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  Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 7268 journals)
    - ALLERGOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY (198 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (1810 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access  
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access  
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access  
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Fundeni Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access  
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Journal Khulna     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Research Council Bulletin     Open Access  
Basal Ganglia     Hybrid Journal  
Basic Sciences of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BC Medical Journal     Free  
Benha Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bijblijven     Hybrid Journal  
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biologics in Therapy     Open Access  
Biology of Sex Differences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomarker Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover African Journal of Biomedical Research
  [SJR: 0.133]   [H-I: 11]   [0 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1119-5096
   Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [266 journals]
  • Behavioural effects of methanol stem bark extract of Boswellia dalzielii
           Hutch (Burseraceae) in mice

    • Authors: A.B. Nazifi, N.M. Danjuma, T.O. Olurishe, J Ya’u
      Abstract: Preparations of Boswellia dalzielii stem bark are used traditionally in Nigeria in the treatment of fever, rheumatism, gastrointestinal discomforts and mental derangements. The efficacy of this plant in the treatment of mental disorders is well acclaimed among the Gwandara communities of North-Central part of Nigeria. This study was aimed at evaluating the behavioural effects of the methanol stem bark extract of Boswellia dalzielii using diazepam-induced sleep, hole-board, open field and beam walking assay tests in mice at doses of 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg. B. dalzielii extract significantly (p< 0.05) and dose dependently prolonged the duration of diazepam-induced sleep in mice. A dose-dependent decrease in the number of head-dips which was significant at p< 0.001 was also produced by the extract. In the open field test, the extract at all doses tested (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) significantly reduced the number of square crossing and number of rearing in a dose dependent manner. The extract did not produce motor coordination deficit in the beam walking assay. Diazepam (1 mg/kg) did not produce a significant difference in the time taken to reach the goal box either; however, it produced a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the number of foot slips compared to the control group. The results suggest central nervous system depressant action of stem bark extract of Boswellia dalzielii which might have contributed to its application in ethnomedicine for the treatment of mental disorders.Keywords: Boswellia dalzielii, Behaviour, Exploration, Motor coordination, Sleeping time
      PubDate: 2018-05-05
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Effect of methanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa in ethanol-induced
           hepatotoxicity

    • Authors: E Olanrewaju, B Anyaehie, C.O. Ezeh, K.C. Onyekwelu, R.C. Ezeh
      Abstract: The liver is one of the most important organs in the body which aids in the maintenance of normal body functions. It is the center of alcohol metabolism and alcohol has been implicated in the elevation of liver enzymes and damage to the parenchyma cells of the liver. Plants had been used for medicinal purposes long before recorded history and many people worldwide rely on herbal medicines for some part of their primary health care. The objective of this study was to evaluate the activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa on the liver of rats following repeated administration of ethanol. Hepatotoxicity was induced on the rats using ethanol and the levels of serum enzymes such as serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), total and conjugated bilirubin were estimated. The levels of hepatic enzymes ( SGOT, SGPT and bilirubin) in the serum were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in rats treated with ethanol when compared with the control ( Pre phase). In the post phase, administration of different doses of ethanol extract significantly reduced the levels of increased hepatic serum enzymes when compared with the control. Methanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa seems to have hepatoprotective effect on ethanol induced liver damage. However, similar study needs to be carried out on human to prove the authenticity of hepatoprotective effect of Hibiscus Sabdariffa.Keywords: Hibiscus Sabdariffa, hepatoprotective, SGOT, SGPT and bilirubin
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Non-compliance with agrochemical safety guides and associated health risks
           among cocoa farmers in the Ashanti Region of Ghana

