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Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
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Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
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Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
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Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
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Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
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Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
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Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access  
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access  
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American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Fundeni Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access  
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Journal Khulna     Open Access  
Basal Ganglia     Hybrid Journal  
Basic Sciences of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BC Medical Journal     Free  
Benha Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bijblijven     Hybrid Journal  
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biologics in Therapy     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Alexandria Journal of Medicine
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   ISSN (Print) 2090-5068
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Knowledge and practice of breast self-examination among sample of women in

    • Authors: Salam Hussein Ewaid; Ali Muzahem Shanjar; Raghed Hadi Mahdi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2018
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Salam Hussein Ewaid, Ali Muzahem Shanjar, Raghed Hadi Mahdi
      Objectives The knowledge and practice of breast self-examination (BSE) and breast cancer (BC) warning signs for the prevention purpose among females in Technical Institute of Shatra, Dhi-Qar Province, Iraq were investigated. Methods A cross-sectional survey by self-administered questionnaire prepared and 200 participants surveyed from January to March 2017 included 122 students, 45 teaching staff, and 33 employees. Results The results showed that 73% of students, 88% teaching staff, and 85% employees heard of BSE. About 55.7% of students, 44% teaching staff, and 45.4% employees know how to do BSE. Only 25.4% students, 24.4% teaching staff, and 21.2% employees actually practiced BSE. Fifty-four percent of students, 42% teaching staff, and 37% employees know that a mammography is a tool for screening of BC. Most of the participants had knowledge about warning signs of BC but only half of all the participants know that the best time for BSE is 5th to 7th day after menstrual cycle and only 31% know that the correct age to do BSE is >18 year age. TV and internet were the main sources of knowledge about SBE for 47% of all participants. There was a low awareness of BC and BSE among the participants and there are a need for continuing medical education programs by TV and the internet about BC warn signs, BSE and risk factors.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T03:37:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.12.002
  • Assessment of the onset of radiation-induced cardiac damage after
           radiotherapy of breast cancer patients

    • Authors: Ebtsam Zaher; Enayat Fahmy; Kamal Mahmoud; Yasser El Kerm; Mohammad Auf
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2018
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Ebtsam Zaher, Enayat Fahmy, Kamal Mahmoud, Yasser El Kerm, Mohammad Auf
      Objectives The study aimed to evaluate the dose delivered to the heart during radiotherapy of left-sided and right-sided breast cancer (BC) patients, correlate the dose and laterality of radiotherapy to the possible cardiac damage and evaluate whether Left-ventricular Ejection Fraction (LVEF), Troponin-I (TnI), Creatinine Kinase (CK), Creatine Kinase-MB Relative Index (CK-MBRI) or Lactic Dehydrogenase (LDH) could be used to detect the possible onset of radiotherapy-related cardiotoxicity. Subjects and methods 80 females were assigned as; 30 left-sided BC patients, 30 right-sided BC patients and 20 healthy females. Patients were treated by radical mastectomy followed by FAC-based chemotherapy and radiotherapy. CT-based 3D-planning was used to generate cardiac dose-volume histograms to assess mean dose received by the heart. Echocardiography was done to all patients before and 1 year after completing radiotherapy. In serum, TnI and CK-MB concentration and CK and LDH activities were determined before and 1 year after radiotherapy. Results In left-sided patients, mean dose delivered to the heart was significantly higher in left-sided patients with significant association with total radiotherapy dose in left- but not right-sided patients. LVEF before and after radiotherapy were statistically different only in left-sided patients. LVEF one year after radiotherapy dropped 20% or more (ΔLVEF) in 6 patients, all were left-sided. Using cut-off values 0.08 ng/mL for TnI and 1.4 for CK-MBRI; 11 left-sided patients had abnormal TnI and CK-MBRI vs 5 right-sided patients, the 6 patients identified with ΔLVEF ≥ 20 were all among them. Conclusion the mean dose delivered to the heart is significantly higher in left-sided patients, and it was correlated to the total radiotherapy dose. One year after radiotherapy, ΔLVEF is possibly good marker of cardiotoxicity onset, however, the persistent elevation of both TnI and CK-MBRI could identify both patients with cardiotoxicity and patients that are thought to be in subclinical phase of cardiac damage.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T03:37:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.12.001
  • Effect of metformin on Sirtuin-1 disorders associated with diabetes in
           male rats

    • Authors: Effat A. Khowailed; Hanan Ahmed Seddiek; Manal Moustafa Mahmoud; Laila A. Rashed; Fatma Elsayed Ibrahim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Effat A. Khowailed, Hanan Ahmed Seddiek, Manal Moustafa Mahmoud, Laila A. Rashed, Fatma Elsayed Ibrahim
      Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia and hyperglycaemia. Increased glucose production through abnormally elevated hepatic gluconeogenesis is central to the manifestation of hyperglycaemia in T2DM. Metformin corrects hyperglycaemia mainly through inhibition of gluconeogenesis. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) has been identified as regulator of gluconeogenic gene expression. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of metformin on SIRT1 level and activity in liver and pancreas of diabetic rats. Further, the possible role of SIRT1 on metabolic disorders associated with diabetes mellitus, including serum levels of glucose, insulin, triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotiens (HDL), will be explored. Methods Thirty-two male albino rats were divided into control group (GpI), diabetic (DM) group (GpII), (metformin+DM) group (GpIII) administered 120mg/kg metformin daily for 1month before induction of diabetes, (DM+metformin) group (GpIV) administered 250mg/kg metformin daily for 1month after induction of diabetes. At the end of the study, BMI%, serum levels of glucose, insulin, TG and HDL, HOMA, SIRT1 level and activity in liver and pancreas and pancreatic DNA ladder were assessed. Results Our results showed significant decrease in serum glucose, insulin and TG levels and HOMA; significant increase in HDL level and SIRT1 level and activity in liver and pancreas beside the marked disappearance of pancreatic apoptosis in GpIII & IV relative to GpII. Regarding BMI%, it showed no significant changes in GpIV relative to GpII. No significant change was recorded between GpIII and GpIV regarding all studied parameters except on serum TG. Conclusion Lowered SIRT1 in diabetes was improved by the administration of Metformin. Consequently, the pathophysiological disorders associated with T2DM were improved.

      PubDate: 2018-01-06T01:34:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.09.002
  • Is sdLDL a valuable screening tool for cardiovascular disease in patients
           with metabolic syndrome'

    • Authors: Radwa Momtaz Abdelsamie Zaki Khalil; Dalia Ahmed Mohamed Al-Azab; Ola Abdelmoneim Akl
      Pages: 299 - 305
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Radwa Momtaz Abdelsamie Zaki Khalil, Dalia Ahmed Mohamed Al-Azab, Ola Abdelmoneim Akl
      Many patients with cardiovascular disease have their low density lipoprotein cholesterol within normal range. This raises the question about the most important lipoprotein to use as a marker of atherogenecity. In fact, small dense low density lipoprotein has recently been suggested as a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease. Among high risk patients, those with metabolic syndrome represent an important target population. Different methods of small dense low density lipoprotein measurement were developed. Accordingly, two phenotypes of low density lipoprotein are recognized: Phenotype A (predominance of large buoyant low density lipoprotein) & phenotype B (predominance of small dense low density lipoprotein). However, none of the methods has been yet considered as a gold standard one. A lot of studies confirmed the role of small dense low density lipoprotein in the development of cardiovascular disease through atherogenic properties & clinical trials. However, others failed to do so. These discrepancies may be due to different sample sizes, different populations, different age groups, different methods of measurement & other possible confounding factors. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of small dense low density lipoprotein as a valuable screening/preventive tool of cardiovascular disease in patients with metabolic syndrome.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:23:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.01.002
  • Effect of Prosthechea karwinskii (Orchidaceae) on obesity and dyslipidemia
           in Wistar rats

