City, Nigeria
    • Authors: O.G. Igharo, H.B. Osadolor, P.I. Omusi, J.O. Osunbor, A.O. Igiebor, I Ikekhuamen
      Abstract: Aim: This study aimed to assess enzymatic biomarkers of liver injury in Cosmetologists, Heavy Cosmetic Users and Cosmetic-Naive Individuals in Benin City, South-South, Nigeria, using the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) and Gamma Glutamyltransferase (GGT).Method: In this cross-sectional study, the Cosmetologists (n=50; mean age, 25.4 yrs.) comprising female nail and hair care workers who have had occupational exposure for a minimum of five years, and the Heavy Cosmetic Users (HCU) comprising apparently healthy females (n=25; mean age, 23.7 yrs.) who had constantly used a variety of cosmetics for a minimum of five years formed the exposed groups; while apparently healthy, age-matched, and cosmetics naive female participants [Non Users of Cosmetics (NUC)] (n=25, mean age 20.0 yrs.) working and living in Benin City (same study area with the exposed groups), served as Controls. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) and Gamma Glutamyltransferase (GGT) in cosmetologists, NUC and HCU were determined by spectrophotometry.Results: Exposure burden of ≥ 36h per week, coupled with deficient use of personal protective equipment was observed among the cosmetologists. Additionally, exposure to cosmetics-borne chemicals through body cavities such as skin pore, the nose, the eyes and the mouth is suggested in both cosmetologists and heavy cosmetics users (HCU). Activities of ALT and AST (U/L) in Cosmetologists (10.44±0.43; 19.90 ± 1.29) were significantly higher than both HCU (7.20 ± 0.36; 10.16± 0.41) and NUC (8.00 ± 0.37; 12.24± 0.62) respectively. Additionally, ALP activity in Cosmetologists (28.780±.26 U/L) and HCU (28.730±.31U/L) were similar and both were significantly lower than NUC (30.40±0.43 U/L), while GGT activity (U/L) in Cosmetologists (43.02±2.24), NUC (26.68 ± 1.10) and HCU (23.24 ± 1.47) varied significantly in decreasing order.Conclusion: This study concludes that the significantly elevated enzymatic biomarkers of liver damage observed in the Cosmetologists may be associated with long term occupational exposure to cosmetic-borne hepatotoxic chemicals/metals. Use of personal protective device and artisanal occupational health education is highly advocated.
      PubDate: 2018-08-03
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Anaemia among pregnant women with asymptomatic malaria parasitemia at the
           University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria
    • Authors: M.A.O. Okungbowa, E.U. Ehigiegba, N.H. Okungbowa
      Abstract: Anemia in pregnancy, in malaria endemic areas is a public health challenge that has contributed either directly or indirectly to maternal morbidity and mortality in our environment. However, anemia and malaria during pregnancy are highly preventable and treatable. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of anemia in asymptomatic malaria parasitemic pregnant women at antenatal care visits in a tertiary hospital facility. Following ethical considerations and informed consent by participants, two hundred and forty six (246) pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic were tested for malaria parasites using Giemsa stained thick blood films. The packed cell volume (PCV) of the women was also tested and matched with their infection status. The findings showed that malaria parasitaemia and intensity are dependent on pregnancy and parity of pregnancy (p < 0.05). The mean age of participants was 30.3 3.0 years. An overall prevalence of 65.9% of malaria parasite infection was observed in pregnant women. The prevalence of anemia in the study population was 39.6%. Parity was significantly associated with the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria among pregnant women ( P ≤ 0.01). Anaemia was therefore dependent on infection status and pregnancy status (p ≤ 0.05). The effects of malaria and its clinical features (especially anaemia) on the mother and foetus was again re-stressed with emphasis on availability, affordability and sustainability of malaria control efforts especially for the most vulnerable populations. The study will be of immense value as a public health tool for planning, delivery, diagnosis, monitoring and evaluation of interventions.Keywords: Prevalence, anaemia, pregnancy, asymptomatic, malaria, parasitemia
      PubDate: 2018-08-03
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Fertility and pregnancy outcome following myomectomy among women attending
           fertility clinic in Delta State, Nigeria
    • Authors: W.O. Odunvbun
