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  Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 7268 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (1810 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access  
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access  
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access  
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Fundeni Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access  
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Journal Khulna     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Research Council Bulletin     Open Access  
Basal Ganglia     Hybrid Journal  
Basic Sciences of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BC Medical Journal     Free  
Benha Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bijblijven     Hybrid Journal  
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biologics in Therapy     Open Access  
Biology of Sex Differences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomarker Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover African Health Sciences
  [SJR: 0.441]   [H-I: 25]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1680-6905
   Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [266 journals]
  • Editorial: Sexuality, mother-child health and infectious diseases

    • Authors: James K. Tumwine
      Abstract: No Abstract
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Efficacy of combined traditional Chinese medicine spray with premature
           ejaculation desensitization therapy for the treatment of primary premature
           ejaculation

    • Authors: Ying-Dong Cui, Shu-Bin Hu, Bo Wu, Shi-Jun Li, Kui Xiang, Zhao-Lin Liao, Hui-Ping Zhang, Chang-Hong Zhu, Meng Rao
      Abstract: Objectives: We recommend a new kind of spray made from eight kinds of traditional Chinese medicine, we aimed to investigate the safety and clinical efficacy of combined traditional Chinese medicine spray (TCMS) with premature ejaculation desensitization therapy (PEDT) for the treatment of primary premature ejaculation (PPE).Methods: A total of 90 patients with PPE were randomly assigned to receive TCMS, PEDT monotherapy or TCMS plus PEDT combination therapy for 6 weeks. Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and Chinese index of sexual function for premature ejaculation (CIPE-5) were measured to evaluate the effect of each treatment.Results: Eighty six (86) participants completed the study voluntarily. Both IELT and CIPE-5 in these three groups increased after treatment when compared with baseline levels (p< 0.01). IELT and CIPE-5 after treatment in TCMS plus PEDT group were significantly higher than those in the other two groups (both p <0.05). Additionally, clinical efficacy in TCMS plus PEDT group (89.7%) was significantly higher than in TCMS (65.5%) and PEDT group (67.9%) (p< 0.01).Conclusion: The self-made TCMS was safe and effective for the treatment of PPE, a combination of TCMS and PEDT therapy was more effective than the TCMS or PEDT monotherapy.Keywords: Primary premature ejaculation (PPE); traditional Chinese mdicine spray (TCMS); premature ejaculation desensitization training therapy (PEDT); Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT); Chinese index of sexual function for premature ejaculation (CIPE-5)
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Early sexual debut: prevalence and risk factors among secondary school
           students in Ido-ekiti, Ekiti state, South-West Nigeria

    • Authors: Kabir Adekunle Durowade, Oluwole Adeyemi Babatunde, Lukman Omotayo Omokanye, Olusegun Elijah Elegbede, Lawrence Majekodunmi Ayodele, Kayode Razaq Adewoye, Stella Adetokunbo, Charles O. Olomofe, Adegboyega A. Fawole, Oyebola Eyitayo Adebola, Temitope O. Olaniyan
      Abstract: Background: Early adolescent sexual activity remains a recurring problem with negative psychosocial and health outcomes. The age at sexual debut varies from place to place and among different individuals and is associated with varying factors. The aim was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of early sexual debut among secondary school students in Ido-Ekiti, South-West Nigeria.Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study. The respondents were selected using multi-stage sampling technique. Pre-tested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 15.Results: More than two-thirds, 40(67.8%), had early sexual debut. The prevalence of early sexual debut was about 11%. The mean age of sexual debut was 13.10±2.82; the mean age for early sexual debutants was 11.68±1.98. The mean number of sexual partners was 2.44±1.99. Male gender, having friends who engaged in sexual activities had association with early sexual exposure (p<0.05). Alcohol intake had the strongest strength of association for early sexual debut among the students.Conclusion: The high prevalence of early sexual exposure among the students calls for urgent interventions to stem the trend. This will help to reduce the devastating negative psycho-social and health sequels.Keywords: Sexual debut, prevalence, risk factors, Nigeria
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Female sexual outcomes in primiparous women after vaginal delivery and
           cesarean section

    • Authors: Fatemeh Nasiri Amiri, Shabnam Omidvar, Afsaneh Bakhtiari, Mahmood Hajiahmadi
      Abstract: Background: Sexual function is an essential component of life and yet very little is known about the relationships between the female sexuality and the mode of delivery.Objective: To compare sexual outcomes after vaginal delivery and cesarean section.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on women in two stages; early pregnancy and 3 to 6 months after delivery in health centers. Female sexual outcomes evaluated were female Sexual Function Index scores and the time required to resume sexual activities after delivery.Results: Sexual function did not differ significantly among two groups vaginal delivery n=90 and cesarean section n = 113 with regard to duration of marriage, educational level, contraception methods, and occupational status p = 0.8.The mean timing of the resumption of sexual activity was 8.9 ± 1.3, and there was no substantial conflict between the two groups. Mean frequency of intercourse in the post-partum period was 1.8±1.2 times per week with significant difference compared to pre pregnancy P<0.05. The individual domain scores after the delivery was significantly lower in comparison with pre-pregnancy p<0.004.Conclusion: No differences in sexual outcomes between vaginal delivery and cesarean section. Consequently cesarean section cannot be recommended in the view of maintenance of normal sexuality after child birth.Keywords: Women’s health, cesarean section, post-partum, vaginal delivery, female sexual function
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Diagnosis and treatment of unconsummated marriage in an Iranian couple

    • Authors: Mahshid Bokaie, Zahra Bostani Khalesi, Seyed Mojtaba Yasini-Ardekani
      Abstract: Background: Unconsummated marriage is a problem among couples who would not be able to perform natural sexual intercourse and vaginal penetration. This disorder is more common in developing countries and sometimes couples would come up with non-technical and non-scientific methods to overcome their problem. Multi-dimensional approach and narrative exposure therapy used in this case.Methods: This study would report a case of unconsummated marriage between a couple after 6 years. The main problem of this couple was vaginismus and post-traumatic stress.Results: Treatment with multi-dimensional approach for this couple included methods like narrative exposure therapy, educating the anatomy of female and male reproductive system, correcting misconceptions, educating foreplay, educating body exploring and non-sexual and sexual massage and penetrating the vagina first by women finger and then men’s after relaxation. The entire stages of the treatment lasted for four sessions and at the one-month follow-up couple’s satisfaction was desirable.Conclusion: Unconsummated marriage is one of the main sexual problems; it is more common in developing countries than developed countries and cultural factors are effective on intensifying this disorder. The use of multi-dimensional approach in this study led to expedite diagnosis and treatment of vaginismus.Keywords: Unconsummated marriage, couple’s therapy, vaginismus, behavioral therapy
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • A binary logistic regression model with complex sampling design of unmet
           need for family planning among all women aged (15-49) in Ethiopia

