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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2051 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access  
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)     Open Access  
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta Medica International     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access  
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acupuncture and Natural Medicine     Open Access  
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / Health Sciences Journal of Adıyaman University     Open Access  
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Medical Ethics     Open Access  
Advances in Medical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access  
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Skeletal Muscle Function Assessment     Open Access  
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
AJSP: Reviews & Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Althea Medical Journal     Open Access  
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Anatomica Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ankara Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası     Open Access  
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Annals of Health Research     Open Access  
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives Medical Review Journal / Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi     Open Access  
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access  
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASHA Leader     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine     Open Access  
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover
Annals of Biomedical Sciences
Number of Followers: 3  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1596-6569
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [265 journals]
  • Evaluation of some haematological indices of implanon (Etonogestrel)
           acceptors after 36months of use in a tertiary Institution
    • Authors: A. O. Aisien, M. E. Enosolease
      Abstract: Introduction:Implanon as a contraceptive method is used by all women of reproductive ages. It is important to continue to document its safety amongst acceptors to enhance its continuity that will increase uptake and reduction in maternal morbidity and mortality
      Objective: To evaluate some haematological indices of users of Implanon over the 36months period.
      Methods: The ongoing prospective longitudinal study of forty six healthy informed volunteers recruited from our family planning clinic in 2007 evaluated the haematological indices after 24 and 36months of use.
      Results: The mean age and parity of the clients were 34.3 ± 4.9years and 3 ± 2respectively. The mean body weight and blood pressure at pre-insertion were 71.8± 11.6kg and 119 ± 14.7/76.6 ± 9.9 mmHg. There was no statistical significant change in the body weight over the study period. The blood pressure showed a significant but within normal reduction at 12months of study 110.3± 12.7/72.3 ±8.1mmHg; p = 0.01/0/05 without any significant change at 24 and 36months of use. The mean packed cell volume at pre-insertion was 37.3 ± 2.5%. The value rose to a statistical significant mean value of 38.6 ±1.9%; p = 0.01 at 36months. The mean platelet concentration at pre-insertion was 177333.3 ± 54351.5per μl. The value rose to a significant normal level of 206333.3 ± 78097.7 per ul; p =0.05at 12monthsof study without any significant change at 24 and 36months. The white cell count did not show any significant change over the 36months period. During the study period six clients discontinued use due to menorrhagia, headache and request for removal to get pregnant giving a continuation rate of 95.7%, 91.3% and 86.9% at 12, 24 and 36months of study. The efficacy was 100%. 
      Conclusion: Implanon was an effective contraceptive method with a safe haematological profileKey Words: Implanon (etonogestrel): haematological indices
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • Acute kidney injury from Paraquat poisoning: a case report.
    • Authors: H. E. Slater, O.C.A. Okoye, O. Okperi, N. Rajora
      Abstract: Paraquat is a salt widely used as a herbicide. Although paraquat poisoning is rare in the general population, it may be considered as one of the most toxic poisons frequently used for suicide attempts, and is associated with serious complications including: acute kidney injury,
      pneumonitis and death. We report a fatal case of a16 year old girl who presented with dysphagia, cough and dyspnoea following ingestion of paraquat. She subsequently developed acute kidney injury (AKI) that resolved but she succumbed to respiratory complications despite use of antibiotics, corticosteroids and haemodialysis.
      Key words: Paraquat poisoning, Acute Kidney Injury, Haemodialysis, Pneumonitis.
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • Confrontation visual field testing in routine ophthalmic practice –
           what is the relevance'
    • Authors: A. A. Salimonu, V. B. Osaguona
      Abstract: Background: Visual field testing, aids in detecting, localizing and monitoring diseases of the visual pathway. Early detection may help to preserve the patient’s sight or life. In some situations, standard perimetry may not be possible.
      Aim: To highlight the relevance of confrontation visual field testing (CVF) in routine ophthalmic practice.
      Methodology: Three clinical cases are presented. A retrospective review of their medical records was done. Data on symptoms, clinical examination including CVF were obtained.
      Perimetry and neuroimaging findings were obtained where possible.
      Results: Two patients had symptoms of headache and visual blurring, galactorrhea and amenorrhea. A right homonymous hemianopia and bitemporal hemianopia respectively were detected on CVF. The 3rd patient complained of visual blurring and bumping into objects following an assault to the head. CVF detected homonymous hemianopia. Automated perimetry could not be done in 2 of the patients either because they had run out of funds or the machine was faulty or the patient was lost to follow-up. Cranial computed tomography revealed a suprasellar mass and an intracerebral hemorrhage in the parietal lobe respectively in 2 of the patients. CT scan was not available in one of the patients.