      Abstract: Background and Objectives: With more women starting their families in the third and fourth decade, the role of fibroid as a possible cause of infertility becomes more relevant. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of myomectomy on women with infertility, and in which fibroid is the only identifiable cause. The study also examined the outcome of pregnancies following myomectomy.Methods: This was a prospective descriptive work, carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eku Baptist Government Hospital from January 2011 to December 2014. A total of 56 women who met the selection criteria and who had had abdominal myomectomy following fertility workup were followed up for 2 years and their fertility/pregnancy outcome was analysed. Telephone contact of the patients and their spouses was a useful tool in the follow-up of these patientsResult: During the 2 years following myomectomy, 32 (57%) women achieved pregnancy; one patient achieved pregnancy 2 months following myomectomy, while 31 achieved pregnancy within 3-24 months following surgery. 24(43%) of the patients did not achieve conception during the two year follow-up period.Of the 32 patients that achieved pregnancy, 2 had spontaneous miscarriages in the first trimester. The remaining 30 patients had full term deliveries except for one patient that had preterm delivery at 36 weeks. Live birth rate of 94% was recorded. Eighty three percent of the 30 women had Caesarean deliveryConclusion: Fertility and pregnancy outcome following abdominal myomectomy is satisfactory. Early sexual exposure following myomectomy should therefore be encouragedKeywords: infertility, Fibroid, leiomyoma, myomectomy, pregnancies
      PubDate: 2018-08-03
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Intrauterine insemination for infertility: experience in a private health
           facility in Benin City, South-South Nigeria
    • Authors: N.O. Enaruna, J.D. Sodje
      Abstract: Objective: To determine the role of intrauterine insemination (IUI) in improving the clinical outcome of infertility treatment.Design: Retrospective study in a private obstetrics and gynaecology clinic in Benin City.Subjects: Women with a diagnosis of unexplained or male factor infertility who had IUI with either partner or donor semen.Main Outcome measure: Clinical pregnancy rate.Results: The pregnancy rates per cycle and per couple were 18.5% and 23.9% respectively. Cumulative pregnancy rate following 3 treatment cycles was 28.6%. These rates were not significantly influenced by the age of the woman (P=0.39), duration of infertility or double versus single insemination per cycle of treatment (P=1.00). Donor IUI was 53.3% more likely to be successful (73.3 vs 20%, OR 3.67; P=0.001).Conclusions: Pregnancy rate from IUI in our practice appears encouraging. A larger prospective study will probably confirm our findings, and highlight useful determinants of treatment outcome.Keywords: infertility, assisted reproductive technique, intrauterine insemination, pregnancy rate
      PubDate: 2018-08-03
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • A 21 year old lady with systemic lupus erythematosus, lupus nephritis and
           deep venous thrombosis – case report
    • Authors: A.B. Olokor, O.E. Olokor
      Abstract: Systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease of unknown aetiology, characterised by a wide variety of clinical features and presence of numerous auto-antibodies, circulating immune complexes and widespread immunologically determined tissue damage; renal disease is a common manifestation. This report is that of a young lady, diagnosed 4 months earlier with SLE, who presented with deep venous thrombosis and had a flare of lupus nephritis and improved remarkably on methyl prednisolone, azathioprine, anticoagulants and dialytic intervention.
      PubDate: 2018-08-03
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Biosocial determinants of age at menarche among secondary school girls in
           Benin City
    • Authors: O.E. Olokor, A.B. Olokor
      Abstract: Background: Menarche signals reproductive maturity and the earlier the menarche, the earlier the initiation of sexual activity with the implication of increase in teenage sexuality and its complications.Aim: To determine the age at menarche among girls in Benin City and to establish its biosocial determinants.Method: This was a cross – sectional descriptive study of secondary school girls in Benin City. Data was collected with the aid ofself-administered questionnaires. Biophysical parameters of the study population were also obtained. Age at menarche was compared with biosocial indices.Results: Of the 1830 respondents, 1322 (72.2%) had attained menarche. The mean age at menarche of the population was 12.72 ± 1.24 years. The menarcheal age was lowest in social class 1 (12.3 ± 1.16) and highest in social class 5 (14.09 ± 0.85), P = 0.000. Girls from polygamous homes had significantly higher age at menarche compared to girls from monogamous homes (13.22 ± 1.25 vs 12.62 ± 1.22 years, P = 0.000). As the number of siblings increased, there was significant increase in the age at menarche (P = 0.000). Post menarcheal girls had significantly higher mean body weight, height, BMI and mid arm circumference.Conclusion: The age at menarche in Benin City school girls is 12.72 ± 1.24 years. The socioeconomic and nutritional status influence the age of menarche.Keywords: Menarche, age, determinants, biosocial
      PubDate: 2018-08-03
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Cardiac and liver function modulation effects of nanosilver in
           salt-induced hypertensive Sprague Dawley rats
    • Authors: O.K. Uche, E Ogbomwan