    • Authors: Demeke Lakew Workie, Dereje Tesfaye Zike, Haile Mekonnen Fenta, Mulusew Admasu Mekonnen
      Abstract: Background: Unintended pregnancy related to unmet need is a worldwide problem that affects societies. The main objective of this study was to identify the prevalence and determinants of unmet need for family planning among women aged (15-49) in Ethiopia.Methods: The Performance Monitoring and Accountability2020/Ethiopia was conducted in April 2016 at round-4 from 7494 women with two-stage-stratified sampling. Bi-variable and multi-variable binary logistic regression model with complex sampling design was fitted.Results: The prevalence of unmet-need for family planning was 16.2% in Ethiopia. Women between the age range of 15-24 years were 2.266 times more likely to have unmet need family planning compared to above 35 years. Women who were currently married were about 8 times more likely to have unmet need family planning compared to never married women. Women who had no under-five child were 0.125 times less likely to have unmet need family planning compared to those who had more than two-under-5.Conclusion: The key determinants of unmet need family planning in Ethiopia were residence, age, marital-status, education, household members, birth-events and number of under-5 children. Thus the Government of Ethiopia would take immediate steps to address the causes of high unmet need for family planning among women.Keywords: Complex sampling design, Ethiopia, family planning, Performance Monitoring and Accountability, unmet need
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Contribution of IgG avidity and PCR for the early diagnosis of
           toxoplasmosis in pregnant women from the North-Eastern region of Algeria

    • Authors: Hajira Berredjem, Hayette Aouras, Meriem Benlaifa, Imène Becheker, Mohamed Reda Djebar
      Abstract: Background: Acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women presents a high risk of Toxoplasma transmission to the fetus. Early diagnosis is difficult, especially when serological testing for IgG/IgM antibodies fail to differentiate between a recent and a past infection. In this case, we rely on IgG avidity or PCR assays.Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare conventional ELISA and IgG avidity, with PCR using B1 and P30 primers for the early diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women.Methods: Sera were collected from 143 pregnant women and measured by ELISA for anti-Toxoplasma IgG, IgM, IgA and IgG avidity. DNA was extracted from 57 peripheral blood and 14 amniotic fluid samples for PCR amplification.Results: A total of 57 out 143 women were seropositive: 30 (52.6%) were IgG+/IgM- and 27 (43.8%) were IgG+/IgM+; IgA antibodies were positive in 7 (12.2%) cases. IgG avidity was low in 9 women suggesting an acute infection; 3 women presented an intermediate avidity. PCR detected Toxoplasma DNA in 9 women presenting low avidity and was negative for the intermediate avidity cases.Conclusion: PCR combined to avidity IgG performed better than ELISA IgG, IgM and/or IgA assays alone. PCR was useful in the case of intermediate avidity.Keywords: Toxoplasmosis, pregnant women, serology, IgG avidity, PCR
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Compliance with the consumption of iron and folate supplements by pregnant
           women in Mafikeng local municipality, North West province, South Africa

    • Authors: Xikombiso Mbhenyane, Matodzi Cherane
      Abstract: Background: Anaemia due to iron deficiency is recognized as one of the major nutritional deficiencies in women and children in developing countries. Daily iron supplementation for pregnant women is recommended in many countries. The aim of the study was to investigate the factors that contribute to compliance to the consumption of iron and folate supplements by pregnant woman in Mafikeng local municipality, North West Province, South Africa.Research Methods: A mixed method of descriptive, exploratory and cross-sectional design was used. Ten clinics were used as a sample frame where 57 pregnant women and 10 health workers were purposefully and conveniently selected. Quantitative techniques were used to collect data on attendance, consumption and nutrition knowledge using the self-reported questionnaire by pregnant women, and structured interview for health workers. Qualitative design was used to conduct in - depth focus-group discussions to gather information on compliance to the consumption of supplements by pregnant women.Findings: The findings of the study revealed good antenatal clinic attendance, availability of supplements and 93% compliance to the consumption of iron and folate supplements.Recommendations: High compliance to the consumption of iron and folate supplements by pregnant women was reported, and this should be reinforced.Keywords: Iron and folate supplements, Mafikeng local municipality, North West province, South Africa
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Determinants of obstetric fistula in Ethiopia

    • Authors: Asrat Atsedeweyn Andargie, Abebe Debu
      Abstract: Background: Obstetric fistula is a maternal morbidity creating devastating health problems for the women. Continuous and uncontrollable leaking of urine or faeces from vagina can lead to life changing stigmatization for women in third world countries. The underlying factors and consequences of this problem are not yet fully identified and adequately documented in Ethiopia.Methods: This study is based on the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey data (EDHS, 2005). The survey collected information on a total of 14,070 women who were interviewed face to face on their background characteristics as well as reproductive health issues, out of which 3178 women had complete measurements and were considered in this study. Descriptive and binary logistic regressions techniques were used using demographic, socio-economic, health and environmental related variables as explanatory variables and status of obstetric fistula as a response variable.Results: The results showed that geographical region, place of residence, educational status, age at first birth, age at first marriage, employment status, place of delivery and follow up of antenatal care during pregnancy were significant determinant factors of obstetric fistula in Ethiopia.Conclusion: The study showed that demographic, socio-economic, environmental and health related variables have an important effect on determinants of obstetric fistula in Ethiopia.Keywords: Obstetric fistula, logistic regression, determinant factors
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Effect of intimate partner violence on birth outcomes

    • Authors: Tariku Laelago, Tefera Belachew, Meseret Tamrat
      Abstract: Background: Violence by intimate partner during pregnancy has many adverse pregnancy outcomes. Thus, that's why we sought to determine association between intimate partner violence during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes.Methods: A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted among 183 recently delivered women from March 31- April 30, 2014 in public health facilities of Hossana Town. The data were collected through structured questionnaire and record review. Women who were not mentally and physically capable of being interviewed and those admitted for abortion were excluded. Ethical clearance was obtained from Jimma University. Logistic regression analysis was employed to determine the association between intimate partner violence and adverse birth outcomes.Results: About 23 % of women experienced intimate partner violence during pregnancy. The result of this study indicated an association of intimate partner violence with low birth weight of the new born (AOR:14.3,95% CI: (5.03, 40.7). Intimate partner violence was not associated with still birth, pre-term birth and Apgar score less than 7 at 5 minutes.Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that intimate partner violence during pregnancy was associated with a low birth weight of the new born. Health sectors should train health care providers on how to screen, counsel, treat and follow up abused women.Keywords: Intimate partner violence, birth outcomes, Ethiopia
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Determinants of pre-lacteal feeding practices in urban and rural Nigeria;
           a population-based cross-sectional study using the 2013 Nigeria
           demographic and health survey data