      Conclusion: Confrontation visual field testing is relevant in routine ophthalmic practice. It is a quick and useful test for detecting gross visual field defects; and it may be the first pointer to a vision or life threatening disease. However, it is not a substitute to formal quantitative visual field testing.Keywords: confrontation testing, automated perimetry, routine ophthalmic practice
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • Levels of Some Selected (Essential-Mn, Zn and Toxic-Al, Sb) Metals in
           Clariasgariepinus(Cat Fish) Reared in Plastic Ponds in Benin City-Public
           Health Implication
    • Authors: H.B Osadolor, O.P Imonitie
      Abstract: Increase in world dependence on fish and fish products as source of protein has caused a resultant increase in fish cultivation in artificial habitats including tarpaulin ponds. This may have potential health threat to fish consumers as certain trace and toxic elements have been implicated with such tarpaulin materials which are made from polyvinyl chloride stabilized with additives. This present study is aimed at evaluating the levels of some trace/toxic elements in African Catfish (Clariasgariepinus) and the health risk associated with these elements. Fish and water samples were obtained from tarpaulin fish ponds and Ikpobariver (control). The fish were dissected, blood samples were obtained and the tissues were digested with standard methodsand assayed for levels of manganese, zinc, aluminum and antimony using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results obtained showed that the mean concentration of the elements differed significantly in tissue and blood. Levels of manganese and zinc in tissues of fish from all the tarpaulin ponds were higher than those from the control river (P<0.01).The concentrations of manganese in blood and antimony in water of controls were higher compared with that of tarpaulin ponds. In general, the concentration of metals (manganese,zinc,aluminiumand antimony) were above the standard guidelines stipulated by the World Health Organization and the Food and Agricultural Organization (WHO/FAO). Consumption of Catfish reared and harvested from these sampled sites over a prolonged period might pose health threat to consumers in the sampled area, thus regular awareness campaigns for fish farmers on the impact of the bio-accumulation of trace and toxic metals on human health should be ensured.
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • Penetrating eye trauma: a case report and the role of imaging in prompt
    • Authors: E.O Ighodaro, A. Owolabi
      Abstract: Penetrating eye injuries pose a frequent threat to vision in both children and adult worldwide and are avoidable. Prompt evaluation and appropriate management of the injuries are paramount in the salvaging of vision. The visual outcome in patients with penetrating eye injuries are influenced by location and extent of the injury, presence and composition of the intraocular foreign bodies and prompt referral for management. In this article we present a case of a 6 year old girl who presented to the children emergency room with a penetrating injury to the right eye and was successfully treated. This case also demonstrated the need for imaging, most especially computed tomography (CT) scan for management.
      Key Words: Penetrating eye injuries, foreign bodies, imaging.
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • An assessment of radiation protection practices in radiological facilities
           in Benin City, Nigeria.
    • Authors: O.H Adams, E. Eze
      Abstract: Radiation protection practices are essential in ensuring that the detrimental effects of
      exposure to ionising radiation are minimised. Equipment quality assurance, personnel
      training and staff dose monitoring have been highlighted as important practices in
      medical radiation protection. The study was aimed at assessing these practices in
      radiological facilities in Benin City. 23 radiographers randomly selected from the
      radiological facilities appropriately filled and returned the administeredstructured
      questionnaires. Less than a quarter of respondents reported that quality assurance
      instructions were adhered to in their facility and only 13% could confirm documentation of such practices. 34.8% of respondents had never attended any professional training since graduation while 47.8% had last attended over a year ago.78.3% of respondents reported that they had been assigned personal radiation monitoring devices, however, more than half had either never been read or had been last read over a year ago. Radiation protection practices appear to be poorly carried out in the assessed facilities. Local radiation protection authorities should do more, in order to limit the hazards that could result from this trend.KEYWORDS:Radiation Protection, Personnel dose monitoring, Radiological facility.
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • Assessment of dyslipidemia in renal disease patients
    • Authors: A.K Digban, M. EAdu, D.J Jemikalajah
      Abstract: Dyslipidemia is elevation of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), or both, or a low high density lipoprotein level that contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Lipid pattern of renal disease patients were determined. One hundred volunteers were recruited for this study which comprised of sixty renal disease patients and forty apparently healthy individuals attending Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Edo State. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) as well as very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) were evaluated using standard methods. Our results revealed higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, very low density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein but lowered high density lipoprotein in renal disease patients. There was a gender difference observed in the distribution of lipid in the study population. It is therefore imperative to include lipid profile in the test menu of suspected renal impairment cases in order to detect early dyslipidemia that may result in atherosclerosis. We therefore advocate mandatory lipid profile check on renal disease patients.
      Keywords: Dyslipidemia, renal disease, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, Irrua.
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • An assessment of the willingness of patients in hospitals in Benin city to
           give consent to clinical research
    • Authors: O.E Obarisiagbon, O.A Adeleye, P. Ojomo, J. Okolie, A. Okhakhu
      Abstract: Background: Clinical research directly involves the use of materials of human origin, such as tissue samples, obtained through direct contact with a particular living person that volunteers and agrees to participate in a research study. An ethical background where informed consent is sought from patients before engaging them is necessary in any research for credibility.
      Objective: The study ascertained the willingness of patients in hospitals in Benin City to consent to research and the factors associated with it.
      Materials/method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was done, and information was obtained through interviewer administered questionnaires. Stratified sampling method was used to recruit respondents and data was analyzed using SPSS 16.0. P value was set at <0.05.
      Results: About 62.5% of the respondents would consent to clinical research. Among those willing to consent to research, 92% were influenced by improved health outcome, 62.7% minimal harm, 40.7% cordial relationship with the researcher and 26.7% wanted payment for participation. Factors affecting willingness to consent were information on the possible side effects (72.9%), benefits of participation (68.8%), Permanent cure (73.8%), insurance in place for health risks (65.0%), reduction in the cost of management (58.8%).
      Conclusion: There was willingness among patients in hospitals in Benin City to give consent to research.Key words: Consent, Medical research, Willingness, Patients.
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • Perceptions about tissue donation for medical research among patients in a
           tertiary hospital in South South,Nigeria
    • Authors: O.E Obarisiagbon, O.A Adeleye, C. Ogbugo, I. Oganwu I, C. Ohanaka
      Abstract: Background: Tissue banking refers to a structured and organized resource collection of tissue. Recent advances in research technology and knowledge in the fields of human genetics/ genomics highlights the need to maintain a steady supply of tissue for researchers.