    • Authors: A.S. Oyekale
      Abstract: Although several occupational health hazards are associated with farming, cocoa farmers could be exposed to more health hazards through use of agrochemicals. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of non-compliance with agrochemical safety guides on health risks of farmers. The data were collected from 246 farmers with structured questionnaires using multi-stage sampling procedures. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and Probit regression model. The results showed that 24.80% was ≥60 years and 33.33% had no formal education. Majority of the farmers (93.09%) were using liquid insecticide, 56.10% used liquid fungicides and 52.44% used herbicides. Also, 60.16% had increased their use of insecticides over the past three years and awareness of safety guides was reported by 88.21% for insecticides, 73.98% for fertilizers and 65.04% for fungicides. Also, 74.39% followed manufacturers’ instructions on insecticides usage. Precautionary measures that farmers were taking include not inhaling the chemical (84.15%) and keeping out of reach of children (82.93%). Ownership of agrochemical safety kits was very low with 51.22%, 33.74% and 32.11% having boots, hand gloves and water resistant overall, respectively. Among the health problems suffered after handling agrochemicals are skin irritation (37.80%), eye irritation (33.33%) and headache (32.93%). The Probit regression showed statistical significant (p<0.05) impact of contact and precautionary indices variables with probability of reported health problems in almost all the models, while number of safety kits reduced reported skin infections. It was recommended that more awareness should be created on health hazards associated with agrochemical usage, the need for farmers to use safety kits, and proper education for reducing farmers’ contacts with agrochemicals.Keywords: Agrochemicals, safety kits, health risks, cocoa farmers, Ashanti region, Ghana
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • A qualitative survey of pre-payment scheme for healthcare services in a
           rural Nigerian community

    • Authors: D.A. Adewole, A.M. Adebayo, K.O. Osungbade
      Abstract: Prepayment method for financing health care is one of the means to achieving the desired universal health coverage. However, expanding health insurance to cover the larger informal sector of the population in Nigeria is a persistent challenge especially in the rural areas. This study was carried out to assess the perception of health insurance scheme among rural dwellers in southwest Nigeria. Qualitative data was obtained with the aid of a focus group discussion guide. The FGD questions were framed along familiar themes common to prepayment methods as found in health insurance schemes. A total of six FGD sessions were conducted. Each of the FGD sessions consisted of between 8 – 12 participants. Two FGD sessions, consisting of separate male and female homogeneous groups were conducted in each of the three wards selected for the study. One FGD session lasted between one and a half to two hours and was audio-recorded. Qualitative data were analyzed manually engaging predetermined as well as emerging themes. Awareness about the health insurance scheme was quite low among study participants. Knowledge of the few who had ever heard about it was inadequate. Respondents generally had a positive attitude towards prepayment schemes and willingness to participate in it was high but were skeptical about its sustainability. Strategies to improve awareness about health insurance and its benefit packages among potential beneficiaries are desirable.Keywords: Prepayment scheme, Health insurance, Informal sector, Rural dwellers
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Effects of endocrine disrupting heavy metals on pituitary and gonadal
           hormones in normal weight automechanics in Ibadan, Nigeria

    • Authors: I.C. Chikezie, M.A. Charles-Davies, A.M. Balogun, S.U. Okoli
      Abstract: Association of hypogonadism and visceral obesity (VO) was recently demonstrated in male auto-mechanics occupationally exposed to endocrine disruptors (ED)-lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic, known to alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. The effects of exposure to these EDs on pituitary and gonadal hormones in normal weight auto-mechanics in Ibadan were investigated. Ninety-nine normal weight male adults without any metabolic syndrome component-elevated VO, blood pressure, tryglycerides, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), enrolled into this prospective cross sectional study. They were 50 auto-mechanics, age and anthropometry matched with 49 eugonadic males (occupationally unexposed to EDs) in Ibadan (control). Demography, lifestyle, sexual and reproductive history, anthropometery and blood pressure were obtained by standard methods. Fasting blood (15 mL) obtained was used for biochemical analyses-hormones (follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, oestradiol and testosterone) by ELISA; EDs-Lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic by AAS; FPG, HDLC, triglycerides and oxidative stress (OS) biomarker-total antioxidant capacity (TAC) by spectrophotometry. Data obtained were statistically significant at P<0.05. Only 45 (90%) auto-mechanics were eugonadic. EDs except arsenic were significantly higher while libido and TAC level were significantly lower in the auto-mechanics compared with control (P<0.05). In automechanics only, lead had an inverse relationship with testosterone (P= 0.001) but direct relationship with FSH (P= 0.013). LH had a direct relationship with mercury (P= 0.031) but indirect relationship with TAC (P<0.001). Auto mechanics may be occupational exposed to lead, cadmium and mercury with the induction of oxidative stress and testicular dysfunction.Keywords: Heavy Metals, Hypogonadism, Metabolic Syndrome, Total Antioxidant Capacity, Testosterone
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Patterns and predictors of mortality among children under-five years in
           Nigeria