    • Authors: Alejandra Rojas-Olivos; Rodolfo Solano-Gómez; Alfonso Alexander-Aguilera; Manuel Jiménez-Estrada; Stefan Zilli-Hernández; Luicita Lagunez-Rivera
      Pages: 311 - 315
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Alejandra Rojas-Olivos, Rodolfo Solano-Gómez, Alfonso Alexander-Aguilera, Manuel Jiménez-Estrada, Stefan Zilli-Hernández, Luicita Lagunez-Rivera
      Background Prosthechea karwinskii is an endemic Mexican orchid, it’s currently used as decorative element and in the traditional medicine to treat diabetes and some problems related to inflammatory processes. Aim To determine antioxidant activity index (AAI) and to validate by the first time and through an rat model the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from Prosthechea karwinskii, a plant used in traditional medicine for treat conditions relate to the metabolic syndrome. Methods For in vivo assays 25 weaned male Wistar rats were divided into a control group (CG; n=5) and a Metabolic Syndrome group (MS; n=20). The rats of the latter were induced to MS with 40% sucrose in the drink water during 13weeks. After MS induction this group was subdivided into 4 groups: MS group (n=5) received sucrose, and three groups receiving 200mg/kg of body weight of each extract pseudobulb (P, n=5), leaf (L, n=5), and flower (F, n=5). All treatments were followed for 13days. Blood was collected at the end of the study to measure glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides. AAI were measured in the extracts by the method of DPPH. The results were analyzed using MINITAB 16.1.0, and the statistical significance was determined by ANOVA and a Tukey’s test (P <0.05). Results Leaves (L) extract had highest values in AAI, followed by flowers (F) and pseudobulb (P) extracts. Leaves extract had highest reducing effect on glucose level, while flower extract had highest reducing effect on the cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Conclusions The P. karwinskii extracts evaluated here reduces the glycemic and lipidemic parameters in Wistar rats with MS induced. These effects may be attributed to the high antioxidant capacity of the extracts.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:23:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2016.11.004
  • Antihyperglycemic activity of the bark methanolic extract of Syzygium
           mundagam in diabetic rats

    • Authors: Rahul Chandran; Thangaraj Parimelazhagan; Blassan P. George
      Pages: 317 - 324
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Rahul Chandran, Thangaraj Parimelazhagan, Blassan P. George
      The present study was designed to investigate the free radical defence and antihyperglycemic property of S. mundagam. Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol and hot water extracts of bark were determined for the total phenolic, tannin, flavonoid content and antioxidant property using DPPH, ABTS+, phosphomolybdenum, FRAP, superoxide, nitric oxide and metal chelating assays. The antioxidant response was best observed in ABTS+ (109686.87μM TE/g extract), phosphomolybdenum (268.54g AAE/100g extract) and superoxide radical scavenging assays (84.30%). Bark methanol extract was found highly efficient in scavenging the free radicals than other extracts. The higher phenolic content (54.44g GAE/100 extract) could be attributed to this effect. The glucose homeostasis was observed till 180th min in glucose loaded rats treated with the bark methanol extract. The extract could also induce potent hypoglycaemia in STZ induced diabetic rats. The antioxidant defence system could be one of the prime mechanisms of S. mundagam leaf and bark extracts that needs to be studied further for the exact molecular action leading to antidiabetic effect.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:23:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2016.12.001
  • Relationship between motor and cognitive learning abilities among primary
           school-aged children

    • Authors: Osama Abdelkarim; Achraf Ammar; Hamdi Chtourou; Matthias Wagner; Elke Knisel; Anita Hökelmann; Klaus Bös
      Pages: 325 - 331
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Osama Abdelkarim, Achraf Ammar, Hamdi Chtourou, Matthias Wagner, Elke Knisel, Anita Hökelmann, Klaus Bös
      Background The relationship between motor and cognitive development has already been proven in young children. However, in relation to the academic achievement the association between motor and cognitive performance still not well established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the levels of motor and cognitive learning abilities and their independent and combined associations among German primary school-children. Methods Participants were (n=197) between the ages of six to eight. The German motor test (DMT), the cognitive abilities test (KFT), height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were measured. Results ANOVA testing found that boys perform better in long jumping and in the six minutes running test while girls perform better in balancing backwards and in deductive thinking test (p<0.05). With maturation from ages six to eight the achievement level of both populations showed a higher performance in motor and cognitive learning abilities (p<0.001). Concerning the combined and independent associations between the tested abilities, a significant correlation was shown between total motor and total cognitive learning abilities (p<0.001, r=0.60) with higher contribution of balancing backwards, six minutes running and push-up levels (r=0.63, r=0.62, r=0.60, respectively) in the performance of the cognitive learning abilities (i.e. mathematical thinking, r=0.62 and language understanding, r=0.59). Conclusions In conclusion, fostering the childrens’ physical fitness during the primary school age could enhance both motor and cognitive learning abilities related to the academic achievement.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:23:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2016.12.004
  • The hemodynamic repercussions of the autonomic modulations in
           growth-restricted fetuses

    • Authors: Igor Victorovich Lakhno
      Pages: 333 - 336
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Igor Victorovich Lakhno
      Objectives Idiopathic fetal growth restriction is considered to be associated with hemodynamic abnormalities. The study was aimed to the investigation of the relationship between fetal and maternal autonomic balance, arterial and venous hemodynamic Doppler indices and CTG variables in case of normal fetal development and fetal growth restriction. Methods 106 patients at 32–40weeks of gestation were enrolled in the study. 30 of them had healthy pregnancy and were involved in Group I. In Group II, 44 pregnant women with fetal growth restriction and normal umbilical hemodynamic Doppler indices were observed. 32 patients with fetal growth restriction and an absent or reversed end-diastolic umbilical flow were monitored in Group III. The curves of maximum blood flow velocity were isolated and their spectral components were determined from the umbilical Doppler spectrograms. The maternal and fetal heart rate variability, conventional CTG patterns were obtained from RR-interval time series registered from maternal abdominal wall electrocardiographically. Results The increased adrenergic regulation has modulated parasympathetic impact on fetal cardiovascular system. The decreased reactivity was mirrored in low LTV, lack of accelerations and an increased score of decelerations. The CTG findings were also featured by the revealed correlations demonstrated an obvious relationship between fetal and maternal hemodynamics in healthy pregnancy. It was possible to speculate that a controlling signal of 0.5Hzhas played a significant role in the umbilical venous blood flow. The decreased fetal autonomic tone and the fetal and maternal hemodynamic decoupling were found in growth-retarded fetuses. Conclusion Fetal heart rate pattern was influenced by maternal and fetal autonomic tone. Maternal cardiovascular oscillations were reflected in the umbilical circulation in healthy pregnancy Fetal distress was featured by sympathetic overactivity and the reduction of vagal tone. Such autonomic modulations was manifested by the decelerative pattern of CTG and deteriorated umbilical hemodynamics.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:23:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2016.12.007
  • Toxic effects of formalin-treated cadaver on medical students, staff
           members, and workers in the Alexandria Faculty of Medicine

    • Authors: Noha Selim Mohamed Elshaer; Madiha Awad Elsayed Mahmoud
      Pages: 337 - 343
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Noha Selim Mohamed Elshaer, Madiha Awad Elsayed Mahmoud
      Background Formaldehyde can be toxic, allergenic and carcinogenic. Evaporation of formaldehyde from formalin-treated cadavers in the anatomy dissection rooms can produce high exposure. This study was conducted to assess acute and chronic toxic effects of formalin-treated cadavers on medical students, staff members, and workers at the Anatomy department in the Alexandria Faculty of Medicine (AFM). Methods A cross sectional approach was adopted to investigate medical students (n=454). Staff members and workers at the Anatomy department (n=16), and unexposed staff members and workers in the AFM (n=19) were included in the study. Medical students filled self-administered predesigned questionnaire. Formalin-exposed and unexposed staff members filled a questionnaire and a Complete Blood Count was done for them. Results The most frequently reported symptoms by medical students were unpleasant smell (91.2%), itching in the eyes (81.3%), and excessive lacrimation (76.1%). Majority of them reported duration of relief within one hour (>80%), and more than two thirds reported wearing laboratory coats and hand gloves. Formalin-exposed staff reported symptoms of skin disorders as drying (75%), eczema (68.8%), and allergic contact dermatitis (87.5%), besides, eye irritation (68.8%), respiratory tract irritation (93.8%), and work-related bronchial asthma (53.3%). The mean RBCs and platelets counts were significantly lower among formalin-exposed staff (4.08±0.65×106/ul and 237,375±71745.73/ul respectively) compared with unexposed staff (4.95±0.50×106/ul and 280473.68±54456.27/ul respectively). WBCs count was abnormal (low or high) among formalin-exposed staff members (6.2%, and 18.8% respectively), while all unexposed staff had normal WBCs counts. Conclusion The research highlighted the irritating action of formalin on medical students, and chronic toxic effects on staff members. This necessitates re-evaluation of the concentration of formalin, proper ventilation and assessment of working practices in the dissecting rooms at the Anatomy department.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:23:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2016.11.006
  • Sub-chronic toxicological studies of transition metal complexes of
           naproxen on sprague-dawley rats