      Objective: To assess the perception and willingness of patients to donate tissue for research.
      Materials and methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study conducted among 250 patients in University of Benin Teaching Hospital. Data was obtained using interviewer administered questionnaires. Stratified sampling method was used to recruit respondents and data was analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Level of significance was set at p<0.05.
      Results: The findings showed that most patients were positively disposed towards tissue research as majority (75.6%) believed the use of tissue for research was justified and more than two-thirds (73.2%) were willing to donate tissue for research as exemplified by willingness to donate blood, 70.8% would permit storage of extra tissue obtained from surgery, and 82.8% would accept treatment based on tissue research. However, more than half (54%)\ were unwilling to permit the use of tissue from a dead relative for research. This buttresses the roles that traditional beliefs play in determining attitudes and perceptions.
      Conclusion: There was willingness among the respondents to donate tissue for research. However, regular health education is required to sustain this positive attitude.
      Key words: Tissue donation, Medical research, Patients.
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • Long term hypolipidaemic and anti-atherogenic effects ofCarica papaya
           Linn. administration on normal rabbits
    • Authors: A. A. Omonkhua, I.O Onoagbe
      Abstract: Carica papaya Linn. (Caricaceae) is commonly called paw-paw and papaya. It is used widely in the tropics and sub-tropics as food and medicinal plant. Various parts of the plant are used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of indigestion, asthma, beriberi, jaundice, as well as for wound dressing. This study was designed to assess the long term (24 weeks) effects of daily oral administration of C. papaya aqueous leaf extract (at 200 mg/kg body weight) on the serum lipid profile and other atherogenic indices of normal rabbits. Total cholesterol, total triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, atherogenic and coronary risk indices were monitored periodically for 24 weeks. Administration of C. papaya leaf extract caused significant reductions in total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol. Also, from week 10 of this study, HDL-cholesterol concentration increased in the C. papaya treated rabbits. Atherogenic and coronary risk indices were not altered. The antihyperlipidaemic effect observed in this study may be attributed to the nutrients and phytochemicals found in C. papaya.Keywords: Lipid profile; Atherogenic index; Coronary risk index; Carica papaya; Medicinal plants; Hypolipidaemic
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • Prevalence of elevated serum creatinine among treated hypertensives in
           South-South Nigeria.
    • Authors: E.O Oziegbe -Ojeh, L. Ojogwu
      Abstract: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a major issue of public importance in Nigeria. Hypertensive nephrosclerosis is one of the major cause of CKD in Nigeria, being responsible for over half of our CKD patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of creatinine in treated hypertensives in this environment which is a major marker of renal disease.
      Materials/ Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital.Records of patients attending the hypertensiveclinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital were assessed and evaluated for socio-demographic data, blood pressure levels and serum creatinine levels.A cut off mark of 1.5mg/dl was used to evaluate elevated serum creatinine levels.
      Results: There were 826patients with a male/female ratio of 1:1.32. Males were 356 (43.1%) and females 470 (56.9%). Among these patients, 118 (14.3%) had a serum creatinine value of over 1.5mg/dl, signifying renal disease.
      Conclusion: A significant number of managed hypertensive patients, 118 (14.3%), have an elevated serum creatinine value when a cut-off point of 1.5mg/dl was used. The figures rose to 230(27.8%) with a serum creatinine value of over 1.4 mg/dl was used. This signifies kidney disease. The level of asymptomatic kidney disease is quite high in our population of treated hypertensive patients. This figure is likely to be higher when tests of microalbuminia and creatinine clearance are performed for this group of patients.
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • Financial implications of anemia management in anaemic chronic kidney
           disease patients in South-South Nigeria.
    • Authors: E.O Oziegbe-Ojeh, E. Okaka
      Abstract: Anaemia is a common occurrence in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients being almost universal in End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients. Modern management of anaemia involve the use of Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents (ESA’s) and parenteral iron. It is a highly effective therapy, but its use in our environment seems to be largely hampered by costs. While studies have shown that the costs are high, few or no studies have addressed the actual costs in Naira.
      Objectives- To assess the cost implications of anaemia management using ESA’s and parenteral iron and vitamins at the University ofBenin Teaching Hospital, a tertiary health care centre in South-South Nigeria.
      Methods-Costs of investigating a patient for anaemia were obtained from the revenue unit of the laboratory. Costs of purchase of erythropoietin and iron sucrose, syringes, needles, folic acid and other medications were obtained from the revenue unit of the pharmacy department of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. These costs were evaluated using the standard prescription for EPO use in renal disease patients. The total costs were compared to the salary structure of the Edo state civil service, and the CONTISS salary structure of the Federal Government of Nigeria. The prevalent number of patients using EPO and Iron sucrose were also evaluated. 
      Results- Average costs of Erythropoietin at 4000iu 2 times weekly and iron sucrose 200mg weekly and baseline investigations was approximately₦40,300 in the first week and ₦29,500 every subsequent week. This amounts to ₦128,800 in the first one month and ₦118,000 per month or ₦1,426,800 for the first year then ₦1,416,000 (one million four hundred and sixteen thousand naira) yearly. This may account for why only a few of our patients, 8(4.73%) are using EPO and parenteral iron at the point of this analysis.
