Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8529 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2342 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
4 open     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AAS Open Research     Open Access  
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AboutOpen     Open Access  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access  
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Científica Estudiantil     Open Access  
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Herediana     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access  
Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)     Open Access  
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta Medica International     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acupuncture and Natural Medicine     Open Access  
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / Health Sciences Journal of Adıyaman University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Cell and Gene Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Clinical Radiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Advances in Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Skeletal Muscle Function Assessment     Open Access  
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Thoracic and Critical Care Medicine     Open Access  
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AJOB Empirical Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AJSP: Reviews & Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Al-Qadisiah Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alerta : Revista Científica del Instituto Nacional de Salud     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Althea Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Anatomica Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ankara Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası     Open Access  
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Clinical Hypertension     Open Access  
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Annals of Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Musculoskeletal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of the RussianAacademy of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Reports     Open Access  
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives Medical Review Journal / Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi     Open Access  
Archives of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology     Open Access  
Archives of Clinical Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access  
Archives of Organ Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Pulmonology and Respiratory Care     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Renal Diseases and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASHA Leader     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.697
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 13  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0964-7058
Published by RMIT Publishing Homepage  [387 journals]
  • Volume 28 Issue 4 - Genetic and epigenetic regulation of BHMT is
           associated with folate therapy efficacy in hyperhomocysteinaemia
    • Abstract: Li, Dankang; Yang, Jiao; Zhao, Qinglin; Zhang, Chengda; Ren, Bingnan; Yue, Limin; Du, Binghui; Godfrey, Opolot; Huang, Xiaowen; Zhang, Weidong
      Background and Objectives: Hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy) is an independent risk factors for several disorders, including cardiovascular disease. The understanding of the relationship among genetic, epigenetic and the efficacy of folate therapy for HHcy remain unclear. This study aim to investigate whether betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and DNA methylation are related to the efficacy of folate therapy for HHcy and whether BHMT DNA methylation mediates the SNP-folate therapy efficacy association.

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 638 patients with HHcy were involved in this prospective cohort study. Logistic and linear regression was used to explore associations among SNPs, DNA methylation, and folate therapy efficacy. Finally, mediation analysis was performed to investigate whether DNA methylation of BHMT mediates the association between SNPs and folate therapy efficacy.

      Results: BHMT rs3733890 was significantly associated with folate therapy efficacy (p
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Dec 2019 20:27:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 4 - Metabolic syndrome and risks of carotid
           atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events in community-based older adults
           in China
    • Abstract: Wang, Chunxiu; Fang, Xianghua; Wu, Xiaoguang; Hua, Yang; Zhang, Zhongying; Gu, Xiang; Tang, Zhe; Guan, Shaochen; Liu, Hongjun; Liu, Beibei; Ji, Xunming
      Background and Objectives: Previous studies on the importance of metabolic syndrome (MS) as a cardiovascular risk factor had not focused on older Chinese adults. The present study analyzed the association of MS with carotid atherosclerosis and the risk of cardiovascular events in Chinese adults.

      Methods and Study Design: Data of a representative cohort study with 5-year follow-up were used. Community-dwelling people (n=1257) aged >=55 years without cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline were followed up from 2009 to 2014. MS was defined based on the Chinese Diabetes Society criteria under the Chinese Medical Association. Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of MS with atherosclerosis and CVD events, with adjustment for confounding factors.

      Results: In a multivariate logistic regression model with adjustment, MS was closely related to common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) (1.62; 95% CI: 1.19-2.21) and carotid plaque presence (1.38; 95% CI: 1.01-1.89), but not with carotid artery stenosis. At the end of the 5-year follow- up, compared with subjects without MS, hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the different risks in subjects with MS were 1.86 (1.02-3.29) for myocardial infarction (MI), 1.39 (1.01-2.05) for stroke, 1.52 (1.02- 2.37) for CVD death, and 1.13 (0.62-2.58) for total death, after adjusting for age, gender, smoking, drinking, physical activity, uric acid, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, dietary factors and carotid atherosclerosis status.

      Conclusions: MS was significantly associated with IMT and the presence of carotid plaque and with positively increased risks of MI, stroke, and CVD mortality independent of CVD risk factors in older Chinese adults.

      PubDate: Thu, 19 Dec 2019 20:27:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 4 - Associations of dietary diversity with allergic
           diseases in Japanese workers: A cross-sectional study
    • Abstract: Nakamoto, Mariko; Omine, Mariko; Yun, Yuna; Shuto, Emi; Nakamoto, Akiko; Hata, Akiko; Aki, Nanako; Shikama, Yosuke; Bando, Yukiko; Ichihara, Takako; Minamigawa, Takako; Tamura, Ayako; Kuwamura, Yumi; Funaki, Makoto; Sakai, Tohru
      Background and objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the associations of dietary diversity with prevalences of allergic diseases. Methods and study design: The participants were 1,317 men and women aged 20 to 63 years who were living in tokushima prefecture, Japan during the period 2012-2013. We obtained anthropometric data and information on lifestyle characteristics and current medical histories of allergic diseases using a self-administered questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, and dietary diversity was determined using the quantitative index for dietary diversity (quantidd). The ors and 95% cis for each of the allergic diseases with a 1 standard deviation (sd) increase in the quantidd score were estimated, controlling for age, family history of allergic diseases, education, smoking, drinking, physical activity, energy intake and bmi. Results: Higher dietary diversity showed significant inverse dose-response relationships with allergic diseases and allergic rhinitis in women. Multivariate-adjusted ors (95% ci) for allergic diseases and allergic rhinitis with 1 sd increase in the quantidd score were 0.77 (95% ci: 0.60-0.98, 'p'=0.037) and 0.69 (95% ci: 0.53-0.90, 'p'=0.007), respectively, in women. There were no significant associations between dietary diversity and allergic diseases in men. Conclusions: The results indicate that there is an inverse association between higher dietary diversity and allergic rhinitis in Japanese female workers.

      PubDate: Thu, 19 Dec 2019 20:27:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 4 - Salt intake assessed by spot urine on physical
           examination in Hunan, China
    • Abstract: Yang, Pingting; Chen, Zhiheng; Yin, Lu; Peng, Yaguang; Li, Xiaohui; Cao, Xia; Wang, Yaqin; Yang, Saiqi; Zhu, Xiaoling; He, Xue; Liu, Xuelian; Li, Ying
      Background and Objectives: Excessive salt intake is a major public health problem in several countries, especially in China. However, few people are aware of their salt intake. The purpose of this study is to carry out salt intake test in routine physical examination, and to explore the salt intake of different populations and their correlation with diet.

      Methods and Study Design: Spot urine sample was collected to test urinary sodium and creatinine excretions for each participant recruited from physical examinations at the Third Xiangya Hospital. The Tanaka formula was used to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion, which reflects salt intake. In addition to physical and laboratory examination, information including personal details, health-related habits, and selfreported disease histories was obtained from the National Physical Examination Questionnaire.

      Results: In total, 26,406 people completed the salt intake evaluation. After data cleansing, the average salt intake was 8.39+-1.80 g/d. Male, middle-aged, overweight and obese, hypertensive, and dyslipidaemic populations, as well as those with non-cardiovascular diseases were more likely to have excessive salt intake. Dietary sources had an effect on salt intake. Salt intake was lower in those who consumed more milk and fruit (both p and p trend
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Dec 2019 20:27:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 4 - Nutritional potential of underutilized food crops to
           improve diet quality of young children in food insecure prone areas of
           Madura Island, Indonesia
    • Abstract: Andrias, Dini Ririn; Fahmida, Umi; Adi, Annis Catur
      Background and Objectives: Attention is currently given to the nutrition potential of underutilized food crops; however, only few studies have focused on this potential for young children. We investigate the nutrient composition of selected underutilized food crops in Bangkalan District, Madura Island, Indonesia, to determine its potential in meeting the nutritional needs of young children during the complementary feeding period.

      Methods and Study Design: We obtained data on the availability of underutilized food crops from a cross-sectional study conducted in 2014 in Bangkalan District, Indonesia, and nutrient composition primarily from the Indonesian Food Composition Database. We considered underutilized food crops to hold nutritional potential if they contributed at least 15% per 100 g edible portion recommended nutrient intake for children aged 6-11 months and 12-23 months or 5% recommended nutrient intake per 100 kcal for iron, zinc, calcium, niacin and folate.

      Results: We identified nutritionally potential underutilized food crops from several food groups, including Sorghum bicolor, Canna edulis, Colocasia esculenta (the starchy roots and leaves), Plectranthus rotundifolius, Amorphophallus paeoniifolius, Moringa oleifera (the leaves and pods), Limonia acidissima, and Benincasa hispida-all of which can be utilized for formulating the complementary feeding diet of young children.

      Conclusions: In a food insecure area where malnutrition is prevalent, underutilized food crops have potential to improve the nutrient intake of young children in their complementary feeding period. These should be promoted through the creation of acceptable recipes and formulation of complementary feeding recommendations, which include these underutilized nutrient-dense crops.