    • Authors: Md. Sharif Hasan; Narhari Das; Farida Begum; S M Abdur Rahman
      Pages: 345 - 350
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Md. Sharif Hasan, Narhari Das, Farida Begum, S M Abdur Rahman
      Objective The purpose of this research was to investigate sub-chronic toxicity in animal model. Methods A detailed study was done on the physical, hematological, biochemical and hormonal parameters of both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats after 28days administration of naproxen and its metal complexes. Results There were no significant changes found in physical parameters on observation for both male and female rats without some minor differences. However, Naproxen metal complexes showed comparatively lower side effects than naproxen. Hematological report suggested that naproxen was in process of initiating inflammation which was justified by decreasing the mean value hemoglobin and hematocrit level and increasing the white blood cells level. There were no significant changes in biochemical parameters, however, the mean value of blood glucose level and cholesterol seemed to be higher and triglyceride was lower. Thyroid hormone levels were found lower, that was another indication inflammatory process. However, this might have the ability to lower the insulin secretion resulting in increasing blood glucose level. Conclusion In the present investigation, there were no significant alterations in histopathological studies and physical parameters though some signs of abnormalities had been found but hematological and hormonal data did not suggest any inflammatory or toxicological activity. However, we observed that naproxen showed more side effects than metal complexes which indicated that carboxylic group (COOH) of naproxen may be responsible for showing those most of the side effects.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:23:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2016.12.005
  • The possible role of cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles in prevention of
           neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced
           parkinsonian disease

    • Authors: Maha Abd Elkader Hegazy; Hala Mohamed Maklad; Doaa A. Abd Elmonsif; Fatma Yosry Elnozhy; Malik Ahmad Alqubiea; Fisal Aliwi Alenezi; Obaid Mahdi Al abbas; Mahdi Mana Al abbas
      Pages: 351 - 360
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Maha Abd Elkader Hegazy, Hala Mohamed Maklad, Doaa A. Abd Elmonsif, Fatma Yosry Elnozhy, Malik Ahmad Alqubiea, Fisal Aliwi Alenezi, Obaid Mahdi Al abbas, Mahdi Mana Al abbas
      Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2NPs) is an efficient neuroprotective agent and showed promising effects in some neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis. However, the implication of CeO2NPs in Parkinsonism remains to be investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the possible role of CeO2NPs as a neuroprotective agent against the development of behavioral and biochemical changes in rat model of Parkinson’s disease. Thirty rats were included and received left intrastriatal injection of either saline (controls, n=10) or 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA) in untreated group (n=10) and 10 rats were received intraperitoneal injection of low dose CeO2NPs two hours before surgery, and continued once daily for 6 weeks (preventive group). At the end of experimental period, rats were subjected to behavioral assessment and then killed for biochemical analysis of striatal dopamine levels, oxidative stress markers and caspase-3 activity. Results showed that CeO2NPs resulted in partial neuroprotection against disturbances in motor performance. It also partially decreased apoptosis and oxidative stress in preventive group, while it failed to increase striatal dopamine level as compared to untreated rats. The present study verified some neuroprotective effects of CeO2NPs in 6-OHDA-induced Parkinsonian rats through their antioxidant and anti apoptotic effects. Some of these effects persisted till the end of six weeks whereas others declined after three weeks. A larger dose may be needed to produce more valuable effects and to maintain protection for a longer period.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:23:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2016.12.006
  • Significant reductions in heart and lung doses using semi lateral
           decubitus techniques for left sided breast cancer patients: A comparative
           dosimetric study with supine techniques

    • Authors: Amr Abdul Aziz; Lila Moussa; Mohamed Farouk; Azza Helal; Mahran Abdo
      Pages: 361 - 366
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Amr Abdul Aziz, Lila Moussa, Mohamed Farouk, Azza Helal, Mahran Abdo
      Introduction Various treatment techniques as breath hold techniques have been developed to spare the heart and lung in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy. Purpose to compare the heart and lung dosimetric parameters of semi lateral decubitus technique with and without deep inspiration breath hold with standard supine techniques for left-sided breast cancer patients undergoing breast conservative surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy. Methods Fifty patients with left-sided breast cancer were simulated using standard supine, semi lateral decubitus and semi lateral decubitus and deep inspiration breath hold. The three plans carried out using two tangential opposed photon beams were compared. Results There was a significant reduction in heart V5Gy, V10Gy, V25Gy, V30Gy, mean dose & max dose with semi-lateral decubitus and breath hold technique compared to supine technique & semi-lateral decubitus technique (P<0.001). There was also a significant reduction in the above mentioned heart DVPs with semi-lateral decubitus (P<0.001) compared to supine technique. There was a significant reduction in ipsilateral lung V20Gy and mean dose with semi-lateral decubitus and breath hold technique compared to supine technique (P<0.001) & semi-lateral decubitus technique (P=0.003 & 0.006) respectively. There was also a significant reduction in ipsilateral lung V20Gy and mean dose with semi-lateral decubitus (P<0.001 & 0.007) compared to supine technique. Conclusion Semi-lateral decubitus techniques with and without breath hold for left sided breast cancer patients significantly reduce the dosimetric parameters of the heart and ipsilateral lung compared to supine technique with comparable target dose coverage.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:23:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2016.12.002
  • Prospective comparative study between un-enhanced multidetector computed
           tomography and ultrasonography in evaluation of acute renal colic

    • Authors: Rehab Abdel Rahman El Bakry
      Pages: 367 - 371
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Rehab Abdel Rahman El Bakry

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:23:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.01.001
  • Ultrastructural changes in peripheral arteries and nerves in diabetic
           ischemic lower limbs, by electron microscope

    • Authors: Mohamed E. Salem; Abdel-Azzem A. Ismael; Amr Salem; Tarek Salem
      Pages: 373 - 379
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Mohamed E. Salem, Abdel-Azzem A. Ismael, Amr Salem, Tarek Salem
      Background The results of “light and electron microscopic study” of the peripheral arteries and nerves biopsies in diabetic neuropathy comparing with biopsies of normal arteries and nerves of traumatic amputation as a control group. Aim of the work To evaluate the “electron microscopic changes” in the peripheral small arteries and nerves in the diabetic ischemic lower limbs. Patients and methods From January 2015 to June 2016 a total number of 20 patients with diabetic ischemic lower limbs (Diabetic patients group) compared with 20 non diabetic non ischemic persons as (Control group) who undergone traumatic lower limb amputation. All cases were subjected to complete history taking, complete clinical examination, and routine laboratory investigations. “Light and electron microscopic studies” of biopsies from the peripheral small arteries and nerves e.g. digital or posterior tibial arteries and nerves during amputation of diabetic gangrene of the toes, below knee, above knee amputation and from traumatic amputation of the control group. Results The results of an “electron microscopic study” of diabetic peripheral arteries and nerves biopsies, 12 out of 20 cases showed thrombi in small vessels. In some small vessels, masses of fibrin were seen within the lumen. In other vessels, older thrombi were present. 17 out of 20 cases showed endothelial cells hyperplasia in some vessels. The degree of hyperplasia was sufficient to occlude the lumen of the vessels. Some vessels showed degenerate pericytes and endothelial cells which contained large lipid droplets. The peripheral nerves showed patchy demyelination, areas of degeneration and regeneration, areas of infarction and necrosis and collagen fibers deposition. Among the control group, no cases contained thrombi, degenerated vessels, degenerate pericytes or lipid droplets within the endothelial cells. Conclusion The present study found that the diabetic microangiopathy is the main cause of diabetic neuropathy and diabetic foot lesions.

      PubDate: 2017-12-08T09:09:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2016.11.005
  • Carotid artery aneurysm associated with Marfan Syndrome: A case report

    • Authors: Paolo Re; Simone Collura; Cristiano Saronni; Giacomo Pata; Andrea Battistella; Federico Ghidinelli; Gianluca Abrami; Maurizio Giovanetti
      Pages: 381 - 385
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Paolo Re, Simone Collura, Cristiano Saronni, Giacomo Pata, Andrea Battistella, Federico Ghidinelli, Gianluca Abrami, Maurizio Giovanetti

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:23:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2016.10.002
  • Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) of the delta family (GluD1 and
           GluD2) and synaptogenesis

    • Authors: Muhammad Zahid Khan
      Pages: 201 - 206
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 3
      Author(s): Muhammad Zahid Khan
      Glutamate delta-1 (GluD1) and glutamate delta-2 (GluD2) form the delta family of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) and are distinct from other (iGluRs) in that they do not exhibit typical agonist-induced ion channel currents. Recent studies have demonstrated a crucial role of the delta receptors in synapse formation by interacting with presynaptic proteins such as Neurexin1. This review presents current knowledge regarding the expression, structure and function of Glu delta receptors (GluD1, GluD2) in brain, focusing on synapse formation, function and dysfunction.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T11:24:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2016.09.003
  • Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of
           methanolic extract of Justicia secunda Vahl leaf