      Conclusion- The cost of management of anaemia with erythropoietin is very expensive and out of reach for most Nigerians. This is most likely the reason why EPO use has not been widespread among our CKD patients. There is need for a review of pricing to enable more CKD patients to have access to EPO as only 23.08% of our CKD patients are currently on EPO management irregularly and only 4.73% of our patients are on Iron Sucrose and erythropoietin.
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • Isolation and characterization of bacteria flora from dumpsites in Benin
           City metropolis, southern Nigeria.
    • Authors: I.P Omusi, N.O Eghafona, O.R Osumah
      Abstract: BACKGROUND: The waste dumps are indiscriminately placed at common sites in developing countries. It has been reported that over 5.2 million people, that includes 4 million children, die each year from waste related diseases. Waste is any substance, solution mixture or particle for which no direct use is envisaged but which is transported for reprocessing, dumping, elimination by incineration or other methods of disposal.
      Aim: The study is to isolate, identify and characterize bacteria from different dump sites in Benin City Metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria.
      Materials and Methods: Soil samples were collected from the various dumpsites and the adjacent control sites in a sterile universal container. The bacterial load count for the various dumpsites and the adjacent control sites was counted using mise and misra serial dilution method. Aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria were isolated from dump site samples using five different culture media. Phenotypic test was assayed using double disk method to check for Extended Spectrumβ-lactamase (ESBL) and metallo-β-lactamase enzyme among the Gram negative bacterial isolates.
      Results: The following bacteria in decreasing order of prevalence were isolated from the various dumpsites Bacillus spp (30.01%),Klebsiella spp (24.27%), Staphylococcus aureus(12.62%),Coagulate Negative S.aureus (CONS)(10.68%),Pseudomonas spp (6.79), E. coli (4.85%), Alcaligenes spp (4.85%) and Proteus spp(2.91%). Also the following bacteria in decreasing order of prevalence were isolated from the various adjacent control sites, Bacillus spp (66.67%),Klebsiella spp(9.52%), Coagulate Negative S.aureus (CONS) (7.14%) Pseudomonas spp(4.76%), Staphylococcus aureus (2.38%), and Proteus spp (2.38%). Antibiotic susceptibility tests on isolates were performed using standard disc diffusion method. Overall, Ciprofloxacin, Imipenem and Pefloxacin were the most effective agents on the isolates obtained from the various dumpsites. E. coli isolated from the various dumpsites 164 showed strong resistance to almost all antimicrobial agents employed. More so Proteus vulgaris isolated from Oregbeni market dumpsite showed resistance to almost all antimicrobial agent employed. Klebsiella aerogenes, Klebsiella oxytoca and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were observed to be positive to metallo- β-lactamase test. However, other bacterial isolates were observed to be negative for ESBL test. Nonethelessbacteria isolates could cause opportunistic infections which may cause more harm to immune-deficient individuals in the clinic, and in the residences.
      Conclusion: Waste managers and scavengers should endeavour to put on protective clothing, face mask and hand gloves while handling waste. Also proper sorting of waste material should be done prior to disposal in the general dumpsites.
      Key words:Waste, Dumpsites, ESBL, β-Lactamase, Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • Abrogation by human menopausal gonadotropin on testicular disorders
           induced by cisplatin in adult male rats
    • Authors: V.E Oigbochie, C.D Ekpruke, G.A Okemute
      Abstract: Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of cancer cells including testicular cancer. Human Menopausal Gonadotropin (HMG) is a natural hormone necessary for human reproduction. This hormone is a leading modality of treatment for infertility as it contains equal amount of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and
      Luteinizing Hormone (LH). The present study investigated the possible counter effect of HMG on testicular disorders induced by Cisplatin administration in adult male rats. 20 adult male rats were equally divided into four groups; A, B, C and D which were the control, Cisplatin (2.5mg/kg), HMG (3.1 IU/kg) and Cisplatin (2.5mg/kg)+HMG (3.1 IU/kg)groups respectively. The animals were sacrificed after 56 days. Decrease in total sperm count, sperm motility and increase in abnormal sperm were observed in the group treated with Cisplatin. These negative effects were seen to be abrogated in animals in group D treated with Cisplatin and HMG.
      KEY WORDS: Cisplatin, Human Menopausal Gonadotropin, sperm count, sperm motility,
      sperm morphology
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • Ruptured appendix in pregnancy: a case report
    • Authors: A.O. Aisien, J.A Osaikhuwuomwan, O.O Irowa
      Abstract: Objective: To present a report on a case of ruptured appendix in pregnancy and highlight the importance of prompt diagnosis and treatment to reduce maternal and fetal demise
      Patient and Method: This was a 23 years old para 0+0 lady at 30weeks and 6days of gestation, who had unrelieved abdominal pain with analgesics and antacids prescribed by her physician, consulted a traditional birth attendant (TBA) who associated her pain to her oblique lying fetus; a diagnosis made from the ultrasound report. She was treated with vaginal and abdominal manipulation to correct the lie of the fetus. Thereafter her pain became worse and associated with increasing abdominal distension. She was referred to the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) ten days after the onset of symptoms, evaluated and diagnosed to have ruptured appendix for which she had exploratory laparotomy.
      Results: The findings were ruptured appendix, malodorous and faeculent pyoperitoneum of about 2000mls in volume and intact 30weeks size uterus. There was however fetal demise about the 4th post operative day. Mother’s condition gradually improved on the ward and was discharged 14th post operative day.
      Conclusion: Appendicitis should be one of the differential diagnosis when a pregnant woman complains of abdominal pain. A thorough history and physical examination are the best indicators for confirming diagnosis. A delay can lead to perforation with increased risk of maternal and fetal demise.