    • Authors: Anselm Shekwagu Berde, Siddika Songul Yalcin, Hilal Ozcebe, Sarp Uner, Ozge Karadag Caman
      Abstract: Background: Prelacteal feeding (PLF) is a barrier to exclusive breast feeding.Objective: To determine factors associated with PLF in rural and urban Nigeria.Methods: We utilized data from the 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to test for association between PLF and related factors.Results: Prevalence of PLF in urban Nigeria was 49.8%, while in rural Nigeria it was 66.4%. Sugar or glucose water was given more in urban Nigeria (9.7% vs 2.9%), plain water was given more in rural Nigeria (59.9% vs 40.8% ). The multivariate analysis revealed that urban and rural Nigeria shared similarities with respect to factors like mother’s education, place of delivery, and size of child at birth being significant predictors of PLF. Mode of delivery and type of birth were significant predictors of PLF only in urban Nigeria, whereas, mother’s age at birth was a significant predictor of PLF only in rural Nigeria. Zones also showed variations in the odds of PLF according to place of residence.Conclusion: Interventions aimed at decreasing PLF rate should be through a tailored approach, and should target at risk sub -groups based on place of residence.Keywords: Pre-lacteal feeds, mothers, infants, urban, rural, Nigeria
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Assessment of policy makers’ individual and organizational capacity to
           acquire, assess, adapt and apply research evidence for maternal and child
           health policy making in Nigeria: a cross-sectional quantitative survey

    • Authors: Chigozie Jesse Uneke, Issiaka Sombie, Namoudou Keita, Virgil Lokossou, Ermel Johnson, Pierre Ongolo-Zogo, Henry Chukwuemeka Uro-Chukwu
      Abstract: Background: Throughout the world, there is increasing awareness and acknowledgement of the value of research evidence in the development of effective health policy and in quality health care practice and administration. Among the major challenges associated with the lack of uptake of research evidence into policy and practice in Nigeria is the capacity constraints of policymakers to use research evidence in policy making.Objective: To assess the capacity of maternal and child health policy makers to acquire, access, adapt and apply available research evidence.Methods: This cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted at a national maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) stakeholders’ engagement event. An evidence to policy self-assessment questionnaire was used to assess the capacity of forty MNCH policy makers to acquire, assess, adapt and apply research evidence for policy making.Results: Low mean ratings were observed ranging from 2.68-3.53 on a scale of 5 for knowledge about initiating/conducting research and capacity to assess authenticity, validity, reliability, relevance and applicability of research evidence and for organizational capacity for promoting and using of research for policy making.Conclusion: There is need to institute policy makers’ capacity development programmes to improve evidence-informed policymaking.Keywords: Policy maker; research; evidence; capacity; Nigeria
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • HIV-Sero- prevalence trend among blood donors in North East Ethiopia

    • Authors: Bekele Sharew, Assefa Mulu, Brhanu Teka, Tigabu Tesfaye
      Abstract: Background: Although blood transfusion is one of the known therapeutic interventions that cuts across a number of clinical disciplines. It is necessary to test all intending blood donors for HIV infection before donation. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV among blood donors at Dessie Blood Bank, Northeast Ethiopia.Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in Dessie Blood Bank through the year 2008- 2012. Sera from blood donors were tested for the detection of Anti HIV by using 4th generation ELISA. Data were abstracted from records and analyzed using Microsoft Excel sheet.Results: From the total of 9384 screened blood samples collected, the prevalence of HIV in blood donors in the blood bank was 5.1% in the five consecutive years but the trend of HIV infection has decreased from 2008(5.2%) to 2012 (2.3%). The age groups 15-24 and 35-44 were the highest prevalence and the age group 45-54 was the lowest prevalence of HIV infection. The prevalence of HIV among female (7.9%) was higher than in male donors (4.4%). The trend of HIV infection was decreasing for both male and female blood donors.Conclusion: The prevalence of HIV infections among blood donors is still high in this study setting, and needs constant monitoring to evaluate prevention and control strategies to reduce the burden of transfusion-transmissible HIV infections.Keywords: Blood donor, HIV, seroprevalence, Ethiopia
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Acute systemic inflammatory response after cardiac surgery in patients
           infected with human immunodeficiency virus using clinical and inflammatory
           markers

    • Authors: Mawande K.E. Gojo, Rosaley Prakaschandra
      Abstract: Background: Immediate post-cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) immune responses and organ injuries in immune-compromised patients remain poorly documented.Method: Sixty-one consecutive patients (30 HIV seropositive and 31 seronegative), undergoing elective cardiac valve(s) replacement were enrolled, from a single center hospital, after informed consent was obtained. C-reactive protein (CRP) and Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were used as biomarkers of acute inflammatory response.Results: The mean age was similar between the HIV seropositive and negative group. Pre-operatively, CRP (p=0.388) and ESR (p=0.817) were comparable. The CPB events and durations were significantly different between the two groups: duration (p=0.021), clamp aortic duration (p=0.026), bloodtransfusion (p=0.013), total urine output (p=0.035) and peak lactate (p=0.040). Post-operatively, there was significant increased biomarkers level in both groups, albeit not between the groups with a significant negative correlation between the mean change in CRP levels and mechanical ventilation (r=0.548, p=0.002) in the seropositive group (r=0.025, p=0.893). The correlation between pre-operative and post-operative difference in CRP and ICU stay was not significant in both groups. A significant drop (p=<0.001) in CD4 cells was documented post-operatively in the HIV seropositive group.Conclusion: HIV positive patients’ post-operative reactions to cardiac surgery supported by CPB are similar to those of HIV seronegative patients.Keywords: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), inflammation
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • HIV counseling and testing practices among clients presenting at a market
           HIV clinic in Kampala, Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Joseph K.B. Matovu, Paul W. Bukuluki, David K. Mafigiri, Harriet Mudondo
      Abstract: Background: Uptake of HIV counseling and testing (HCT) among informal sector workers is not well documented.Objective: To assess HCT practices among clients presenting for HIV services at a market HIV clinic in Kampala, Uganda.Methods: Between August 1 and September 15, 2009, clients presenting for HIV services at a market HIV clinic were invited to participate in the study. Socio-demographic and HCT data were collected from consenting adults aged 16+ years. Descriptive statistics were performed using STATA version 14.1.Results: Of 224 individuals who consented to the interview, n=139 62 % were market vendors while n=85 38 % were engaged in other market-related activities. Majority of the respondents, n=165, 73.7 %, had ever tested for HIV; of these, n=148,89.7 % had ever tested for 2+ times. The main reasons for repeat testing were the need to confirm previous HIV test results, n=126, 85.1% and the belief that the previous HIV test results were false, n=35, 23.6 %. Uptake of couples’ HCT was low, n=63, 38.2%, despite the fact that n=200, 89 % had ever heard of couples’ HCT.Conclusion: These findings indicate high rates of repeat testing but low rates of couples’ HCT uptake in this population.Keywords: HCT, practices, market HIV clinic, Uganda
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • The relationship between patient-related factors and medication adherence
           among Nigerian patients taking highly active anti-retroviral therapy