    • Authors: Samuel O. Onoja; Maxwell I. Ezeja; Yusuf N. Omeh; Beatrice C. Onwukwe
      Pages: 207 - 213
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 3
      Author(s): Samuel O. Onoja, Maxwell I. Ezeja, Yusuf N. Omeh, Beatrice C. Onwukwe
      Background of study Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances which can be used to treat various infectious diseases. Aim The study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of Justicia secunda Vahl leaf. Methods The acute toxicity was performed with up and down method and the highest dose used was 2g/kg. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using the carrageenan and formalin-induced paw edema models, and antinociceptive activity was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing reflex and tail flick test models while the antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) photometric assay. Results The extract was well tolerated as no signs of toxicity or death were noticed during the period of observation. The extract produced a concentration dependent increase in antioxidant activities in both DPPH and FRAP models. The extract produced its optimum activity at 400μg/ml in both DPPH (54.07%) assay and FRAP (1.58μM) assay. The extract produced significant (P <0.05) dose-dependent increase in both anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the extract (0.4g/kg) were comparable with the reference drugs (aspirin and pentazocine) used in the study. Conclusion This study suggests that J. secunda possesses anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antioxidant activities and also provide the pharmacological basis for its uses in traditional medicine for these purposes.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T11:24:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2016.06.001
  • Evaluation of Interleukin 8 gene polymorphism for predicting inflammation
           in Indian chronic kidney disease and peritoneal dialysis patients

    • Authors: Rajasree Shanmuganathan; Kumaresan Ramanathan; Giri Padmanabhan; Bhooma Vijayaraghavan
      Pages: 215 - 220
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 3
      Author(s): Rajasree Shanmuganathan, Kumaresan Ramanathan, Giri Padmanabhan, Bhooma Vijayaraghavan
      Background and aim Previous studies have observed the association between inflammation and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The role played by Interleukin 8 (IL8) gene polymorphism has not been studied yet. Hence, the present study has been designed as the first attempt to identify the possible associations between polymorphism of the IL-8 gene and patients with diabetic CKD and on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Materials and methods A total of 150 participants were selected from a private nephrology outpatient clinic. The subjects were divided into three groups: healthy individuals without any renal complications (group 1, control, n =50), patients with diabetic chronic kidney disease of stages 3 and 4 (group 2, n =50) and CAPD (group 3, n =50). Blood deoxyribo nucleic acid (DNA) isolated from the members of the study group, was confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and primers specific for IL8 gene were designed, using primer3 software tool. Results Restriction digestion of the amplicons with Escherichia coli restriction enzyme I (EcoRI) ended up in 203 base pairs (bp) band in control and 108bp band in all diabetic and non-diabetic CKD. This indicated the presence of polymorphism in +781 Cytosine/Thymine (C/T) of IL-8 gene in diabetic CKD and CAPD patients. Statistical analysis of the distribution of frequencies of alleles C and T by chi square test confirmed the presence of polymorphism at +781 C/T of IL-8 gene in patient groups compared to control. Conclusion The polymorphism in +781 C/T of IL-8 gene studied in this work suggests its possible role as an inflammatory marker for both chronic kidney disease and CAPD.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T11:24:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2016.06.004
  • Reduced glomerular filtration rate as a predictor of coronary artery
           disease events in elderly patients

    • Authors: Tarek A. Ghonemy; Ebrahim M. Salim; Sameh A. Soliman; Hala M. Allam
      Pages: 221 - 225
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 3
      Author(s): Tarek A. Ghonemy, Ebrahim M. Salim, Sameh A. Soliman, Hala M. Allam
      Background Chronic kidney disease is independently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in high-risk populations according to several studies. However, findings from community-based population studies are insufficient. We studied the relationship between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) events in patients attending Zagazig University Hospital, Sharqiya governorate, Egypt. Methods A total of 800 subjects aged ⩾60years admitted to Internal Medicine Department or attended medicine outpatient clinic were included in this study. Careful history and full clinical examinations were done to assess the risk factors of CAD. Serum creatinine, lipid profile and serum glucose were measured. Estimated eGFR was evaluated by creatinine based MDRD formula. According to eGFR, patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 with eGFR⩾60mL/min/1.73m2 and Group 2 with eGFR<60mL/min/1.73m (between 40 and 60mL/min/1.73m). Results 410 patients were found to have eGFR⩾60mL/min/1.73m2, while 390 patients were found to have eGFR<60mL/min/1.73m2. eGFR was lower in patients with CAD (62±13mL/min/1.73m2) in comparison with patients without CAD (76±11mL/min/1.73m2) (P ⩽0.001). Older age, hypertension, Diabetes and Low HDL are highly significant risk factors for CAD in those patients (P 0.001). Conclusions Reduced eGFR is a significant risk factor for CAD events in older patients. Monitoring of eGFR may have a pivotal role in early detection and management of CAD in those types of patients.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T11:24:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2016.06.006
  • Candidemia after cardiac surgery in Tehran, Iran: A retrospective analysis
           of 424 cases at two medical centers

    • Authors: Nayeb Ali Ahmadi; Leila Davodi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Nayeb Ali Ahmadi, Leila Davodi
      Background Candidaemia is an emerging problem and one of the most important nosocomial infections in many hospitals. The aim of this study was to characterize the epidemiology and patient outcomes of candidemia after cardiac surgery at two medical centers in Iran over a nine-year period. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted reviewing the medical records of all patients who underwent surgical treatment of cardiac disease at two medical centers. Demographic data, comorbidities, surgical procedure, length of hospital stay, odds ratio and annual trend for candidemia in cardiosurgical cases were collected and analyzed. Results Candidemia was responsible for 1.78% cases of total cardiac surgeries (23,849) in two hospitals. Data showed an overall declining trend for the incidence of candidemia during the study period, so that decreased from 3.81% in 2003–2004 to 0.52% in 2011–2012 (P < .01). The odds ratio was significantly downward (from 1 to 0.14, P < .01). Candidemia had a direct relationship with patiant age, and the mean age was 64.2 years. A remarkable gender difference skewed towards males was observed, and the male/female ratio among candidemia cases <60 and ≥65 years old was 0.82 and 1.79, respectively. Housewives had the highest rate of infection (34.91%). Coronary Artery Bypass Graft was the most common type of surgical intervention. Majority of candidemia patients (89.2%) had risk factor and the most common comorbidities were diabetes. Mean total hospital stay was 17.34 ± 4.69 days. Conclusions This study expands the knowledge of the epidemiology and trend of incidence of candidemia in cardiosurgical cases. The survey provides preliminary baseline data for the future monitoring of candidemia, and effective programs for controlling and preventive strategies against the disease in hospitals.

      PubDate: 2017-12-08T09:09:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.11.009
  • Early prediction of iron deficiency in females in child bearing age in
           central Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Mysara M. Mogahed; Shereen Mohamed Abdelwahab
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Mysara M. Mogahed, Shereen Mohamed Abdelwahab

      PubDate: 2017-12-08T09:09:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.11.010
  • Zoonotic fungal diseases and animal ownership in Nigeria

    • Authors: Adebowale I. Adebiyi; Daniel O. Oluwayelu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Adebowale I. Adebiyi, Daniel O. Oluwayelu
      Background The growing interest in keeping animals as pets in Nigeria and other resource-poor countries highlights the possibility of transmission of zoonotic infections to humans. These zoonoses which are usually caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi, are naturally transmitted to humans, causing various degrees of morbidity and mortality with attendant economic and or public health consequences. Materials and method In the present review, a computerized search of existing literature was conducted using the Google search engine and PubMed electronic database to identify and download relevant publications on zoonotic fungal infections in Nigeria. The key words used were zoonotic fungal disease and Nigeria while the Boolean operator ‘AND’ was used to combine and narrow the searches. Additional information was obtained by searching the medical and veterinary libraries for journals not listed in the database. The available publications were thereafter reviewed and findings qualitatively described. Results Our findings revealed that fungal diseases with zoonotic potential lack sufficient attention in Nigeria. This suggests that fungi are yet to be considered as major causes of morbidity and mortality in animals and humans in Nigeria, and may account for the few reports available on zoonotic fungal diseases in the country. Conclusion There is a need to raise awareness of the extent of health problems caused by zoonotic fungal diseases in Nigeria in order to better appreciate their burden and public health consequences, and also provide an integrated platform for development of effective prevention and control strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-12-08T09:09:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.11.007
  • Low cost detection of hepatitis C virus RNA in HCV infected patients by
           SYBR Green I real-time PCR

    • Authors: Dalia Elsayed Metawlly; Ahmed Noby Amer; Hanan Mostafa Mostafa; Gamal El Din Elsawaf; Ola Abd El Kader
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Dalia Elsayed Metawlly, Ahmed Noby Amer, Hanan Mostafa Mostafa, Gamal El Din Elsawaf, Ola Abd El Kader
      The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highest in Egypt compared to other countries. Nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) allows detection of HCV early during the course of infection. Unfortunately, NAT is more expensive than ELISA, thus its routine use as a screening tool for blood products or in clinical practice is quite limited. The aim of this study was to compare two common RT-PCR methods, TaqMan probe technique and SYBR Green method in quantitative detection of HCV RNA for diagnosis and follow up of HCV patients. Among the recruited 220 HCV patients, 154 (70%) were HCV-RNA positive by both the techniques, while 24 (10.9%) were negative by both techniques. On the other hand, 40 (18.2%) cases were HCV RNA positive only by SYBR Green technique, and 2 (0.9%) only by TaqMan probe technique. Forty (20.4%) of the 196 chronic HCV cases were HCV-RNA positive by SYBR Green but negative by TaqMan probe technique. Conclusion This method is useful for rapid qualitative detection of HCV infection and particularly suitable for routine diagnostic applications.