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • Blood Chemistry of Implanon (Etonogestrel) Users in aNigerian Tertiary
    • Authors: A.O Aisien, E.S Idogun
      Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the blood chemistry of the Implanon users after 12months of use.
      Method: A prospective longitudinal pilot study that involved forty six healthy informed volunteers, non-breast feeding, sexually active and who had not been on injectable contraceptives for the previous 6months were enrolled from our family planning clinic between February and March 2007. Blood samples were collected at pre-insertion, 6 and 12months follow up forelectrolyte, urea, creatinine and liver function tests. Statistical analysis was with paired t-test. The level of significance was set at p< 0.05.
      Result :The mean age and parity were 33.9 ± 5.2years and 3.0 ± 2.0 respectively. The mean weight was 71.4 ± 12.0kg. The total and conjugated bilirubin showed significant
      202 reductions(p<0.000000071) 5.1 ± 6.8μmol/Land (p<0.000000000065)3.4 ± 3.4μmol/L, at 12months of study when compared with the mean values at pre-insertion of 17.1 ± 6.8μmol/L and 10.3 ± 3.4μmol/Lrespectively. At 6months the liver enzymes alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine transaminase (ALT) values were significantly reduced (p< 0.0078)31.8 ± 10.2I.U/Land (p<0.00073)14.4± 5.9I.U/Lwhen compared withtheir pre-insertion values of 48.4 ± 31.8I.U/L and 25.6 ± 16.3I.U/Lrespectively. Similar significant reductions were also observed at 12months ALP (p<0.000012) 18.5±9.6I.U/L and ALT (p<0.00000027) 7.7 ±4.4I.U/L. The aspartate transaminase (AST) concentration was significantly reduced at 6months only(p<0.04)18.3 ± 7.3I.U/L when compared to the pre-insertion mean value of 23.4 ±14.8I.U/L. The total protein concentration at pre-insertion was 72.0 ± 13g/L. There were no statistical significant changes at 6months (p<0.72) 71 ± 7.0g/Land at 12months(p<0.34) 75.0 ± 9.0g/L.The statistically significant changes observed in the concentration of sodium, potassium, chloride and creatinine at 6 and 12months were all within normal reference values.There were no statistically significant changes in the urea and bicarbonatelevelsat 6months and 12months.
      Conclusion: The Implanon use over the 12months study period did not have any adverse effect on the liver and renal function tests.
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • Ocular morbidity pattern in Abonnema, Akuku–Toru local government
           area of Rivers state.
    • Authors: I .O. Chukwuka, E.N. Chinawa, I.O. Ejele
      Abstract: Background: Ocular morbidity patterns are indicative of the ocular health status of communities. They are significant pointers to the prevalent and emerging eye diseases in any country. The absence of professional eye care services in most Nigerian villages has necessitated the use of eye camps offering free screening/treatment as tools for health education and providing eye care to these rural dwellers. Various patterns of eye diseases have been described in different regions and localities within and outside Nigeria. The aim of this study is to determine the pattern and prevalence of ocular disorders in a rural area of Rivers state where primary eye care facilities are scarce.
      KEYWORDS: Occular morbidity Pattern,Abonnema
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • Title: variations and sensitivities of some blood pressure monitors and
           their calibrations in young subjects at sitting and upright positions
    • Authors: O.I Ajayi, A.O Obasohan
      Abstract: Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels. Accuracy in blood pressure meters is of essence to health, especially in blood pressure monitoring and treatment. The aim of this research was to compare the readings and the sensitivities of some blood pressure monitors in use clinically and privately in Nigeria and the effect of posture on blood pressure. A total of one hundred (100) subjects comprising of fifty (50) males and fifty (50) females all within the age range of 18-30years were involved in this research. Materials used included: stethoscopes, cuffs, aneroid sphygmomanometer, and Omron device. The results indicate statistically significant differences (P<0.05, respectively) when the mercury sphygmomanometer was compared with other blood pressure meters used except the Omron meter. The mean values of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) for the meters are (101.70 ± 1.50/69.62 ± 1.46; 107.40 ± 1.19/65.90 ± 1.19; 119.80 ± 2.17/80.89 ± 1.63; 106.10±1.18/74.85±0.91 for aneroid, Omron, wrist and mercury sphygmomanometer respectively. Conclusively, significant variations exist in the sensitivities and accuracies of the different blood pressure meters available for clinical and private use in Nigeria. The need for calibration of all these meters is hereby emphasized.
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • Nigeria’s national health act 2014: a review of some of its
           implications and challenges
    • Authors: O. Enabulele
      Abstract: Nigeria’s National Health Act 2014 was enacted on the 31st of October, 2014. The Act which provides a legal framework for the regulation and management of Nigeria’s national health system, bristles with implications such as the need for improved political commitment by government to the health of Nigerians, improved funding of Nigeria’s health sector, overseas medical treatment, rights of users, rights and obligations of healthcare personnel. Though the National Health Act was enacted over two years ago, not much has been done to operationalize the Act. This may be due to some challenges which are yet to be addressed. These challenges, amongst others, include poor knowledge of the Act by health professionals and members of the public,and poor political commitment by government to the implementation of the Act. This article is therefore aimed at reviewing Nigeria’s National Health Act 2014 with particular emphasis on its implications and challenges.