    • Authors: O.O. Latona, O.B. Yusuf, S.A. Adebowale
      Abstract: Early childhood mortality remains a major public health problem in developing countries. Under-five mortality rate of 157 per 1000 live birth currently observed in Nigeria is one of the highest worldwide. Against the backdrop of limited childhood mortality research in Nigeria, this study identified predictors of child mortality. The study was a population based cross-sectional design where information was obtained from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2008 on childhood survival status from 28,647 mothers of reproductive age. It was a nationally representative sample. Chi Square and Cox proportional hazard regression, using forward likelihood ratio method were used in the analysis (α=0.05). Mean age of the women was 29.28yrs with standard deviation 7.078 and 11.2% had experienced childhood deaths in the last 5 years prior the survey. Among the identified predictors of under-five mortality were; age, religion, wealth index, cooking fuel type, preceding birth interval, type of toilet facility, household size. The hazard of under-five mortality was higher for children of mothers residing in the; South South (HR=2.03; C.I=1.27–3.24 , p<0.05), South West (HR=2.58; C.I=1.57–4.24, p<0.05), North East (HR = 2.90; C.I=1.88–4.48, p<0.05), South East (HR=4.54; C.I=3.03–6.79, p<0.05) and North West(HR=10.05; 95% C.I=6.67–15.16, p<0.05) than those in the North Central region. The risk of dying before the fifth birthday was higher for children whose mothers are Muslims (HR=2.34; C.I=1.41–3.90, p<0.05) than children whose mothers are Christians. Children from the mothers belonging to “Rich” wealth index had higher chances of surviving (HR=0.785; C.I=0.62–0.99, p<0.05) and those from the middle wealth class had twice the chance of surviving till their fifth birthday (HR=0.44; C.I=0.34–0.56, p<0.05) compared with children from relatively poor mothers. Children whose mothers attended postnatal clinic had better chances of surviving to their fifth birthday (HR = 0.76; C.I=0.62–0.92, p<0.05) compared with children whose mothers did not attend. Childhood mortality experienced by mothers in Nigeria is high and the predictors included both sociodemographic and health related factors. There is need to consider the identified predictors of childhood mortality when designing childhood mortality reduction strategies in Nigeria.Keywords: Child Mortality; Survival Analysis; Under-five Mortality
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Retrospective study on bovine whole carcass and liver condemnations with
           their associated direct financial losses at the Kumasi Abattoir, Ghana

    • Authors: E Shaibu, J Atawalna, B.O. Emikpe
      Abstract: Limited information exists in literature on the major reasons for whole carcass and organ condemnations in Ghana. A retrospective study spanning January 2002 to December 2013 was conducted at the Kumasi Abattoir to determine the pattern of bovine whole carcass, liver condemnation, and to estimate the direct financial loss. During the study period, a total of 1,047,633 cattle were slaughtered out of which 406 (0.04%) were condemned wholly. The reasons for condemnation were Tuberculosis 150 (36.95%), putrefaction 231 (56.90%), Cysticercus bovis 12 (2.95%), general bruising 6 (1.48%), jaundice 4 (0.98%) and gangrenous necrosis 3 (0.74%). The condemnation rate was highest in 2002 (11.3%) and lowest in 2005 (1.48%). The regional distribution of the condemned carcasses revealed the higher percentages in Upper East 58% and Upper West 36.5%. Condemnation due to putrefaction was highest in December whereas that of Tuberculosis was in July and August. Within the same period, a total of 37921 livers were condemned due to abscesses 18730 (49.4%), fasciolosis 18789 (36.4%), cirrhosis 2399 (6.3%), hydatidosis 1919 (5.1%), putrefaction 630 (1.7%), tuberculosis 124 (124%), hepatitis 99 (0.2%) and others conditions 231 (0.6%). The direct financial losses due to total carcass and liver condemnation were estimated to be GH¢1,668,524 and GH¢446,600 respectively, giving a total loss of GH¢2,115,124. The study revealed that tuberculosis, putrefaction, abscesses and fasciolosis were the major reasons for carcass and liver condemnation at Kumasi Abattoir with huge financial implications. Emphasis should be laid on effective meat inspection and standard animal husbandry health care to curtail these zoonotic diseases and associated financial loss.Keywords: Carcass, liver, condemnation, retrospective study, financial loss, cattle, abattoir
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Characterization of a multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica give
           isolated from a lizard captured in a poultry house in Nigeria