      PubDate: 2017-12-08T09:09:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.11.004
  • Comparing the efficiency of four diagnostic concentration techniques
           performed on the same group of intestinal parasites

    • Authors: Kamran Pakdad; Seyed Dawood Mousavi Nasab; Fatemeh-Alsadat Damraj; Nayeb Ali Ahmadi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Kamran Pakdad, Seyed Dawood Mousavi Nasab, Fatemeh-Alsadat Damraj, Nayeb Ali Ahmadi
      Background Intestinal parasites are a major public health problem, and their accurate diagnosis is important. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficiency of four concentration techniques for the detection of intestinal parasites under laboratory conditions. Methods A total of 800 suspension specimens including 200 samples for each technique were simultaneously and parallel processed for comparing the diagnostic efficiency of the formalin-tween (FTC), formalin-ether (FEC), formalin-acetone (FAC), and formalin-gasoline concentration (FGC) techniques. Results Sensitivity of FTC, FEC, FAC, and FGC techniques for diagnosis of intestinal parasites was 71.7%, 55.8%, 70.0% and 56.7%; and their negative predictive values (NPV) were 70.2%, 60.2%, 69.0% and 60.6%, respectively. FTC and FAC techniques with equivalent recovery rates were significantly more sensitive than FEC and FGC techniques for diagnosing helminth ova, but for diagnosis of protozoan cysts they were reversed. Overall diagnostic κ agreement for FTC and FAC techniques was substantial, while for FEC and FGC techniques it was moderate. The κ statistic indicated low to moderate agreement for diagnosis of helminths and moderate to substantial agreement for protozoa. Conclusion Tween, acetone and gasoline reagents are more stable, safer, less flammable and of lower cost than that of ether; and promise to be a useful alternative to ether- concentration. Our results demonstrated that the combined use of parasitological techniques is important for the diagnosis of all intestinal parasites. FTC and FGC techniques are superior for the diagnosis of helminth ova and protozoan cysts in stool, respectively. Additional studies are suggested, using a larger sample size and different parasites in the field.

      PubDate: 2017-12-08T09:09:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.11.005
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome in patients with and without diabetes mellitus in
           Upper Egypt: The impact of electrophysiological and ultrasonographical

    • Authors: Abeer A. Tony; Effat A.E. Tony; Yasser A.R.M. Selim; Ehab Saad
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Abeer A. Tony, Effat A.E. Tony, Yasser A.R.M. Selim, Ehab Saad
      Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common entrapment neuropathy in the upper extremity. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) is the most valid way of diagnosing CTS in combination of these clinical symptoms together with positive signs by physical examination. Ultrasonography is a useful non-invasive diagnostic method for CTS and there is considerable correlation between the electrophysiological tests and the measurements of cross-sectional area (CSA) by ultrasonography. Many studies have shown that the carpal tunnel syndrome seems to occur more frequently in patients with diabetes mellitus and might be associated with the duration of diabetes mellitus, microvascular complications and degree of glycemic control. Although diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for CTS, reports about median nerve CSA measurements between CTS patients with and without DM are scant. This prospective study aimed to evaluate whether or not ultrasonographic findings of the median nerve is different between DM and non-DM-CTS patients. To correlate the diagnostic results in both DM and non-DM-CTS patients. Patients and methods Thirty six non-diabetic patients and twenty five diabetic patients with CTS were assessed. All patients were subjected to thorough history taking, full clinical examination, electrophysiological assessment of wrists and gray scale ultrasonography (US). Results High mean cross sectional area of median nerve (CSA) on ultrasonographical studies was detected with non-significant difference between both groups. Additionally, a non-significant difference for flattening ratio was found between two groups. Moreover, there was a highly significant positive correlation between electro diagnostic and ultrasonographic results in diabetic patients. Conclusion The CSA of median nerve is larger in CTS hands in both DM and non-DM patients. Mean electro-diagnostic parameters were not significant predictors of CTS in patients with diabetes. The combination of electrophysiological and ultrasonography provides diagnostic effective tools across the entire spectrum of CTS in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Nevertheless, screening for DM in patients with CTS is not recommended.

      PubDate: 2017-12-08T09:09:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.11.003
  • Prevalence of depressive symptoms among Turkish women experiencing
           premenstrual symptoms and correlated factors

    • Authors: Erbil
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Nülüfer Erbil
      Objective The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence of depressive symptoms among Turkish women experiencing premenstrual symptoms and correlated factors. Method This descriptive and cross-sectional study. The data were collected with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Premenstruel Syndrome Scale (PMSS), and questionnaire form. A total of 121 married and literate women who agreed to participate were included in the study. Results The proportions depressive symptoms among women with severe premenstrual symptoms and without severe premenstrual symptoms were 51% and 13.5% respectively. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between the BDI score; the total PMSS score (r=0.403) and its subscales scores including depressive feelings (r=0.439); anxiety (r=0.412); fatigue (r=0.280); irritability (r=0.253); depressive thoughts (r=0.456); pain (r=0.204); and the changes in appetite (r=0.418). A negative correlation was found in the swelling subscale score of PMSS (r=−0.079), but there was no correlation with the changes in the sleeping habits subscale score (r=0.024). There was correlation between BDI scores and occupation, education, perception of outcome, domicile, and a history of psychiatric disorders of the women. There was correlation between PMSS scores a history of psychiatric disorders and complaint of dysmenorrhea in the women. Conclusions In conclusion, women who experienced premenstrual syndrome had higher depressive symptoms than women without premenstrual syndrome. Women with premenstrual syndrom should be assessed for depression by health professionals.

      PubDate: 2017-12-08T09:09:41Z
  • Salt intake in a group of Tunisian obeses

    • Authors: Chiraz Amrouche; Olfa Berriche; Rym Ben Othman; Feten Mahjoub; Khouloud Halloumi; Fahim Chaima; Sabeh Bhouri; Amel Gammoudi; Henda Jamoussi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Chiraz Amrouche, Olfa Berriche, Rym Ben Othman, Feten Mahjoub, Khouloud Halloumi, Fahim Chaima, Sabeh Bhouri, Amel Gammoudi, Henda Jamoussi
      Background Salt is directly related to hypertension and cardiovascular disease associated with it. As obesity facilitates the effect of salt, a quantification of obese salt intake is necessary. Methods Our patients numbering 56 have been recruited in the consultation of the obesity unit. Patients were given a questionnaire about their knowledge concerning salt. Natriuresis of 24 h was quantified. The average amount of sodium consumed per day from foods was determined (SAL), the average amount of sodium consumed per day from table salt added to cooking and seasoning (SAC) and the average total amount of sodium consumed per day (STOQ). Results The mean age of our patients was 44.31 ± 12.8 years. The average BMI of our patients was 37.12 ± 5.9 kg/m2. The average systolic blood pressure was 123.8 ± 14 mmHg and mean diastolic blood pressure was 76.45 ± 10.7 mmHg. The average amount of sodium consumed per day from food (SAL) was 1915 ± 1038 mg. The average amount of sodium consumed per day from cooking salt (SAC) was 2487 ± 1663 mg. The total amount of sodium consumed per day (STOQ) was 4402 ± 1831 mg. This addition is equivalent to 11 ± 4.6 g of salt per day. The total sodium intake exceeded 2000 mg/day in 89.2% of patients. More than half (57%) of spontaneous sodium intake comes from salt added. The average natriuresis in our population is 158 ± 68 mmol/24 h, higher than the norm in 18% of cases. The majority (85%) of our patients have claimed that excess salt is bad to very bad for health. Conclusion Our study showed the importance of salt consumption in obeses and especially table salt and yet the majority of our patients consider it to be harmful to health. It will be necessary to take into account the sodium intake when prescribing the diet.