      KEYWORDS: National Health act,Implications,Challenges
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • Histological effects of aqueous extract of Allium sativum (Alliaceae) bulb
           on the lungs of adult wistar rats
    • Authors: D.E Odiase, E. Obayuwana, U.O. Idemudia
      Abstract: Allium sativum , (garlic) is a popular medicinal plant and a member of the Alliaceae family used for treatments of various ailments. The study was aimed at investigating the histological effects of aqueous extract of Allium sativum bulb on the lungs, an organ of the mononuclear phagocyte system using adult Wistar Rats. The aqueous extract of Allium sativum bulb was administered orally at doses of 150, 300 and 600mg/kg body weight daily over a period of five weeks to adult Wistar rats in experimental groups B, C and D respectively. Group A experimental rats served as control and were administered distilled water daily during the period of the experiment. Animals in all experimental groups were fed with commercial animal feeds and water ad’ libidum. At the end of the investigation the lungs were harvested, histologically processed and examined. The results showed opening of the alveolar sacs and bronchioles as well as mild activation of the bronchio-alveolar lymphoid tissues in a dose dependent manner. In conclusion, Allium sativum has immunostimulant effect on the tissue of the mononuclear phagocyte system.
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • Effects of Mistletoe on the lipid profile and aorta of Triton WR-1339
           treated wistar rats
    • Authors: E.T. Lawal, C. D. Ekpruke, E. Abu
      Abstract: The effect of mistletoe on the lipid profile and aorta of triton wr-1339 treated Wistar rats was investigated in this study. 30 male Wistar rats (150g to 200g final weight) were divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each and were fed on normal rat chows, treated with triton and/or mistletoe extract for 6 weeks. The group treated with triton showed an increase in lipids level in the blood, groups treated with varying amount of mistletoe showed no statistically significant difference (P<0.05) when compared to that of the control group while the group treated with varying amount of Triton and then mistletoe showed decreased lipid level except for High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) in the group treated with reduced amount of mistletoe. The histology of Aorta in the group treated with triton showed focal erosion of the Tunica intima (TI), hyperplasia of smooth muscle of Tunica media (TM) and Tunica adventitia, these adverse effects caused by triton was ameliorated following treatment with mistletoe extract.
      Key words: Heart, Mistletoe, Triton Wr-1339
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • Platelet aggregates and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in essential
           hypertensive Nigerian with sickle-gene trait (HBAS)
    • Authors: O.I. Ajayi, A.O Obasohan
      Abstract: Hypertension is a condition characterized by haemodynamic vascular stress and abnormal blood flow under high pressure and it is associated with complications that are, paradoxically, thrombotic rather than haemorrhagic. Spontaneous platelet aggregation has been known to be present in hypertension which predicts vascular occlusion. Similarly, increased platelet aggregation ratio (PAR) and ADP induced platelet aggregation (ADP-IPA) in response to endothelin and other factors that could contribute to thrombosis also occurs. We have studied an aspect of platelet function with a view to highlight its contribution towards the pathogenesis of thrombotic complications in hypertension. We measured platelet count (PC), platelet aggregation ratio (PAR) and ADP-induced platelet aggregation (ADP-IPA) in fortytwo (42) hypertensive and thirty (30) normotensives Nigerians using standard laboratory procedures. Platelet aggregation ratio and ADP induced platelet aggregation were significantly increased (P<0.05) in hypertensive subjects than normotensive controls with a concomitant significantly lower platelet count (P<0.05, respectively). There was a significant increase only in platelet aggregate ratio in both hypertensive subjects and controls with genotype AA than AS groups but not with ADP -induced aggregation. While hypertensive males have increased ADP induced platelet aggregation than females (P<0.05), there was no sex difference in normotensive controls. We conclude that increased platelet aggregation may be a major determinant of thrombotic complication in hypertensive Nigerians, especially in males and patients with genotype AA.
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • Pathologic diagnoses of appendectomy specimens: a 10-year review.
    • Authors: M.O Udoh, I. Obahiagbon
      Abstract: Aims and objectives: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common indications for emergency surgery. A retrospective study was performed to see the pattern of histopathologic diagnoses in appendectomy specimens, their demographics, and the rate of negative appendectomy.
      Materials and methods: Records of resected appendices with a clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis submitted to histopathology department of University of Benin Teaching Hospital from January 2005 to December 2014 were reviewed.
      Results: Out of the 2187 appendices, Acute appendicitis (43.5%), Lymphoid hyperplasia
      (20.8%) and Peri-appendicitis (10.9%) were the most common findings. Chronic obliterative appendicitis was 1.1%; parasites were present in 0.5%; and carcinoid tumor in 0.1%. Peak age for acute appendicitis was the third decade in both sexes. Perforation rate was 1.4%. Negative appendectomy rate was 22.3%; it was higher in females than males.
      Conclusion: Histopathological examination of the appendix may reveal unsuspected and sometimes sinister pathology besides acute inflamation. The use of diagnostic laparoscopy before appendectomy may help reduce negative appendectomy rate, while maintaining a low perforation rate.
      KEY WORDS: Appendectomy, appendicitis, appendix, histopathology.
