Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8695 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2420 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
4 open     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AAS Open Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AboutOpen     Open Access  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Acta Bio Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access  
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Científica Estudiantil     Open Access  
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Herediana     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)     Open Access  
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta Medica International     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acupuncture and Natural Medicine     Open Access  
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / Health Sciences Journal of Adıyaman University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell and Gene Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Clinical Radiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Advances in Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Skeletal Muscle Function Assessment     Open Access  
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Thoracic and Critical Care Medicine     Open Access  
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AJOB Empirical Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AJSP: Reviews & Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Al-Qadisiah Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alerta : Revista Científica del Instituto Nacional de Salud     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Althea Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Anatomica Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Androgens : Clinical Research and Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ankara Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası     Open Access  
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Clinical Hypertension     Open Access  
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery Protocols     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Musculoskeletal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of the RussianAacademy of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arabian Journal of Scientific Research / المجلة العربية للبحث العلمي     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives Medical Review Journal / Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi     Open Access  
Archives of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology     Open Access  
Archives of Clinical Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Organ Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Pulmonology and Respiratory Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Renal Diseases and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASHA Leader     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.697
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 13  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0964-7058
Published by RMIT Publishing Homepage  [387 journals]
  • Volume 29 Issue 3 - Self-monitoring networks for personal and societal
           health: Dietary patterns, activities, blood pressure and Covid-19
    • Abstract: Wahlqvist, Mark L
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 23:43:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 3 - Improved nutritional support with immune-modulating
           formula in patients with head and neck and esophageal cancer undergoing
           radiochemotherapy: A retrospective clinical study
    • Abstract: Chao, Pei-Chun; Lin, Frank Cheau-Feng
      Background and Objectives: Malnutrition is frequent in patients with head and neck (HN) and esophageal cancer, aggravated by radiochemotherapy (RCT), and increases morbidity and mortality and treatment toxicity. Recent studies suggest that the immune, nutritional, or inflammatory status can be modulated by the use of pharmaconutrients in RCT-treated patients. In this study, the effect of immunonutrition, including arginine, ω-3 fatty acid, and nucleotide enriched diet, on nutritional status in patients with HN or esophageal cancer undergoing RCT was investigated. Methods and Study Design: A retrospective review of 88 patients undergoing RCT was conducted. Either an immune-modulating enteral nutrition (IEN) (Impact formula) or a standard enteral nutrition (SEN) (isonitrogenous and isoenergetic formula) was administered. Anthropometric parameters, nutritional risk index (NRI), serum albumin, and functional capacity were recorded at the beginning and end of the RCT. Results: Approximately 45% of patients were moderate to severely malnourished (NRI
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 23:43:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 3 - Implications of protein malnutrition and inflammatory
           disorders in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease
    • Abstract: Ingenbleek, Yves
      Lean body mass (LBM) agglomerates the bulk of nitrogen (N)-containing molecules following well-identified age and sex evolutionary patterns best appraised in clinical practice using the serial measurement of plasma transthyretin (TTR). Methionine (Met), the sole essential amino acid bearing a sulfur (S) atom, presides at the initiation of protein synthesis while maintaining stable body tissue S:N molar ratios of approximately 1:14.5. In protein- depleted states, N- and Met-deficiencies operate as limiting factors for LBM protein synthesis and accretion, causing growth retardation and subnormal TTR plasma values. In inflammatory disorders, LBM is subjected to cytokine-induced tissue breakdown reflecting the S:N ratio found in healthy tissues whereas the liver secretion of TTR declines in proportion. Both malnutrition and inflammation are characterized by stepwise LBM downsizing and reduced bioavailability of Met body stores setting in motion molecular mechanisms safeguarding Met homeostasis at the expense of augmented homocysteine (Hcy) values in biological fluids. Divergent TTR and Hcy alterations indicate that rising Hcy values measured in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid should be regarded as the dark side of efficient compensatory processes. As a result, the neuroprotective activities normally exerted by TTR are weakened, whereas the oxidative burden generated by supranormal Hcy concentrations are strengthened. The combination of protein malnutrition and inflammatory disorders of any cause maximizes the risk of incurable neurodegenerative effects.

      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 23:43:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 3 - Does early postoperative enteral ecoimmunonutrition
           enhance intestinal function in gastric cancer'
    • Abstract: Xu, Rui; Xiao, Shuomeng; Ding, Zhi; Zhao, Ping
      Background and Objectives: We assessed the effect of enteral ecoimmunonutrition (enteral nutrition involving probiotics and immune nutrients) on gastric cancer in the postoperative period. Methods and Study Design: In total, 60 patients with gastric cancer were randomized into an enteral ecoimmunonutrition group or an enteral nutrition group. Information on postoperative complications; hospitalization length; time to first bowel movement and first flatus; and differences between preoperative and postoperative nutritional status, inflammatory reactions, and immune function was collected. Results: No significant between-group differences in nutritional status and complications were observed. C-reactive protein concentrations were lower in the enteral ecoimmunonutrition group than in the enteral nutrition group on postoperative day 7 (p
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 23:43:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 3 - Association of ABC (HbA1c, blood pressure and
           LDL-cholesterol) goal achievement with visit-to-visit ABC variability and
           postprandial dysmetabolism in type 2 diabetic patients
    • Abstract: Kitaoka, Kaori; Takenouchi, Akiko; Minato-Inokawa, Satomi; Takeuchi, Mika; Tsuboi, Ayaka; Kurata, Miki; Fukuo, Keisuke; Kazumi, Tsutomu
      Background and Objectives: Although roles of ABC (HbA1c, blood pressure [BP] and LDL-cholesterol) goal attainment on CVD risk outcomes have been well established, it is less studied whether ABC goal attainment associates with ABC variability, non-traditional risk factors. Methods and Study Design: : Intrapersonal mean levels and standard deviation (SD) of HbA1c, BP and LDL-cholesterol, fasting and post-breakfast plasma glucose (PG) and serum triglyceride (TG) during 12 months were calculated in 168 type 2 diabetes patients (aged 62.3 years, 53.6% men). Associations of ABC goal attainment with non-traditional glycemic, BP and lipid risk factors were analyzed. Results: Among 168 patients, 92 (54.8%), 91 (54.2%) and 111 (66.1%) patients achieved HbA1C, BP and cholesterol goal, respectively, and 47 (28.0 %), 45 (26.8 %), 63 (37.5 %) and 13 (7.7 %) achieved triplegoal, dual-goal, single-goal and no-goal, respectively. Achieving more ABC goals was associated with stepwise decreases in mean levels and SD of fasting and post-breakfast PG, and HbA1c. It was also associated with stepwise decreases in mean levels and SD of fasting and post-breakfast TG, and LDL-cholesterol. Further, achieving more ABC goals was associated with stepwise decreases in brachial pulse pressure and mean levels and SD of systolic BP. Conclusions: ABC goal achievement was associated with a broad range of non-traditional glycemic, BP and lipid risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Reaching more ABC treatment targets may be important for reductions in long-term ABC variability and postprandial dysmetabolism.

      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 23:43:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 3 - Impact of a low-carbohydrate and high-fiber diet on
           nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
    • Abstract: Chen, Jie; Huang, Yiqin; Xie, Hua; Bai, Huijing; Lin, Guangwu; Dong, Ying; Shi, Dongmei; Wang, Jiaofeng; Zhang, Qichen; Zhang, Yuting; Sun, Jianqin
      Background and Objectives: To study the effects of a low-carbohydrate and high-fiber diet and education on patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Methods and Study Design: We randomly divided 44 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease into two groups: low-carbohydrate and high-fiber diet and education (intervention group), and education alone (control group). Liver and kidney function, fasting plasma glucose, insulin resistance index, body composition, and controlled attenuation parameter were detected before and after the intervention. Results: After 2 months, the body fat, body weight, abdominal circumference, and visceral fat area, fasting plasma glucose, insulin resistance index, and levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, uric acid, and insulin of the intervention group were significantly lower than before (p
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 23:43:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 3 - Tomato juice preload has a significant impact on
           postprandial glucose concentration in healthy women: A randomized
           cross-over trial
    • Abstract: Saito, Yuuki; Nitta, Ayasa; Imai, Saeko; Kajiyama, Shizuo; Miyawaki, Takashi; Ozasa, Neiko; Kajiyama, Shintaro; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Fukui, Michiaki
      Background and Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of consuming tomato juice before carbohydrate on postprandial glucose concentrations in healthy women. Methods and Study Design: In this randomized controlled cross-over study, 25 healthy women (age 21.6+-3.8 years, HbA1c 5.3+-0.2 %, mean+-SD) consumed either 200 g of tomato juice, tomato, or water (control) at 30 min before consuming 200 g of boiled white rice at 9:00 and consumed identical lunch at 13:00 for 3 days. The blood glucose concentrations were measured by selfmonitoring blood glucose at 0, 30, 45, 60, 90, 150, and 210 min pre- and post-breakfast, and at 0, 30, 60, 120, 150, and 180 min pre- and post-lunch. The concentration of postprandial glucose, incremental glucose peak (IGP), and incremental area under the curve for glucose after the test meals were compared among 3 days. Results: Incremental blood glucose concentrations at 60 min (2.32+-0.16 vs 2.97+-0.19 mmol/L, p
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 23:43:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 3 - The effects of palm oil on serum lipid profiles: A
           systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Badrul Hisham, Muhammad Danish; Aziz, Zoriah; Huin, Weng Kit; Teoh, Chi Haur; Abd Jamil, Amira Hajirah
      Background and Objectives: Current guidelines recommend reducing intake of diets rich in saturated fats and replacing it with diets rich in unsaturated fats. Palm oil contains a high amount of saturated fatty acids, but its effect on serum lipid levels is unclear. The study aimed to compare the effects of palm oil consumption with other edible oils rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on serum lipid profiles. Methods and Study Design: We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials and CINAHL. Clinical trials were eligible if they compared palm oil-rich diets with diets rich in MUFAs or PUFAs. We pooled results of included studies using a random effects model and assessed the quality of the evidence and certainty of conclusions using the GRADE approach. Results: Intake of palm oil intake compared to oils rich in MUFA was associated with increased levels of total cholesterol (TC) [mean difference (MD)=0.27 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.45], LDL-C (MD=0.20 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.37) and HDL-C (MD=0.06 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.10). Similarly, for comparison with oils rich in PUFAs, palm oil showed increased in TC (MD=0.38 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.62), LDL-C (MD= 0.44 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.88) and HDL-C (MD=0.08 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.03 to 0.13). For both comparisons, there were no significant effects on triglycerides. Conclusions: Even though palm oil increases marginally the level of serum lipids, the evidence is mostly of low to moderate quality.

      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 23:43:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 3 - Dietary patterns and anemia morphology in young men
           and women in Shandong province, China
    • Abstract: Deng, Qingxue; Zhao, Ting; Liu, Chunxiao; Kuang, Xiaotong; Zheng, Jusheng; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Li, Duo
      Background and Objectives: The association between diet and macrocytic and hypochromic anemia in young Chinese men and women remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary pattern and macrocytic and hypochromic microcytic anemia in young Chinese men and women. Methods and Study Design: Some 4,840 first-year students (2,385 men and 2,455 women) were recruited for this study from Qingdao University, China. Biochemical and hematological parameters, and food frequency questionnaires were obtained from the subjects. Based on dietary intake, participants were divided into three dietary patterns: seafood dietary pattern (SDP), vegan dietary pattern (VDP) and omnivorous dietary pattern (ODP). The risks for macrocytic and microcytic hypochromic anemia in three dietary patterns were assessed. Results: Macrocytic and hypochromic anemia were less common in participants who adhered to the omnivorous dietary pattern than to the vegan or seafood dietary patterns (p
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 23:43:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 3 - Beneficial effects of konjac powder on lipid profile
           in schizophrenia with dyslipidemia: A randomized controlled trial
    • Abstract: Zhang, Lei; Han, Yong; Zhao, Zhijun; Liu, Xiangqun; Xu, Yahui; Cui, Guimei; Zhang, Xiangyang; Zhang, Ruiling
      Background and Objectives: Konjac powder has the effect of improving blood lipids in the general population, but there is no research on schizophrenic patients who are susceptible to dyslipidemia. The aim of our study is to evaluate the effects of konjac powder on blood lipid, glucose levels, body weight, and blood pressure in schizophrenia inpatients with dyslipidemia. Methods and Study Design: After a two-week adaptation period, 76 people with schizophrenia were enrolled in a 30-day double-blind randomized controlled trial. The subjects in the experimental group were given a beverage containing konjac powder 30 minutes before each meal, whereas those in the control group were given a beverage containing resistant maltodextrin. Results: The lipid profile, plasma glucose, blood pressure, and body weight were measured at baseline and at the end of 30-day treatment. Fiftynine subjects completed the study. There was a substantial decrease in total serum cholesterol in the experimental group, but an increase in the control group. Likewise, apolipoprotein B decreased in the experimental group but increased in the control group. Conclusions: We concluded that a diet supplemented with konjac powder may prevent the deterioration of dyslipidemia in people with schizophrenia, demonstrating its potential value in the treatment of metabolic disorders in schizophrenia as a new therapeutic method.