    • Authors: Sabina O. Nduaguba, Rebecca O. Soremekun, Olubusola A. Olugbake, Jamie C. Barner
      Abstract: Background: Through several initiatives, there are increasingly more people who have access to anti-retroviral therapy. Adherence to therapy is, however,necessary for successful management of disease.Objectives: The objectives of this study were to describe adherence rates and determine what patient-related factors are related to adherence to anti-retroviral therapy among adult patients in an HIV clinic located in Lagos, Nigeria.Methods: Adherence was measured using the two-week self-recall method. Barriers, satisfaction with therapy, and socio-demographic and clinical variables served as independent variables. Data were collected via self-administered surveys.Results: Most of the patients (79.5%) reported 100% adherence. The significant (p<0.05) barriers to adherence were forgetfulness, running out of medication, alcohol use, and medication side effects. For every unit increase in the number of barriers, patients were 60.8% less likely to be 100% adherent (p <0.05, odds ratio, OR = 0.392,95% CI = 0.295-0.523).Conclusion: Interventions should target helping patients cope with forgetfulness, specifically employing strategies to overcome busyness in schedules, being away from home, and tiredness.Keywords: Medication adherence, patients, anti-retroviral therapy
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Patients’ perceptions of a rural decentralised anti-retroviral therapy
           management and its impact on direct out-of-pocket spending

    • Authors: Monique Lines, Fatima Suleman
      Abstract: Background: Geographical and financial barriers hamper accessibility to HIV services for rural communities. The government has introduced the nurse initiated management of anti-retroviral therapy at primary health care level, in an effort to improve patient access and reduce patient loads on facilities further up the system.Objectives: To ascertain the perceptions and satisfaction of patients in terms of the decentralised anti-retroviral policy and the direct out-of-pocket expenses of patients accessing this care in a rural setting.Method: Using a cross-sectional study design, 117 patients from five different primary health care collection points and a hospital anti-retroviral clinic were interviewed using a standard questionnaire.Results: More clinic patients walked to their clinic to collect their medicines as compared to hospital patients (71.2% versus 14.6%). Hospital patients spent more than clinic patients on monthly transport costs (ZAR71.92 versus ZAR25.81, Anova F=12.42, p=0.0009). All clinic patients listed their respective clinic as their preferred medicine collection point despite recording lower levels of satisfaction with anti-retroviral services (89% compared to 95.5%).Conclusion: Patients seem to indicate that they preferred decentralisation of HIV care to PHC level and that this might minimise out-of-pocket spending. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.Keywords: HIV, patients perception, decentralised care, South Africa
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Influence of faith-based organisations on HIV prevention strategies in
           Africa: a systematic review

    • Authors: Marylyn A. Ochillo, Edwin van Teijlingen, Martin Hind
      Abstract: Background: The HIV/AIDS epidemic remains of global significance and there is a need to target sub-Saharan Africa since it is the hardest hit region worldwide. Religion and more specifically faith-based organisations can have an effect on socio-cultural factors that increase or decrease the risk of infection; and offer preventative interventions to the wider community.Objective: To understand the influence of faith-based organisations on HIV prevention in Africa.Method: The main search engine of a British university ‘mysearch’ was used as this incorporates all relevant databases. Studies were also retrieved by searches within Google scholar, PubMed and reference lists of included papers were hand searched. The authors assessed the relevance of each article separately against the inclusion criteria. The data extraction form was piloted by the first author and cross-checked by the other authors.Results: Seven studies met all inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Seven individual themes were identified. However, for the purposes of focus within this paper only two themes were focused on.Conclusion: Given the accessibility of faith-based organisations (FBOs) and the coverage of religion among the population, FBOs are potentially important players in HIV prevention. Therefore, more resources and support should be given to support their health promotion strategies.Keywords: Faith-based organisations, HIV prevention strategies, systematic review
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Hepatitis B virus DNA polymerase gene polymorphism based prediction of
           genotypes in chronic HBV patients from Western India

    • Authors: Yashwant G. Chavan, Sharad R. Pawar, Minal Wani, Amol D. Raut, Rabindra N. Misra
      Abstract: Background: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is one of the major causes of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and deaths due to the acute or chronic consequences worldwide. HBV is distributed into various genotypes based on nucleic acid sequence variation.Objectives: To develop a method of HBV genotyping and drug resistance interpretation using partial sequencing of polymerase gene.Methods: This study was performed on 98 HBV infected patients’ serum samples from Western India. A nested PCR protocol was designed for amplification of pol gene from HBV genome and Sanger’s sequencing of the gene fragment. Sequences were aligned with HBV reference sequences for phylogenetic analysis and for characterization of genetic diversity. Drug resistance mutations were screened using HBVSeq program from Stanford University.Results: Distribution of HBV genotypes showed predominance of genotype D, circulating in 76 (77.55%) patients (p < 0.05). Genotypes A and C were less prevalent and were identified in 4 (4.08%) and 18 (18.37%) patients, respectively. Anti-retroviral drug resistance mutations were not detected in any patient.Conclusion: A method for determination of HBV genotypes using pol gene sequencing which simultaneously detects major drug resistance mutations has been established. HBV genetic diversity may play an important role in treatment decision.Keywords: Hepatitis B virus, nested PCR, genotype, sub-genotypes, YMDD mutations
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis
           in Beira, Mozambique

    • Authors: Damiano Pizzol, Francesco Di Gennaro, Kajal D. Chhaganlal, Claudia Fabrizio, Laura Monno, Giovanni Putoto, Annalisa Saracino
      Abstract: Introduction: Data regarding the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) in Africa are scarce. DM screening among TB patients in Mozambique was carried out.Methods: The study was implemented from January to August 2016 in three Urban Health Centers in Beira, Mozambique and recruited adult (>18 years) patients newly diagnosed with pulmonary TB.Results: Three hundred and one patients were enrolled (67.4%, males mean age 31.7(SD 11 years). Diabetes was diagnosed in only 3 patients (1%) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in an additional 6 subjects (2%).Conclusion: A lower than expected prevalence of DM was observed, which could be explained by the lack of traditional risk factors for DM (overweight, age over 45 years, hypertension and smoking) in Mozambique.Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, pulmonary tuberculosis, Beira, Mozambique
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Anti-mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of polyherbal medicines used for
           the treatment of tuberculosis in Eastern Cape, South Africa