      PubDate: Thu, 19 Dec 2019 20:27:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 4 - Relationship of sociodemographic and anthropometric
           characteristics, and nutrient and food intakes with osteoarthritis
           prevalence in elderly subjects with controlled dyslipidaemia: A
           cross-sectional study
    • Abstract: Jeong, Youngseok; Lee, Si-woo; Kim, Yeonjoon; Kim, Kyuhwan; Seo, Unkyo; Bae, Kwang-Ho
      Background and Objectives: Several studies have suggested that abnormal levels of serum cholesterol may be a major risk factor for osteoarthritis. However, no studies have been conducted to prevent osteoarthritis under controlled conditions of serum cholesterol. This study aimed to examine the relationship of sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, and nutrient and food intakes with osteoarthritis prevalence in Korean elderly subjects with controlled dyslipidaemia.

      Methods and Study Design: This study included 314 subjects aged >=65 years who were diagnosed and treated for dyslipidaemia (data from the Seventh Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2016). Among them, 108 were also diagnosed with osteoarthritis. Sociodemographic, health, and nutritional data were analysed.

      Results: Osteoarthritis prevalence was higher in females, higher-educated subjects, unmarried subjects, non-smokers, and subjects with high body mass index (p
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Dec 2019 20:27:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 4 - The association between parental weight status and
           risk of hypertension in children aged 6 to 12 years
    • Abstract: Lu, Liping; Chen, Cheng; Xun, Pengcheng; Wang, Jialu; Wan, Yanping; He, Ka
      Background and Objectives: Parents may play important roles in the regulation of children's weight status and consequently the development of childhood hypertension. Thus, this study aimed to examine parental weight status, as a marker of parents' diet and lifestyle, in relation to risk of hypertension in their children. Methods and Study Design: A total of 1,949 children aged 6 to 12 years (1,012 girls, 52%) and their parents were included. Information on demographics, anthropometrics, lifestyle, diet, and medical history were obtained from the participants and their parents through self-administered questionnaires. Childhood hypertension and elevated blood pressure were defined as SBP and/or DBP >=95th and >=90th age- and gender-specific percentile, respectively. Parental overweight was defined as BMI >=24.0 kg/m2. Results: The prevalence of childhood hypertension was 8.4%, with no significant gender difference (p=0.36). Parents' weight status, especially maternal, was associated with childhood hypertension. After adjustment for potential confounders, children with two parents being overweight were two times more likely to have hypertension as compared with children who had both parents being of normal weight [multivariable-adjusted odds ratio=2.09; 95% confidence interval: (1.26, 3.46)]. After further adjustment for children's body mass index, the observed association was substantially attenuated and became statistically non-significant. Conclusions: Findings from this study suggest that parental weight status is associated with the prevalence of hypertension in children presumably through influencing children's weight. Further studies are needed to establish causal inference. This study highlights the importance of parental lifestyle in children's health.

      PubDate: Thu, 19 Dec 2019 20:27:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 4 - Postpartum anemia is a neglected public health issue
           in China: A cross-sectional study
    • Abstract: Zhao, Ai; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Wei; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei
      Background and Objectives: Anemia impairs the health and wellbeing of women and increases the risk of maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes. The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of postpartum anemia among urban lactating women; investigate the predictors of anemia and explore the potential health effects on lactating performance.

      Methods and Study Design: Multi-stage sampling methods were used to recruit 495 lactating women from 3 cities of China. Blood and breast milk samples were collected to analyze hemoglobin levels and iron content, respectively. The intakes and sources of iron-rich food and nutrients were investigated based on Food Frequency Questionnaire and 24 h dietary recall.

      Results: The overall prevalence of postpartum anemia was 32.7%; no cases of severe anemia were encountered. Women who living in Guangzhou had a significant higher anemia prevalence. Regards to dietary intake, the amount of iron intake was generally good with a high proportion of heme iron. The animal sources ratio was 23.0%. Total iron intake and the sources of iron were not associated with anemia. Vitamin C intake was significantly higher in non-anemic women (Median (25th, 75 th) was (72.6 (38.4, 130.0) mg/d)) than anemic women (54.7 (30.7, 111.3) mg/d). Other nutrient enhancers were not associated with anemia. There were no significant differences in the iron content of breast milk between women with and without anemia (r=0.047, 'p'=0.302).

      Conclusions: Postpartum anemia is common in urban Chinese women. A combination of interventions, including managing antenatal anemia and correcting inappropriate dietary habits will help to prevent postpartum anemia.

      PubDate: Thu, 19 Dec 2019 20:27:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 4 - Colostral and mature breast milk protein compositional
           determinants in Qingdao, Wuhan and Hohhot: maternal food culture, vaginal
           delivery and neonatal gender
    • Abstract: Liu, Biao; Gu, Fangjie; Ye, Wenhui; Ren, Yiping; Guo, Shuntang
      Background and Objectives: Breast milk proteins are essential to infants as they provide nutrition and protection. This study evaluated multiple factors that might influence breast milk proteins to identify the determinants that lead to inter-individual and longitudinal differences.

      Methods and Study Design: Five major breast milk proteins (beta-casein, alpha-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, serum albumin and K-casein) from breast milk samples collected from 55 mothers in three cities (Hohhot, Wuhan and Qingdao) in China were analyzed using a validated ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Various factors were statistically evaluated for their associations with breast milk proteins: mother's age, parity, delivery mode, infant gender and infant birthweight.

      Results: Although decreased in concentrations, the proportions of beta-casein and alpha-lactalbumin increased from colostrum (33.8% and 26.8%) to mature milk (40.3% and 31.6%), respectively. Mothers of older age were found to produce a lower concentration of total protein. Compared with vaginal delivery, caesarean section was associated with lower concentrations of κ-casein, lactoferrin and beta-casein in mature milk. Infant gender influenced breast milk proteins in colostrum: mothers who delivered a girl tended to produce more K-casein, lactoferrin and total protein. Furthermore, regional differences were found, and mothers from Hohhot produced significantly higher concentrations of alpha-lactalbumin and lactoferrin than those from Qingdao and Wuhan. This regional difference might be linked to the different dietary patterns of these mothers among cities.

      Conclusions: Our study deepens the understanding of breast milk protein dynamics in Chinese population and provides evidence on potential determinants, which can serve as guidance for infant nutrition optimization.

      PubDate: Thu, 19 Dec 2019 20:27:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 4 - Citrus fruit intake and the risk of nasopharyngeal
    • Abstract: Feng, Xin-Xin; Wang, Ming-Xu; Li, Ming; Tang, Xiao; Jiang, Hong; Wang, Rui; Ma, Le; Yin, Yue; Wu, Chang-Rui
      Background and Objectives: Citrus fruit are suggested to be associated with reduced risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), but findings from epidemiologic studies have been inconsistent. We aimed to synthesize the association by conducting a meta-analysis of existing evidence.

      Methods and Study Design: Databases including Medline, EMBASE, Web of science, and the Cochrane Library were searched for eligible studies up to March 2019 using a series comprehensive searching terms. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of citrus fruit intake with NPC risk from each study were extracted to calculate a pooled association estimate with its 95% confidence interval (CI).

      Results: Nine studies totaling 3304 cases and 3850 controls were included in this analysis. Citrus fruit intake was significantly associated with reduced risk of NPC (OR: 0.72, 95% CI 0.58-0.91, p=0.005). In addition, this association tended to be stronger in Chinese (OR: 0.67, 95% CI 0.54-0.84, p
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Dec 2019 20:27:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 4 - Association between serum copper and heart failure: A
    • Abstract: Huang, Lei; Shen, Ronghuan; Huang, Longfei; Yu, Jing; Rong, Hao
      Background and Objectives: Copper dyshomeostasis can lead to many diseases, including cardiovascular disease. However, there are conflicting reports on the relationship between serum copper and heart failure (HF). To explore the relationship between serum copper levels and HF by performing a meta-analysis.

      Methods and Study Design: The PubMed and ScienceDirect databases until June 2019 were searched for reports on the association between serum copper levels and HF.

      Results: A total of thirteen studies including 1504 subjects were chosen for the meta-analysis. The pooled analysis indicated that patients with HF had higher serum copper than the control subjects [standardized mean difference (SMD), 0.982; 95% confidence interval (CI), (0.679, 1.285)]. Subgroup analysis stratified by different geographic locations found that HF patients had higher copper than the control subjects in Asia and Europe [Asia: SMD, 0.948 and 95% CI, (0.569, 1.327); Europe: SMD, 1.275 and 95% CI, (0.633, 1.917)], but not in America [America: SMD, 0.637 and 95% CI, (-0.109, 1.383)]. Additionally, subgroup analysis revealed that patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) [SMD, 1.171; 95% CI, (0.717, 1.624)], idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) [SMD, 0.569; 95% CI, (0.097, 1.042)] and other types of HF [SMD, 1.152; 95% CI, (0.594, 1.710)] all had higher copper levels than controls. Further subgroup analysis stratified by Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) scores also found higher serum copper in patients with HF than controls within each subgroup.

      Conclusions: Our meta-analysis identified a significant association between high serum copper and HF.