    • Authors: A.O. Ogunleye, S Carlson
      Abstract: Salmonella enterica Give is one of the serotypes that have been incriminated in Salmonella infections; sometimes associated with hospitalization and mortalities in humans and animals in some parts of the world. In this work, we characterized one Salmonella Give isolated from cloaca swab of an Agama agama lizard captured from one of the commercial poultry pens in Nigeria; where lizards often have access to poultry feeds and water. The isolate was characterized based on conventional morphological and biochemical bacteriological procedures, serotyping, and PCR based Sip C gene screening. Based on the antibiotic resistant patterns of the isolate, it was further screened for the presence of point mutation at the gyrA subunit of the quinolone resistant determining region, for the presence of Salmonella Genomic Island 1(SGI1) integron related genes, and for bla- NDM-1 gene using PCR assay. The isolate exhibited resistance to: ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, amikacin, cefepime, levofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, ampicillin and streptomycin at the respective breakpoint concentration. It had a high MIC of >128μg/mL for Levofloxacin with one point mutation of H150Y substitution. The serotype did not however carry any of the SGI 1 related integron genes tested, neither does it bear the bla- NDM-1 gene despite its phenotypic resistance to ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefepime and amikacin at the breakpoint concentrations of 32μg/mL. This finding shows that Agama agama lizards can constitute a public health threat as agents of spreading the drug resistant serotype to poultry and humans.Keywords: Salmonella enterica Give; lizard; public health; poultry
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Anaesthetic indices and vital parameters of PPR-infected West African
           Dwarf goats after epidural lignocaine anaesthesia

    • Authors: A.K. Olaifa, C.O. Oguntoye, A Brown
      Abstract: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), is an acute, highly contagious viral disease of sheep and goats associated with high morbidity and mortality. Often times, veterinarians are faced with sick goats presented with co-existing emergency clinical conditions such as foreign body impaction, ruminal tympany, dystocia that require surgical intervention, necessitating the use of anaesthesia. The aim of this study, was to assess and compare the anaesthetic indices and vital parameters of West African Dwarf (WAD) goats naturally infected with PPR before and after epidural anaesthesia with plain lignocaine and also to compare the measured anaesthetic indices with those of healthy goats. Ten goats were used for this study sorted into infected and non- infected goats. The vital parameters of the goats were taken two days prior to the commencement of the experiment. The anaesthetic indices of the animals were measured. The goat’s rectal temperature (RT) and respiratory rate (RR) were immediately measured after the epidural injection and subsequently at 15 minute intervals over a 120-minute period using a mercury-in-glass thermometer (˚C) and by visual observation of the thoraco-abdominal excursion respectively. Heart rate was measured in beats/min with the aid of a pericardial stethoscope. The result showed a significant increase in heart rate of PPR infected goats as compared to the healthy gaots, an insignificant increase in respiratory rate and insignificant changes in the rectal temperatures. Time of recumbency and onset of analgesia was significantly reduced in PPR infected goats as compared to the healthy goats. In conclusion, epidural anaesthesia with plain lignocaine in naturally PPR infected WAD goats produced anaesthesia of about one hour with some adverse effects on the vital parameters of the goats and if emergency surgery caudal to the umbilicus is necessary in sick goats, epidural anaesthesia with injection of lignocaine must be used with caution so as not cause unexpected mortalityKeywords: Goats, Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), Lignocaine
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Aphrodisiac effects of methanol extract of Smilax kraussiana root in
           experimental rats