      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 23:43:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 3 - The effects of eel biscuits on nutritional intake of
           hospitalized children
    • Abstract: Herawati, Dewi Marhaeni Diah; Indraswari, Pratiwi; Sunjaya, Deni Kurniadi
      Background and Objectives: Support from fortified food during hospitalization is an important factor to increase nutritional intakes of patients to meet nutritional needs and nutritional status. The objective of the study was to analyze the effects of eel biscuits on the nutritional intake of sick children. Methods and Study Design: The study had an experimental post-test design, and included 40 hospitalized children at Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, who were selected by consecutive sampling. The inclusion criteria were children aged from 1 to 18 years old who received standard hospital food. The exclusion criteria were patients with fish allergies and those undergoing special diet therapy. The intervention was conducted for 5 days, in which the intervention group was given eel biscuits while the control group was given standard hospital snacks. The food intake was assessed using the food record and 24-hour recall methods. Unpaired t-test and Mann-Whitney test were used in data analysis. Results: There was an increase in nutritional intake from snacks in the intervention group, namely energy (p
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 23:43:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 3 - Very low birth weight preterm infant complications
           where parenteral nutrition is soy or fish oil-based: A retrospective study
           in Shanghai
    • Abstract: Qian, Tian; Zhang, Rong; Zhu, Li; Chen, Chao; Cao, Yun; Wang, Jin
      Background and Objectives: To examine whether a parenteral mixed lipid emulsion containing fish oil reduces the incidence of cholestasis, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 23:43:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 3 - Interpersonal communication campaign promoting
           knowledge, attitude, intention, and consumption of iron folic acid tablets
           and iron rich foods among pregnant Indonesian women
    • Abstract: Gamboa, Emily; Broadbent, Eliza; Quintana, Noyra; Callaway, Sarah; Donoso, Paola; Linehan, Mary; Wibowo, Lindawati; Santika, Otte; West, Josh H; Hall, PCougar; Crookston, Benjamin T
      Background and Objectives: Indonesia's community health delivery system offers services such as prenatal care and supplementation. Despite accessibility to these services, compliance with supplementation is low, and childhood stunting rates remain high. To address undernutrition, a National Nutrition Communication Campaign (NNCC) - using interpersonal communication (IPC) strategies - was implemented to promote consumption of iron-folic acid (IFA) supplements and iron-rich foods (ATIKA). The purpose of this study was to understand how participation in IPC activities influenced knowledge, attitude/intention, and consumption of IFA supplements and ATIKA among pregnant Indonesian women. Methods and Study Design: Cross-sectional data came from 766 pregnant women that participated in a survey that was based on the constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior and Health Belief Model. Adjusted linear and logistic regression models were conducted to analyze the differences between self-reported IPC participants and non-IPC participants. Approximately 20% of women were exposed to the IFA portion of the IPC campaign, and 18% were exposed to the ATIKA portion. Results: Women that were exposed to the campaign reported significantly higher knowledge of IFA tablets and ATIKA, and improved attitudes/intentions towards IFA, compared to non-exposed women. Exposure was not associated with actual consumption behaviors. Conclusions: These findings suggest that exposure to a low-intensity intervention can increase knowledge but may not be sufficient to impact behavior. As such, future efforts to reduce stunting through improved maternal nutrition should seek to increase exposure, address barriers, understand perceived susceptibility, and improve self-efficacy in order to expand intervention reach in Indonesia.

      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 23:43:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 3 - Dietary saturated fats and apolipoprotein B48 levels
           are similarly associated with cognitive decline in healthy older aged
           Australians
    • Abstract: Hill, Mason; Takechi, Ryusuke; Chaliha, Devahuti Rai; Albrecht, Matthew Anthony; Wright, Janine; James, Anthony Paul; Clark, Karin; Dhaliwal, Satvinder Singh; Lam, Virginie; Mamo, John Charles Louis
      Background and Objectives: As the incidence and prevalence of Alzheimer's disease increases, so does the body of epidemiological and clinical research that suggests a relationship between dietary fatty acids, in particular saturates, and cognitive decline. In this study, we investigated the association between serum apolipoprotein B48 (apoB48), saturated fatty acid intake and consumption behaviour, and cognitive performance, in healthy, older aged Australians. Methods and Study Design: We retrospectively analysed fasted serum apoB48 concentrations, food frequency questionnaire, and cognitive performance data collected from 147 participants (98F 49M) over the age of 50. We used Spearman's correlations and a nested domain model to evaluate the relationship between serum apoB48, dietary behaviour and measures of cognitive performance. Results: Overall, we found that higher fasted apoB48 concentrations, and/or dietary behaviours which led to increased dietary consumption of diets high in saturated fatty acids, were inversely associated with cognition. Interestingly however, dietary behaviour patterns of saturated fatty acid consumption and serum apoB48 were linked with better secondary memory and perceptual speed, respectively. Conclusions: This is the first time that fasted apoB48 has been implicated as a biomarker for cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease risk.

      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 23:43:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 3 - Vitamin A status and recurrent respiratory infection
           among Chinese children: A nationally representative survey
    • Abstract: Zhang, Yixin; Du, Zifang; Ma, Wenbo; Chang, Keliang; Zheng, Chunmei
      Background and Objectives: Vitamin A is involved in immune function, vision, reproduction, and cell differentiation and is essential for child growth. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) contributes significantly to mortality and morbidity in developing countries. This study assessed the current vitamin A status in Chinese children. Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 26 provinces in China between 2015 and 2018, and 277,064 children aged 0-14 years were enrolled. Data on sociodemographic factors and dietary supplements were obtained through interviews with their parents. Serum vitamin A concentrations were measured using HPLC. To reduce the sampling error, a weighted distribution was produced to estimate the distribution of serum vitamin A concentration in Chinese children. A new method was used calculate the CI. Results: The results revealed that 10.4% (23.9 million) (95% CI: 10.1%-10.8%) of Chinese children aged 0-14 years were at risk of suffering from subclinical VAD (SVAD) (
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 23:43:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 3 - Effects of rapid growth in early childhood on
           metabolic and cardiovascular diseases among preschool-aged children
    • Abstract: Li, Nan; Zhang, Shuang; Leng, Jun-Hong; Li, Wei-Qin; Wang, Lei-Shen; Li, Wei; Liu, Hui-Kun; Du, Yue-Xin; Zheng, Rong-Xiu
      Background and Objectives: To investigate whether the tempo of weight gain of children during infancy (from birth up to two years of age) or childhood (between two and five years old) is associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Methods and Study Design: Cluster sampling was employed to obtain a random sample of preschool children. In total, 1450 children aged five to six years participated in this survey. We obtained data on body weight, height, blood pressure (BP), and serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and uric acid, as well as anthropometry at birth and at age 2. Results: The prevalence of obesity at five years old was 14.5%. At five years of age, children with rapid growth (change in body mass index, BMI z-score >0.67) during infancy had a higher odds ratio (OR) of childhood obesity (OR: 2.97 [95% CI: 2.15-4.11]) compared to children with non-rapid growth (change in BMI z-score
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 23:43:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 3 - Potential role of iodine excess in papillary thyroid
           cancer and benign thyroid tumor: A case-control study
    • Abstract: Hou, Dawei; Xu, Haie; Li, Pan; Liu, Jianhui; Qian, Zhuyin
      Background and Objectives: The relationship between nutritional status of iodine and thyroid tumor is unclear. We investigated the association between urinary iodine concentration and thyroid function in patients with papillary thyroid cancer, benign thyroid tumor and healthy individuals. Methods and Study Design: We compared the biomarkers of thyroid function and urinary iodine concentration within and between each group. A regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for papillary thyroid cancer. Correlation analysis was performed to determine whether any significant correlation exists between urinary iodine concentration and thyroid function biomarkers. Results: The iodine nutrition statuses of these three groups were adequate (median urinary iodine concentration= 100-199 mug/L). However, the median urinary iodine concentration of papillary thyroid cancer (174.7 mug/L) and benign thyroid tumor (165.04 mug/L) groups was significantly higher than that of the healthy control group (135.8 mug/L) (p
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 23:43:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 3 - Iron status is linked to disease severity after avian
           influenza virus H7N9 infection
    • Abstract: Wang, Hailong; Wu, Xiaopeng; Wu, Xiaoxin; Liu, Juan; Yan, Yan; Wang, Fudi; Li, Lanjuan; Zhou, Jiyong; Liao, Min
      Background and Objectives: The high mortality rate of H7N9 strain of avian influenza virus (AIV) infected patients has been a major clinical concern. Iron overload increases the susceptibility of host for several kinds of microbial infection. However, the study on patients' iron and ferritin status associated with clinical outcome of AIVH7N9 virus infection is poorly understood, and in order to explain the linkage we carried out this study. Methods and Study Design: We retrospectively collected serum from 46 patients infected with H7N9 virus from the hospital in Hangzhou city, Zhejiang province of China in 2013. We measured the level of serum iron and ferritin by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The correlation analysis of iron and ferritin with disease severity was done by SPSS 16.0 and MedCalc Software. Results: After H7N9 infection, there is a reduction in iron level and an increase in ferritin, hepcidin and C-reactive protein (CRP) level in patient's serum compared to those of the control (p
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 23:43:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 3 - Toddler neurodevelopment is associated with
           ganglioside intake but not serum ganglioside
    • Abstract: Tan, Shengjie; Zhao, Ai; Zhang, Jian; Li, Pin; Chen, Chang; Zhang, Yumei
      Background and Objectives: Gangliosides (GAs) are important components of neural tissue and cell membrane. This study aims to investigate the association between toddlers' neurodevelopment, dietary GA intake, and serum GA concentration. Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Beijing and Xuchang, Henan Province in China. 110 eligible healthy toddlers aged 24-48 months were recruited. Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-h dietary recall were used to collect dietary information. Blood serum samples obtained from participants were used to perform GA composition analysis with high-performance liquid chromatographymass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The neurodevelopment level was assessed with the Gesell Developmental Scale (GDS). Results: Dietary ganglioside GD3, total GA, and seafood intake were identified to be associated with the gross motor developmental quotient (DQ). An inverse association was revealed between the fine motor DQ and fruit intake. No correlation was detected between serum GA concentration and DQ. Conclusions: Dietary GA intake but not serum GA concentration is associated with neurodevelopment. Further prospective studies are needed to probe the relationships between the recommended dietary GA intake and toddlers.

      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 23:43:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 3 - Improving the iron status of school children through a
           school noon meal programme with meals prepared using a multiple
           micronutrient-fortified salt in Tamil Nadu, India
    • Abstract: Kumar, Malavika Vinod; Erhardt, Juergen
      Background and Objectives: To improve the iron status of school children through noon meals prepared using a multiple micronutrient-fortified salt. Methods and Study Design: Children from a randomly selected school who consumed (intervention) and did not consume (reference) a noon meal prepared using a multiple micronutrient- fortified salt were studied over 1 year. A pre-post-test design for children aged 5-17years in reference (n=100) and intervention (n=128) groups was used. Levels of serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), alpha glycoprotein (AGP), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed at baseline and at 1 year. In a subsample, urinary iodine was assessed. Results: sTfR decreased in the intervention group (−0.80 mg/L) but increased in the reference group (0.47 mg/L) at 1 year (p=0.0001).Body iron stores (BIS) increased in the intervention group (0.09 mg/kg body weight) and decreased (−0.58 mg/kg body weight) in the reference group at 1 year (p=0.028).These findings indicate an increase in iron deficiency in the reference group and a decrease in the intervention group. However, no changes in serum ferritin and urinary iodine were observed in either group or between groups. Conclusions: Iron status can be improved in schoolchildren in Tamil Nadu by increasing the amount of micronutrients in the fortified salt used for preparing noon-time school meals.

      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 23:43:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 3 - Iron deficiency and risk factors in pre-menopausal
           females living in Auckland, New Zealand
    • Abstract: Lim, Kimberley; Beck, Kathryn Louise; Von Hurst, Pamela Ruth; Rutherfurd-Markwick, Kay Jenice; Badenhorst, Claire Evelyn
      Background and Objectives: Iron deficiency is prevalent in New Zealand, with low dietary haem intake and blood loss previously identified as risk factors. However, the influence of the hormone hepcidin on iron status has not been investigated. Methods and Study Design: Females (n=170) aged 18-45 residing in Auckland participated in a cross-sectional study. Iron status and inflammation were assessed with serum biomarkers including; serum ferritin, haemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptor, hepcidin, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6. Lifestyle factors were assessed using a series of validated questionnaires, including an iron food frequency questionnaire. Potential determinants of serum ferritin were identified using multiple linear regression analysis. Results: Iron insufficiency was confirmed in 55.8% of participants (Serum ferritin =30 mug L-1) (6.62 nM vs 1.17 nM, p
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 23:43:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 3 - Dietary diversity and physical activity associations
           with lipid indices among Beijingese: A cross-sectional study
    • Abstract: Guo, Qiao; Ma, Zuchang; Zhu, Changan; Zeng, Qiang
      Background and Objectives: To examine the association of dietary diversity and physical activity with lipidrelated indices in a Beijing population. Methods and Study Design: This cross-sectional study included 21,472 participants (72.3% men) aged 16 to 78 years. Data were obtained through a physical examination that included anthropometric measurements, biochemical tests, and questionnaires. The dietary diversity score (0-8) was calculated according to the baseline consumption frequencies of eight food groups (cereals, fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs, fish, dairy, and legumes). Physical activity level was classified as low, moderate, or high according to International Physical Activity Questionnaire scoring protocol. Abnormalities in lipid-related indices were assessed using the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Results: Compared with individuals with poor dietary diversity (score 0-5), higher dietary diversity was associated with lower risk of abnormal levels of triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Dairy intake was associated with a lower risk of having a high triglyceride-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio after adjusting for potential covariates. Participants with the lowest risk of abnormal lipid profiles were those who had high levels of physical activity. Conclusions: Dietary diversity and physical activity level were associated with lipid-related indices. Therefore, to maintain healthy lipid profiles in the general population, improving dietary diversity and physical activity is essential.