      PubDate: Thu, 19 Dec 2019 20:27:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 4 - Dietary intakes of fruits and vegetables and lung
           cancer risk in participants with different smoking status: A meta-analysis
           of prospective cohort studies
    • Abstract: Yang, Ting; Wang, Chong; Li, Shan; Guo, Xiao-Fei; Li, Duo
      Background and Objectives: The results from epidemiological studies are controversial between vegetable and fruit consumption and lung cancer risk in participants with different smoking status. The present meta-analysis aimed to investigate these associations with prospective cohort studies. Meanwhile, the potential dose-response relationship was evaluated.

      Methods and Study Design: Relevant studies were identified with PubMed and Scopus databases up to June 2019. Multivariate-adjusted relative risks for the highest versus the lowest category and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using a random-effects model. The dose-response relationship was examined by using restricted cubic spline regression model.

      Results: Eight prospective studies were included for data synthesis. The summary estimates indicated that higher vegetable and fruit intake was significantly associated with lower risk of lung cancer in participants with current smokers (RR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.73, 0.95; I2=25.2%). No significant association was found in former smokers (RR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.07; I2=15.0%) and never smokers (RR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.74, 1.11; I2=6.6%). Dose-response analysis showed that 100 g/day increment of vegetable and fruit intake was associated with a 2% reduction in lung cancer risk among current smokers (95% CI: 0.97, 0.99).

      Conclusions: The present meta-analysis provides significant evidence of an inverse association between vegetable and fruit intake and lung cancer risk in current smokers.

      PubDate: Thu, 19 Dec 2019 20:27:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 4 - Higher serum magnesium concentration is associated
           with lower hearing thresholds and risk of hearing loss among a Chinese
    • Abstract: Cao, Yifei; Zhuang, Yizhen; Li, Chenhui; Ren, Ying; Wu, Yinyin; Wang, Xiu; Wang, Fei; Ma, Haiyan; Yang, Lei; Xu, Liangwen
      Background and Objectives: Hearing loss is a sensory impairment caused by genetic and environmental factors. Previous epidemiological studies of magnesium intake and hearing loss have yielded conflicting results.

      Methods and Study Design: We investigated the association between serum magnesium concentrations and hearing loss in a population from the Zhejiang region of China. A cross-sectional study of 3,267 participants aged 18 years and older from five hospitals was conducted from October 2016 to May 2018. An audiometric examination was conducted, and hearing thresholds were computed as pure-tone averages (PTAs) at speech (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) and high frequencies (3, 4, and 6 kHz). Magnesium concentrations were measured using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer.

      Results: A linear regression analysis revealed a negative association between magnesium levels and hearing losses from lower to high PTAs. After the adjustment of potential confounders, participants in the highest magnesium quartile had a lower PTA (quartile 4: -1.89%; 95% confidence interval (CI: -3.07 to -0.701); 'p'=0.022) and high PTA (quartile 4: -3.05%; 95% CI: -4.64 to -1.46; 'p'=0.005) than those in the lowest quartile. A logistic regression analysis showed a dose-dependent reduction in the odds of high frequency hearing loss across magnesium quartiles. In model 3, after adjusting for all potential confounders, participants with the highest magnesium quartiles had a 54.0% (OR: 0.460; 95% CI: 0.339-0.587) reduction in the odds of high-frequency hearing loss.

      Conclusions: Higher whole blood levels of magnesium in this population were associated with lower hearing thresholds and risk of hearing loss.

      PubDate: Thu, 19 Dec 2019 20:27:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 4 - Effect of green tea consumption on human brain
           function in resting-state functional MRI
    • Abstract: Wang, Hui; Sun, Wei; Chang, Yan; Wu, Zhenzhou; Xu, Yajie; Wang, Erlei; Wang, Lei; Yi, Peiwei
      Background and Objectives: Green tea is reported to have wide benefits on psychological states and cognitive functions. Studies that focus on the underlying neural mechanisms of green tea are limited to its single composition while people usually benefit from green tea water that contains various composition. In this study, we examined the human brain activity changes after drinking natural green tea by using regional homogeneity and functional connectivity based on the resting-state functional MRI technique.

      Methods and Study Design: Fifteen healthy volunteers participated in two imaging sessions: a control (water) session and a green tea session, each session comprised a predrinking, drinking, and postdrinking section, during the drinking section, the subject consumed 200 mL of green tea infusion or water in 3 to 5 minutes. Then the post-tea and post-water imaging data were selected for regional homogeneity and functional connectivity analysis.

      Results: Our results revealed that, compared with the control group, the green tea group exhibited an increased regional homogeneity in the frontal, parietal, and occipital areas of the brain, decreased regional homogeneity values in the left cuneus and left lingual gyrus, mainly a decreased functional connectivity in the default mode network, somatosensory, visual cortex, and parieto-frontal areas and enhanced functional connectivity in brain regions associated with memory.

      Conclusions: This result indicates that green tea consumption impacts the brain activity during resting state.

      PubDate: Thu, 19 Dec 2019 20:27:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 4 - Association between serum ferritin and non-alcoholic
           fatty liver disease among middle-aged and elderly Chinese with normal
    • Abstract: You, Guoju; Ding, Jie; Shen, Jingli; Wang, Yan; Sun, Yongye
      Background and Objectives: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in normal-weight population is becoming an important health issue. This study aimed to assess the association between serum ferritin (SF) and NAFLD among middle-aged and elderly Chinese with normal weight.

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 2029 Chinese adults aged 35-70 years with normal weight were involved in this cross-sectional study. General information, lifestyle factors and laboratory characteristics were collected. The concentrations of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and SF were recorded. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was applied to assess predictive performance of SF for NAFLD. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the associations of SF with NAFLD and elevated ALT.

      Results: Compared with controls, subjects with NAFLD had higher SF concentrations (p
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Dec 2019 20:27:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 4 - Effect of exercise therapy combined with
           branched-chain amino acid supplementation on muscle strength in elderly
           women after total hip arthroplasty: A randomized controlled trial
    • Abstract: Ikeda, Takashi; Matsunaga, Yuki; Kanbara, Masanori; Kamono, Arinori; Masuda, Tadashi; Watanabe, Minoru; Nakanishi, Ryosuke; Jinno, Tetsuya
      Background and Objectives: Many patients develop a prolonged decrease of muscle strength after total hip arthroplasty (THA) despite their reconstructed hip joint. Physical exercise combined with branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation has been reported to improve muscle strength in elderly persons with sarcopenia. However, the effect of BCAA supplementation in patients after THA is unknown. This study examined the effects of BCAA supplementation combined with exercise therapy on the improvement of physical function in elderly patients after THA.

      Methods and Study Design: The subjects were 31 elderly women who underwent THA. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups: BCAA (n=18) and control (n=13). The combined therapy was carried out for one month after THA. For the exercise intervention, a 3-set physical exercise program was conducted. For the nutritional intervention, the participants consumed 3.4 g of BCAA supplement or 1.2 g of starch immediately after the exercise intervention.

      Results: BCAA supplementation combined with muscle strengthening exercises had a significant effect on knee extension strength of the contralateral side and on upper arm cross-sectional area. The improvement ratio of knee extension strength before and after intervention on the operated side was also significantly higher in the BCAA group.

      Conclusions: BCAA supplementation is effective for patients to improve the strength of some muscles when combined with physical exercises, but hip abductor muscle strength of the operated leg did not improve. A future study is needed to determine the efficacy of this combined therapy for hip abductor muscle strength.

      PubDate: Thu, 19 Dec 2019 20:27:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 4 - A randomized controlled trial of preoperative
           carbohydrate drinks on postoperative walking capacity in elective
           colorectal surgery
    • Abstract: Wongyingsinn, Mingkwan; Luangchan, Soraya; Tungsongsawat, Sawinee; Trakarnsanga, Attaporn; Lohsiriwat, Varut
      Background and Objectives: Routine overnight fasting may increase the risk of postoperative complications and delay postoperative recovery. Oral carbohydrate drinks have been shown to reduce glucose utilization and postoperative negative nitrogen balance while preserving muscle mass and strength. This randomized controlled trial aimed to examine whether preoperative oral carbohydrate drinks can enhance postoperative physical recovery in patients undergoing major colorectal surgery.

      Methods and Study Design: Seventy patients were randomly assigned to receive either a 12.5% oral carbohydrate drink or pure water. Patients in both groups received 800- mL of one of the drinks on the evening before surgery, and another 400-mL drink on the morning of the operative day. The primary outcomes were the distances covered in 2-minute-walk tests at 24, 48 and 72-hours and 6- minute walk tests at 7-10 days postoperatively. The secondary outcomes were the postoperative serum insulin and glucose concentrations, nitrogen balance, duration of hospital stay, and the patient satisfaction scores.

      Results: There were no significant differences in the characteristics of the two patients-groups. The postoperative 2-minute and 6-minute walk test distances, serum insulin and glucose concentrations of both groups were not statistically different. Patients receiving carbohydrate drink had more positive nitrogen balance than the control group. The duration of hospital stay and patient satisfaction scores were similar for both-groups.

      Conclusions: There were no statistically significant differences in the postoperative walking capacities of patients receiving a carbohydrate drink or pure water; only the nitrogen balance on postoperative day 3 was higher for patients receiving the carbohydrate drink.