      Abstract: Aim: This study examined the effects of Nanosilver solution (10 ppm) (NAgs) on histopathology of myocytes, cardiac biomarker enzyme-creatine kinase muscle (CK-MB) and some liver function enzymes on salt-induced hypertensive sprague-dawley rats (SHRs).Methods: Twenty four male rats (inbred) (90-120g) randomly grouped into 4 (n=6) respectively after acclimatization. Group 1(control) received normal rat chow + fresh tap water. Group 2 received rat chow containing 8% NaCl (high salt diet-HSD). Group 3 received [rat chow + NAgs (0.18ml) 10ppm/kg /day)].While group 4 received HSD + NAgs by oral gavage for 6 weeks. Blood pressure (BP) mmHg and heart rate (HR) bpm were measured using blood pressure transducer by cannulation of the left common carotid artery following anaesthesia with urethane. 5ml of blood was collected to assay for some liver enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP). Cardiac homogenate and tissue were prepared for CK-MB and histological studies.Result: CK-MB level was significantly elevated in the SHRs and NAgs co-treated group compared with the control and NAgs-treated normotensive rats (NRs). Histomyograph of SHRs and cotreated NAgs showed varied histological distortion of the coronary vessels, ulceration, vascular dilatation, focal degeneration and asymmetrical medial hypertrophy. AST and ALP levels were, significantly (p<0.05) higher in SHRs, markedly increased in SHRs cotreated NAgs and NAgs-treated NRs compared with the control. ALT level showed a similar trend but with marked elevations in NAgs treated NRs compared with the control and SHRs.Conclusion: Nanosilver solution and salt-induced hypertension synergistically may induce hepatotoxicity and are capable of causing structural distortions in cardiac myocytes.Keywords: Salt-induced hypertension, Nanosilver, CK-MB and Liver enzymesShort running title: Modulation effects of Nanosilver solution in hypertension
      PubDate: 2018-08-03
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Effects of glyphosate on sperm parameters and pregnancy success rate in
           Wistar rats
    • Authors: C.L. Sakpa, S.O. Popoola
      Abstract: Eco-toxicity from chemicals including organophosphate has been of major healthcare concern and is implicated in infertility. This study explored the impact of glyphosate on sperm parameters and its effect on pregnancy success rate in females mated with treated males. Thirty adult Wistar rats comprised of equal numbers of both sexes were randomly assigned to three groups: control (A), Low dose (B) and High dose (C). Male rats in group A received treatment with 1 ml of distilled water daily, while rats in groups B and C received respectively, 400mg and 2000mg/Kg body weight/day of glyphosate dissolved in 1ml distilled water. Treatments were administered by gavage for 60 days. As from day 61 of the experiment, male rats from each group were allowed to mate with females in their groups. The rats were observed during mating and pregnancy confirmed by presence of spermatozoa in a vaginal smear the morning after mating. The rats were allowed to litter and the pregnancy success rate and litter size documented. Pregnancy success rate was 40 % and 20 % respectively for low and high dose treatment groups compared to 100 % success rate for the control. The mean litter size was 1.8 and 0.6 for the low and high dose group respectively, while that of the control was 8.2. Male rats were then sacrificed and semen collected from the ductus deferens for motility, morphology and sperm count studies. There was decreased sperm count and motility with abnormal morphology among the treated groups. Data were subjected to statistical analysis. The results established a dose-dependent toxic effect of glyphosate on sperm count, motility and morphology in male Wistar rats with resultant subfertility in the mated females. It could therefore be concluded that glyphosate exhibited antifertility effect by disrupting sperm characteristics in treated males.Keywords: Glyphosate. Sperm parameters. Infertility. Pregnancy. Wistar rats
      PubDate: 2018-08-03
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Sickle Cell Disease (SCD): when is blood transfusion indicated'
    • Authors: M.O. Adedeji, D Osaghae, N.K.D. Halim
      Abstract: This is a review of the literature as regards the indications for blood transfusion in SCD, complications associated with these transfusions and how to reduce these complications in SCD.The objectives of blood transfusion in SCD include the correction of anaemia and the reduction of the circulating Haemoglobin S level to less than 30%.Thus the indications include prophylaxis for the prevention of stroke especially in childhood.The use of exchange blood transfusion is highly advocated inorder to reduce the level of Haemoglobin S to less than 30%. Conditions such as acute chest syndrome and acute exacerbation of severe anaemia in SCD with hepatic and splenic sequestration also benefit from simple transfusion. Elective surgical conditions; aplastic crisis due to parvovirus B19, in which the packed cell volume is marked reduced; and pregnant multigravida all benefit from simple transfusion to correct the anaemia, and restore the value of the steady state packed cell volume.Complications that may occur due to blood transfusion include alloimmunization to minor red cell antigens ( C, E and kell) and iron overload.. Inorder to minimize complications the rational use of blood transfusion is advocated, in addition to having appropriate and extensive crossmatching techniques to detect minor antigens.Also advocated is the need to prevent iron overload in SCD patients, if there is an increasing frequency of transfusion.Keywords: Sickle Cell Disease, Bloodtransfusions, Indications
      PubDate: 2018-08-03
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2018)
       
 
 
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