      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 23:43:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 3 - Urine iodine level and multiple risks are associated
           with thyroid structural abnormalities among adults in Heilongjiang
           Province, China
    • Abstract: Yao, Jinlai; Guo, Min; Cai, Huaiqiu; Shao, Xiaohui; Dong, Xiaoqiu
      Background and Objectives: The prevalence of adult thyroid structural abnormalities has increased significantly worldwide. However, no study has examined the thyroid structure and urine iodine levels of adults in Heilongjiang Province in the last decade. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the rate and risk factors of thyroid structural abnormalities among the residents of this province. Methods and Study Design: A probability proportional sampling method was used, and a total of 3,645 individuals in Heilongjiang Province were included. The subjects was asked to complete a thyroid ultrasound and fill out a questionnaire. Furthermore, urine iodine levels and salt iodine content were determined, and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the independent risk factors for thyroid diseases. Results: The prevalence of thyroid structural abnormalities in Heilongjiang Province was 56.0%. Univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences between the structural abnormalities group and the normal thyroid group in terms of sex, age, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, alcohol consumption, frequency of seafood consumption and pickled food consumption, employment status, and urine iodine level (p
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 23:43:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 3 - Dietary and nutritional factors associated with
           hyperuricemia: The seventh Korean national health and nutrition
           examination survey
    • Abstract: Wook So, Min; Lim, Doo-Ho; Kim, Seong-Ho; Lee, Sunggun
      Background and Objectives: The association of dietary and nutritional factors with hyperuricemia and gout is well-known in Western populations. The present study aimed to examine the association of dietary and nutritional factors with hyperuricemia among Korean adults. Methods and Study Design: This cross-sectional study included 10,175 participants from the seventh Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2016-2017. Dietary information was collected using a single 24-hour recall method, and nutritional information was derived from the 9th Korean Food Composition Table. The associations between serum uric acid and intake of meat, seafoods, nuts, and legumes, sugar-sweetened products, dairy products, alcohol, sodium, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin C, and dietary fiber were analyzed using linear regression analysis adjusting for confounding variables. The association with hyperuricemia was analyzed using logistic regression analysis. All analyses were weighted by the sampling design. Results: Alcohol intake was associated with serum uric acid in both men and women. In men, the highest quartile of alcohol intake was associated with a 1.5-times higher prevalence of hyperuricemia (odds ratio [OR] 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-1.95), while vitamin C and dietary fiber intakes were found to be inversely associated with hyperuricemia. For vitamin C and dietary fiber intake, the ORs for a quartile increase were 0.93 (95% CI 0.86-0.99) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.85-0.99), respectively. Conclusions: The associations between vitamin C, dietary fiber and alcohol intakes and hyperuricemia in men support the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-based approach and attention to alcohol intake for managing hyperuricemia in Korean men.

      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 23:43:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 3 - Vitamin D binding protein gene polymorphisms in
           ulcerative colitis among those of Han Chinese ancestry: Pathogenetic,
           diagnostic and management implications
    • Abstract: Qiu, Fubin; Zhang, Lijuan; Wang, Jing; Li, Rui; Yang, Linxue
      Background and Objectives: Vitamin D deficiency has been reported in patients with ulcerative colitis, and polymorphism in the gene encoding the vitamin D binding protein can affect the characteristics of vitamin D binding protein, thus affecting the level and function of vitamin D in vivo. Previous studies have rarely reported on the potential relationship between vitamin D binding protein polymorphisms and ulcerative colitis. The objective of this study is to investigate the associations between genetic variants in vitamin D binding protein genes and ulcerative colitis susceptibility in the Han Chinese population. Methods and Study Design: In this casecontrol study, the genotyping of vitamin D binding protein rs4588 and rs7041 polymorphisms was conducted using polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reactions, genotypes were detected by polymerase chain reactionligase fragment length polymorphism. We also measured inflammatory factors, oxidation and antioxidant indicators. Results: There was no significant difference in the distribution of two loci genotypes, alleles and haplotypes between the two groups (p>0.05). However, the differences in the distribution of serum MDA in different haplotypes in the case group were statistically significant (p=0.014): CG>, CT>AT. Conclusions: Our results suggest that polymorphism of these two sites (rs4588 and rs7401) in the vitamin D binding protein gene may have no correlation with susceptibility to ulcerative colitis in the Han Chinese population. But, interestingly, haplotype GC may affect the level of oxidative stress in ulcerative colitis patients, especially the level of malondialdehyde.

      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 23:43:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 3 - Does vitamin D affect sarcopenia with insulin
           resistance in aging'
    • Abstract: Du, Yang; Oh, Chorong; No, Jaekyung
      There are many studies investigating nutritional factors that affect both sarcopenia and muscle formation. According to extensive research, protein has an essential role in muscle formation. More recently, vitamin D has emerged as an important factor that regulates muscle metabolism. However, studies and research of association between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status and components of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in older are limited. Nineteen studies were found through a search of electronic databases and were subjected to a meta-analysis to investigate the differences in serum levels of 25(OH)D and HOMA-IR between patients with controls and sarcopenia. The random-effects standardized mean difference (SD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated as the effect size. Nineteen studies with 19,528 participants (5,081 with sarcopenia and 14,447 without) were analyzed. Sarcopenic participants had significantly lower serum levels of 25(OH)D (SD =1.163; 95% CI 0.514, 1.812; p
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 23:43:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 2 - A preoperative whey protein and glucose drink before
           hip fracture surgery in the aged improves symptomatic and metabolic
           recovery
    • Abstract: Deng, Yanjun; Fang, Ye; Li, Hua; Chen, Jiemei; An, Jianzhong; Qiao, Shigang; Wang, Chen
      "Background and Objectives: We investigated the effects of a carbohydrate-whey protein solution on aged patients undergoing hip fracture surgery.

      Methods and Study Design: Forty patients were randomly assigned to the carbohydrate-whey protein (CHP) group or the control group (CTL). In the CHP group, a mixed solution of CHP was orally administered to patients before surgery: 400 mL was administered on the day before surgery, and 200 mL was administered 3 h before surgery. The size of the liquid dark area in the gastric antrum was measured by ultrasound, and the bleeding volume during surgery was assayed. The incidence of nausea, vomiting, thirst, hunger, and days of hospitalization and the levels of blood glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum albumin were assessed.

      Results: There was no obvious liquid dark space in the gastric antrum. CHP administration improved postoperative thirst and hunger and resulted in increased albumin levels and decreased CRP concentrations and blood glucose fluctuations.

      Conclusions: Oral CHP before hip fracture surgery reduces the incidence of postoperative thirst and hunger and improves recovery in the aged."

      PubDate: Sat, 1 Aug 2020 03:37:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 2 - A comparative study of three nutritional risk
           screening tools in surgical inpatients with laryngeal cancer
    • Abstract: Ma, Jianhong; Yang, Xikang; Cao, Jun; Huang, Mengxuan; Jiang, Jingtao; Wu, Ruizhen
      "Background and Objectives: Nutritional screening has been recommended for hospitalized patients. The goal of this study was to compare the screening value of Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), and Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST) in inpatients with laryngeal cancer, and to identify which is the most accurate.

      Methods and Study Design: An observational cross-sectional study of 197 laryngeal cancer patients admitted for surgery was conducted using continuous sampling. NRS-2002, MUST, and MST were used to screen the nutritional risk of patients after admission and before discharge. Diagnostic information and the length-of-hospital stay (LOS) data were extracted from the hospital HIS system.

      Results: The detection rates of NRS-2002, MUST, and MST in admission or discharge patients were 14.7%/27.9%, 22.3%/26.9%, and 4.6%/11.2%, respectively. Using NRS-2002 as the reference, high sensitivity (82.8%) and a Kappa coefficient (k=0.584) were achieved using MUST in admission patients, while MST presented the lowest sensitivity (17.3%) and Kappa coefficient (k=0.208). MST maintained low sensitivity (25.5%) and Kappa coefficient (k=0.243) in discharge patients. NRS-2002 >/= 3 was an independent risk factor for longer LOS in patients with laryngeal cancer (odds ratio (OR)=5.59, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.86-16.81, p=0.002). The MUST and MST scores did not predict long LOS.

      Conclusions: Compared with NRS-2002, MUST is superior to MST in sensitivity, specificity, and Kappa coefficient. NRS-2002 better identified patients at risk for longer LOS, but a consistent conclusion was not reached with MUST and MST. Further validation in larger samples is needed."

      PubDate: Sat, 1 Aug 2020 03:37:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 2 - Gene-environment interactions and type 2 diabetes
    • Abstract: Geng, Tingting; Huang, Tao
      Type 2 diabetes (T2D) caused by the complex interplay of both genetic and environmental factors, is a serious public health issue. Compelling evidence from epidemiological studies has highlighted that an unhealthy lifestyle, such as obesity, physical inactivity and poor diet are significant drivers of the epidemic of T2D. Meanwhile, recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a large number of T2D and glycemic traits loci. Emerging data emphasize the critical role that gene-environment interactions have played in the development of T2D. Identifying the genetic, environmental factors and their complex interplays may help elucidate the biological pathways of T2D, identify the high-risk groups and characterize heterogeneity in intervention programs. This review summarized the studies investigating gene-environment interactions of T2D.

      PubDate: Sat, 1 Aug 2020 03:37:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 2 - Covid-19 and dietary socioecology: Risk minimisation
    • Abstract: Watanabe, Shaw; Wahlqvist, Mark L
      PubDate: Sat, 1 Aug 2020 03:37:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 2 - Effect of B vitamins supplementation on
           cardio-metabolic factors in patients with stable coronary artery disease:
           A randomized double-blind trial
    • Abstract: Liu, Man; Wang, Zongling; Liu, Shengxin; Liu, Yizhi; Ma, Yan; Liu, Ying; Xue, Meilan; Li, Qianqian; Zhang, Xinqi; Zhang, Sui; Liang, Hui
      "Background and Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate whether B vitamins supplementation would improve dyslipidemia, alleviate inflammatory state of patients with stable coronary artery disease (SCAD).

      Methods and Study Design: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, 12-week, placebo-controlled trial involving adults with SCAD, and who were randomly divided into B vitamins group (folic acid and VB-6) and control group (placebo tablet). Blood tests had also been performed at baseline and endpoint.

      Results: After 12 weeks of intervention, B vitamins supplementation significantly improved the concentration of serum TG, TC and HDL-C (p
      PubDate: Sat, 1 Aug 2020 03:37:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 2 - Clinical effects of total protein and short peptide
           enteral nutrition during recovery after radical gastrectomy
    • Abstract: Huang, Lingli; Li, Gang; Zhou, Bin; Wei, Wei; Chen, Huanqiu; Wei, Qing
      "Background and Objectives: Enteral nutrition (EN) plays a vital role in promoting the recovery of patients after surgery. This study aims to clarify the effects of total protein enteral nutrition (TPEN) and short peptide enteral nutrition (SPEN) on the recovery of patients after radical gastrectomy.

      Methods and Study Design: Patients underwent radical gastrectomy were randomly divided into a TPEN (n=60) or SPEN group (n=60). These two kinds of EN were fed 24 hours after radical gastrectomy with increasing dose from 10 kcal/kg to maximal 25 kcal/kg on postoperative day (POD) 5 and with the maximal dose in following days. Supplemental parenteral nutrition was given for replenishing energy deficits. The tube feeding was discontinued when oral intake increased to sixty percent of the target requirements. The postoperative recovery was evaluated on POD 1 and POD 7.

      Results: On POD 7, the serum prealbumin (transthyretin) was higher in the TPEN than the SPEN group (p
      PubDate: Sat, 1 Aug 2020 03:37:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 2 - Accelerated rehabilitation combined with enteral
           nutrition in the management of lung cancer surgery patients
    • Abstract: Ding, Qin; Chen, Wei; Gu, Ying; Qi, Zhi-Yan; Chen, Yan-Hong; Chen, Jian; Jiang, Lei
      "Background and Objectives: To investigate the effect of accelerated rehabilitation combined with enteral nutrition on surgically treated lung cancer patients.

      Methods and Study Design: In total, 150 lung cancer patients treated in our hospital from January 2017 to January 2018 were retrospectively analysed. Sixty-six patients were randomly divided into a control group with conventional nutrition (Con group) and an accelerated rehabilitation combined with enteral nutrition group (EN group). Postoperative drainage; total hospitalization time; total hospitalization expenses; and albumin, haemoglobin and total lymphocyte counts (TLC) before and after treatment were compared.