      PubDate: Thu, 19 Dec 2019 20:27:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 4 - Recovery of 'Lactobacillus casei' strain Shirota (LcS)
           from faeces with 14 days of fermented milk supplementation in healthy
           Australian adults
    • Abstract: Cox, Amanda J; Makino, Hiroshi; Cripps, Allan W; West, Nicholas P
      Background and Objectives: A key measure for classifying bacteria as a probiotic is the ability to survive gastric transport and be recoverable in faeces. The aim of this study was to determine whether Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) could be recovered in the faeces of healthy young Australian adults following ingestion of a fermented milk drink.

      Methods and Study Design: A cohort of 25 healthy individuals (male/female: 14/11; age: 29.3+-6.6 years; BMI: 25.3+-2.7 kg/m2, mean+-SD) ingested one 65 ml bottle of fermented milk containing 6.5 109 LcS live cells daily for 14 days. Participants provided a faecal sample at day 0, day 7 (mid-supplementation), day 14 (end of supplementation) and 14 days after cessation of the supplement (day 28) for assessment of the number of viable LcS via microbial culture on selective media with confirmation using a colony-direct polymerase chain reaction and species-specific primers.

      Results: The supplement was well tolerated by participants. No LcS colonies were recovered from participants prior to ingestion of the fermented milk drink. All participants had recoverable LcS colonies at day 7 and day 14, with a mean recovery of 6.5+-1.1 and 6.4+-1.1 log10 CFU/g of faeces (mean+-SD) at each time point respectively. LcS was detectable in only one sample at 14 days following the cessation of supplementation.

      Conclusions: Live LcS is recoverable in faeces from healthy Australian adults following daily ingestion of a fermented milk drink.

      PubDate: Thu, 19 Dec 2019 20:27:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 4 - Probiotics in preventing and treating
           chemotherapy-induced diarrhea: A meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Lu, Dongxue; Yan, Jing; Liu, Feng; Ding, Pinpin; Chen, Bingyu; Lu, Yin; Sun, Zhiguang
      Background and Objectives: To systematically assess the safety and effectiveness of probiotics in preventing and treating chemotherapy-induced diarrhea (CID), so as to provide the evidence-based evidence for clinical practice.

      Methods and Study Design: Electronic databases, including EMbase, Cochrane Library, pubMed, CNKI, VIP, CBM, and Wanfang databases, were retrieved to search for the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CIDs among patients with malignant tumors treated with probiotics as of March 2019. Later, the Rev Man 5.3 statistical software was employed to extract data and assess the quality of the identified literature for meta-analysis.

      Results: Finally, 13 RCTs involving a total of 1024 patients were included into the current meta-analysis. Results of this meta-analysis showed that the addition of probiotics to conventional symptomatic treatment could evidently reduce the total diarrhea rate in patients with cancer [RR=0.47, 95% CI (0.35, 0.63), p
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Dec 2019 20:27:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 4 - Vitamin D and depression: Mechanisms, determination
           and application
    • Abstract: Geng, Chunmei; Shaikh, Abdul Sami; Han, Wenxiu; Chen, Dan; Guo, Yujin; Jiang, Pei
      Depression is the most common debilitating psychiatric disease, the pathological mechanisms of which are associated with multiple aspects of neural function. While recent evidence has consistently suggested that a suboptimal vitamin D status is frequently observed in patients with depression, the results concerning whether vitamin D insufficiency is a causal factor of depression or is secondary to depressive behavior are conflicting; additionally, the lack of consistency of the method of vitamin D determination between labs has further worsened this confusion. Herein, we reviewed the neuroactivities of vitamin D that may be associated with depression and the current studies and clinical investigations to provide a full overview on the use of vitamin D in the treatment and prevention of depression.

      PubDate: Thu, 19 Dec 2019 20:27:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 4 - Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding is
           beneficial in patients with advanced dementia
    • Abstract: Rakici, Halil; Ayvaz, Muhammed Ali
      Background and Objectives: We aimed to show the long-term results of patients who received percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes and to evaluate the usefulness of this method in advanced dementia patients, which is considered to be of controversial benefit in the literature. Therefore, we compared three groups of patients: advanced dementia patients fed via PEG, stroke patients fed via PEG and advanced dementia patients not fed via PEG.

      Methods and Study Design: In total, 305 files of patients who underwent PEG implantation were screened retrospectively, and 283 were analyzed. A total of 93 advanced dementia patients who were not fed via PEG were included as the control group, and the PEG-fed group was compared in terms of mortality and CRP levels with the advanced dementia control group not fed via PEG.

      Results: The median length of PEG stay was 9 months. In total, 49 (17.5%) patients developed complications. Mortality (p=0.0002) and CRP levels (p=0.01) were statistically significant in the advanced dementia group not fed via PEG. The group with stroke and the dementia patients were analyzed regarding length of PEG stay, complications and mortality. The length of PEG stay, rate of complications and mortality in the stroke group were not found to be statistically significant in comparison to the dementia group.

      Conclusions: Mortality and CRP levels were statistically significantly higher in the advanced dementia group not fed via PEG. The mortality and rate of complications in the dementia group were similar to those in the stroke group. Feeding with PEG-tubes is a proper and preferable method for advanced dementia patients.

      PubDate: Thu, 19 Dec 2019 20:27:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 4 - Docosahexaenoic acid and the brain - what is its
    • Abstract: Sinclair, Andrew James
      Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a 22-carbon omega 3 PUFA highly enriched in the neuronal cell membranes and rod outer segment membranes. When DHA is depleted from these cell membranes it is replaced nearly quantitatively by a 22-carbon omega 6 PUFA, docosapentaenoic acid, which has similar, but less potent, biophysical and physiological properties to DHA. It is speculated that omega 6-docosapentaenoic acid is a buffer to prevent the possible catastrophic effects of DHA depletion on brain and visual function. The primary insult from the loss of DHA from cell membrane glycerophospholipids, and replacement by omega 6-docosapentaenoic acid, is on the flexibility/compression of the membrane lipids which affects the optimal function of integral membrane proteins (receptors, voltage-gated ion channels and enzymes). This leads to effects on second messenger systems, and subsequently affects neurotransmitter concentrations due to 'weakened' signals from the initiating receptors. Remembering there are more than 80 billion neurones and many times more synaptic connections between neurons, a very small loss of "efficiency" in signal due to altered properties of membrane proteins would likely result in meaningful changes in brain and visual function. Additionally, impairment of neurotransmission could be due, in part, to sub-optimal brain energy metabolism (glucose entry into the brain), which is significantly reduced in omega 3 deficiency. Many studies report that dietary omega 3 deficiency results in changes in learning, coping with stress, behavioural changes, and responses in visual function. It is thus concluded that DHA is an essential fatty acid for optimal neuronal function.

      PubDate: Thu, 19 Dec 2019 20:27:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 4 - Early intervention with supplemental parenteral
           nutrition reduces the incidence of granulocytopenia-related infections in
           patients with lung cancer: A retrospective cohort study
    • Abstract: Qi, Xiaoguang; Qi, Chunyan; Wu, Tao; Qin, Boyu; Hu, Yi
      Background and Objectives: The optimal timing for initiating supplemental parenteral nutrition in chemotherapy- induced severe granulocytopenia in patients with lung cancer remains uncertain.

      Methods and Study Design: A retrospective study was conducted among patients with lung cancer from February 2016 to June 2018. In total, 182 eligible patients were included and divided into 2 groups according to the time of supplemental parenteral nutrition intervention: early initiation (within 72 hours of development of granulocytopenia) and late initiation (over 72 hours). The primary outcomes of the study were bacterial infection and fungal infection, and the secondary outcomes were duration of absolute neutrophil count less than 1.0 109 cells/L, length of hospital stay, mortality rate, and rate of chemotherapy (4 cycles) completion.

      Results: The incidence rates of bacterial infection and fungal infection were significantly lower among patients who received supplemental parenteral nutrition early than among patients who received it late. No significant difference in mortality was observed between the groups. In addition, compared with late supplemental parenteral nutrition, early supplemental parenteral nutrition was associated with a higher rate of completion of 4 chemotherapy cycles and shorter hospital stays and leukocyte recovery periods in our cohort. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the subgroup of patients with an NRS-2002 score of 2 benefited from early supplemental parenteral nutrition.

      Conclusions: Early supplemental parenteral nutrition after chemotherapy-induced severe granulocytopenia could reduce the risk of infection, improve the likelihood of chemotherapy completion, and shorten hospital stays and leukocyte recovery times.

      PubDate: Thu, 19 Dec 2019 20:27:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 4 - Advances and gaps in recommendations for adequate
           water intake in China
    • Abstract: Zhang, Na; Du, Songming; Yang, Yuexin; Ma, Guansheng
      Water is essential for life survival and development. It plays a pivotal role in metabolic function, modulates normal osmotic pressure, maintains the electrolyte balance, and regulates body temperature. Adequate water intake is necessary for optimal hydration - both excessive and insufficient water consumption can have adverse effects on health. Water requirements among people vary based on various factors such as gender, age, physical activity, dietary factors, ambient temperature, and renal concentrating capacity. In recent years, water intake guidelines have been developed in some countries and by some organisations. Even in China, it is important to develop such guidelines considering specific dietary habits, height of people, and environmental factors. In 2013, guidelines for adequate water intake were developed in China, but the scope was somewhat limited; there are still specific challenges in formulating such recommendations. Future water-related studies should focus on surveying water intake among infants and toddlers, older adults, and pregnant and lactating women. Moreover, additional studies should be conducted to elucidate water intake among adults and adolescents in different regions and seasons, and the association between water intake and related diseases should also be investigated. It is imperative to transform the results of scientific research into action plans for water-related health education so as to inform and evaluate pertinent public health programmes.