      PubDate: 2017-12-08T09:09:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.11.002
  • Public and private surgeon attitude towards informed consent

    • Authors: Saadoun Faris Alazmi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Saadoun Faris Alazmi
      Background Informed consent ranks as one of the most prominent issues in the recent bioethics literature due to increasing number of medico-legal cases and, the introduction of new national guidelines. Objectives The aim of this study is to examine the attitude of surgeons working in public and private hospitals towards informed consent. Subjects and methods This study is a cross-sectional survey that was conducted from January to June 2016 in all five governmental general hospitals, and two private hospitals in Kuwait. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from the surgeons working in the selected hospitals including six domains related to informed consent. Results The majority of surgeons believed that informed consent routinely achieved in their current practice and that all doctors should receive formal training on informed consent, though only 35.7% of public surgeon received training compared to 76.7% of private surgeons. Although 82.7% of public surgeons believed that written information leaflets should be provided for patients, only 41.1% provide their patients with these type of leaflets. There was no significant difference between public and private surgeons regarding the purpose of informed consent except that higher proportion of private surgeons believed that informed consent improves the doctor-patient relationship. There was an agreement between public and private surgeons that junior doctors should not conduct the informed consent. Higher proportion of private than public surgeons stated that the content of informed consent was affected by patient’s age, gender, and social class whereas level of education was thought by public surgeons. Conclusion Private surgeons differ from those in the public hospitals in that they tend to look at informed consent as not only an ethical and legal obligation, but also of benefit to patients. The introduction of formal training on informed consent in both types of hospitals are recommended.

      PubDate: 2017-12-08T09:09:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.11.001
  • Characterization of abnormal sleep patterns in patients with obesity, type
           2 diabetes, or combined

    • Authors: Aliaa Ali El-Aghoury; Tamer Mohamed Elsherbiny; Neveen Lewis; Tarek Mohamed Salem; Nesma Osman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Aliaa Ali El-Aghoury, Tamer Mohamed Elsherbiny, Neveen Lewis, Tarek Mohamed Salem, Nesma Osman
      Introduction: Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus have reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Abnormal sleep has been linked to both incident and prevalent obesity and type 2 diabetes. We aimed to characterize abnormal sleep patterns [ASP's] in patients with obesity, type 2 diabetes, or both. Subjects: The study included 92 subjects divided into four groups: Group 1, 23 obese patients (BMI > 30) with type 2 diabetes mellitus; Group 2, 23 non-obese diabetic patients; group 3, 23 obese subjects without diabetes; group 4, 23 matched healthy control subjects. Methods: Waist circumference and BMI [body mass index] estimation, fasting and post challenge plasma glucose “groups 2 & 4”, HOMA-IR [Homeostatic model assessment- Insulin resistance] estimation, and finally evaluation for ASP's using a CDC [Centers for Disease Control and prevention] validated questionnaire. Results: Post-prandial glucose and BMI significantly predicted Sleep latency and sleep hours at night respectively. Both group 1 and 3 compared to group 4 showed higher prevalence of: Insomnia [p < .01], snoring [p < .01], fragmented sleep [p < .05], excessive day time sleepiness [p < .001], and daytime dysfunction [p < .001]. Group 2 compared to group 4 showed higher prevalence of: Insomnia, snoring, fragmented sleep, and finally, daytime dysfunction [All p < .01]. Group 1 compared to groups 3 and 4 had significantly less hours of sleep at night [p < .01]. Group 1 compared to group 2 showed higher prevalence of: Insomnia, fragmented sleep, excessive day time sleepiness, and daytime dysfunction [All p < .05]. Finally, group 3 compared to group 2 showed higher prevalence of: Excessive day time sleepiness, and daytime dysfunction [p < .01]. Conclusion: The combination of obesity and diabetes mellitus is associated with poor quality and quantity of sleep with resultant significant daytime dysfunction. Glycemic, and adiposity measures predicted sleep latency and hours.

      PubDate: 2017-12-08T09:09:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.10.004
  • Hepatitis E virus isolated from chronic hepatitis B patients in Malaysia:
           Sequences analysis and genetic diversity suggest zoonotic origin

    • Authors: Shuaibu Abdullahi Hudu; Mohd Taib Niazlin; Syafinaz Amin Nordin; Nabil Saad Harmal; Soek Siam Tan; Haniza Omar; Hamiza Shahar; Noor Aliza Mutalib; Zamberi Sekawi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Shuaibu Abdullahi Hudu, Mohd Taib Niazlin, Syafinaz Amin Nordin, Nabil Saad Harmal, Soek Siam Tan, Haniza Omar, Hamiza Shahar, Noor Aliza Mutalib, Zamberi Sekawi
      Background: Zoonotically acquired HEV has been described as one of the most successful zoonotic viral infections in human history. Aim: In this study we characterized HEV comparative genomic analysis as it relates to swine HEV. Materials and methods: A total of 82 chronic hepatitis B patients were recruited from May 2015 to May 2016 for this study. We conducted a serological and molecular investigation of HEV among these patients. The detected HEV were sequenced and the genomes and deduced amino acids were characterized using molecular evolutionary genetic analysis software version 7. Results: Of the 82 chronic hepatitis B patients that were tested, 9.8% (8/82) were found to be HEV positive. Phylogenetic analysis of the HEV RNA sequences showed they are of genotype 4 and demonstrated high sequence identity with a swine isolate from China, with variation in amino acids at position 22, where leucine was present in the Malaysian human isolate while phenylalanine was present in the China swine isolate. Conclusion: Comparative analysis of the human HEV ORF-2 nucleotide sequence suggest zoonotic origin.

      PubDate: 2017-12-08T09:09:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.07.003
  • Endoscopy audit over 10years in a community hospital in Egypt

    • Authors: Ahmed Gado; Basel Ebeid; Aida Abdelmohsen; Tarek Gado; Anthony Axon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Ahmed Gado, Basel Ebeid, Aida Abdelmohsen, Tarek Gado, Anthony Axon
      Background Practice variation is likely to have an important impact on the effectiveness of endoscopy. Performing regular quality audits allows identification of potential underperformance and consequently can result in significant improvement in endoscopy quality. An annual audit was conducted in a community hospital in Egypt. Aim The aim of the study was to determine if practice and performance of endoscopy is influenced by a consistent audit process by looking for improvement in completeness of procedures over a 10-year period. Patients and methods A total of 3736 consecutive procedures were prospectively assessed between years 2004 and 2014. Results The completion rates improved consistently. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) completion rate was 99.9% in 2004–2008 and 99% in 2009–2013 (P =0.5). Initial hemostasis of EGD-gastrointestinal bleed increased from 82% in 2004–2008 to 86% in 2009–2013 (P =0.04). Adequate bowel cleansing increased from 60% in 2004–2008 to 67% in 2009–2013 (P =0.13). Crude completion rates increased from 66% in 2004–2008 to 79% in 2009–2013 (P =0.007). Adjusted completion rates increased from 80% in 2004–2008 to 95% in 2009–2013 (P =0.0001). Ileoscopy rates in patients with chronic diarrhea increased from 79% in 2004–2008 to 97% in 2009–2013 (P =0.01). Endoscopic polypectomy rates increased from 65% in 2004–2008 to 94% in 2009–2013 (P =0.0004). Complete polyp removal rates increased from 77% in 2004–2008 to 87% in 2009–2013 (P =0.19). Complete polyp retrieval rates increased from 85% in 2004–2008 to 89% in 2009–2013 (P =0.34). Conclusion Continuous audit over 10years can enhance endoscopy performance, improve the quality of endoscopic procedures and lead to better outcomes.

      PubDate: 2017-12-08T09:09:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.08.007
  • Association between alcohol intake and subjective cognitive complaints in
           southwest Nigeria: a cross-sectional observational study

    • Authors: Awoyemi Abayomi Awofala; Olusegun Emmanuel Ogundele
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Awoyemi Abayomi Awofala, Olusegun Emmanuel Ogundele
      Background Alcohol, a widely abused drug, is a general CNS depressant that is involved in an impaired neurological functioning in a dose-dependent manner and purportedly, in the development of adverse cognitive functions in humans. Objective To assess crosss-sectionally whether alcohol consumption is associated with the risk of subjective cognitive complaints (SCCs). Material and Methods A cross-sectional study of 1299 participants with diverse age groups, ethnicity and socioeconomic levels recruited from six public hospitals in three different states in the southwest Nigeria between March 2016 and April 2016 was done. Prevalence of subjective cognitive complaints by the level of alcohol intake was measured using standardized questionnaire. Factor analyses (explorative and confirmatory) were used to validate the cognitive complaint questionnaire while conditional multiple logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between alcohol intake and SCCs. Results After adjustment for age, marital status, level of education, ethnicity, smoking status and physical activity (basic adjustment), participants in the highest compared with the lowest quintile of alcohol intake had a significantly increased odds of SCCs (odds ratio [OR], 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39–2.74; P for trend <0.001). Additional adjustment for body mass index, depression, hypercholesterolemia, cardiovascular diseases, insomnia, stress and family histories of diabetes and hypertension (multivariable adjustment), did not substantially affect this relationship (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.40–2.93; P for trend <0.001). When stratified by gender, results were similar and stronger for men in the basic (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.34–3.88, P for trend <0.001) and multivariable (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.37–4.47; P for trend <0.001) adjusted models but completely attenuated in the multivariable adjusted model for women (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 0.94–2.69; P for trend=0.08). Conclusion High intake of alcohol is associated with higher risk of SCCs in men. This relationship is independent of cardiovascular risk factors.