      Results: The serum albumin, prealbumin and haemoglobin in both groups were decreased after operation and were significantly higher in the EN group (p
      PubDate: Sat, 1 Aug 2020 03:37:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 2 - Oropharyngeal dysphagia increased the risk of
           pneumonia in patients undergoing nasogastric tube feeding
    • Abstract: Wu, Chih-Chung; Huang, Hsin-Hung; Lin, Hsuan-Hwai; Chang, Wei-Kuo
      "Background and Objectives: Aspiration pneumonia is a major cause of death in patients on nasogastric tube (NGT) feeding. This study aimed to evaluate the oropharyngeal dysphagia and stratify risk of pneumonia in patients undergoing NGT feeding.

      Methods and Study Design: The study included patients on NGT feeding who underwent UGI endoscopy at Tri-Service General Hospital, Taiwan. Endoscopy was performed to examine the pharyngolaryngeal region. The severity of oropharyngeal dysphagia was evaluated according to the visualized amount and location of pooling of secretions in the pharyngolaryngeal region; 60 patients showed absent or minimal amount of secretions (control group), 14 patients showed moderate-to-large amounts of secretions filling the pyriform sinus (pharyngeal group), and 27 patients showed secretions entering the laryngeal vestibule (laryngeal group). Demographic data and occurrence of pneumonia were analyzed.

      Results: The incidence of pneumonia was highest in the pharyngeal group (4.2+/-3.6 episodes/person-years), followed by the laryngeal (2.6+/-2.2 episodes/ person-years) and control groups (1.7+/-3.8 episodes/person-years) (p=0.042). Multivariable regression showed significantly higher risk of pneumonia in the pharyngeal (adjusted odds ratio=2.7, 95% CI, 2.4-2.8, p
      PubDate: Sat, 1 Aug 2020 03:37:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 2 - How transplant patients are fed in the intensive care
           unit: A one-year retrospective study
    • Abstract: Theilla, Miriam
      "Background and Objectives: Even though the nutritional status of patients following organ transplant has a significant effect on outcomes, the energy intake of transplant patients hospitalized in the intensive care department is not well reported. The present study aims to examine the medical nutritional therapy of transplant patients in a large transplant center.

      Methods and Study Design: Data were collected retrospectively. All patients after perioperative transplant surgery or with late complications after organ transplants were included. The study included 78 patients who underwent liver (n=36), kidney (n=21), lung (n=14), pancreas (n=3) or both pancreas and kidney (n=4) transplants in 2017. Energy requirements were predicted using the Faisy-Fagon predictive equations calculated daily for 14 days. Energy intake was assessed, and daily energy balance was calculated. Complications and mortality were noted.

      Results: The mean energy intake was 1150 kcal/day. Most patients were in a negative energy balance (NEB; range -5735 to 3437 kcal/day). A greater NEB was associated with longer length of ventilation (LOV) and length of stay (LOS). The observed mortality rate was 42.3%. The correlation between energy balance (14 days) and LOS was r=-0.549; for LOV, it was r=-0.569. Patients who underwent lung transplant had the highest negative energy balance and the highest mortality (p
      PubDate: Sat, 1 Aug 2020 03:37:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 2 - Glutamine supported early enteral therapy for severe
           acute pancreatitis: A systematic review and metaanalysis
    • Abstract: Jiang, Xue; Pei, Li-Ying; Guo, Wen-Xiu; Qi, Xin; Lu, Xiao-Guang
      "Background and Objectives: Several studies have shown that glutamine (Gln) may play an important role in energy metabolism, inflammatory reactions, and immune processes in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Nevertheless, the results of individual randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on Gln nutrition support for SAP are contradictory. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the clinical benefit of Gln-supported early enteral nutrition (G+EEN) in patients with SAP.

      Methods and Study Design: Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, CNKI, Wan Fang, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database were searched for relevant studies published before December 2018. RCTs of G+EEN versus standard early enteral nutrition (EEN) for SAP were selected, with both started within 48 h of admission.

      Results: Seven clinical RCTs including a total of 433 patients (EEN group: 218 patients; G+EEN group: 215 patients) were included. Compared with EEN, G+EEN increased serum albumin (standard mean difference [SMD]=0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33-1.15; p
      PubDate: Sat, 1 Aug 2020 03:37:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 2 - Association between dietary patterns and dyslipidemia
           in adults from the Henan Rural Cohort Study
    • Abstract: Liu, Chang; Xue, Yuan; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Yujing; Qiao, Dou; Wang, Bingya; Mao, Zhenxing; Yu, Songcheng; Wang, ChongJian; Li, Wenjie; Li, Xing
      "Background and Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore the association between dietary patterns and lipid levels in Henan rural area.

      Methods and Study Design: Fasting blood samples, information on dietary intakes (with food frequency questionnaires) and other data were collected from the Henan Rural Cohort Study. Principal component analysis was used to identify the dietary patterns. Binary logistic regression and restricted cubic spline regression models were performed to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). The study recruited 38,983 available participants aged from 18 to 79 from rural areas in Henan province.

      Results: The study showed that, three patterns were identified by higher factor loadings: namely the ""meat"" (high intakes of red meat, white meat and fish), ""grain-egg-nut complex"" (high intakes of nuts, milk, eggs, grains and beans), and ""vegetablesstaple food-fruits"" pattern (high intakes of vegetables, staple food and fruits). ""Grain-egg-nut complex"" pattern was significantly positively related to the risk of dyslipidemia (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.05-1.16, p
      PubDate: Sat, 1 Aug 2020 03:37:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 2 - Effects of consuming red furu (fermented bean curd) on
           serum vitamin B-12, homocysteine and other cardiometabolic risk factors in
           young healthy volunteers: A randomized controlled trial
    • Abstract: Tsheko, Tshenolo; Gu, Jiaojiao; Tong, Wenfeng; Zhou, Renke; Li, Duo
      "Background and Objectives: The health benefits of red furu in young, healthy volunteers had not been adequately investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a single meal containing red furu on serum vitamin B-12 (B-12), homocysteine and other cardiometabolic risk factors compared with that of tofu.

      Methods and Study Design: Twenty-three healthy volunteers from Zhejiang University, China, were randomly assigned to two groups of consumption, either red furu (n=11, 5 women and 6 men) or tofu (n=12, 6 women and 6 men). Volunteers consumed one breakfast meal composed of either 50 g of red furu (intervention group) or 50 g of tofu (non-active comparison group) with two slices of bread. Fasting blood was collected at 0 h, 24 h, and 72 h. Standard methods were used to measure the volunteers' biochemical parameters.

      Results: The consumption of 50 g of red furu a day did not significantly affect serum B-12 and showed a non-significant trend to reduce serum homocysteine. In the red furu group, but not in tofu group, serum concentrations of B-12 and folate were negatively associated with homocysteine, and B-12 was positively associated with folate.

      Conclusions: A breakfast meal with 50 g of red furu containing 0.096 mug of B-12 did not increase serum B-12 in healthy volunteers. These results suggested that one meal containing B-12 could be sufficient to reduce serum Hcy."

      PubDate: Sat, 1 Aug 2020 03:37:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 2 - Lower body mass indices and near-target early energy
           nutrition therapy may increase intensive care unit-associated infections:
           A retrospective study in Guangzhou, China
    • Abstract: Deng, Jun; Ma, Ying-Ying; Fan, Yu-Ying; He, Yan; Shao, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Jun-E
      "Background and Objectives: The optimal energy intake for early nutrition therapy in critically ill patients is unknown, especially in Chinese patients with a lower BMI. This study investigated the relationship between energy intake and clinical outcomes in this patient population.

      Methods and Study Design: A retrospective study was carried out at a tertiary hospital. Critically ill patients were recruited and divided into 3 tertiles according to the ratio of actual/target energy intake during the first week of hospitalization in the intensive care unit (ICU) (tertile I, 66.7%). 60-day mortality and other clinical outcomes were compared. To adjust for potentially confounding factors, multivariate and sensitivity analyses were performed exclusively in patients who stayed in the ICU for >/=7 days.

      Results: A total of 325 patients with a mean BMI of 22.5+/-4.7 kg/m2 were recruited. 60-day mortality was similar between the 3 tertiles. In the unadjusted analysis, tertile III had a longer length of stay in the ICU and at the hospital, longer duration of mechanical ventilation, and higher rate of ICU-associated infections, but only the latter showed a significant difference between the 3 tertiles in the multivariate and sensitivity analyses. Logistic regression analysis showed that energy groups was an independent risk factor for ICU-associated infections.

      Conclusions: Energy intake in early nutrition therapy influences risk of ICU-associated infections in Chinese critically ill patients with lower BMI. Furthermore, patients with near-target energy intake have more frequent ICU-associated infections."

      PubDate: Sat, 1 Aug 2020 03:37:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 2 - Dietary iron intake and risk of death due to
           cardiovascular diseases: A systematic review and dose-response
           meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies
    • Abstract: Han, Minghui; Guan, Li; Ren, Yongcheng; Zhao, Yang; Liu, Dechen; Zhang, Dongdong; Liu, Leilei; Liu, Feiyan; Chen, Xu; Cheng, Cheng; Li, Quanman; Guo, Chunmei; Zhou, Qionggui; Tian, Gang; Qie, Ranran; Huang, Shengbing; Wu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yu; Li, Honghui; Sun, Xizhuo; Zhang, Ming; Hu, Dongsheng; Lu, Jie
      "Background and Objectives: Many studies have investigated the association between dietary iron intake and death due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the results were inconsistent. We performed a dose-response meta- analysis to quantitatively assess the risk of CVD mortality with dietary intake of iron (total iron, heme iron, and non-heme iron).

      Methods and Study Design: PubMed and Embase databases were searched for articles published up to February 21, 2019. Prospective cohort studies were included if reporting relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of CVD mortality associated with dietary iron intake. Restricted cubic splines were used to model the dose-response association.

      Results: We included eight articles (19 studies including 720,427 participants [46,045 deaths due to CVD]) in the meta-analysis. When comparing the highest versus lowest level of dietary heme iron intake, the pooled RR for CVD mortality was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.01-1.39). With a 1-mg/day increase in dietary heme iron intake, the pooled RR for death due to CVD, stroke, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction were 1.25 (95% CI, 1.17-1.33), 1.17 (1.04-1.32), 1.25 (0.70-2.22), and 1.17 (0.55-2.50) respectively. The association between dietary iron intake and CVD mortality was linear (pnonlinearity> 0.05).

      Conclusions: Higher dietary intake of heme iron was associated with a greater risk of CVD mortality. Reducing consumption of heme iron may help to prevent premature death due to CVD."

      PubDate: Sat, 1 Aug 2020 03:37:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 2 - Dietary phosphorus intake and serum prostate-specific
           antigen in non-prostate cancer American adults: A secondary analysis of
           the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2010
    • Abstract: Zhu, Guohua; Chen, Chi; Hu, Bin; Yuan, Dongbo; Chen, Weimin; Wang, Wei; Su, JiaMing; Liu, Zhangcheng; Jiao, Ke; Chen, Xiaoyue; Chen, Weihong; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Fa; Zhu, Jianguo
      "Background and Objectives: Previous study has reported phosphorus intake is associated prostate cancer (PCa), but the association between phosphorus intake and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels hasn't been reported in non-history of PCa population. Therefore, we performed a secondary data analysis based on existing data from the public Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2003-2010) database.

      Methods and Study Design: Totally 6403 participants were selected from NHANES (2003-2010) database. The interested independent and dependent variables were considered as dietary phosphorus intake and PSA level, respectively. Covariates included demographic data, dietary data, physical examination data, and comorbidities. Weighted linear regression and generalized additive models were used to addressing the linear and non-linear link of phosphorus intake to PSA level.

      Results: Linear association between phosphorus intake and PSA was not detected [beta=0.016 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) -0.012, 0.045)]. But we found an existing nonlinearity. By the recursive algorithm, the inflection point was 1151 mg. On the left side of the inflection point, we did not find the correlation between dietary phosphorus intake (per 100 change) and PSA level [beta=-0.04 (95% CI -0.11, 0.02), p=0.2155], while dietary phosphorus intake (per 100 change) positively associated with PSA [beta=0.05 (95% CI 0.01, 0.09) p=0.0293] on the right side of inflection point.

      Conclusions: There is a non-linear correlation between dietary phosphorus intake and PSA. Dietary phosphorus intake was positively associated with increased PSA when dietary phosphorus intake is beyond 1151 mg after adjusting other covariates. Over 1151 mg per day dietary phosphorus intake may be the risk factor for PSA increasing."

      PubDate: Sat, 1 Aug 2020 03:37:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 2 - Age-related differences in height gain with dairy
           protein and micronutrient supplements in Indian primary school children
    • Abstract: Thomas, Tinku; Singh, Meenu; Swaminathan, Sumathi; Kurpad, Anura V
      "Background and Objectives: The efficacy of nutrient interventions to prevent/reverse stunting is considered to be restricted to early life. Whether such interventions are equally effective in later childhood is not clear. The present study evaluated the effect of a food-based high-quality protein and micronutrient intervention on the linear growth of Indian primary school children.