      PubDate: Thu, 19 Dec 2019 20:27:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 4 - Associations between iron status and insulin
           resistance in Chinese children and adolescents: Findings from the China
           health and nutrition survey
    • Abstract: Wei, Junxiang; Luo, Xiaoqin; Zhou, Sirui; He, Xin; Zheng, Jinge; Sun, Xiaomin; Cui, Wei
      Background and Objectives: Iron homeostasis abnormalities are associated with insulin resistance (IR), but studies on such associations in children and adolescents are limited and have contrasting results. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between indicators of iron status and IR, and assesse if there are sex disparities in these associations.

      Methods and Study Design: We selected data of 689 children and adolescents (367 boys and 322 girls) aged 6-18 years in the analysis. Serum ferritin, transferrin, and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) levels were determined. The level of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was assessed using highperformance liquid chromatography. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to indicate the status of insulin resistance. Stepwise and multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed to evaluate associations between iron status and glucose parameters.

      Results: The prevalence of IR (HOMAIR >3.16) and high HbA1c (HbA1c >=5.7%) were 29.8% and 16.4%, respectively. Serum transferrin and sTfR were significant associated with HbA1c (p
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Dec 2019 20:27:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Auscultation-assisted bedside postpyloric placement of
           feeding tube in critically ill patients: A prospective, observational
    • Abstract: Xiao, Jianguo; Mao, Zhi; Hua, Ming; Chen, Tengfei; Liu, Hui; Hu, Pan; Tang, Sheng; Kang, Hongjun; Zhou, Feihu
      Background and Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of auscultation-assisted bedside postpyloric feeding tube (ABPFT) placement in early enteral nutritional support for critically ill patients.

      Methods and Study Design: A prospective observational study was conducted and 92 critically ill patients who met the inclusion criteria undergoing ABPFT placement after the intravenous injection of 10 mg of metoclopramide were included. Abdominal X-ray was performed to confirm the location of the catheter tip. End points investigated were the success rate of tube placement, rate of jejunal tube placement, duration of the procedure, length of insertion, and number of attempts. Operational-related adverse events or complications were also documented and evaluated.

      Results: The total success rate of postpyloric feeding tube implantation was 97.8% (90/92), among which, 89.1% (82/92) of the tubes were placed proximal to the jejunum. The first-attempt success rate was 91.3% (84/92) and the mean attempt per individual patient was 1.11+-0.38 times. The mean operation time was 28.6+-17.7 minutes, and the mean insertion length of tube was 106+-9.6 cm. A total of 27 adverse events occurred in 19.6% (18/92) patients and there was no serious adverse events or complications during the study period.

      Conclusions: Assistance by auscultation can significantly improve the success rate of nasal feeding tube placement. This simple, safe and fast approach is feasible for the application among health practitioners in the intensive care unit.

      PubDate: Thu, 5 Sep 2019 16:08:53 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Effects of an individualized nutrition intervention on
           the respiratory quotient of patients with liver failure
    • Abstract: Liu, Xing; Kong, Ming; Hua, Xin; Yang, Yinchuan; Xu, Manman; Bi, Yanzhen; Li, Lu; Duan, Zhongping; Chen, Yu
      Background and Objectives: Malnutrition and energy metabolism disorders are characterized by a low respiratory quotient in patients with liver failure and often lead to poor prognosis. Therefore, early nutrition interventions are crucial for patients with liver failure to ameliorate abnormal metabolic status and malnutrition. This study explored the effect of an individualized nutrition intervention on the respiratory quotient of patients with liver failure.

      Methods and Study Design: An individualized 2-week nutrition intervention was conducted on patients with nutritional risk caused by liver failure according to patient resting energy expenditure. Patients were separated into two groups for further analysis according to whether their energy intake reached 1.2 times their resting energy expenditure.

      Results: Fifty-two patients with nutritional risk caused by liver failure were enrolled. Their average respiratory quotient was 0.79 (0.76-0.84) at the baseline. Patients with an energy intake of >=1.2 times their resting energy expenditure had a higher respiratory quotient and lower scores on the model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Pugh test than those with an energy intake of =1.2 times the patient's resting energy expenditure can effectively improve the respiratory quotient and reduce disease severity in patients with nutritional risk caused by liver failure.

      PubDate: Thu, 5 Sep 2019 16:08:53 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Effect of micronutrient pack on micronutrient status
           and antioxidant capacities among institutional older adults in Shanghai,
    • Abstract: Ren, Qian; Xie, Hua; Chen, Yan-Qiu; Wu, Cai-Fang; Li, Huo; Lu, Yun-Wei; Lin, Na; Li, Xun; Yuan, Wei; Yang, Yun-Hua; Jin, Hang-Mei; Sun, Jian-Qin
      Background and Objectives: Older adults are at increased risk of micronutrient deficiency, disrupting the balance of oxidation/antioxidation system and leading to serious health burdens. This study aimed to investigate the effect of micronutrient pack on micronutrient status and oxidative/antioxidative biomarkers in institutional older adults.

      Methods and Study Design: Subjects aged 65-100 years were randomly assigned to either intervention group or control group (n=49 each), providing a package of micronutrient pack or placebo daily for three months. The concentrations of micronutrients, malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected both at baseline and at the end of the study.

      Results: The changes in concentrations of serum folate (21.1+-1.6 vs 0.6+-0.5 nmol/L), vitamin B-1 (3.4+-0.4 vs -0.2+-0.3 nmol/L), vitamin B-2 (11.5+-3.3 vs 2.3+-1.4 nmol/L), vitamin B-12 (128.8+-34.8 vs 13.3+-16.0 pmol/L), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (17.8+-1.3 vs -0.8+-0.5 ng/mL) and plasma zinc (0.6+-1.8 vs -9.6+-1.9 mumol/L) over 3-months were significantly increased in the intervention group compared with the control group (all 'p'
      PubDate: Thu, 5 Sep 2019 16:08:53 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Effect of oral nutritional supplementation on the
           post-discharge nutritional status and quality of life of gastrointestinal
           cancer patients after surgery: A multi-center study
    • Abstract: Zh, Ming-Wei; Yang, Xin; Xiu, Dian-Rong; Yang, Yong; Li, Guo-Xin; Hu, Wei-Guo; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Cui, Hong-Yuan; Wei, Jun-Min
      Background and Objectives: To evaluate the effect of oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) on the post-discharge nutritional status and quality of life (QoL) of gastrointestinal cancer patients after surgery.

      Methods and Study Design: A multi-center study was conducted on gastrointestinal cancer patients who received surgical treatment from 2013-2015. All patients were screened using the Nutrition Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002) to assess nutritional risk. Patients with nutritional risk were randomized into two groups: patients in the study group (n=55) were given dietary guidance and ONS, control group (n=59) received only dietary guidance. Anthropometric measurements, nutrition-related laboratory tests, and gastrointestinal function scores were also collected and analyzed using Student's t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). In addition, the EQ-5D was used to evaluate patients' QoL.

      Results: Compared with baseline measurements, the body weight of patients in the study group increased by 1.35+-0.53 kg and 1.35+-0.73 kg at 60 and 90 days, which were significantly higher than those in the control group (-1.01+-0.54 kg, and -1.60+-0.81 kg at 60 and 90 days). The results from ANOVA showed that only weight and BMI differed significantly between the study and control groups and also between different measurement times ('p'
      PubDate: Thu, 5 Sep 2019 16:08:53 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Prognostic significance of preoperative skeletal
           muscle status in patients with gastric cancer after radical gastrectomy
    • Abstract: Hu, Chun-Lei; Jin, Xing-Han; Yuan, Zhi-Dong; Xiong, Shao-Wei; Zhang, Lin; Hou, Jia-Ning; Ao, Sheng; Wu, Jian-Long; Shi, Han-Ping; Ji, Jia-Fu; Lyv, Guo-Qing
      Background and Objectives: The association between skeletal muscle status and gastric cancer (GC) prognosis remains unclear. Here, we investigated the impact of the skeletal muscle index (SMI) on overall survival (OS) in GC patients after radical gastrectomy.

      Methods and Study Design: We divided 178 patients into four groups: adult men, adult women, elderly men and elderly women. The SMI, calculated using CT images, of patients was graded using cutoff values of group-specific tertiles. Age, body mass index, SMI grade, Charlson comorbidity index, surgical method (total vs distal gastrectomy), tumor stage, and histological type and differentiation were included in Cox regression models to assess the primary outcome parameter of OS. A new prognostic score for 3- year OS was established by combining the SMI grade and tumor stage, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were used to determine its predictive reliability.