      PubDate: 2017-12-08T09:09:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.08.001
  • First line defence antioxidants-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT)
           and glutathione peroxidase (GPX): Their fundamental role in the entire
           antioxidant defence grid

    • Authors: O.M. Ighodaro; O.A. Akinloye
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): O.M. Ighodaro, O.A. Akinloye
      The body encloses a complex antioxidant defence grid that relies on endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. These molecules collectively act against free radicals to resist their damaging effects to vital biomolecules and ultimately body tissues. Based on their response to general free radical invasion, they can be categorized into first, second, third and even fourth line defense antioxidants. The role and effectiveness of the first line defense antioxidants which basically include superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) is important and indispensable in the entire defense strategy of antioxidants, especially in reference to super oxide anion radical (*O2) which is perpetually generated in normal body metabolism, particularly through the mitochondrial energy production pathway (MEPP). A lot has been published concerning antioxidants and their significance in preventing oxidative stress and the attendant cellular damage, howbeit with paucity of awareness on the fundamental role of SOD, CAT and GPX. The present review tends to articulate important information on SOD, CAT and GPX as first line defense antioxidant enzymes.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:23:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.09.001
  • Prevalence of obesity among adults in Issele-Uku, Delta State Nigeria

    • Authors: Otovwe Agofure
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Otovwe Agofure
      Background Obesity is gradually assuming an epidemic dimension among adults in Nigeria. Unfortunately, this has led to the increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases. Objective The study was designed to assess the prevalence of obesity among adults in Issele-uku, Aniocha North Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods The study employed a cross-sectional study design conducted among 201 respondents utilizing a simple random sampling technique. A validated semi-structured questionnaire was administered to obtain information from respondents; while descriptive and inferential statistics was used to analyze the data. Results The results show that more of the respondents were between the ages of 18–40 years, while about half 101(50.50%) were females and 104(52.0%) were married. Furthermore, only 46(23.0%) were overweight while 17.50% and 5.50% were pre-obese and obese respectively. The mean Body Mass Index of the respondents was 23.02±4.42 while the respondents demonstrated positive attitude towards prevention of obesity. In addition, only eating akpu/fufu significantly predicted obesity (R2 =0.034) while both sex (P=.350) and educational status (P=0.165) did not significantly influence obesity and some of the respondents’ 82(41.0%) exercises once in a while. Conclusion The study recommended more awareness campaign on the dangers of obesity across communities in Nigeria.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:23:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.10.005
  • Childhood accidental poisoning in western Iraq: Pattern and risk factors

    • Authors: Zaid R. Al-Ani; Sahar J. Al-Hiali; Riyadh H. Al-Janabi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Zaid R. Al-Ani, Sahar J. Al-Hiali, Riyadh H. Al-Janabi

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T22:35:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.10.001
  • Parathormone (PTH) is strongly related to left ventricular mass index
           (LVMI) in hypertensives, obese, and normal control

    • Authors: Samir Naim Assaad; Aliaa Ali El-Aghoury; Eman M. El-Sharkawy; Tamer Mohamed Elsherbiny; Ahmed Abdelhameed Osman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Samir Naim Assaad, Aliaa Ali El-Aghoury, Eman M. El-Sharkawy, Tamer Mohamed Elsherbiny, Ahmed Abdelhameed Osman

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T21:52:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.10.002
  • Traditional practices and childhood cryptosporidiosis in Nigeria: A review

    • Authors: Adekunle B. Ayinmode; Oluwasola O. Obebe
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Adekunle B. Ayinmode, Oluwasola O. Obebe
      Cryptosporidium infection is known worldwide as an important aetiology of chronic diarrhoea that can become fatal in children (below 5years of age) and immunocompromised individuals. This review was aimed at identifying some traditional practices that may be risk factors for childhood diseases like cryptosporidiosis in a country like Nigeria with different tribes and cultures. Information gathered from literature search and informal sources identified some indigenous practices like birth rituals, special childhood menus, traditional nanny practice, local management of childhood diarrhoea and some myths among others, as factors that may negatively impact childhood health in a multi-cultural population like Nigeria. A proper understanding of these traditional practices will enable the prevention and control of childhood disease like cryptosporidiosis in a multi-ethnic setting.

      PubDate: 2017-10-17T20:20:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.09.004
  • Factors affecting seeking health-related information through the internet
           among patients in Kuwait

    • Authors: Haya M. Alkhatlan; Khan F. Rahman; Badriyah H. Aljazzaf
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Haya M. Alkhatlan, Khan F. Rahman, Badriyah H. Aljazzaf
      Background The internet is a powerful worldwide communication medium that provides its users with immediate information irrespective of their location, culture, language and time. E-health service will have a great impact in reducing the costs of health care, increasing satisfaction of patients and health professionals, and minimizing the burden on health facilities. Objective This study aims to determine the proportion of patients who obtain health-related information through the internet as well as factors that could affect using the internet for seeking health information. Subjects and methods This study was conducted in six general hospitals in Kuwait. A cross-sectional study was adopted to determine the proportion of patients who obtain health-related information through the internet. It was followed by a case-control study to determine factors that could be associated with on-line search of health information. A questionnaire was used which included data related to socio-demographic characteristics, clinical history and computer experience. The final analysis included 220 participants. Results The majority of participants (93.2%) mentioned that they have used the internet for one or more purposes. Only 129 participants (62.9%) used the internet for obtaining health related information. All studied socio-demographic factors, except age and marital state, and computer skills variables had significant effect on on-line search for health information. After adjustment for confounding, only gender, nationality, level of education, and using computer at work were proved to be significant determinants of the outcome of interest. Conclusion It is important to close the gap in health literacy and increase the use of health information technology to support patient self-management. The creation of an eHealth-literate population should be a priority in Kuwaiti public health policy.

      PubDate: 2017-10-17T20:20:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.05.008
  • Adjustment disorder after botulinum toxin injection in an adolescent
           palatal myoclonus case: The importance of informed consent in the
           treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders in children and adolescents

    • Authors: Yusuf Öztürk; Zehra Topal; Nuran Demir; Ali Evren Tufan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Yusuf Öztürk, Zehra Topal, Nuran Demir, Ali Evren Tufan

      PubDate: 2017-10-17T20:20:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.08.008
  • Utility of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in assessment of liver

    • Authors: Doaa Emara; Marwa Reda Doaa Elwazzan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Doaa M. Emara, Marwa M. Reda, Doaa A. Elwazzan
      Objectives: hepatic fibrosis occurs due to chronic liver injury. Early fibrosis can be reversed by treatment with specific antifibrotic therapy in addition to removal of the cause if possible, that is why, identification of the early liver fibrosis is important. MRI DWI is a non-invasive non-contrast imaging technique which help in diagnosis of different stages of hepatic fibrosis. Aim of the work: was to study the predictive value of diffusion weighted MRI for assessing liver fibrosis in comparison to liver biopsy in chronic hepatitis C virus patients. Methods: all the studied cases were subjected to the followings: (1) History and laboratory examination (PCR for HCV and liver function tests). (2) MRI DWI and post processing ADC map. (3) Percutaneous liver biopsy in cases with HCV for histopathological examination to assess the stage of fibrosis. Results: this study was carried out on 75 subjects, divided into two group, 50 cases and 25 controls, the mean age in the two studied groups was 36.5±9.32 and 35.8±6.75 respectively in patients and control. ADC of both liver and spleen showed a highly significant increase in the control than in the cases with mean liver ADC in the control group=2.3±0.25. There was a significant negative correlation between the mean ADC of the liver, spleen and the stage of liver fibrosis.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T19:35:59Z
  • Additive manufacturing applications in medical cases: A literature based

    • Authors: Mohd. Javaid; Abid Haleem
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Mohd. Javaid, Abid Haleem
      Background A significant number of the research paper on Medical cases using Additive manufacturing studied. Different applications of additive manufacturing technologies in the medical area analysed for providing the state of the art and direction of the development. The aim of work To illustrate the Additive Manufacturing technology as being used in medical and its benefits along-with contemporary and future applications. Materials and methods Literature Review based study on Additive Manufacturing that are helpful in various ways to address medical problems along with bibliometric analysis been done. Result Briefly described the review of forty primary applications of AM as used for medical purposes along with their significant achievement. Process chain development in the application of AM is identified and tabulated for every process chain member, its achievement and limitations for various references. There are five criteria which one can achieve through medical model when made through AM technology. To support the achievements and limitations of every criterion proper references are provided. The ongoing research is also classified according to the application of AM in medical with criteria, achievement and references. Eight major medical areas where AM is implemented have been identified along with primary references, objectives and advantages. Conclusion Paper deals with the literature review of the Medical application of Additive Manufacturing and its future. Medical models which are customised and sourced from data of an individual patient, which vary from patient to patient can well be modified and printed. Medical AM involves resources of human from the field of reverse engineering, medicine and biomaterial, design and manufacturing of bones, implants, etc. Additive Manufacturing can help solve medical problems with extensive benefit to humanity.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T19:35:59Z
  • Role of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the popliteus
           musclotendinous injuries as a part of the posterolateral corner injuries
           of the knee