    • Authors: Elizabeth B. Famewo, Anna M. Clarke, Ian Wiid, Andile Ngwane, Paul van Helden, Anthony J. Afolayan
      Abstract: Background: The emergence of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has become a global public health problem. Polyherbal medicines offer great hope for developing alternative drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis.Objective: To evaluate the anti-tubercular activity of polyherbal medicines used for the treatment of tuberculosis.Methods: The remedies were screened against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using Middlebrook 7H9 media and MGIT BACTEC 960 system. They were liquid preparations from King Williams Town site A (KWTa), King Williams Town site B (KWTb), King Williams Town site C (KWTc), Hogsback first site (HBfs), Hogsback second site (HBss), Hogsback third site (HBts), East London (EL), Alice (AL) and Fort Beaufort (FB).Results: The susceptibility testing revealed that all the remedies contain anti-tubercular activity with KWTa, KWTb, KWTc, HBfs, HBts, AL and FB exhibiting more activity at a concentration below 25 μl/ml. Furthermore, MIC values exhibited inhibitory activity with the most active remedies from KWTa, HBfs and HBts at 1.562 μg/ml. However, isoniazid showed more inhibitory activity against M. tuberculosis at 0.05 μg/ml when compare to the polyherbal remedies.Conclusion: This study has indicated that these remedies could be potential sources of new anti-mycobacterial agents against M. tuberculosis. However, the activity of these preparations and their active principles still require in vivo study in order to assess their future as new anti-tuberculosis agents.Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; in vitro activity, polyherbal medicines, South Africa
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Anti-bacterial, free radical scavenging activity and cytotoxicity of
           acetone extracts of Grewia flava

    • Authors: Stella Makgabo Lamola, Jean Paul Dzoyem, Francien Botha, Candice van Wyk
      Abstract: Background: Bacterial infections of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) cause vomiting, diarrhoea and even systemic disease. There is a need for the development of natural products into alternative and safer medicines.Objectives: This study evaluated the anti-microbial activity of extracts prepared from berries, leaves,bark and roots of the edible plant Grewia flava.Methods: The anti-bacterial activity was evaluated by the broth microdilution method. Anti-oxidant activity of the most active extracts was performed by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.Results: The acetone extracts of the leaves and roots showed the best activity with MIC values as low as 0.03 mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium and 0.07 mg/mL against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Quantitative analysis of the scavenging ability showed that acetone extracts exhibited good free radical scavenging activity in a dose-dependent manner. The berries extract had the highest LC50 (lowest toxicity) of 551.68 68 μg/mL.Conclusion: Acetone extract of leaves and roots of Grewia flava contain anti-microbial and anti-oxidant compounds and could therefore be used as a natural product with little toxicity to host cells.Keywords: Extracts, anti-microbial, cytotoxicity, enteric pathogens, Grewia flava
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Multidrug and vancomycin resistance among clinical isolates of
           Staphylococcus aureus from different teaching hospitals in Nigeria

    • Authors: Olajuyigbe Olufunmiso, Ikpehae Tolulope, Coopoosamy Roger
      Abstract: Backgrounds: Staphylococcus aureus has emerged as a major public health concern because of the occurrence of multi-drug resistant strains. This study aimed at investigating the multi-drug and vancomycin resistance profile of S. aureus from different infection sites in some teaching hospitals in Nigeria.Methods: Swabs were collected from different infection sites from out-patients in three teaching hospitals from October 2015 to May, 2016. The antibiotic-susceptibility test was carried out with selected antibiotics usually administered anti-microbials in the treatment of infections in these hospitals. The prevalence of multi-drug and vancomycin resistance strains of S. aureus from clinical samples was determined using disk diffusion and agar dilution methods respectively.Results: The result showed (165)82.5% of the isolates were resistant to ≥3 antibiotics tested. They were highly resistant to ceftazidime 180(90%), cloxacillin 171(85.6%) and augmentin 167(83.3%), but susceptible to ofloxacin 150(75%), gentamicin 142(71.7%), erythromycin 122(61.1%), ceftriaxone 111(55.6%) and cefuroxime 103(51.7%). All the isolates from the HVS were all multidrug resistant strains. While (56)90.16% were multidrug resistant (MDR) in urine samples, followed by (8)88.89% MDR strains in sputum, (37)88.81% MDR strains in semen, (49)71.64% MDR strains in wounds and (6)60% MDR strains in ear swabs samples. Although (147)73.5% of the isolates were vancomycin susceptible S. aureus (VSSA), (30)15% were vancomycin intermediate resistant S. aureus (VISA) and (89)44.5% of the isolates were considered vancomycin resistant S. aureus (VRSA).Conclusions: The high percentage of the VRSA could have resulted from compromising treatment options and inadequate antimicrobial therapy. The implication, infections caused by VRSA would be difficult to treat with vancomycin and other effective antibiotics of clinical importance. Ensuring proper monitoring of drug administration will, therefore, enhance the legitimate role of vancomycin as an empiric choice for both prophylaxis against and treatment of staphylococcal infections.Keywords: Bacterial resistance, vancomycin resistant S. aureus, susceptibility studies, agar dilution
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Repurposing metformin as a quorum sensing inhibitor in Pseudomonas
           aeruginosa

    • Authors: Hisham A. Abbas, Ahmed M. Elsherbini, Moutaz A. Shaldam
      Abstract: Background: Quorum sensing is a mechanism of intercellular communication that controls the production of virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Inhibition of quorum sensing can disarm the virulence factors without exerting stress on bacterial growth that leads to emergence of antibiotic resistance.Objectives: Finding a new quorum sensing inhibitor and determining its inhibitory activities against virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 strain.Methods: Quorum sensing was evaluated by estimation of violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. Molecular docking was used to investigate the possible binding of metformin to LasR and rhlR receptors. The inhibition of pyocyanin, hemolysin, protease, elastase in addition to swimming and twitching motilities, biofilm formation and resistance to oxidative stress by metformin was also assessed.Results: Metformin significantly reduced the production of violacein pigment. Significant inhibition of pyocyanin, hemolysin, protease and elastase was achieved. Metformin markedly decreased biofilm formation, swimming and twitching motilities and increased the sensitivity to oxidative stress. In the molecular docking study, metformin could bind to LasR by hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interaction and to rhlR by hydrogen bonding only.Conclusion: Metformin can act as a quorum sensing inhibitor and virulence inhibiting agent that may be useful in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.Keywords: Metformin, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, quorum sensing, virulence inhibition
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Effects of meteorological factors on the incidence of meningococcal
           meningitis