      Methods and Study Design: A secondary analysis of a one-year milkprotein and micronutrient fortified food product intervention (protein-energy ratio: 12.8%) on the height of 550 children aged 6-10 years, of poor-socioeconomic background, was carried out. Height and weight increments were compared between groups of each year of age using multiple linear regression. Comparisons in prevalence of stunting and underweight between these groups was also made.

      Results: The overall mean height increment at the end of 1-year was 6.10+/-1.07 cm, the highest being for 6-year olds (6.38+/-0.84 cm). The mean height increments in 6, 7 and 8-year-olds were significantly higher (all p
      PubDate: Sat, 1 Aug 2020 03:37:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 2 - Fruit and vegetable consumption and psychological
           distress in Australian pregnant and breastfeeding women
    • Abstract: Phillips, Amelia; Milte, Catherine M; Opie, Rachelle S; Campbell, Karen J; Torres, Susan J
      "Background and Objectives: Mental health disorders amongst pregnant and postpartum women are an increasing public health concern. Our aim was to determine the association between fruit and vegetable intake and psychological distress in a nationally representative sample of Australian pregnant and breastfeeding women.

      Methods and Study Design: This study used cross-sectional data collected by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in the 2014 to 2015 Australian National Health Survey. Participants included 166 pregnant and 207 breastfeeding women >18 years old. Number of serves of fruit and vegetables usually consumed each day was reported. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) measured levels of global non-specific psychological distress. The association between fruit and vegetable intake and psychological distress was investigated using linear regression adjusted for available known covariates (age, education, physical activity).

      Results: Mean+-SD fruit intake was greater in pregnant compared to breastfeeding women (2.0+/-1.0 versus 1.7+/-1.0, p
      PubDate: Sat, 1 Aug 2020 03:37:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 2 - Promotion of optimized food-based recommendations to
           improve dietary practices and nutrient intakes among Minangkabau women of
           reproductive age with dyslipidemia
    • Abstract: Abdullah, Murdani; Witjaksono, Fiastuti; Mansyur, Muchtaruddin; Nurwidya, Fariz; Djuwita, Ratna; Dwiriani, Cesilia Meti; Fahmida, Umi
      "Background and Objectives: Using a linear programming approach, an optimized food-based recommendations (FBRs) had been formulated for Minangkabau women of reproductive age with dyslipidemia in Indonesia. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of the promotion of the FBRs for improving dietary practices and nutrient intakes.

      Methods and Study Design: A community-based, clustered-randomized trial was conducted among Minangkabau women of reproductive age (20-44 years) with dyslipidemia. The subjects were assigned either into the FBR group (n=48), or the non-FBR group (n=54). Baseline and end-line dietary data were assessed through interviews using a one-week semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQ-FFQ) and two replicate 24-hour dietary recalls. The changes in dietary practice and nutrient intakes were analysed using ANCOVA test.

      Results: Significant changes were observed (p
      PubDate: Sat, 1 Aug 2020 03:37:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 2 - Gut microbial composition changes in bladder cancer
           patients: A case-control study in Harbin, China
    • Abstract: He, Canxia; Li, Baolong; Huang, Lei; Teng, Chunying; Bao, Yongping; Ren, Minghua; Shan, Yujuan
      "Background and Objectives: This study aimed to explore the changes of gut bacteria in bladder cancer patients.

      Methods and Study Design: Newly diagnosed bladder cancer patients were recruited. All participants completed a questionnaire about personal behavior and diet. Pyrosequencing of the total genomic DNA extracted from human feces was carried out by Illumina HiSeq 2000. The copy number of target DNA for bacteria was determined by real-time quantitative PCR assay. Fecal short chain fatty acids contents were measured by gas chromatography (GC) analysis. The concentrations of lipopolysaccharide and D-lactic acid in serum were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits.

      Results: Fruit intake was significantly lower than in healthy controls. The numbers of Clostridium cluster XI and Prevotella in bladder cancer patients decreased. The numbers of domain bacteria and Prevotella were significantly and positively associated with fruit intake (r=0.002, p
      PubDate: Sat, 1 Aug 2020 03:37:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 2 - Dietary diversity score correlates with nutrient
           intake and monetary diet cost among Japanese adults
    • Abstract: Kojima, Yui; Murayama, Nobuko; Suga, Hitomi
      "Background and Objectives: Dietary diversity is an indicator of diet quality. Dietary diversity has been suggested to result in good nutrient intake, but it can affect dietary cost. We examined whether dietary diversity correlates with nutrient intake and monetary diet cost.

      Methods and Study Design: We used data for 3985 individuals (age range: 20-64 years) from the 2014 Japan National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS). Dietary diversity was assessed using the food variety score (FVS; the number of foods) and dietary diversity score (DDS; the number of food groups, range: 1-14). Mean energy and nutrient intake from NHNS, and diet cost from the National Retail Price Survey were compared among FVS quartiles using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and between 2 groups with median DDS using the Mann-Whitney U test.

      Results: Mean (SD) FVS and DDS per day were 22.3 (7.2) and 9.8 (2.0), respectively. For most nutrients, intake per 4184 kJ was relatively high when FVS was high (p
      PubDate: Sat, 1 Aug 2020 03:37:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 2 - Adult breakfast habits and nutritional status: A
           household based cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China
    • Abstract: Zou, Yan; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Huang, Li-Chun; Su, Dan-Ting; Fang, Yue-Qiang; Meng, Jia; Gu, Fang; Zhao, Dong
      "Background and Objectives: Although Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents offers advice for breakfast in China, current breakfast consumption habits are unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among adults and explore its associations with daily food consumption and daily nutrient intake.

      Methods and Study Design: A stratified cluster sampling technique was employed in this cross-sectional study. Demographic characteristics, breakfast consumption, and daily food and nutrient intake were investigated.

      Results: Dietary data were collected for 3251 adult residents through interviews. We determined that residents with an annual income of
      PubDate: Sat, 1 Aug 2020 03:37:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 2 - Protective effects of a Mediterranean-like dietary
           pattern on obesity, abdominal obesity and large neck circumference in a
           cohort of Turkish children aged 6-9 years
    • Abstract: Korkmaz, Gizem Ozge; Kabaran, Seray
      "Background and Objectives: This study evaluated the association of the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED index) with neck circumference, obesity, and abdominal obesity in a national sample of Turkish children aged 6-9 years. It was hypothesized that the Mediterranean diet has beneficial effects on BMI and waist and neck circumferences in children.

      Methods and Study Design: The study sample consisted of 900 children aged 6-9 years recruited from seven primary schools in Unye District in Ordu, Turkey. Anthropometric data were collected. The KIDMED score was used to assess the children's adherence to the Mediterranean diet.

      Results: Compared with girls, a higher percentage of boys were obese (27.9% vs 22.2%), and the KIDMED score differed between boys (4.89+/-2.0) and girls (5.27+/-2.48; p
      PubDate: Sat, 1 Aug 2020 03:37:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 2 - Chinese expert consensus on food and nutrition
           management for dysphagia (2019 version)
    • Abstract: Jianqin, Sun; Zulin, Dou
      "Background and Objectives: Dysphagia is a common clinical symptoms among older adults. The incidence of dysphagia is high, and it can easily cause complications such as aspiration, aspiration pneumonia, and malnutrition; affect clinical outcomes; and even become life-threatening. Nutrition for patients with dysphagia is considered the first problem to address in dysphagia intervention. Currently, China has no standard for food classification and nutrition management for patients with dysphagia.

      Methods and Study Design: The Dysphagia Rehabilitation Specialty Committee of Chinese Association of Rehabilitation Medicine and the Elderly Nutrition Committee of Chinese Nutrition Society organized and led Chinese experts in related fields to publish the ""Chinese Expert Consensus on Dysphagia and Nutrition Management 2019."" The goals of the publication were twofold: (1) to establish and improve Chinese dietary standards for dysphagia, and (2) to promote the development of special food industries for dysphagia.

      Results: This report systematically explains the content of nutrition management for patients with dysphagia and can serve as a reference for medical and food industry in related fields."

      PubDate: Sat, 1 Aug 2020 03:37:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 2 - Response of serum LDL cholesterol to oatmeal
           consumption depends on CYP7A1_rs3808607 genotype in Chinese
    • Abstract: Ye, Mengyao; Sun, Jianqin; Chen, Yanqiu; Ren, Qian; Zhao, Yanfang; Pan, Yiru; Xue, Huijun
      "Background and Objectives: Notable inter-individual differences in cholesterol-lowering effects following oatmeal consumption have been previously reported. Genetic variations may among the reasons for the heterogeneous response to lipid modulations. And to determine whether SNP of cytochrome P450 family 7 subfamily A member 1 gene rs3808607 and isoforms of apolipoprotein E are associated with the inter-individual variations in cholesterol-lowering effects of oatmeal consumption, we did this study.

      Methods and Study Design: Data in this study were extracted from a parallel, controlled trial, in which 62 medication-naive hypercholesterolemic patients provided with staple food substitute of either 80 g/d oatmeal (n=31) or 80 g/d refined white rice (n=31) for 45 days. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and endpoint of the study for lipid profiling, glycemic testing, and genotyping.

      Results: Totally, 56 of 62 participants completed the study and were thus included. Genotype- diet interactions were observed between oatmeal consumption and SNP in the cytochrome P450 family 7 subfamily A member 1 gene rs3808607 in regulating LDL cholesterol (p=0.04); rs3808607-TT homozygotes exhibited significantly higher responsiveness to oatmeal (reduction in LDL cholesterol) than G allele carriers (GG/GT) (p=0.02). However, obvious genotype-diet interactions were not observed between oatmeal consumption and apolipoprotein E isoforms in cholesterol and glycemic modulation (p>0.05).

      Conclusions: SNP in cytochrome P450 family 7 subfamily A member 1 gene rs3808607 was associated with the extent of LDL cholesterol reduction following oatmeal consumption. Trials with larger sample sizes are required to confirm the findings."

      PubDate: Sat, 1 Aug 2020 03:37:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 2 - Limits to commercially iodized salt to address dietary
           iodine deficiency in rural Papua New Guinea
    • Abstract: Benson, Todd; Schmidt, Emily; Namusoke, Hanifa; Temple, Victor J; Holtemeyer, Brian; Codling, Karen; Rudert, Christiane
      "Background and Objectives: Fortifying commercial table salt with iodine is the principal strategy used globally to prevent dietary iodine deficiency. However, the costs of providing fortified salt to remote communities may result in it not being locally available or too expensive for many households. This study shows that barriers to consuming adequately iodized salt remain significant for remote rural households in Papua New Guinea (PNG).

      Methods and Study Design: Using data from a rural household survey conducted in four areas of PNG in 2018, two issues are examined. First, we contrast the characteristics of households that reported consuming or not consuming iodized table salt, respectively. Second, the adequacy of the iodine content of samples of table salt consumed was assessed in the laboratory.

      Results: Nine percent of the 1,026 survey households reported not consuming iodized table salt. These households tend to live in remote communities, are among the poorest households, have received no formal education, and have experienced recent food insecurity. Second, 17 percent of the 778 salt samples tested had inadequate iodine. The brand of salt most commonly consumed had the highest share of samples with inadequate iodine levels.

      Conclusions: Particularly in remote communities, ensuring that individuals consume sufficient iodine will require going beyond salt iodization to use other approaches to iodine supplementation. To ensure that the iodine intake of those using commercial table salt is adequate, closer monitoring of the iodine content in table salt produced or imported into PNG and enforcement of salt iodization regulations is required."

      PubDate: Sat, 1 Aug 2020 03:37:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 2 - Sodium reduction in South Korean restaurants: A
           Daegu-based intervention project
    • Abstract: Ma, Jian; Lee, Sujin; Kim, Kilye; Lee, Yeon-Kyung
      "Background and Objectives: Koreans tend to have high sodium intake in restaurants. This study assessed the effect of the sodium reduction project in restaurants in Daegu Metropolitan City.

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 156 sodium reduction menu items offered by 90 restaurants were categorized into 11 food groups to compare sodium content and salinity before and after the project. In total, 162 owners and staff members of the restaurants, as well as 727 of their customers, were surveyed on their perceptions of and satisfaction with the sodium reduction project.

      Results: Average salinity of the menu items was significantly reduced from 0.70% prior to the project to 0.49% after the project (p
      PubDate: Sat, 1 Aug 2020 03:37:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 1 - Regulobiosis: A regulatory and food system-sensitive
           role for fungal symbionts in human evolution and ecobiology
    • Abstract: Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Wahlqvist, Mark L
      The role of microbiomes in human biology and health are being extensively investigated, yet how the fungal community or mycobiome contributes to an integral microbiome is unclear and probably underestimated. We review the roles of fungi from the perspectives of their functionality in human biology, their cross-kingdom talk with other human microbial organisms, their dependence on diet and their involvement in human health and diseases. We hypothesize that members of the fungal community may interact as necessary symbionts with members of other human microbiome communities, and play a key role in human biology, yet to be fully understood. We propose further that "regulobiosis", whereby fungi play a regulatory role in human ecobiology, is operative in humans as probably obtains in other forms of life. Fungally-dependent regulobiosis would characterise, at first, microbiomes which include, but are not limited to, bacteria, archaea, and viruses; then, their human host; and, next, provide ecological connectedness.