    • Authors: Aly A. Abdel-Kerim Farahat; Abd ElAziz Elnekeidy; Mohamed Abdel Motaleb Abdelgelil
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Aly A. Abdel-Kerim Farahat, Abd ElAziz Elnekeidy, Mohamed Abdel Motaleb Abdelgelil
      Introduction The popliteus musclotendinous complex is considered to be one of the main stabilizers of the posterolateral corner of the knee having different attachments and variable sites of injuries, the use of MRI helps the radiologists to depict such injuries consistently. Purpose of the study To study the role of MRI in evaluating the popliteus musclotendinous injuries as a part of the PLCof the knee. Patients and methods Our study included 15 patients with trauma to the knee undergoing MRI using 1.5T magnet using the following sequence: Axial, Coronal, sagittal proton density fat sat, T1, T2 and T2 gradient and conventional X-ray/CT [All patients did conventional X-ray Knee (AP and Lateral views), two patients did CT study of the knee]. Results Out of 15 studied patients with PLC injuries, eight (53.33%) patients had popliteus complex injuries, 7 (87.5%) patients showed combined injuries with other posterolateral structures while one (12.5) patient had isolated popliteus musclotendinous complex injury. Conclusion MRI imaging is crucial in the evaluation of the different sites and patterns of injuries of the popliteus musclotendinous complex when suspecting PLC injury.

      PubDate: 2017-10-02T18:32:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.08.006
  • Association of IL-23R gene single nucleotide polymorphism; rs 11209026
           with incidence and severity of ankylosing spondylitis in a cohort of
           Egyptian patients

    • Authors: Mohamed I. Sayed; Doaa I. Hashad; Eman A. Soliman; Maha M. Talaaba
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Mohamed I. Sayed, Doaa I. Hashad, Eman A. Soliman, Maha M. Talaaba
      The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible association between incidence and severity of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in a cohort of Egyptians and Interleukin-23Receptor (IL23R) genesingle nucleotide polymorphism(rs11209026). Methods:The study included thirty-two AS patients and forty volunteers who serves asa control group. The studied polymorphismwas genotyped using 5′ Nuclease assay. Results: A statistically significant difference was detected between both studied groups as regards different IL23R genesingle nucleotide polymorphism(rs11209026) genotypes. Heterozygous genotype was the most prevailing among both cases and controls. At a cutoff level of 110pg/mL, a statically significant difference was observed between cases and controls as regards serum IL23 level. Conclusions:In Egyptians, IL-23R single nucleotide polymorphism (rs11209026) appears to be associated with ankylosing spondylitis occurrence not severity, while higher levels of IL-23 might be associated with disease severity.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T15:28:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.08.005
  • Serum cobalamin and red cell folate levels of anti-psychotic treatment and
           treatment naïve psychiatic patients in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria

    • Authors: Ao Shittu; Ao Adewoye; Ho Olawumi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Ao Shittu, Ao Adewoye, Ho Olawumi
      Background Psychiatric disorders contribute significantly to the global burden of diseases. There is an urgent need to curtail the morbidity and mortality associated with psychiatric disorders. Deficiencies of cobalamin and folate have been linked with psychiatric disorders. Materials and method Sixty-six each of antipsychotic treatment, treatment naïve psychiatric patients and control were recruited for the study. Red cell folate and serum cobalamin were determined with Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay kits and the haemogram using Sysmex XT2000i. Result Folate deficiency was present in 13.6% of newly diagnosed anti-psychotic naive psychiatric patients with few of them having neutrophil hypersegmentation (7.6%) and macrocytosis (4.5%). Mean red cell folate levels for anti-psychotic naïve, patients on anti-psychotic and controls were 350.23±0.54nmol/l, 370±0.70nmol/l and 370±0.51nmol/l respectively, with p-values of 0.0001 and 0.3500 respectively when compared with control, while serum cobalamin levels were within the normal reference range in all patients and controls. Reticulocyte count had 8 times and 3 times likelihood of influencing low serum folate and low serum cobalamin respectively. Conclusion All patients had Serum cobalamin levels within the reference interval, the same can be said of the RBC folate levels of the greater percentage (95.5%) of psychiatric patients on psychotropic drugs.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T15:28:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.08.009
  • Perceptions of caretakers with different socioeconomic status about the
           harmful outcomes of fever in under-five children in Dodoma region, central
           Tanzania: A cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Telemu Kassile; Bruno P. Mmbando; Razack Lokina; Phares Mujinja
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Telemu Kassile, Bruno P. Mmbando, Razack Lokina, Phares Mujinja
      Background Socioeconomic status can affect health in childhood through many different pathways. Evidence on how households differ with regard to socioeconomic status and the degree to which this difference is associated with investment in child health is essential to the design of appropriate intervention strategies. Aim This study examines the impact of caretakers’ socio-economic characteristics on perceptions about the harmful outcomes of fever among under-five children. Material and methods The study used a three-stage cluster sample of households with under-five children in Dodoma region, central Tanzania. Multilevel modelling approach was used to model the relationship between the outcome measure and caretakers’ socioeconomic characteristics while controlling for other variables. Results A total of 329 under-five children with fever were studied of which 74.8% were perceived by their caretakers to have some chances for harmful effects of fever to occur when they experienced fever. Secondary school education or above of caretakers was significantly associated with decreased beliefs about the occurrence of harmful effects of fever. Conclusion Many caretakers are concerned about the occurrence of harmful effects of fever for their under-five children. Study findings suggest that promoting enrolment in secondary education or above and participation in the labour market particularly in non-farm activities of women would be valuable to the health of under-five children in central Tanzania.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T09:57:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.08.004
  • Forensic dissection of lip print as an investigative tool in a mixed
           Egyptian population

    • Authors: S.A. Ahmed; Hanan E. Salem; Marwa M. Fawzy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): S.A. Ahmed, Hanan E. Salem, Marwa M. Fawzy
      Background: Identification is a major problem facing forensic practitioners, DNA and finger prints are highly useful but sometimes aren't easily collected from the crime scene. Lip print could be useful in this field being unique to each individual. Aim: The current study aimed at detecting the frequency and gender relation of lip print pattern in an Egyptian sample. Methodology: Samples were collected on white copy paper, divided into four quadrants then examined with magnifying lens for pattern distribution. Results: The study showed that pattern IV was the most frequently represented pattern in the study sample, pattern I & II were more prevalent in males and females respectively. Prevalent pattern in Cairo and Lower Egypt was I while it was IV in Upper Egypt. Conclusion: The lip print pattern can differ due to gender and geographical origin in Egyptian subjects.

      PubDate: 2017-08-22T07:56:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.08.002
  • Otosclerosis and complications of stapedectomy: CT and MRI correlation

    • Authors: Heba Ibrahim Ali; Nivan Hany Khater
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Heba Ibrahim Ali, Nivan Hany Khater

      PubDate: 2017-08-11T06:40:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.07.001
  • An overview about mitochondrial DNA mutations in ovarian cancer

    • Authors: Iyer Mahalaxmi; K.S. Santhy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine
      Author(s): Iyer Mahalaxmi, K.S. Santhy
      Background Ovarian tumour is the second most common form of cancer affecting female reproductive system and the most lethal of the gynaecological malignancies. Since past decades, tremendous efforts have been made to illuminate the molecular basis for initiation and progression of ovarian carcinoma. A low quantity of dysfunction in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is considered to be a risk factor for variety of cancer types. Mitochondrial dysfunctions have been allied with varied metabolic diseases and for occurrence of cancer. Researches say that mtDNA have pivotal role in development of cancer but future work has to be carried out to know the exact significance of specific mitochondrial mutations linked with cancer and disease progression. Most of mtDNA mutations in gynecological cancers are observed in the D-loop region. Objective This review article provides a detailed summary about the ovarian cancer and mutations observed in mtDNA. Result Furthermore, this review offers some perspective as to the mtDNA origin of these mutations in ovarian cancer, their functional consequences in ovarian cancer development, to check for incidence rate for transmission of the disease through maternal lineages and possible diagnostic marker implication.

      PubDate: 2017-08-01T11:44:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2017.05.014
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