    • Authors: Xue Bai, Bingxue Hu, Qi Yan, Ting Luo, Bo Qu, Nan Jiang, Jie Liu, Yaxin Zhu
      Abstract: Background and Objectives: Substantial climate changes have led to the emergence and re-emergence of various infectious diseases worldwide, presenting an imperative need to explore the effects of meteorological factors on serious contagious disease incidences such as that of meningococcal meningitis (MCM).Methods: The incidences of MCM and meteorology data between 1981 and 2010 were obtained from Chaoyang city. Structure Equation Modeling was used to analyze the relationships between meteorological factors and the incidence of MCM, using the LISREL software.Results: The SEM results showed that Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI) = 0.30, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) = 0.63, and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.31. Humidity and temperature both had negative correlations with MCM incidence, with factor loads of -0.32 and -0.43, while sunshine was positively correlated with a factor load of 0.42. For specific observable variables, average air pressure, average evaporation, average air temperature, and average ground temperature exerted stronger influence, with item loads between observable variables and MCM incidence being -0.42, 0.34, -0.32, and -0.32 respectively.Conclusion: Public health institutions should pay more attention to the meteorological variables of humidity, sunshine, and temperature in prospective MCM control and prevention.Keywords: Meningococcal meningitis, Neisseria meningitidis, epidemiology, humidity, temperature, sunshine, meteorological variables, structure equation model
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Anti-plasmodial and anti-inflammatory activities of cyclotide-rich extract
           and fraction of Oldenlandia affinis (R. & S.) D.C. (Rubiaceae)

    • Authors: Chukwuemeka Sylvester Nworu, Tochukwu Ifenyinwa Ejikeme, Adaobi Chioma Ezike, Okechukwu Ndu, Theophine Chinwuba Akunne, Collins Azubuike Onyeto, Paul Okpalanduka, Peter Achunike Akah
      Abstract: Background: Oldenlandia affinis, commonly called ‘kalata-kalata’, a versatile plant used locally to treat malaria fever in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa was investigated for anti-plasmodial and anti-inflammatory activities.Objective: The study was designed to evaluate the antiplasmodial as well as anti-inflammatory activities of whole extract and cyclotide-rich fraction of Oldenlandia affinis.Method: The dichloromethane-methanol extract (ODE) of the plant, O. affinis was investigated for suppressive and curative antiplasmodial activities against Plasmodium berghei in mice. ODE and the cyclotide-rich fraction (CRF) was investigated for chronic and acute anti-inflammatory activities in rat models of inflammation. Inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators was studied in RAW264.7 macrophages.Results: ODE exhibited significant (p<0.05) reduction in mean parasitaemia in both the suppressive and curative models of Plasmodium berghei infection in mice.Administration of ODE(100, 200, or 400 mg/kg) and CRF (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg) produced significant inhibition of rodent models of acute and chronic inflammation . This observation is supported by the significant (P<0.05) inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators, inducible nitric oxide (iNO) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and the reactive radical scavenging activities in RAW264.7 macrophages.Conclusion: These findings could explain, at least in part, the successes reported in the use of the herb, Oldenlandia affinis in the traditional treatment of malaria feverKeywords: Oldenlandia affinis, Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, Plasmodium berghei, pro-inflammatory mediators, parasitemia
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Common mental disorders among medical students in Jimma University,
           SouthWest Ethiopia

    • Authors: Habtamu Kerebih, Mohammed Ajaeb, Hailemariam Hailesilassie
      Abstract: Background: Medical students are at risk of common mental disorders due to difficulties of adjustment to the medical school environment, exposure to death and human suffering. However there is limited data on this aspect. Therefore, the current study assessed the magnitude of common mental disorders and contributing factors among medical students.Methods: An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 12–16, 2015 using stratified sampling technique. Three hundred and five medical students participated in the study. Common mental disorders were assessed using the self-reported questionnaire (SRQ-20). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with common mental disorders among students. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were computed to determine the level of significance.Result: Prevalence of common mental disorders among medical students was 35.2%. Being female, younger age, married, having less than 250 birr monthly pocket money, attending pre-clinical class, khat chewing, smoking cigarettes, alcohol drinking and ganja/shisha use were significantly associated with common mental disorders.Conclusion: The overall prevalence of common mental disorders among medical students was high. Therefore, it is essential to institute effective intervention strategies giving emphasis to contributing factors to common mental disorders.Keywords: Common mental disorders, medical students, prevalence, Ethiopia
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • An investigation of the patterns and outcomes of Electroencephalographic
           (EEG) recording requests in the management of neuropsychiatric disorders
           in a teaching Hospital in Nigeria

    • Authors: Peter Omoniyi Ajiboye, Olatunji Alao Abiodun, Alexander Ikponmwosa Ogbebor
      Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the relevance of Electroencephalography (EEG) in the management of various neuropsychiatric conditions in University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH), Ilorin.Background: EEG is still relevant in the diagnosis and management of patients with seizure disorders and extends to other neuropsychiatric conditions. However, very few studies have examined the use of EEG in developing countries, including Nigeria.Methods: The EEG records of 154 patients between January 2012 and December 2012 were reviewed. EEG unit’s records, including EEG request forms and EEG reports were examined. Socio demographic data, clinical data and the neurologist’s comments on the EEG recordings were extracted and recorded on the proforma form.Results: A total of 142(92.2%) of the patients out of 154 had complete records and were studied. Majority (84.5%) of the patients were below the age of 30 years. Various types of seizure disorders accounted for 80% of the provisional diagnosis. The EEG diagnosis based on the interpretation of the EEG records showed that 96 (67.6%) of the patients had normal records.Conclusion: EEG still plays a very important role in the investigation of neuropsychiatric conditions especially epilepsy in developing countries. EEG facilities should be readily available.Keywords: Electroencephalography, investigations, neuropsychiatric, Nigerian, Teaching Hospital
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Burden and factors associated with post-stroke depression in East central
           Nigeria