    • Authors: P.A. Nwafor, V.K. Oniyide
      Abstract: The aphrodisiac effect of methanol extract of Smilax kraussiana was investigated in adult albino male rats The extract was investigated on sexual behaviour based on the parameters of sexual indices such as mount and intromission latencies and ejaculation latency. Others include mount and intromission frequencies, erection frequency, post ejaculation interval as well penile erection in adult albino male rats. The extract caused increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency and erection frequency. Others were penile erection and ejaculation latency. These increases were statistically (p < 0.001) significant. Similarly, the extract also caused decrease in both mount and intromission latencies and in post ejaculation interval. These effects were observed in both sexually - active and in - active rats. There was an increase in body weights of all the animals treated with the extract coupled with those of sexual organs such as testis, epididymis and vas deference, these increases were statistically significant (p < 0.001) relative to control. The methanol extract of Smilax kraussiana caused a significant decrease in serum cholesterol level while the serum concentrations of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases as well as the alkaline phosphatase were elevated. These effects were statistically significant (p < 0.001) relative to control. The free radical scavenging ability of the extract against DPPH showed that the extract possessed some antioxidant properties. The photomicrograph of the sexual organs showed no histological abnormalities, rather there was an increase in seminiferous tubules proliferation. . Phytochemical screening of the extract showed that it contained alkaloids, saponin, cardiac glycoside, tannins and phlobatannins. The median lethal dose was calculated as 243.86mg/kg. The observed effects may in part be due to the secondary metabolites of the extract. These effects of the extract justified the folkloric use of the plant.Keywords: Aphrodisiac, Smilax kraussiana, extract, male rats
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Modulatory effect of Morinda lucida aqueous stem bark extract on blood
           glucose and lipid profile in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    • Authors: A.A. Adeneye, J.A. Olagunju, B.H. Olatunji, A.F. Balogun, B.S. Akinyele, M.O. Ayodele
      Abstract: The present study evaluates the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of 125 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of the Morinda lucida aqueous stem bark extract (MLASE) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 8 days based on the African traditional use of the water infusion of the stem bark of Morinda lucida (family: Rubiaceae) in the local management of diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia by the Yoruba herbal practitioners (Southwest Nigeria). In this study, experimental diabetes was induced in Wistar rats through intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate dissolved in cold 0.9% normal saline and sustained hyperglycemia was monitored over the successive three days. Diabetic rats [with the fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels greater or equal to 200 mg/dl] randomly divided into Groups II-VI of six rats per group were daily and orally treated with 10 m/kg of distilled water, 5 mg/kg of glibenclamide, 125 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of MLASE, respectively, for 8 days after which the rats were sacrificed humanely under inhaled diethyl ether. FBG were determined in the treated diabetic rats on the 1st and 8th day of oral extract treatments while the blood samples for the lipid assays of were obtained directly from heart chambers through cardiac puncture on the 8th day after an overnight fasting. In addition, preliminary qualitative and quantitative analyses of the aqueous stem bark of Morinda lucida were conducted using standard procedures. Results showed that the preliminary qualitative analysis of MLASE revealed the presence of presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponin, terpenoids, phenols, tannins and phlobatinnins while cardiac glycosides, steroid glycosides and anthraquinones were absent. Similarly, quantitative analysis of MLASE showed the presence of tannin, alkaloids, phenols, sugar and saponin at the concentrations of 29.73 ± 0.38 mg/100 g, 25.69 ± 0.10 mg/100 g, 37.15 ± 0.10 mg/100 g, 37.38 ± 0.08 mg/100 g and 54.84 ± 0.21 mg/100 g of MLASE, respectively. Repeated daily oral treatments with 125-500 mg/kg of MLASE significantly (p<0.01 and p<0.001) lowered the FBG dose dependently with highest antidiabetic effect recorded for the highest dose. Similarly, 125-500 mg of MLASE significantly (p<0.05, p<0.01 and p<0.001) decreased serum TG, TC, LDL-c and VLDL-c levels while significantly increasing serum HDL-c levels. Overall, results of this study showed MLASE to possess antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects in experimental diabetic rats which was probably mediated via enhanced peripheral glucose utilization and/or enhanced insulin secretion.Keywords: Morinda lucida, aqueous stem bark extract, alloxan-induced diabetes, antihyperglycemia, antihyperlipidemia
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Haematinic properties of methanolic stem bark and fruit extracts of Ficus
           sur in rats pre-exposed to phenylhydrazine-induced haemolytic anaemia

    • Authors: M.A. Adebayo, S.S. Enitan, W.M. Owonikoko, E Igogo, K.O. Ajeigbe
      Abstract: The potential effects of a 14-day oral administration of methanolic stem bark and fruit extracts of Ficus sur on some haematological parameters in anaemic rats was investigated. Hemolytic anaemia was experimentally induced in rats by daily oral administration of Phenylhydrazine (PHZ) at a dose of 10 mg/Kg for 8 days. Post-induction, 50 mg/Kg, 100 mg/Kg and 150 mg/Kg of methanolic stem bark and fruit extracts of Ficus sur were administered to rats in group 1-3 and group 4-6, respectively. Group 7 which received 50 mg/Kg of FeSO4 served as the positive control. Group 8 received no treatment as negative control. The Haematocrit and Haemoglobin concentration and Red Blood Cell Count of rats treated with both methanolic stem bark and fruit extracts of F. sur were found to be significantly higher than the negative control, though less than the positive control. However, there was no significant difference between the White Blood Cell Count of all the groups treated with extract and the positive control, except for the negative control in which significant increase was observed. Differential White Blood Cell Count shows the proportion of cells in this order: lymphocytes>neutrophils>monocytes. Calculated Rf value following the thin layer chromatography test of the methanolic stem bark and fruit extracts of Ficus sur was 0.8375 cm. Qualitative phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of tannin, flavonoid, terpenoid and saponin, while alkaloid, glycoside and anthraquinone were absent in both. The results of this study affirm the haematinic properties of Ficus sur, hence may be explored in the complementary treatment of anaemia.Keywords: Ficus sur, Rats, haematic properties, Haematological parameters, Phenylhydrazine, Haemolytic anaemia
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Effect of hydro-methanolic leaf extract of Indigofera pulchra on gastric
           mucosal damage and acid secretion in rats