      Results: For groups with high, medium, and low SMI grades, the 3-year OS rates were 94.04, 79.08 and 59.09% and 86.09, 70.11 and 49.11% ('p'˂0.001) in patients undergoing distal and total gastrectomy, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, low SMI (hazard ratio (HR) 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-2.9), advanced stage (HR 2.89, 95% CI 1.43-5.83), and total gastrectomy (HR 1.69, 95% CI 0.95-3.01) were independent risk factors for OS ('p'˂0.010). The areas under the ROC curves for the prognostic score were 0.77 (range 0.61-0.93) and 0.76 (range 0.65-0.86) in patients undergoing distal and total gastrectomy, respectively.

      Conclusions: The preoperative SMI was an independent prognostic factor for long-term survival in GC patients after radical gastrectomy.

      PubDate: Thu, 5 Sep 2019 16:08:53 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Effect of palm oil consumption on plasma lipid
           concentrations related to cardiovascular disease: A systematic review and
    • Abstract: Wang, Fengling; Zhao, Dacheng; Yang, Yuexin; Zhang, Lishi
      Background and Objectives: The precise association between palm oil consumption and lipid-related cardiovascular disease risk remains unclear. A systematic review was thus performed to assess whether palm oil consumption has a negative effect on plasma lipid-related cardiovascular disease marker levels.

      Methods and Study Design: In June 2018, the electronic bibliographic databases PubMed, EMBASE (Ovid), the Cochrane Library (Ovid) and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched and a total of 11 eligible dietary intervention articles involving 961 volunteers were selected. Both random and fixed effect models were used to calculate pooled weighted mean differences (WMD).

      Results: A total of 11 articles involving 547 participants met the inclusion criteria. The pooled analysis revealed that palm oil increased the concentration of High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (WMD: 0.15 mmol/L; p
      PubDate: Thu, 5 Sep 2019 16:08:53 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Bridging the gap between research and practice for
           nutrition support after pelvic exenteration surgery
    • Abstract: Hogan, Sophie; Solomon, Michael; Rangan, Anna; Carey, Sharon
      Background and Objectives: Current best practice for postoperative feeding in surgical patients is well established, however implementation of evidence-based practice comes with many challenges. A common barrier is surgeon adherence to guidelines and the reasons behind this are not well understood. Pelvic exenteration surgery is a complex surgery and postoperative feeding methods in this patient cohort vary significantly from patient to patient. The aim of this study was to identify barriers and enablers for surgeons to implement evidence based feeding methods after pelvic exenteration surgery and provide practical strategies for non-surgeon healthcare workers to improve compliance.

      Methods and Study Design: A qualitative study was conducted by performing semi-structured interviews with 12 Consultant Surgeons at hospitals in Australia and New Zealand with dedicated pelvic exenteration services. Deductive and inductive thematic analysis was performed in line with the Theoretical Domains Framework and Behaviour Change Wheel model to identify relevant domains, themes and intervention functions.

      Results: Culture was identified as an overarching theme that influenced postoperative feeding practices, surgeon behaviours and sub-themes. Identified sub-themes included motivation, relationships and expectations, environment and 'moving forward'. Motivations to use different types of feeding routes postoperatively varied across hospitals. Relationships, surgeons' expectations and the environment all influenced the way in which patients were fed postoperatively. Practical strategies were identified to assist non-surgeon healthcare workers achieve positive change moving forward with postoperative feeding.

      Conclusions: Practical strategies to promote enablers and reduce barriers are required to bring about positive change and align practice with the evidence.

      PubDate: Thu, 5 Sep 2019 16:08:53 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Diet and lipid-lowering drug use among people with
           dyslipidemia in Korea
    • Abstract: Kwan, Yeol Yang; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Hye Duck; Kim, Jong Oh
      Background and Objectives: Obesity and diet contribute to the development of hypercholesterolemia; therefore, controlling blood lipid concentration through diet is essential. To understand the role of diet in controlling blood lipid concentration, we evaluated the food and nutrient intakes, anthropometry, and blood lipid concentrations of adults with dyslipidemia with or without lipid-lowering drug use.

      Methods and Study Design: For this cross-sectional study, three-year data were obtained from the 6th-7th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2015-2017). Patients with dyslipidemia were categorized as users (1,734) or nonusers (856) of lipid-lowering drugs.

      Results: Age, education level, marital status, self-reported health status, hypertension, diabetes, and alcohol intake were significantly different between users and nonusers (p
      PubDate: Thu, 5 Sep 2019 16:08:53 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Riceberry rice puddings: Rice-based low glycemic
           dysphagia diets
    • Abstract: Suttireung, Prangtip; Winuprasith, Thunnalin; Srichamnong, Warangkana; Paemuang, Wannaporn; Phonyiam, Tawaree; Trachootham, Dunyaporn
      Background and Objectives: Swallowing difficulty and diabetes mellitus are common in the elderly. However, texture-modified foods suitable for blood sugar control are scarce. This study was aimed to identify texture, glycemic indices (GIs) and postprandial responses of original and high-fiber Riceberry rice puddings.

      Methods and Study Design: International Dysphagia Diet Standard Initiative (IDDSI)'s methods were used to determine texture. 'In vitro' digestion was performed for estimating glycemic indices. A randomized cross-over controlled trial was conducted in twelve healthy volunteers. Original pudding, high-fiber pudding and white bread containing 40 g carbohydrate each were assigned in random sequence with twelve-day wash-out intervals. Plasma glucose concentrations were measured at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min after food intake. Individual GIs of puddings were calculated.

      Results: Original and high-fiber puddings were classified as IDDSI level 3 (liquidized) and 4 (pureed), respectively. The 'in vitro' estimated GIs were 51 for original and 48 for high-fiber puddings. Clinical trial showed rapid kinetics (peaked at 30 min) but lower postprandial responses of both puddings, compared to white bread (peaked at 60 min). The adjusted GIs for original and high-fiber puddings were not significantly different (at 41+-7.60 and 36+-6.40, respectively).

      Conclusions: Addition of fiber to the original pudding changed physical properties but not significantly reduced the GI. Original and high-fiber Riceberry rice puddings could be low-GI dysphagia diets, which may be useful for step-wise swallowing practice from IDDSI level 3 to 4 for those who also required blood sugar control.

      PubDate: Thu, 5 Sep 2019 16:08:53 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Cord serum vitamin D in a South China birth cohort
    • Abstract: Zhang, Joy Y; Wang, Jing; Hu, Shunping; Chen, Danyang; Lu, Qinsheng; Wei, Ru; Tan, Meizhen; Lash, Gendie E
      Background and Objectives: Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with many adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels (
      PubDate: Thu, 5 Sep 2019 16:08:53 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Hemoglobin and ferritin concentrations are positively
           associated with blood pressure and hypertension risk in older adults: A
           retrospective cross-sectional study, Sharpeville, South Africa
    • Abstract: Jamshidi-Naeini, Yasaman; Bavil, Ali Khodayari; Egal, Abdulkadir; Oldewage-Theron, Wilna
      Background and Objectives: We aimed to determine the association between Hemoglobin (Hb) and ferritin with blood pressure (BP) and risk of hypertension (HTN) among elderly South African adults in four time points over a period of 10 years.

      Methods and Study Design: We used the data source from the Sharpeville Project conducted among the elderly in Sharpeville, South Africa (SA). A total of 275 subjects from the 2004 data source were included. Among these, data were available for 251, 114, and 81 subjects in 2007, 2012, and 2014 respectively. Confounding factors included age, BMI, sodium intake, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and serum total cholesterol. Linear and logistic regressions were used to investigate the Hb and ferritin associations with BP and HTN risk.

      Results: Mean age in 2004, 2007, 2012, and 2014 was 72.8+-8.66, 75.8+-7.28, 80.2+-9.54, and 83.2+-8.98 respectively. In the unadjusted model, systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), after 132.2 and 83.6 mmHg, increased by 0.57 and 0.72 mmHg respectively for each increment increase in Hb. In the adjusted model, slope coefficients remained statistically significant. Adjusted OR (95% CI) for the highest quartile of Hb (Q4) compared to the first quartile (Q1) in 2004 ('p'
      PubDate: Thu, 5 Sep 2019 16:08:53 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Relationship between carbohydrate intake and risk
           factors for cardiovascular disease in Chinese adults: Data from the China
           Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS)
    • Abstract: Ma, Yan; Su, Chang; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Zhihong; Liang, Hui; Zhang, Bing
      Background and Objectives: It is well known that dietary factors affect the development of cardiovascular disease. We evaluated the associations between carbohydrate intake and cardiovascular disease risk factors using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, 2009.

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 6,648 Chinese adults aged 18-60 were divided into five groups based on carbohydrate intake (% of energy). Mixed-effect linear regression models were used to estimate the risk factors in relation to carbohydrate intake, and mixed-effect logistic regression models were used to assess the risk of cardiovascular disease.

      Results: When age was adjusted, carbohydrate intake was negatively correlated with total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in women. However, there were positive associations of carbohydrate intake with waist circumference, body mass index, and blood pressure in women. After additional adjustment for urbanicity index, income, physical activity, education, alcohol and smoking, and dietary intake, the 5th quintile of carbohydrate intake reduced the risk for high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in women (OR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.53, 0.99) compared with the 1st quintile. However, the top quintile of carbohydrate intake increased the risk for impaired glucose tolerance in men (OR=2.08, 95% CI: 1.04, 4.16) compared with the lowest quintile after adjusting for all confounders.