    • Authors: Sam Chidi Ibeneme, Akachukwu Nwosu, Canice Chukwudi Anyachukwu, Georgian C. Ibeneme, Muideen O. Bakare, Gerhard Fortwengel, Dnyanesh Limaye
      Abstract: Objective: To determine the burden and factors associated with post-stroke depression in East central Nigeria.Method: We carried out this cross-sectional study of 50 stroke survivors (mean age=54.8 ± 8.8 years), at the physiotherapy Department of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. Data were collected using Becks Depression Inventory , it was analyzed using Z-scores, Chi-square test and univariate logistic regression.Results: PSD was more common in females (45.45%); middle-age(60%) adults (27-36/47-56 years respectively); living with spouse (45%); left cerebral lesions (40.74%). Self-employed and unemployed (66.67%), respectively. Age was significantly associated with depression (p=0.03), and was related to the risk ofOR3.7 (95% CI 1.1-12.0 )Conclusion: Age could be a risk factor for PSD, which was more prevalent in the elderly than young/middle-age adults, female gender, left cerebral lesion, complications, cold case; those living with a spouse, self-employed and unemployed.Keywords: Symptoms of post-stroke depression, modifiable characteristics of the vulnerable patients, African socio-cultural context
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence and correlates of anxiety and depression among family carers of
           cancer patients in a cancer care and treatment facility in Uganda: a
           cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Godfrey Katende, Lillian Nakimera
      Abstract: Background: The process of caregiving may cause emotional distress in form of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients. Little is known about the prevalence of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients in Uganda.Objectives: To determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression and related factors associated with abnormal levels of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients in a cancer care and treatment facility in Uganda.Methods: After obtaining ethical approval, we recruited family carers of cancer patients to this cross-sectional study. Data was collected with the use of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale(HADS) standardized tool.Results: A total of 119 family carers were recruited from the Uganda Cancer Institute. The prevalence of anxiety and depression among family carers was high (45% V. 26 %); Abnormal levels of anxiety (ALA)(OR 0.27, 95% CI, p= 0.01) and depression (ALD)(OR 0.37, 95% CI, p=0.05) were significantly associated with being a relative carer.Conclusion: Anxiety and depression is prevalent among family carers of cancer patients. Being a relative carer predisposes you to increased risk of developing anxiety and depression. Incorporating evidence based psychological therapies into usual care and targeting family carers is imperative.Keywords: Anxiety, depression, cancer patients, Uganda
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Burden, etiology and predictors of visual impairment among children
           attending Mulago National Referral Hospital eye clinic, Uganda

    • Authors: Patience Kinengyere, Samuel Kizito, John Baptist Kiggundu, Anne Ampaire, Geoffrey Wabulembo
      Abstract: Background: Childhood visual impairment (CVI) has not been given due attention. Knowledge of CVI is important in planning preventive measures. The aim of this study was determine the prevalence, etiology and the factors associated with childhood visual impairment among the children attending the eye clinic in Mulago National Referral Hospital.Methods: This was a cross sectional hospital based study among 318 children attending the Mulago Hospital eye clinic between January 2015 to March 2015. Ocular and general history was taken and patient examination done. The data generated was entered by Epidata and analyzed by STATA 12.Results: The prevalence of CVI was 42.14%, 134 patients with 49 patients (15.41%) having moderate visual impairment, 45 patients (14.15%) having severe visual impairment and 40 patients (12.58%) presenting with blindness. Significant predictors included; increasing age, delayed developmental milestones and having abnormal corneal, refractive and fundus findings.Conclusion: There is a high burden of visual impairment among children in Uganda. It is vital to screen all the children presenting to hospital for visual impairment. Majority of the causes of the visual impairment are preventable.Keywords: Visual impairment, Mulago National Referral Hospital, Eye clinic, Uganda
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • The prevalence of and factors associated with tobacco smoking behavior
           among long-distance drivers in Lagos, Nigeria

    • Authors: Obianuju B. Ozoh, Maxwell O. Akanbi, Casmir E. Amadi, William Vollmer, Nigel Bruce
      Abstract: Background: Factors associated with tobacco smoking are useful in designing tobacco control programs.Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of and factors associated with tobacco smoking among long-distance drivers.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Stratified cluster sampling approach was used to select drivers based on if they received annual health screening (AHS) or not (non AHS). We used a structured questionnaire to obtain information and weighted the resulting observations to derive population based estimates. Association between tobacco smoking and socio-demographic factors was explored in multivariate models.Results: 414 male drivers, mean age 43.6 (standard error 0.6) years. Population weighted prevalence of current smoking was 18.9% (95% CI: 14.3-23.4) of all drivers, 6.5% (95% CI: 2.6-10.4) of AHS drivers and 19.5 (95% CI: 14.7-24.2) of non AHS drivers (p<0.001). In multivariate models, having close friends that smoked (OR= 6.36, 95% CI= 2.49 - 16.20) cargo driving (OR= 2.58, 95% CI= 1.29 - 5.15) and lower education levels (OR for post-secondary education vs. primary education or less= 0.17, 95% CI= 0.04 - 0.81) were associated with current smoking.Conclusion: Prevalence of tobacco smoking is higher among non AHS compared to AHS drivers. Having close friends that smoked, cargo driving, and lower education levels were associated with current smoking.Keywords: Tobacco smoking behavior, long-distance drivers, Lagos, Nigeria
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Cigarette smoke condensate attenuates phorbol ester-mediated neutrophil
           extracellular trap formation

    • Authors: Refilwe Philadelphia Bokaba, Ronald Anderson, Annette Johanna Theron, Gregory Ronald Tintinger
      Abstract: Background: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) constitute a network of chromatin fibres containing histone and antimicrobial peptides that are released by activated neutrophils. NETs protect the host against infection by trapping and facilitating phagocytosis of potentially harmful pathogens.Objectives: The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) on phorbol-ester (PMA)-mediated NETosis in vitro.Methods: Isolated human blood neutrophils were exposed to PMA (6.25 ng/ml) in the presence or absence of CSC (40-80 μg/ ml) for 90 min at 37oC. NET formation was measured using a spectrofluorimetric procedure to detect extracellular DNA and fluorescence microscopy was used to visualize nets. Oxygen consumption by PMA-activated neutrophils was measured using an oxygen sensitive electrode.Results: Activation of neutrophils with PMA was associated with induction of NETosis that was significantly attenuated in the presence of CSC (40 and 80 μg/ml), with mean fluorescence intensities of 65% and 66% of that observed with untreated cells, respectively, and confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. The rate and magnitude of oxygen consumption by activated neutrophils pre-treated with CSC (80 μg/ml) was significantly less than that observed with untreated cells (73% of the control system), indicative of decreased production of reactive oxidants in the presence of CSC.Conclusion: The inhibition of NETosis observed in the presence of CSC correlated with attenuation of oxygen consumption by PMA-activated neutrophils suggesting a mechanistic relationship between these events. If operative in vivo, smoking-related attenuation of NETosis may impair host immune responses and increase the risk of respiratory infections.Keywords: Neutrophils, reactive oxygen species, respiratory infection, smoking
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Dental caries experience and treatment needs of an adult female population
           in Nigeria

    • Authors: Folake Lawal, Omolola Alade
      Abstract: Background: Experience and awareness of adult females concerning dental caries is important in its prevention particularly in children because of their natural role as care givers.Objectives: To determine the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in an adult female Nigerian population.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, adult females attending outreach programmes were examined for dental caries using the Decayed Missing and Filled Teeth caries index (DMFT). Socio-demographic variables were also recorded and statistical analysis done with SPSS software.Results: A total of 430 females aged 16 to 59 years participated in the outreach programme out of which 109 (25.3%) had a DMFT score > 0. Mean DMFT was 0.7 ± 1.6. Fifty-five (12.8%) participants had decayed teeth, 78 (18.1 %) had missing teeth and 10(2.3%) had filled teeth. The treatment need was 34.3%, restorative index was 13.3% and significant caries index was 2.0. There were significant differences in caries experience based on age, marital status and educational qualifications of participants p < 0.05.Conclusion: The prevalence of dental caries among the study group was low but the treatment need was high. Younger females, singles and those with lower educational qualifications had a higher dental caries experience.Keywords: Adults, dental caries, DMFT, female, prevalence, treatment needs
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Methodological challenges in a study on falls in an older population of
           Cape Town, South Africa