    • Authors: M.I.A. Saleh, H Halima, Y Tanko, R.A. Magaji, A.W. Alhassan, A.I. Isa, H.A. Salami, U.B. Aliyu
      Abstract: Indigofera pulchra (family: fabaceae) is found throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It has been used for medicinal purposes for centuries from Sudan to the dry deciduous parts of Madagascar for variety of conditions and ailments related to stomach, intestinal, liver, circulatory and immune system support .This study was aimed at investigating the effect of hydro-methanolic extract of this plant as it affects gastric mucosal integrity and basal gastric secretions using the ethanol-induced ulcer model. Phytochemical screening of the plant revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and cardiac glycosides amongst others, while acute toxicity studies (Lorke’s method, 1983) revealed a median lethal dose above 5000mg/kg indicating that the plant is less toxic. A total of 60 rats were used for the two studies, with 30 rats for the mucosal integrity study and 30 rats for the basal acid secretion studies. The first group was subdivided into four(A,B,C,D) with subgroup A,B, and C containing five rats each, and subgroup D containing fifteen rats. Subgroup A served as normal control and was given normal saline while subgroup B represented negative control and was administered 70% ethanol, subgroup C was given cimetidine and served as positive control. Subgroup D was further subdivided into three experimental groups which contained five rats each and were administered Indigofera pulchra extract at a dose of 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg, and 400mg/kg respectively 30 minutes prior to the administration of 70% ethanol to induce gastric mucosal damage followed by pyloric ligation. The same procedure was followed in major group II to study basal gastric output. Ulcer and preventive indices were assessed for mucosal integrity while volume of gastric juice, titratable acidity and acid output were assessed for basal gastric secretions. The result showed a dose –dependent decrease in both ulcer and preventive indices. It also showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in volume of gastric juice, titratable acidity and acid output in dose-dependent manner with the three experimental doses administered with the highest reduction at the 400mg/kg dose. The results obtained suggest that this plant extract down-regulated all those parameters which might be attributed to the presence of the phytoconstituents present in the fraction. Therefore, this plant possesses gastro protective and antisecretory effects further explaining the folkloric use of this plant in the therapy of peptic ulcer disease.Keywords: Basal Secretions, Ethanol, Gastroprotection, Indigofera pulchra
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Hans Jonas’ thought on the ethics of research on human subjects:
           implications for contemporary medical research in Nigeria

    • Authors: J.I. Ebeh, A.P. Ekele
      Abstract: Hans Jonas’ thought on the ethics of research on human subjects and its implications for contemporary medical research in Nigeria was examined. The thinking and teachings of Hans Jonas was on the need for medical research to advance beyond the use animals for research and experimentations to research on human subjects. Jonas upholds the established view that medicine is an experimental science and that most medical advances are product of trial and error but goes further to argue that the use of animals such as rabbits, pigs, guinea pigs, rats and the like that share the same biological characteristics with human for different forms of medical research should be discarded because such do not give the appropriate information to the researcher. However, medical researches and experimentations in most developing countries seem not to have advanced beyond the use of experimental animals. Jonas argues that modern medical researches and experimentations should be carried out on human subjects with the view that it is humans alone that can give the appropriate information for treatment of diseases that plague human beings. Jonas also thinks that research on human subject seems to be necessary on the grounds that such appears to be one of the best avenues for training of contemporary medical students and for treatment of some debilitating diseases in the future.Keywords: Human Research ethics, Nigeria, Hans Jonas
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2017)
       
 
 
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