      Conclusions: Higher-carbohydrate diets may associate with risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Moderate carbohydrate intake is recommended for daily consumption. These results suggest that improving dietary patterns may be an important approach to the prevention of cardiovascular disease in Chinese adults.

      PubDate: Thu, 5 Sep 2019 16:08:53 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Major dietary patterns and their relationship to
           obesity among urbanized adult Tibetan pastoralists
    • Abstract: Peng, Wen; Liu, Yongnian; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Hongru
      Background and Objectives: This study investigated major dietary patterns and their relationship to obesity among urbanized Tibetan pastoralists.

      Methods and Study Design: Using a cross-sectional design, this study assessed 782 urbanized Tibetan pastoralists aged 18-84 y. A food frequency questionnaire and anthropometric measurements were conducted in 2018. Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Logistic regression was applied to compare the risks for overweight (BMI >=24 kg/m2), obesity (BMI >=28 kg/m2), and central obesity (waist circumference >=80 cm for women and >=85 cm for men) across quintiles of dietary pattern scores after controlling for gender, age, education, medical insurance, smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity.

      Results: This study identified three major dietary patterns: an urban pattern characterized by high intake of vegetables, tubers/roots, and refined carbohydrates; a western pattern characterized by sugary drinks, snacks, and desserts; and a pastoral pattern characterized by 'tsamba' (roasted Tibetan barley), Tibetan cheese, and buttered/milk tea. Subjects in the highest quintile of urban pattern scores were more likely to be overweight (OR=2.58, 95% CI 1.48-4.49) ('p'-for-trend=0.001), obese (2.94, 1.57-5.49) ('p'-for-trend=0.001), and centrally obese (1.94, 1.12-3.36) ('p'-for-trend=0.019) compared to those in the lowest quintile with confounders controlled. The western dietary pattern was positively associated with overweight ('p'-for-trend=0.037). No clear association was observed for the pastoral dietary pattern.

      Conclusions: Urban and western dietary patterns independently predict the likelihood of being overweight. Improved nutrition education may contribute to healthier eating behaviors, thus reducing or preventing obesity.

      PubDate: Thu, 5 Sep 2019 16:08:53 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - The contribution of milks and formulae to
           micronutrient intake in 1-3 years old children in urban China: A
           simulation study
    • Abstract: Li, Tao; You, Jialu; Pean, Josephine; Lluch, Anne; Eussen, Simone; Delaere, Fabien; Bindels, Jacques G; Dai, Yaohua
      Background and Objectives: A recent dietary survey in 5 big cities in China provided information on various milk options consumed by 1-3 years old children. To investigate the nutritional role of these milks (young-child formula (YCF), cow's milk, others), simulation analyses based on this survey were performed.

      Methods and Study Design: We studied daily intakes of calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins A, B-1, B-2, C and E and compared these to the Chinese DRIs. In Scenario 1, consumption of cow's milk, kid's milk and/or soy milk was replaced with matching amounts of YCF (n=66 children). In Scenario 2, where 348 children exclusively consumed YCF, YCF was replaced with matching amounts of cow's milk.

      Results: Scenario 1 revealed significant increases in total dietary intakes of iron, vitamins A, B-1, C and E upon substitution of the various milks with YCF. The proportions of children not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for these nutrients dropped from 29, 26, 61, 53 and 54 % to 12, 11, 50, 27 and 24%, respectively. In Scenario 2, the hypothetical substitution of YCF by cow's milk increased the proportions of children not meeting the EAR for these nutrients, calcium and zinc from 11, 6, 49, 15, 28, 42, and 8 to 45, 24, 78, 69, 59, 44, and 20, respectively. Execution of Scenario 2 in subgroups of 1-2- and 2-3 years old children revealed similar results.

      Conclusions: YCF may help to reduce the risk of insufficient intake of several key micronutrients for toddlers, independent of age.

      PubDate: Thu, 5 Sep 2019 16:08:53 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Association of blood eosinophilia and vitamin D
           insufficiency in young infants with cow milk allergy
    • Abstract: Li, Jingwen; Mei, Xiaoli; Cai, Xinyi; Zhuo, Yujie; Zhang, Lanfang; Guo, Hongmei; Yang, Guang
      Background and Objectives: Cow milk allergy is the most common food allergic disease in young infants and vitamin D has a critical role in regulating intestinal inflammation.

      Methods and Study Design: To determine roles of vitamin D in cow milk allergy, fifty-six young infants with cow milk allergy were enrolled. The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), total and specific IgE, circulating regulatory T lymphocytes, and blood eosinophil counts were determined.

      Results: The serum 25OHD in cow milk allergy and age-matched infants were similar (68.3+-38.9 nmol/L versus 72.9+-33.1 nmol/L, 'p'>0.05), 71% Cow milk allergy infants (40/56) had serum 25OHD lower than 75 nmol/L compared to 66% (37/56) in the controls. The cow milk allergy infants with 25OHD lower than 75 nmol/L had persistent blood eosinophilia and delayed resolution of symptoms after cow milk elimination compared to those with 25OHD above 75 nmol/L (odd ratio 3.7, 95% CI 1.1-12.6, 'p'
      PubDate: Thu, 5 Sep 2019 16:08:53 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Egg intake in extremely undernourished Chinese women
           during reproductive age and subsequent nonfatal perimenopausal coronary
    • Abstract: Liu, Ruihong; Li, Dongzhi; Ding, Lijie; Liu, Yanxun; Sun, Xiubin; Xue, Fuzhong
      Background and Objectives: Chinese women in rural areas who are currently >=55 years old have experienced extreme undernutrition during their childbearing age. Their specific experiences provided us with a natural quasi-experimental field for assessing the effects of consuming eggs to obtain nutrients during the childbearing period on preventing nonfatal coronary events (NCE) during the postmenopausal period in the framework of life course epidemiology.

      Methods and Study Design: A population-based matched case-control design for NCE was conducted in Yiyuan County, Shandong Province, China. In this study, 462 women with NCE (cases; onset age >=55 years) were included from the Active Surveillance System for Chronic Diseases, and 462 age-matched women without NCE and stroke (controls) from the same village were included. Conditional logistic model analysis was used to determine the association between egg intake and NCE during the postmenopausal period in 3 specific life-periods, namely age 18 to 49 years (childbearing period), age 50 years to NCE onset (perimenopausal and postmenopausal period), and age 18 years to NCE onset (total period).

      Results: We found that >=12 eggs vs. 0 egg intake per month under extreme undernutrition status during childbearing period exhibited a strong preventive effect against NCE during the postmenopausal period (OR=0.588, 95% CI=0.358-0.964). The window of protective effect was in the age 28 to 49 years, suggesting a critical period model of life course epidemiology.

      Conclusions: Egg intake under extreme undernutrition status during the childbearing period plays a critical role in preventing NCE during the postmenopausal period.

      PubDate: Thu, 5 Sep 2019 16:08:53 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Infant feeding practices in relation to iron status
           and other possible nutritional deficiencies in Pathumthani, Thailand
    • Abstract: Thaweekul, Patcharapa; Surapolchai, Pacharapan; Sinlapamongkolkul, Phakatip
      Background and Objectives: Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide and usually leads to impaired neurodevelopment. Appropriate introduction of complementary foods is mandatory for all infants to prevent iron insufficiency. We aimed to demonstrate feeding behaviors in relation to infant iron status and also identify potential concomitant nutrient inadequacies.

      Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study of infants 6-12 months old was performed at the Well Baby Clinic at Thammasat University Hospital, Pathumthani. Demographic data, feeding practices and nutritional status were obtained. Dietary intake was evaluated using general and food frequency questionnaires. Blood samples for complete blood count and iron studies were investigated.

      Results: We enrolled 206 infants (mean age 8.55+-2.1 months). Prevalence of ID and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was 34.0% and 25.7%, respectively. In multivariable ordinal continuation ratio logistic regression analysis for risk of iron depletion severity among the 3 groups (normal, ID and IDA infants), we found a stepwise increase in odds ratios for iron depletion with lower family income, longer duration of breastfeeding, delayed introduction of meat, and lower dietary iron intake. IDA infants had significantly lower intakes of energy, protein, fat and various micronutrients, compared to those with normal iron status.

      Conclusions: Infants with ID may have low intakes of other nutrients due to reduced complementary food intake. Nutritional education for appropriate feeding practices should be provided to prevent ID and other possible micronutrient deficiencies.

      PubDate: Thu, 5 Sep 2019 16:08:53 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Identifying appropriate pre-pregnancy body mass index
           classification to improve pregnancy outcomes in women of childbearing age
           in Beijing, China: A retrospective cohort study
    • Abstract: Zhao, Rui-Fen; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Wei-Yuan
      Background and Objectives: This study explored the appropriate classification of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) in women of childbearing age in Beijing, China.