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • Gestational prolactin level on days 19, 20 and 21 in Wistar rats
    • Authors: F.O Agoreyo, E. Minna, M.I Omigie, M.O Izevbizua
      Abstract: Prolactin is a polypeptide hormone synthesized in and secreted from specialized cells of the anterior pituitary gland, whose main function is the development of the mammary gland during pregnancy. The aim of this research was to evaluate the concentration of prolactin during the last 3 days of pregnancy in wistar rats. Twenty (20) female wistar rats were used; they were divided into the control and the pregnant groups. The pregnant group was further subdivided into 3 different days of pregnancy; Day 19, Day 20 and Day 21 (n=5). Blood samples were collected from all groups and prolactin concentration was analyzed using prolactin ELISA kit. Analysis of results showed a significant increasein prolactin level during pregnancy. Prolactin level on day 19 (0.64 ± 0.051ng/mL) of pregnancy was significantly higher (P< 0.05), when compared to day 20 (0.34 ± 0.025), 21 (0.225 ± 0.025) and with the control (0.175 ± 0.025). Also prolactin level on day 20 was higher than that for control (p<0.05). Conclusively, prolactin levels during pregnancy increases during pregnancy and peaks at a period (day 19) and starts to decrease before delivery.
      Keywords: Prolactin, Pregnancy, Mammary gland, Delivery
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • Pattern of presentation of diseases at the university of Benin teaching
           hospital gastroenterology out patients’ clinic.
    • Authors: C E Omuemu, R A Ugiagbe
      Abstract: This study set out to assess the pattern of presentation of diseases in the gastroenterology outpatients’ clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria.
      Method: The Gastroenterology clinic records of the hospital for a period of one year were reviewed retrospectively and the relevant data extracted from them and analyzed.
      Results: A total of 1232 patients were seen during the study period of which 675 (54.8%) of the patients seen were female, while 557 (45.2%) were male. The ages of majority of the patients ranged from 21 to 70 years. The most common condition encountered in the clinic was peptic ulcer disease (33.9%), followed by chronic liver disease (15.4%), then acute hepatitis (9.6%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (6.7%), hepatocellular carcinoma (5.9%), and then chronic hepatitis (5.2%).
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • Estimation of reference values for liver function test analytes in
           apparently healthy adults of Southern Nigeria.
    • Authors: B.E. Kasia, D.I. Tabowei, E.S. Idogun
      Abstract: Background: The aim of this study was to determine age and sex based reference ranges for liver function test biochemical parameters for adult population.
      Methodology: This was a cross sectional study carried out at the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri, Bayelsastate, Southern Nigeria. A total of 200 volunteers were screened (106males and 94 females) with exclusion criteria free from HIV,Hepatitis B and C infections. The piccolo expressanalyzer screened for Albumin, Alanine Transaminase (ALT), AspartateTransaminase (AST), Total Protein (TP), Gamma Glutamine Transferase (GGT) and Total Bilirubin (TBIL).
      Results: Reference ranges were constructed using non-parametric methods to estimate 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles of distribution as lower and upper reference limits respectively. Significant age and sex difference was observed in the reference ranges for AST, ALT, GGT and TBIL. The developed reference ranges also differed from kit (manufacturer’s values) and other literature.
      Conclusion: This study provides age and sex specific liver function test analytes to be used in Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital,(NDUTH)Okolobiri. It recommends the adoption of these values in NDUTH, other regions of Bayelsa state and Southern Nigeria.KEYWORDS:Age,sex, adult reference ranges, liver function parameters.
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • Prevalence of work-related injuries among workers of bottling industries
           in Benin city, Edo state
    • Authors: E.O Ogboghodo, V.O Omuemu, M. Makio, M.E Oduagbon
      Abstract: Background: The bottling industry is a large employer of labour in Nigeria and contains various job descriptions and activities which constitute health hazards for the individual.
      Objectives: This study aims at assessing the prevalence and types of work-related injuries and illnesses among the workers.
      Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among workers of bottling industries in Benin City, Edo State. A total of 450 respondents were selected using a multistaged sampling technique. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Data was collated and analysed with IBM SPSS version 21.0 software. The associations between socio-demographic variables, and prevalence of injuries; was analysed using chi squared test and fisher’s exact test where applicable. Binary logistic regression was carried out to further determine significant predictors of prevalence of injuries. The level of significant was set at p < 0.05. 
      Results: The mean age (SD) of the respondents was 29.97 ± 7.052 years with a higher proportion 348 (77.3%) being males.Life time occurrence of work place injury was 145 (32.2%), of which 129 (89.0%) of them suffered physical injuries. Significant association was seen between an increase in duration of employment and occurrence of injury (p= 0.001).
      Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of injury in the bottling industries with the major work-related injuries and illness being physical injuries. Management should ensure a safer workplace for its employees
      Keywords: Prevalence, Work-related injuries, Bottling industry
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • Health infrastructural challenges to health management information systems
           in Edo State, South-South, Nigeria
    • Authors: H.A Esene, A.I Obi, P.W Okojie
      Abstract: Aim: This study aims to assess health management information systems at the primary health care facilities in Edo State to help identify gaps in performance especially as regards the health workers’ ability to practice and use the health data generated at their Primary Health Care centres.
      Methods: A health facility based qualitative survey was done involving focus group discussion, in depth/key informant interviews and an observational checklist assessment of the health facilities. Both questionnaires were structured in line with study objectives. The notes and recordings were transcribed using thematic analysis to identify recurrent themes of barriers to the practice and use of data collection.
      Results: Thirty-five PHC health facilities were assessed for availability and functionality of health infrastructure. None of the health facilities had internet connectivity and budget specific for NHMIS, 2(5.7%) had stand by generating sets only 0.06 of the total (2.9%) were functional, 6(17.1%) had desk, chairs for data entry/NHMIS only 0.3 of the total (5.7%) were functional and 26(74.3%) of health facilities had focal persons handling data, all (100%) were functional. Only 2 (5.7%) of the health centres surveyed were capable of operating the NHMIS activities while 33 (94.3%) were not capable.