      PubDate: Tue, 5 May 2020 16:07:36 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 1 - Consumption patterns of sweetened condensed milk in
           the diet of young Indonesian children and its potential nutritional health
           consequences
    • Abstract: Juffrie, Mohammad; Sartika, Ratu Ayu Dewi; Sparringa, Roy Alexander; Wibowo, Lindawati; Lukito, Widjaja
      This critical review is intended to analyse the existing studies on the consumption patterns of sweetened condensed milk in the diet of young Indonesian children and its potential nutritional health consequences. Considering its limited nutritional value and high sugar content, sweetened condensed milk (SCM) should not be administered to young children (1-3 years old) with the goal of promoting their growth and development. However, such false practice has been reported in mostly urban studies among the underprivileged population. Conclusive scientific evidence is also still lacking regarding the health risks of long-term SCM consumption by young Indonesian children at early ages, as no study has focused on this specific topic. Nevertheless, inadequate understanding of SCM, its consumption patterns, and its long-term effects on health among young Indonesian children have been implicated in public confusion on the topic. Ongoing disparities that exist between regulation, industrial practices, and product advertisement have led to poor understanding in communities, which, to a considerable extent, has contributed to difficulties in segregating data on the consumption of SCM and its related products. Analogous to sugar-sweetened beverages, limited SCM consumption can be recommended when appropriately implemented with active monitoring and evaluation of product advertisements and product labeling, enforcement of regulations, and provision of effective customer education.

      PubDate: Tue, 5 May 2020 16:07:36 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 1 - Benefit risk and cost ratios in sustainable food and
           health policy: Changing and challenging trajectories
    • Abstract: Wahlqvist, Mark L
      There is benefit, risk and cost in all that we do, but when it comes to food, we expect that it will benefit our health, be available, safe to eat and affordable. But as climate change and demographic shifts through displacement and ageing gather momentum, the emphases on each of benefit, risk and cost will alter. That we are ecological beings whose health and wellbeing are ecosystem-dependent, must now be the underpinning framework for risk management. Loss of natural environment and biodiversity represents reduced nutritional and health resilience, which will need to be factored in to risk assessment and management with climate change. This is proving a problematic risk communication challenge. Previously desirable food and food pattern recommendations will be tempered by substantial sustainability, availability, safety, affordability, equity and ethical considerations. Future workforces will need to ensure basic livelihoods (food, water, shelter, clothing, healthcare, education, communication, essential transport, resource management and effective governance) and with risk minimisation. Cost appraisal will have less to do with monetisation and more to do with resource management in accordance with equity and ethical principles. Communities could adopt Liveability Units (LU) for traceability and community-based transactions, as a currency for a more sustainable future, encouraging and enabling food and health system viability. Open source food and health systems, supported by LU matrix (bar code or QR) scanning with smartphones could be widely available for individual, household and community benefit, risk and cost management. The risk is remoteness from food's origins and megadata commercialisation.

      PubDate: Tue, 5 May 2020 16:07:36 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 1 - Effect of early enteral nutrition on the incidence of
           acute acalculous cholecystitis among trauma patients
    • Abstract: Chang, Ye Rim; Yun, Jung Ho; Choi, Seok Ho; Jee, Ye Seob
      Background and Objectives: Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) often occurs in critically ill patients, especially in those that have experienced trauma, surgery, shock, and prolonged fasting. Early enteral nutrition has been shown to significantly reduce morbidity and mortality compared to other nutritional support strategies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of early enteral nutrition on the incidence of AAC among trauma patients.

      Methods and Study Design: Multi-strategy nutritional protocol was implemented in the intensive care unit (ICU) in 2016 for early enteral nutrition and proper nutritional support. The traumatized critically-ill patients without volitional intake who were admitted to ICU between 2015 and 2017 were included. Basic characteristics, duration of fasting, and the incidence of percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) due to AAC were analyzed according to the year.

      Results: Enteral nutrition was indicated in 552 trauma patients (28.2%). The mean duration of fasting was shortened from 6.5 days in 2015 to 5.4 days in 2017 (p=0.202). The incidence of PC was significantly decreased from 2015 to 2017 [6/171 (3.5%) vs. 6/204 (2.9%) vs. 0/177 (0%), p=0.023]. The provision of central parenteral nutrition (p=0.001) and fasting over 7 days (p=0.014) proved to be a risk factor of AAC.

      Conclusions: This study showed that the incidence of PC due to AAC was decreased significantly after the implementation of a nutritional protocol among traumatized critically ill patients. Early enteral nutrition may be effective in reducing the AAC among trauma patients who are at high risk of AAC.

      PubDate: Tue, 5 May 2020 16:07:36 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 1 - Thyroglobulin can be a functional biomarker of iodine
           deficiency, thyroid nodules, and goiter in Chinese pregnant women
    • Abstract: Gao, Min; Chen, Yanting; Zhang, Ying; Sun, Hao; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Wen; Wang, Wei; Tan, Long; Shen, Jun; Cheng, Yuangui; Zhang, Wanqi
      Background and Objectives: Thyroglobulin (Tg) is considered a sensitive indicator of iodine status for children and adults, but its usefulness for pregnant women is unknown. The aim of this study was attempting to explore the relationship between Tg and iodine status and the association between elevated Tg and thyroid diseases.

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 2163 pregnant women were recruited in this study. The ratio of urine iodine concentration and urine creatinine concentration (UI/Cr) was measured in spot urine samples. Serum thyroid hormones and thyroglobulin were measured. Thyroid nodules and thyroid volume were diagnosed by ultrasound.

      Results: The geometric mean of serum Tg was significantly higher in the UI/Cr 500 mug/g group (11.48 [2.35] mug/L) than in the 150-249 mug/g group (9.64 [2.32] mug/L). The generalized linear model analysis showed that Serum log(10) Tg concentration was much higher in the UI/Cr
      PubDate: Tue, 5 May 2020 16:07:36 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 1 - Prolonged preoperative fasting and prognosis in
           critically ill gastrointestinal surgery patients
    • Abstract: Zhou, Gang; Zhu, Fengxue; An, Youzhong; Qin, Lixia; Lv, Jie; Zhao, Xiujuan; Shen, Jiawei
      Background and Objectives: This study aimed to assess the influence of prolonged preoperative fasting on prognosis in elective surgery. Methods and Study

      Design: A retrospective, controlled study involving patients admitted to our surgical intensive care unit who underwent a gastrointestinal operation under general anesthesia. Patients were divided into regular preoperative fasting time (n=57) and prolonged preoperative fasting time (n=73) groups. Clinical data were collected including patients' demographics, intraoperative and postoperative operation time, volume of blood loss, intensive care unit stay, hospital stay, postoperative complications and other factors.

      Results: Patients in the regular preoperative fasting time group had less duration of mechanical ventilation support after surgery [245 (177, 450) min vs 315 (210, 812) min (p=0.021)] and the postoperative myocardial injuries (myocardial injury 2 cases vs 11 cases, p=0.038) and reoperation percentages (reoperation 0 cases vs 7 cases, p=0.044) were lower compared to the prolonged preoperative fasting time group. In addition, patients in the regular preoperative fasting time group presented with a significantly shorter period of postoperative fasting time [6.0 (5.0, 8.0) vs 8.0 (6.0, 13.0), p=0.005].

      Conclusions: Prolonged preoperative fasting time led to unfavorable outcomes after gastrointestinal operations. Thus, reducing preoperative fasting time is likely to accelerate postoperative recovery in gastrointestinal surgery patients.

      PubDate: Tue, 5 May 2020 16:07:36 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 1 - Serum total iron-binding capacity and iron status in
           patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease: A
           cross-sectional study in Vietnam
    • Abstract: Thang, Le Viet; Kien, Nguyen Trung; van Hung, Nguyen; Kien, Truong Quy; Dung, Nguyen Huu; Thu Huong, Nguyen Thi; Toan, Nguyen Duy; Toan, Pham Quoc; Vinh, Hoang Trung; Nghia, Vu Xuan; Usui, Tomoko
      Background and Objectives: We performed this study to evaluate serum iron and ferritin concentrations, serum total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), and proportion of overall iron deficiency among patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD).

      Methods and Study Design: A hospital-based cross-sectional observational study was conducted on 175 adult patients with stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) by using 51 healthy age-sex-matched Vietnamese adults as the control group. We next examined the prevalence of anemia and determined the serum iron and ferritin concentrations and TIBC. Anemia in CKD was defined as hemoglobin levels < 13 g/dL in men and < 12 g/dL in women. Transferrin saturation (TSAT, %) was calculated as (serum iron x 100)/TIBC. Functional iron deficiency was defined as serum ferritin > 100 ng/mL and TSAT < 20%, and absolute iron deficiency was defined as serum ferritin < 100 ng/mL and TSAT
      PubDate: Tue, 5 May 2020 16:07:36 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 1 - Effects of flaxseed supplementation on functional
           constipation and quality of life in a Chinese population: A randomized
           trial
    • Abstract: Sun, Jianqin; Bai, Huijing; Ma, Jianxia; Zhang, Ruiyu; Xie, Hua; Zhang, Yanmei; Guo, Mingquan; Yao, Jianfeng
      Background and Objectives: This prospective, randomized, controlled study aimed to evaluate the effects of flaxseed supplementation on functional constipation and quality of life in adult men and women in China. Methods and Study Design: 90 subjects with functional constipation diagnosed by the Rome IV criteria were enrolled. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 50 g/day flaxseed flour with meals (n=60) or 15 mL/day of a lactulose solution on an empty stomach (n=30) every morning for 4 weeks. Wexner constipation scores, stool consistency according to the Bristol Stool Form Scale, and bowel habits (frequency of bowel movements/week, the time spent on defecation) were the primary outcomes. The change in Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life score was the secondary outcome. Results: After 4 weeks, the bowel habits in both groups were significantly improved. The median Wexner constipation score decreased from 14 to 6.5 in the flaxseed group (p < 0.001) and from 15 to 9 in the lactulose group (p < 0.001). The median defecation frequency per week increased significantly (2 to 7 for flaxseed and 2 to 6 for lactulose, p < 0.001 for both groups). The Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life score decreased significantly (-1.34 and -0.66 for flaxseed and lactulose, respectively; p < 0.001 for both groups). Conclusions: Flaxseed flour is somewhat more effective at increasing defecation frequency than lactulose, improving bowel movements and promoting life quality of subjects with chronic functional constipation in the Chinese population.

      PubDate: Tue, 5 May 2020 16:07:36 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 1 - Nutrition program selection in acute ischemic stroke
           patients with GI hemorrhage
    • Abstract: Zeng, Xiaoyan; Chen, Junhong; Sun, Zhihua; Zeng, Heng; Xue, Junyan; Zhang, Yingjie; Liu, Gang; Huang, Xiaojing
      Background and Objectives: The severity of neurologic impairment is significantly associated with gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effect of two nutritional interventions in acute ischemic stroke patients with GI hemorrhage.

      Methods and Study Design: We retrospectively studied consecutive ischemic stroke patients with GI hemorrhage from January 2014 to December 2018. They were stratified into two programs of nutritional therapy after GI hemorrhage: moderate feeding (more than 70% optimal caloric uptake, 50-100 mL/h) and trophic feeding (16-25% of the target energy expenditure, 25 kcal/kg per day, 10- 30 mL/h) with supplemental parenteral nutrition.

      Results: The group receiving moderate feeding included 30 patients, and the group receiving trophic feeding and supplemental parenteral nutrition included 32 patients. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the baseline characteristics of the patients. Mortality, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at discharge, and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score 3 months after discharge were compared between the two groups. In the moderate feeding group, the overall mortality was significantly lower than in the trophic feeding and supplemental parenteral nutrition group (p < 0.05). Conscious state and neurological severity were assessed by the GCS score before discharge, and the score was higher in the moderate feeding group than in the other group (p < 0.05). The GOS score 3 months after discharge was higher in the moderate feeding group than in the trophic feeding and supplemental parenteral nutrition group (p < 0.05). These three items showed that moderate feeding led to a better prognosis: lower occurrence of mortality, higher GCS score at discharge, and higher GOS score 3 months after discharge.

      Conclusions: This study showed that moderate feeding had a much more profound effect on the outcomes than trophic feeding and supplemental parenteral nutrition, as it was associated with lower mortality, higher GCS score at discharge, and higher GOS score 3 months after discharge.

      PubDate: Tue, 5 May 2020 16:07:36 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 1 - Late-night-dinner deteriorates postprandial glucose
           and insulin whereas consuming dinner dividedly ameliorates them in
           patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized crossover clinical trial
    • Abstract: Imai, Saeko; Saito, Yuuk; Kajiyama, Shizuo; Nitta, Ayasa; Miyawaki, Takashi; Matsumoto, Shinya; Ozasa, Neiko; Kajiyama, Shintaro; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Fukui, Michiaki
      Background and Objectives: The aims of this study is to explore the acute effect of consuming dinner at different timing on postprandial glucose and hormone in patients with type 2 diabetes.

      Methods and Study Design: Eight patients (age 70.8+-1.9 years, HbA1c 7.6+-0.6 %, BMI 23.3+-3.2, mean+-SD) were randomly assigned in this crossover study. Patients consumed the test meals of dinner at 18:00 on the first day, and dinner at 21:00 or divided dinner (vegetable and rice at 18:00 and vegetable and the main dish at 21:00) on the second or third day. Postprandial glucose, insulin, glucagon, free fatty acid (FFA), active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and active glucose- dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) concentration after dinner were evaluated.