    • Authors: Sebastiana Z. Kalula, Monica Ferreira, George H. Swingler, Motasim Badri, Avan A. Sayer
      Abstract: Background: Falls are a major cause of disability, morbidity and mortality in older persons, but have been under researched in developing countries. .Objective: To describe challenges encountered in a community-based study on falls in a multi-ethnic population aged ≥65 years in a low-income setting.Methods: The study was conducted in four stages: A pilot study (n=105) to establish a sample size for the survey. An equipment validation study (n=118) to use for fall risk determination. A cross-sectional baseline (n=837) and a 12-month follow-up survey (n=632) to establish prevalence and risk factors for falls.Results: Prevalence rate of 26.4% (95% CI 23.5-29.5%) and risk factors for recurrent falls: previous falls, self-reported poor mobility and dizziness were established. Adaptations to the gold standard prospective fall research study design were employed: 1) to gain access to the study population in three selected suburbs, 2) to perform assessments in a non-standardised setting, 3) to address subjects’ poverty and low literacy levels, and high attrition of subjects and field workers.Conclusion: Studies on falls in the older population of low- to middle-income countries have methodological challenges. Adaptive strategies used in the Cape Town study and the research experience reported may be instructive for investigators planning similar studies in such settings.Keywords: Falls, older people, community-based research, low and middle income countries, methodology, study design
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Onset and duration of cycloplegic action of 1% cyclopentolate – 1%
           tropicamide combination

    • Authors: Samuel Kyei, Alfred Asiem Nketsiah, Kofi Asiedu, Agnes Awuah, Andrew Owusu-Ansah
      Abstract: Purpose: To study the time course (onset, time and duration of maximal cycloplegia, and the full duration) of cycloplegic action of 1% Cyclopentolate – 1% Tropicamide.Methods: Seventy-seven students, aged 15-24 years were purposively sampled from the University of Cape Coast and Cape Coast Technical Institute. Subjective near addition (ADD) determination and pupil diameter measurement before and after a drop of the test agent (1% Cyclopentolate – 1% Tropicamide combination in the right eye) and the control (1% Cyclopentolate in the left eye) were performed. Measurements of subjective near ADD and pupil diameter were made after the initial reading at 5 minutes interval for the first hour and every 30 minutes for the next 7 hours for each participant. Time of onset, time of peak cycloplegia, duration of peak cycloplegia and duration of total cycloplegic effect was indirectly determined.Results: 1% Cyclopentolate – 1% Tropicamide combination had rapid onset of cycloplegia (5-10 minutes), shorter time of maximal cycloplegia (55 versus 90 minutes), and recovery (7 versus ≥ 8hours) in the majority (79.2%) of subjects.Conclusion: Cyclopentolate –Tropicamide combination was comparable to Cyclopentolate in depth of cycloplegia produced, and clinically superior to 1% Cyclopentolate in rapidity of cycloplegic onset, time of maximal cycloplegia and recovery from cycloplegia.Keywords: Cycloplegia, time course, accommodation, recovery time
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of iron transport from ferrous glycinate liposomes using Caco-2
           cell model

    • Authors: Ding Baomiao, Yi Xiangzhou, Li Li, Yang Hualin
      Abstract: Background: Iron fortification of foods is currently a strategy employed to fight iron deficiency in countries. Liposomes were assumed to be a potential carrier of iron supplements.Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the iron transport from ferrous glycinate liposomes, and to estimate the effects of liposomal carriers, phytic acid, zinc and particle size on iron transport using Caco-2 cell models.Methods: Caco-2 cells were cultured and seeded in DMEM medium. Minimum essential medium was added to the basolateral side. Iron liposome suspensions were added to the apical side of the transwell.Results: The iron transport from ferrous glycinate liposomes was significantly higher than that from ferrous glycinate. In the presence of phytic acid or zinc ion, iron transport from ferrous glycinate liposomes and ferrous glycinate was evidently inhibited, and iron transport decreased with increasing phytic acid concentration. Iron transport was decreased with increase of particle size increasing of ferrous glycinate liposome.Conclusion: Liposomes could behave as more than a simple carrier, and iron transport from liposomes could be implemented via a mechanism different from the regulated non-heme iron pathway.Keywords: Ferrous glycinate liposomes, iron transport, phytic acid, particle size
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Client satisfaction in a faith-based health network: findings from a
           survey in Uganda

    • Authors: Constance Sibongile Shumba, Kenneth Kabali, Jonathan Miyonga, Jairus Mugadu, Luke Lakidi, Patrick Kerchan, Tonny Tumwesigye
      Abstract: Background: Client satisfaction surveys are important in evaluating quality of the healthcare processes and contribute to health service improvements by assisting health program managers to develop appropriate strategies. The goal of this study was to assess clients’ level of satisfaction with services provided by private-not-for-profit member health facilities affiliated to Uganda Protestant Medical Bureau.Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study using an interviewer-administered questionnaire conducted in 254/278 (91%) of UPMB member health facilities between 27th April and 14th July 2014 among 927 clients. The tool measured ten dimensions of the care-seeking experience namely; health facility access; waiting time; health providers; support staff; rights; payments; facilities and environment; consent; confidentiality; and the overall care seeking experience. Logistic regression was utilised for multivariate analysis.Results: Overall client satisfaction was found to be high within the UPMB network (84.2%). Most of the client satisfaction dimensions were rated above 70% except payments and rights. There was evidence of association with marital status; single/ never married were 3.05 times more likely to be dissatisfied compared to widowed. Clients attending HCIII were less likely to be dissatisfied compared to those attending HCII (OR=0.51, 95% CI: 0.25-1.05). Post-secondary education (OR=1.79; 95% CI 1.01-3.17), being formally employed (OR=2.78, 95% CI: 0.91-8.48) or unemployed (OR=3.34, 95% CI: 1.00-11.17), attendance at a hospital (OR=2.15, 95% CI: 1.36- 3.41) were also associated with high dissatisfaction levels with payments.Conclusion: This study found a high level of satisfaction with services in the UPMB network but recorded low client satisfaction with the dimensions of rights and payments. Health workers should take time to explain rights and entitlement as well as charges levied to clients.Keywords: Client satisfaction, faith-based health facilities, health services, quality improvement, Uganda
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
       
 
 
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