      Conclusion: The study showed a huge gap in the health infrastructure necessary to facilitate practice and utilization of the NHMIS thus weak operational capacity of the PHC-NHMIS. The government at all levels should ensure collective effort and political will to improve the PHCNHMIS in Edo State through training and training courses and placement of appropriate data staff across the PHCs.
      Key words: Data, Edo State, Health workers, Health infrastructure, Health Management
      Information Systems, Primary Health Care centres.
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • The internet as a source of drug information: a profile of utilization by
           junior hospital doctors in a Nigerian teaching hospital.
    • Authors: A. Olowofela, S. A. Ayinbuomwan, A. O. Isah
      Abstract: Introduction: The internet is a useful tool which could provide quality drug information if well applied. Its utilization as a source of drug information by junior doctors in Nigeria is not well documented.
      Objective: To assess the use of the internet by junior doctors as a source of objective drug information in Nigeria.
      Methods: The study was carried out at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria- a 730 bed tertiary hospital. Structured questionnaires were administered to 160 resident doctors in training at their usual clinical meetings. Information sought included; demographic data, utilization of the internet, category and frequency of drug information request etc. Multiple responses were accepted and the data were analysed and presented descriptively.
      Results: The response rate was 98.8 % (158/160) -121 junior and 37senior residents, with a practice duration 0.6-17years (Mean (SD) 4.2±3.8). Majority, 90.5% (143/158) had accessed the internet for drug information, with 83.6% finding it useful, while 14.6% were using it regularly. Websites commonly visited included Google (63.6%), Medscape (36.4%) and Wikipedia (23.8%). Reasons for accessing information included, dosage clarifications (90.9%), indications for use (88.8%), adverse drug reactions (87.4%), poisoning (47.6%) etc. Of interest, was the finding that 39.9% regularly ascertained when the page was last updated.
      Conclusion: In all, few residents regularly access the internet for drug information despite the large number that visits sites. Again, the study further suggests the potential dangers of a growing improper use of internet by junior doctors as a source of objective drug information.
      Key words: Medical informatics, Internet, Physicians, Nigeria
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • The value of serum Hepatitis B surface antigen quantification in
           determining viralactivity in chronic Hepatitis B virus infection.
    • Authors: M.I Ibegu, C.E Omuemu, D.A Ndububa, O Ibegu
      Abstract: Background and Aims: We aimed to quantify the Serum HBsAg titres in CHB
      patients, and to determine if there is an association between Serum HBsAg titres and the phase of CHB.
      Methods: A total of 178 consecutively presenting patients with chronic hepatitis B were
      studied. The different phases of CHB were classified according to the serum HBeAg/anti-HBe status, HBV DNA concentrations and serum ALT levels, based on the European Association for the study of the liver (EASL) guidelines.Serum HBsAg titres were measured using the Elecsys HBsAg II Quant assay (Roche Diagnostics).
      Results: Of the total (178) patients studied, 3 (2%) were found to be in the immune tolerant phase, 10 (6%) in the immune clearance phase, 98 (55%) in the low replicative phase, and 67 (38%) in the reactivation phase. The mean values of HBsAg titres were 4.70, 4.45, 3.38, and 3.68 log IU/ml for the immune tolerant, immune clearance, inactive and reactivation phases 395 respectively. The difference in the mean value for HBsAg level across the phases of hepatitis B were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05).
      Conclusion: HBsAg titres varied significantly across different phases of CHB in treatment naive patients. In addition, HBsAg titres were highest in the immune tolerant phase ofCHB andalso higher in hepatitis e antigen positive patients compared to hepatitis e antigen negative patients.
      Keywords:Serum Hepatitis B surface antigen Quantification, Viralactivity,Chronic Hepatitis B infection
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
  • Spectrum of eyelid disorders at a Nigerian tertiary eye care center.
    • Authors: D. Kayoma, O. O. Idowu
      Abstract: Background: The eyelids are an essential part of the human face and is a multilayered structure that covers and protects the human eye. Disorders of the eyelids may lead to visual compromise, facial disfigurement, aesthetically unacceptable appearance andits attendant psychosocial impact.
      Objective: To describe the spectrum of eyelid disorders presenting at a Nigerian tertiary eye care centre with a view to determine the most common type of eyelid disorders as well as available treatment options.
      Study Design: Retrospective chart review.
      Methods: A retrospective chart review of all patients who were diagnosed to have eyelid disorders at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH)eye clinic between January, 2013 and December, 2015. Information regarding age, gender, duration of symptoms before presentation, laterality and treatment optionswere obtained from retrieved case files.
      Results: A total of ninety-four cases of eyelid disorders were identified during the period under review. The mean age of patients was 30.7±18.5 years with a male to female ratio of 1:1.6. A higher proportion of patients 61 (64.9%) presented less than one year after onset of eyelid symptoms. The most common type of eyelid disorders waschalazion/internal hordeolum (38.3%) followed by blepharoptosis/ptosis (13.8%). Sixty-three (67.0%) patients underwentonly surgical treatment option while 16 (17.0%) patients required only medical treatment.There was statistically significant association between eyelid disorder classification and treatment offered (p < 0.001).
      Conclusion: Chalazion and blepharoptosis are the most common presenting eyelid disorders at UBTH, Benin.
      Keywords: Spectrum, Eyelid disorders, Nigerian and Tertiary eye center.
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
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