      Results: Both incremental area under the curve (IAUC) 2h for glucose and insulin were higher in dinner at 21:00 than those in dinner at 18:00 (IAUC glucose: 449+-83 vs 216+-43 mmol/L min, p < 0.01, IAUC insulin:772+-104 vs 527+-107 muU/mL min, p < 0.01, mean+-SEM). However, in divided dinner both IAUC 4h for glucose and insulin tended to be lower than those of dinner at 21:00 (IAUC glucose: 269+-76 mmol/L min, p=0.070, IAUC insulin: 552+-114 muU/mL min, p=0.070). IAUC of active GLP-1 and active GIP demonstrated no difference among different dinner regimen.

      Conclusions: Consuming late-night-dinner (21:00) deteriorates postprandial glucose and insulin compared with those of early-evening-dinner (18:00) whereas consuming dinner dividedly ameliorates them.

      PubDate: Tue, 5 May 2020 16:07:36 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 1 - Socioeconomic correlates of adherence to mineral
           intake recommendations among pregnant women in north China: Findings from
           a cross-sectional study
    • Abstract: Wang, Kaipeng; Xie, Ying; Wang, Dandan; Bishop, Nicholas J; Tooker, Erica M; Li, Zengning
      Background and Objectives: The purpose of the present study is to examine the socioeconomic correlates of adherence to minimum mineral intake recommended by the Chinese Dietary Guidelines during each trimester of pregnancy among Chinese women.

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 567 pregnant women with foetal age of 6 - 12 weeks were recruited from nine community health centres and three hospitals. Cross-sectional survey data were collected using structured interviews and questionnaires. Mineral intake was calculated from food consumption reported on 24-hour dietary reviews using the Chinese Food Composition Metrics. Logistic regression models were estimated to assess the relationship between sociodemographic factors and adherence to mineral intake recommendations for each trimester.

      Results: Significant predictors of adherence to mineral intake recommendations include: (1) age (zinc: OR=1.09, 'p' < 0.05; copper: OR=1.11, 'p' < 0.05), having bachelor's degree (copper: OR=2.23, 'p' < 0.05; phosphorus: OR=2.23, 'p' < 0.01), and household income >=5,000RMB (potassium: OR=2.51, p=5,000 RMB (zinc: OR=1.86, 'p' < 0.05) during the second trimester, and (3) husband/partner with associate degree or vocational school education (selenium: OR=3.26, 'p' < 0.01) and household income of 3,000-4,999 RMB (potassium: OR=1.71, 'p' < 0.05; zinc: OR=1.48, 'p' < 0.05) during the third trimester. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study that examines the relationship between socioeconomic factors and mineral intake among Chinese pregnant women at three trimesters. Findings highlight the importance of considering individuals' socioeconomic status to develop personalized interventions to prevent undernutrition among this population.

      PubDate: Tue, 5 May 2020 16:07:36 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 1 - Clinical nutrition knowledge, attitude and practice of
           medical interns in Shanghai: Contributory factors
    • Abstract: Zong, Min; Chen, Yan-Qiu; Liu, Xia; Xie, Hua; Zhang, Mei-Fang; Sun, Jian-Qin
      Background and Objectives: To provide a questionnaire, with Shanghai medical interns as respondents, analyzing knowledge (K), attitude (A), and practice (P) in relation to clinical nutrition, and to explore factors that could affect KAP scores.

      Methods and Study Design: The cross- sectional study used 330 interns from Shanghai medical universities responding to general material data questionnaires and KAP questionnaires on clinical nutrition.

      Results: The mean KAP score was 210.26+-25.9 (X+-SD), and the score for each part of the KAP questionnaire was just within the threshold for qualified. Multivariate analysis showed that the factors influencing the proportion of excellent scores for K were preventive medicine major (OR=3.45, 'p' < 0.001), senior intern (OR=2.52, 'p'=0.002), and tertiary intern hospital (OR=2.31, 'p'=0.006). The only factor influencing the proportion of excellent scores for P was accessing nutritional information one to three times per week (OR=3.95, 'p'=0.011). Nutrition course had no relation to any scores of K, A, P.

      Conclusions: The mean scores of overall KAP and the individual K, A, P were all categorized as qualified. The P score was the lowest and only influenced by how frequently information was accessed. In summary, nutrition knowledge and regular practical training gained from intern hospital could be a better way to enable senior interns to quickly and competently address patient nutrition problems at the commencement of their careers.

      PubDate: Tue, 5 May 2020 16:07:36 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 1 - A community-based approach to lean body mass and
           appendicular skeletal muscle mass prediction using body circumferences in
           community-dwelling elderly in Taiwan
    • Abstract: Chien, Kuei-Yu; Chen, Chiao-Nan; Chen, Shu-Chen; Wang, Hsiu-Hua; Zhou, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Lee-Hwa
      Background and Objectives: To develop and validate the prediction equations for lean body mass (LBM) and appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) using body circumference measurements of community-dwelling adults older than 50 years old. Methods and Study

      Design: Four hundred and ninety-eight community-dwelling adults older than 50 years old were recruited for this study. Participants were randomly assigned to a development group (DG, n=332) and validation group (VG, n=166). Lean body mass and ASM were assessed using dualenergy x-ray absorptiometry along with the anthropometric parameters. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to examine the associations between ASM, LBM and anthropometric parameters in the DG. Prediction equations for LBM and ASM were established from DG data using multiple regression analyses. Paired t-test and Bland-Altman test were used to validate the equations in the VG.

      Results: Forearm circumference had the highest correlation with LBM and ASM. The developed prediction models were: LBM (kg) = 27.479 + 0.726 * weight (kg) - 3.383 * gender (male = 1, female = 2) - 0.672 * BMI + 0.514 * forearm circumference (cm) - 0.245 * hip circumference (cm)(r2=0.90); ASM (kg) = -4.287 + 0.202 * weight (kg) - 0.166 * hip circumference (cm) - 1.484 * gender (male = 1, female = 2) + 0.173 * calf circumference (cm) + 0.096 * height + 0.243 * forearm circumference (cm)(r2=0.85).

      Conclusions: Prediction equations using only a measuring tape provide accurate, inexpensive, practical methods to assess LBM and ASM in Asians older than 50 years old.

      PubDate: Tue, 5 May 2020 16:07:36 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 1 - Economic value of nutritional support methods in
           gastrointestinal cancer: A quantitative meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Zhu, Mingwei; Chen, Wei; Jiang, Hua; Zhu, Sainan; Xu, Jingyong; Bao, Wenlei; Dang, Yan; Wang, Michael Yao-Hsien
      Background and Objectives: Multiple studies of the relative economic value of different nutritional support methods for patients with gastrointestinal cancer have provided inconsistent results.

      Methods and Study Design: The PUBMED and EMBASE databases were systematically searched through September 30, 2018to identify latent studies of the benefits of parenteral nutrition (PN), enteral nutrition (EN) or conventional intervention (CI) in gastrointestinal cancer patients. A fixed-effects model or random-effects model was applied depending on the heterogeneity of the studies. Statistical analysis was conducted using R software. A total of 728 studies were reviewed, and 21 studies published from 1998 to 2018 were included in the final analysis.

      Results: The results showed that the hospitalization expenditure of the EN group was 3938 RMB less than that of the PN group. Similarly, the EN group had a shorter length of hospitalization than the PN and CI groups. The infection rate was lower in the EN group (12%) than in the PN group (16%) and CI group (20%). Subgroup analysis showed that gastrointestinal cancer patients who received oral nutritional supplements had the lowest infection rate (11%) after surgery.

      Conclusions: EN, especially oral nutritional supplements, has a positive economic impact on patients with gastrointestinal cancer, based on reductions in the post-operative infection rate, length of hospitalization, and hospitalization expenditure.

      PubDate: Tue, 5 May 2020 16:07:36 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 1 - Impaired glucose tolerance among adolescents with low
           birth weight history: The Tanjungsari Cohort study in Indonesia
    • Abstract: Permana, Hikmat; Bandiara, Ria; Usman, Stefanie Yuliana; Susandi, Evan; Diana, Aly; Arifin, Augusta YL; Alisjahbana, Bachti
      Background and Objectives: Diabetes prevalence has been increasing overtime in Indonesia along with its complications and morbidities. Diabetes prevention program is still a challenge. Previous study concluded poor intrauterine nutritional status, low birth weight (LBW), and nutrition status early in life were risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. This study aimed to evaluate the association between both LBW and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) with IGT in adolescents.

      Methods and Study Design: Total of 536 subjects from Tanjungsari Cohort Study were included in this study. Subjects were in their early adolescence age (12-14 years). Anthropometric data were collected and IGT was determined by using 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose level, then it was assessed based on their birth weight and intrauterine nutri-tional status.

      Results: Subjects with LBW history were shorter, had lower body weight and body mass index (p < 0.05, respectively). The proportion of IGT is significantly higher among subject with LBW (RR 1.692 [1.079-2.653]). There was no difference on proportion of IGT among subjects with IUGR compared with subjects who were not IUGR or born preterm (p=0.286). Multiple regression analysis showed the effect of LBW remain independent after adjusted with sex and socioeconomic variables (RR 1.650 [1.054-2.584]).

      Conclusions: Significant association was found between LBW and IGT in comparison to those who were born with normal birth weight. Hence, diabetes should be prevented as early as possible, even since in the pregnancy.

      PubDate: Tue, 5 May 2020 16:07:36 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 1 - Association between dairy consumption and prevalence
           of obesity in adult population of Northeast China: An internet-based
           cross-sectional study
    • Abstract: Song, Xiaoyun; Li, Rui; Guo, Lin; Guo, Panpan; Zhang, Meng; Feng, Rennan
      Background and Objectives: Dairy has been shown to reduce the risk of obesity in many epidemiological studies. However, few studies have been fully conducted in China in this respect. We aimed to investigate the association between dairy consumption and prevalence of obesity in an adult Chinese population.

      Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional study was performed in an adult population of 5598 in northeast China, aged >=18. Intakes of dairy products were obtained by internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC). The associations between total and individual dairy consumption and prevalence of overall and abdominal obesity were examined by logistic regression. Sex stratification was performed.

      Results: A total of 3871 participants, including 1700 men and 2171 women, were eligible for analysis. Men who consumed >=100 g/day of yogurt had lower risks of abdominal obesity (multivariate-adjusted OR=0.41; 95% CI: 0.24-0.70) than men who did not consume yogurt. Women who consumed >=200 g/day of milk had lower risks of overall obesity (multivariate-adjusted OR=0.47; 95% CI: 0.24-0.91) than women who did not consume milk.

      Conclusions: Increased dairy consumption was associated with lower risk of obesity in adult population in northeast China. Further studies are needed to confirm these observational findings and explain the observed gender-specific difference.

      PubDate: Tue, 5 May 2020 16:07:36 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 1 - The association of blood pressure with estimated
           urinary sodium, potassium excretion and their ratio in hypertensive,
           normotensive, and hypotensive Chinese adults
    • Abstract: Li, Ying; Yin, Lu; Peng, Yaguang; Liu, Xiaoyun; Cao, Xia; Wang, Yaqin; Yang, Pingting; Li, Xiaohui; Chen, Zhiheng
      Background and Objectives: Low sodium and high potassium intake is reported to be a risk of hypertension. However, it is uncertain whether these associations can be generalized to those without hypertension. This study is to evaluate the associations of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively) with estimated urinary sodium excretion (eUNaE), estimated urinary potassium excretion (eUKE) and their ratio (Na/K ratio) among hypertensive, normotensive, and hypotensive Chinese individuals.

      Methods and Study Design: A large institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted at the Third Xiangya Hospital, Changsha between August 2017 and November 2018. Spot urine samples were collected to test urinary sodium, potassium, and creatinine excretions for each participant. The Kawasaki formula was used to estimate 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretions.

      Results: A total of 26,363 eligible subjects were used to analyze the associations of blood pressure with eUNaE, eUKE, and their ratio. 27.3% (n=7,201) of participants were diagnosed with hypertension, 5.4% (n=1,427) were diagnosed with hypotension, and the remaining of 17,735 participants were normotensive. A significant increase in SBP and DBP was related to the Na/K ratio increase in hypertensive and normotensive subgroups (all 'ptrend' < 0.01), but the association was not significant for DBP among hypotensive individuals ('ptrend' 0.58). Stronger associations of SBP with the Na/K ratio were observed in older people ('pinteraction' < 0.01) and females ('pinteraction' < 0.0001), but the same trend was not observed for DBP ('pinteraction'= 0.10 and 0.88, respectively).

      Conclusions: High potassium and low sodium intake were further confirmed to reduce blood pressure in hypotensive, normotensive, and hypertensive individuals.

      PubDate: Tue, 5 May 2020 16:07:36 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 1 - Physical activity and sedentary behaviour during
           
    • Abstract: van Ha, Anh Vo; Zhao, Yun; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Nguyen, Cong Luat; Chu, Tan Khac; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H
      Background and Objectives: Gestational weight gain is known to impact maternal and child health outcomes. Energy intake and energy expenditure are major components of clinical nutrition in relation to weight gain during pregnancy. The study was to determine the association of physical activity and sitting time during pregnancy with gestational weight gain in Vietnamese women.

      Methods and Study Design: A multicentre prospective cohort study was conducted in Vietnam from 2015 to 2017. A total of 1873 women with a singleton pregnancy were included. Physical activity and sitting exposures during pregnancy were determined using an interviewer-administered validated questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis was performed to assess physical activity and sitting time in relation to gestational weight gain, adjusting for the confounding effects of maternal characteristics and total energy intake during pregnancy.

      Results: The mean weight gain was 12.9 (Standard deviation 4.1) kg throughout pregnancy. Pregnant women with prolonged sitting time gained an average of 0.6 kg more weight ('p'=0.016 for highest versus lowest tertiles). Conversely, women who were physically active, in terms of having higher tertiles of total physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous-intensity, household/ caregiving activities, and occupational physical activity, experienced significantly less gestational weight gain ('p' < 0.05 for highest versus lowest tertiles).

      Conclusions: Inverse associations were found between gestational weight gain and physical activity (i.e. intensities and several domains), whereas gestational weight gain tended to increase with longer sitting time. Therefore, being physically active and less sedentary is important to regulate weight gain during pregnancy.

      PubDate: Tue, 5 May 2020 16:07:36 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 1 - Reduced crying and favourable stool characteristics in
           Chinese infants fed milk fat-based formula
    • Abstract: Sheng, Xiao Yang; Buthmanaban, Vanitha; Vonk, Marlotte Marianne; Feitsma, Anouk Leonie; Parikh, Panam
      Background and Objectives: Chinese infants consuming four different commercially-available infant formulas were evaluated on gut comfort and stool consistency parameters.

      Methods and Study Design: Gut comfort characteristics were evaluated during a 7-day cross-sectional observational study in 409 healthy, term, exclusively formula-fed infants via questionnaires and fecal parameters.

      Results: The stool consistency and color scores were different between the infants consuming one of the four commercially-available infant formulas including different fat sources, i.e. one milk fat-based (IF1), two structured vegetable fat blend-based (IF2 and IF4) and one palm oil-free vegetable fat blend-based (IF3). The scoring pattern showed more 'soft-formed' stools for IF1- consuming infants compared to infants consuming IF2, IF3 or IF4. In addition, a lower amount of green feces was observed in combination with an increase in golden-colored feces for IF1-consuming infants compared to the other groups. Furthermore, IF1-consuming infants reported less fussy/crying time during the night and less gut discomfort. Infants consuming milk fat-based IF1 showed significantly lower fatty acid soaps compared to palmoil free IF3-fed infants.

      Conclusions: Infants consuming milk fat-based IF1 experienced less gut discomfort compared to infants consuming other commercially-available infant formula. Lower fecal fatty acid soap levels, fussy/crying time during the night and gut discomfort were observed. These findings contribute to the current understanding of the association between lipid structure and gut comfort parameters. However, the suggested benefits noted cannot be fully linked to the effect of fat blend differences since formulas differ in ingredient-sourcing and processing. Future research should confirm the added benefit of milk fat-based infant formulas to improve gut comfort parameters.

      PubDate: Tue, 5 May 2020 16:07:36 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 1 - Association between food liking and the dietary
           quality in Australian young adults
    • Abstract: Wanich, Uracha; Riddell, Lynn; Cicerale, Sara; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Sayompark, Dhoungsiri; Liem, Djin Gie; Keast, Russell SJ
      Background and Objectives: An individual's liking for food maybe associated with food consumption. This study investigates the association between food liking and dietary quality in Australian young adults.

      Methods and Study Design: Food liking and food frequency data were collected via an online Food Liking Questionnaire (FLQ) and Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Food liking scores were calculated for groupings of foods. FFQ Food intake data was used to calculate diet quality using a 13 item Dietary Guideline Index (DGI). The relationship between food liking and DGI was assessed using linear regression models and the difference was assessed using an independent sample t-test and One-way ANOVA.

      Results: Data were available from n=2,535 participants (BMI=24 (SD 3.74), age=21.9 (SD 5.05) years, female=77.1%). Liking for grains, vegetables, fruits, dairy, plant-based protein, was weakly positively associated with diet quality. Liking for animal-based protein, fat and oil, sweet food, and salty food, was weakly negatively associated with diet quality. Liking for grains, vegetables, fruits, dairy, plant-based protein and healthy foods increased across increasing DGI tertiles, and liking for animal-based protein, fat and oil, sweet food, salty food and discretionary foods decreased across increasing DGI tertiles.

      Conclusions: The results were logical with increased liking for healthy or discretionary foods linked with increased consumption of those foods. The results reinforce the strategy to introduce a variety of healthy food groups early in life to initiate flavour-nutrient learning and increase liking for healthy foods.

      PubDate: Tue, 5 May 2020 16:07:36 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 1 - Double burden of malnutrition in urbanized settled
           Tibetan communities on the Tibetan plateau
    • Abstract: Peng, Wen; Wang, Shulin; Han, Shuang; Su, Xiaodong; Zhao, Lei
      Background and Objectives: A previous pilot study revealed stunted children and obese adults in urbanized settled Tibetan communities. A survey with a representative population in selected communities was conducted to test the preliminary findings.

      Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional study on the nutritional status involving 504 children (244 boys and 260 girls, 5-16 y) and 927 adults (422 men and 505 women, 18-90 y) was conducted in communities, with anthropometric parameters measured. The z-scores for height-for-age (HAZ) and BMI-for-age (BAZ) in children were calculated according to WHO 2007 reference.

      Results: The children showed a double burden of both under- and over-nutrition. The prevalence of under-nutrition in children was high - stunting (HAZ < -2) 10.7%, underweight (BAZ < -2) 9.5%, combined prevalence of stunting and underweight 19.4%. The rate of over-nutrition was also alarming - obesity 12.7% (BAZ > 2). The mean value of HAZ (- 0.45+-1.41) was lower than, whereas that of BAZ (0.05+-1.76) was comparable to, the WHO reference. No significant differences were found in under- or over-nutrition between genders. Specifically, 8.9% of children demonstrated both short stature (HAZ < -1) and overweight (BAZ > 1). By contrast, community adults showed almost a one-way direction tilted towards over-nutrition - overweight 61.4% (BMI >=24 kg/m2), obesity 30.1% (BMI >=28 kg/m2), and central obesity 62.0% (waist circumference, men >=85 cm, women >=80 cm). Women were marginally more likely to be obese than men ('p'=0.061).

      Conclusions: The co-existence of under- and over-nutrition in the community may have reflected the suboptimal early life nutrition and the obesogenic environment afterwards. Potential determinants need to be explored for future interventions.

      PubDate: Tue, 5 May 2020 16:07:36 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 1 - Dietary diversity and all-cause mortality among
           Chinese adults aged 65 or older: A community-based cohort study
    • Abstract: Tao, Liyuan; Xie, Zheng; Huang, Tao
      Background and Objectives: To evaluate the association between dietary diversity and all-cause mortality in older adults.

      Methods and Study Design: 17,949 community-based elderly participants aged >=65 years in China were included in this cohort study. The baseline consumption frequencies of nine food groups (meat, vegetables, fish, eggs, fruits, legumes, milk, tea, and nuts) were recorded, and the dietary diversity score (0-9) was calculated. Survival status and death date were collected during follow-up. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to assess the association between dietary diversity and all-cause mortality.

      Results: We identified 8445 death events over 57,685 person-years of follow-up. Compared with participants in the lowest dietary diversity score group (score 0-1), higher dietary diversity scores were associated with lower mortality risk in univariate models. After adjusting for potential confounders, participants in the higher dietary diversity score group had a 9%-30% lower risk in all-cause mortality ('p' trend < 0.001) compared with those in the lowest dietary diversity score group. The inverse relationship between dietary diversity score and all-cause mortality was also significant in four food groups (vegetables, fish, fruits, and nuts). Similar results were observed in sensitivity analyses.

      Conclusions: Our study showed that dietary diversity was inversely associated with all-cause mortality in the Chinese elderly, especially in the oldest old and men. Therefore, increasing dietary diversity may reduce mortality rates in the older population, and tailored interventions for improving dietary diversity are required to benefit health and survival in them.

      PubDate: Tue, 5 May 2020 16:07:36 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 1 - Vitamin D and liver cancer risk: A meta-analysis of
           prospective studies
    • Abstract: Guo, Xiao-Fei; Zhao, Ting; Han, Jian-min; Li, Shan; Li, Duo
      Background and Objectives: The association between circulating vitamin D and liver cancer risk has been controversial on the basis of epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate this association with prospective studies.

      Methods and Study Design: A systematic literature search was implemented in PubMed and Scopus databases up to June 2019. Using a random-effects model, the multivariate-adjusted relative risks (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled for the highest versus lowest category. Trend estimation was conducted with a two-stage dose-response meta-analysis.

      Results: Six independent prospective studies (992 liver cancer events and 60,811 participants) were included for data synthesis. The summary estimate showed that a higher circulating vitamin D was associated with lower risk of liver cancer (Summary RR=0.78; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.95; I2=53.6%, p=0.035). Dose-response analysis indicated that liver cancer was associated with 8% (95% CI: 0.89, 0.95) lower risk with a 10 nmol/L increment of circulating vitamin D concentration.

      Conclusions: The present study provides substantial evidence that a higher concentration of circulating vitamin D would have conferred protection against liver cancer.

      PubDate: Tue, 5 May 2020 16:07:36 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 1 - Leisure-time physical activity and milk intake
           synergistically reduce the risk of pathoglycemia: A cross-sectional study
           in adults in Beijing, China
    • Abstract: Na, Xiaona; Zhu, Zhu; Chen, Yangyang; He, Haizhen; Zhou, Guirong; Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Ting; Zhuang, Guoliang; Liu, Aiping
      Background and Objectives: To evaluate the synergistic and individual associations of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) intensity and the frequency of milk intake in adulthood with newly diagnosed pathoglycemia. Pathoglycemia comprised impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

      Methods and Study Design: This cross-sectional study of 3977 adults was conducted in Mentougou District, Beijing, China. After excluding ineligible individuals or those with missing data, 2977 participants were included in the final analysis. Data on LTPA, milk intake, and other demographic characteristics were obtained through previously designed questionnaires. Newly diagnosed pathoglycemia was determined based on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentration.

      Results: Among all participants, 21.4% had newly diagnosed pathoglycemia, 9.9% engaged in moderate to vigorous leisure-time physical activity (MVLTPA), and 63.7% drank milk more than once weekly. Relative to those who engaged in low-intensity LTPA and drank milk less than once weekly, those who engaged in MVLTPA (OR: 0.584, 95%CI: 0.410-0.810) and drank milk more than once weekly (OR: 0.734, 95% CI: 0.614-0.878) had a lower risk of pathoglycemia; this association was greater when both variables interacted (OR: 0.446, 95% CI: 0.287-0.669).

      Conclusions: MVLTPA and enough frequency of milk intake synergistically decreased the risk of pathoglycemia. A future interventional study including both factors should be performed.

      PubDate: Tue, 5 May 2020 16:07:36 GMT
       
  • Volume 29 Issue 1 - Reproducibility and construct validity of a food
           frequency questionnaire for assessing dietary intake in rural and urban
           Asian Indian adults
    • Abstract: Sudha, Vasudevan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Vijayalakshmi, Parthasarathy; Lakshmipriya, Nagarajan; Kalpana, Natarajan; Gayathri, Rajagopal; Priyadarshini, Rahavan Durga; Malini, Hutgikar Madhav; Chandrasekaran, Anitha; Mohan, Deepa; Raj, Sekar Sathish; Parthiban, Kumar; Ramakrishnan, Rajappan; Geetha, Gunasekaran; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Mohan, Viswanathan
      Background and Objectives: To evaluate the reproducibility and construct validity of the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation FFQ (MDRF-FFQ) with biomarkers for its use in epidemiological settings in India.

      Methods and Study Design: The MDRF-FFQ was administered to 500 participants representing rural and urban areas of 10 Indian states, twice at an interval of 12 months. Reproducibility was assessed using intra cluster correlation coefficients (ICC). Construct validity of carbohydrate and fat intake was assessed using baseline serum lipids by regression analysis.

      Results: Reproducibility as measured by ICC was 0.50-0.77 for saturated fatty acids (SFA) and energy in urban and 0.61-0.72 for protein and SFA in rural areas. The ICC for food groups was 0.53-0.77 for whole grains, fruits and vegetables in urban and 0.50-0.89 for animal foods and whole grains in rural areas. After adjusting for potential confounders, carbohydrate intake was positively associated with serum triglycerides (TG) (beta [SE]: +2.3 [0.72] mg/dL; p=0.002) and inversely with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) (beta [SE]:-0.48 [0.12], 'p' < 0.001), while dietary fat and SFA (% Energy) were positively associated with HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol and inversely with TG.

      Conclusions: The MDRF-FFQ can be considered as a reliable and valid tool to measure the long-term dietary exposure in respect of macronutrient intakes in Indian populations despite diverse dietary practices.

      PubDate: Tue, 5 May 2020 16:07:36 GMT
       
 
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