      Methods and Study Design: Women with singleton pregnancies at more than 28 gestational weeks were retrospectively reviewed. Based on the pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2), these patients were divided into 7 groups: =18.5-22.9, >=23-23.9, >=24-24.9, >=25-27.9, >=28-29.9, and >=30. Pregnancy adverse outcomes, including gestational hypertension with or without preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, initial cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, macrosomia, large-for-gestational age infant and so on were recorded. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the uncorrected and corrected odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, with the >=18.5-22.9 group serving as a reference.

      Results: A total of 11,136 pregnant women were analyzed. Incidences of above mentioned six adverse outcomes were greater in women with higher pre-pregnancy BMI. The risks of the abovementioned six adverse outcomes were increased significantly among the >=23-23.9, >=24-24.9, >=25-27.9 groups and substantially higher in the >=28-29.9, >=30 groups after correction. =18.5-22.9 kg/m2, with the cutoff value for overweight status being >=23.0 kg/m2 and the cutoff value for obesity being >=28.0 kg/m2.

      PubDate: Thu, 5 Sep 2019 16:08:53 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Dietary diversity offsets the adverse mortality risk
           among older indigenous Taiwanese
    • Abstract: Liu, Cheng-Kang; Huang, Yi-Chen; Lo, Yuan-Ting C; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan
      Background and Objectives: The extent to which health and survival inequality between indigenous and nonindigenous older Taiwanese is associated with diet is uncertain.

      Methods and Study Design: Participants from the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1999-2000) formed this cohort. Dietary information was collected by 24-hr recall and simplified food frequency questionnaire. Dietary quality was assessed by dietary diversity score (DDS, 0-6). Annual medical service utilization and expenditure were derived from National Health Insurance claims until 2006. Survivorship was ascertained from the National Death Registry until 2008. Cox proportional- hazards models were used to determine the association between aboriginality and mortality in conjunction with dietary diversity.

      Results: Indigenes (n=156) compared with nonindigenes (n=1182) significantly differed in socio-demography, behaviors and chronic disease prevalences. For up to 8 years, indigenes had a higher mortality rate (46.2% vs 33.6%, 'p'=0.003). Indigenes' nutrient intakes were less for polyunsaturated fat, dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals (but more sodium); food intakes more for meat, with less cooking oil, dairy products and fruits; and a lower DDS, (3.61 vs 4.54). They had a 41% higher mortality risk (HR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.09-1.81, 'p'=0.008). Control for demographic variables did not change the findings. However, the increase in HR was substantially attenuated by the inclusion of DDS (HR: 1.15, 95% CI: 0.88-1.49, 'p'=0.316). There was no significant interaction between aboriginality and DDS on mortality ('p'=0.673).

      Conclusions: Older indigenous Taiwanese have a higher mortality risk than their majority counterparts. Irrespective of aboriginality, the more diverse diet is associated with a lower risk of mortality.

      PubDate: Thu, 5 Sep 2019 16:08:53 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and individual
           metabolic abnormalities in China, 2002-2012
    • Abstract: He, Yuna; Li, Yanping; Bai, Guoyin; Zhang, Jian; Fang, Yuehui; Zhao, Liyun; Zhao, Wenhua; Yang, Xiaoguang; Ding, Gangqiang
      Background and Objectives: The purpose of our study was to estimate the national prevalence of metabolic syndrome, its individual components and its changes in the past decade.

      Methods and Study Design: Two national-representative cross-sectional surveys: the China National Nutrition and Health Survey 2002 (CNNHS 2002) and the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Surveillance 2010-2012 (CNNHS 2010-2012). A total of 48,235 and 104,098 participants aged 18 years or older who had completed data on physical examination, blood lipids, and fasting glucose tests from CNNHS 2002 and CNNHS 2010-2012, respectively, were included in current study.

      Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Chinese adults increased from 9.5% (95% confident interval [CI]: 9.2%-9.7%) in 2002 to 18.7% (18.3%-19.1%) in 2010-2012, corresponding to an estimated 83.6 million adults in 2002 and 189 million adults in 2010-2012 living with metabolic syndrome in China. The increment was more than doubled among young, rural residents and those from poor households. Abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, high triglycerides, low HDL-C, and elevated blood pressure were found in 18.9% (18.5%-19.3%), 6.4% (6.2%-6.7%), 13.8% (13.5%-14.2%), 19.3% (18.9%-19.7%), and 34.0% (33.5%-34.5%) of adults in 2002, respectively, which was 25.8% (25.3%-26.2%), 16.2% (15.8%-16.5%), 23.7% (23.3%-24.2%), 32.6% (32.0%-33.1%), and 34.4% (33.9%-34.9%), respectively, in 2010-2012.

      Conclusions: Based on two nationally representative surveys, our results indicated that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is widespread and increasing in China.

      PubDate: Thu, 5 Sep 2019 16:08:53 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Ageing affects the association between serum
           25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and cardiorespiratory fitness in
           middle-aged and elderly men
    • Abstract: Sun, Xiaomin; Tanisawa, Kumpei; Ito, Tomoko; Oshima, Satomi; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Cao, Zhen-Bo
      Background and Objectives: The studies investigated the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are few, and the results are controversial. We aim to evaluate the association of serum 25(OH)D concentrations with CRF in adults, and assess whether the associations vary with ageing.

      Methods and Study Design: The study included 78 middle-aged (30-64 years) and 83 elderly (65-79 years) Japanese men. Hand grip strength and leg extension power were measured using hand grip and leg dynamometers, respectively. CRF was measured via a maximal graded exercise test and quantified as the peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). Fasting serum 25(OH)D concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay.

      Results: Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were positively related to hand grip strength (r=0.331, 'p'
      PubDate: Thu, 5 Sep 2019 16:08:53 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Relationship between retinol and risk of diabetic
           retinopathy: A case-control study
    • Abstract: Zhang, ChunMei; Li, Kelei; Zhang, Jiayu; Kuang, Xiaotong; Liu, Chunxiao; Deng, Qingxue; Li, Duo
      Background and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between retinol and risk of diabetic retinopathy in Chinese adults.

      Methods and Study Design: Eighty-six subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 40 healthy subjects (healthy comparison group, HCG) were recruited in Beijing Luhe Hospital. Of the 86 T2DM subjects, 43 subjects were diagnosed with diabetic retinopathy (DRG), and 43 subjects had no retinopathy (DNRG).

      Results: Dietary intake of retinol (p
      PubDate: Thu, 5 Sep 2019 16:08:53 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Diet quality score and survival rate in patients with
           colorectal cancer
    • Abstract: Sun, Hongru; Liu, Yupeng; Huang, Hao; Li, Dapeng; Zhao, Yashuang
      Background and Objectives: Results regarding associations between specific-food and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) are limited and inconsistent, and few studies have examined this issue in Asian population. This study examined the association between diet and prognosis of CRC, and developed a diet quality score for prognosis of CRC.

      Methods and Study Design: 352 participants who provided completed dietary information were recruited during 2004 to 2014, and there are 154 death case documented with 10-year follow-up. Cox regression models were used to examine associations between food groups and survival rate, and to develop the diet quality score for prognosis of CRC.

      Results: Intake of whole grain, fruit and coffee consumption habitus were associated with higher survival rate (HR 0.56 [95% CI 0.35, 0.89] for whole grain; HR 0.62 [95% CI 0.40, 0.97] for fruit; HR 0.46 [95% CI 0.24, 0.87] for coffee), whereas intake of red meat and frequency of grilled food were associated with lower survival rate (HR 1.68 [95% CI 1.08, 2.61] for red meat; HR 1.78 [95% CI 1.05, 3.02] for grilled food). The overall diet quality based on these nutritional factors was negatively associated with survival rate (HR 1.60 [95% CI 1.07, 2.39] with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking, energy intake, UICC stage, chemotherapy, postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy, tumor size, carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels.

      Conclusions: Whole grain, fruit, red meat, coffee consumption habitus and frequency of grilled food were significantly associated with survival rate in Chinese population. The diet quality score may be useful for Chinese healthcare providers to advise patients on the optimal diet.

      PubDate: Thu, 5 Sep 2019 16:08:53 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - The relationship between culture, food liking, and
           body mass index in Australian and Thai young adults
    • Abstract: Wanich, Uracha; Riddell, Lynn; Cicerale, Sara; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Sayompark, Dhoungsiri; Liem, Djin Gie; Keast, Russell SJ
      Background and Objectives: An individual's liking of food may be associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) due to its subsequent impact on food consumption. This study investigates the association between food liking and BMI in young adults from Australia and Thailand.

      Methods and Study Design: Food liking data were collected via a validated online Food Liking Questionnaire (FLQ). Food liking scores were calculated for overall liking of groupings of foods: grains, vegetables, fruits, dairy, animal protein, plant-based protein, fat and oil, sweet food, salty food, and alcohol. The relationship between food liking and BMI (calculated from self-reported height and weight) was assessed using linear regression models including country and gender, and mean differences were assessed using independent sample t-test.

      Results: Data were available from n=4,173 participants (BMI=22.25 (SD 4.18), age=20.6 (SD 4.22) years, female=71.6%, Thai=52.5%). There were significant differences of food liking between countries for all of food groups ('p'
      PubDate: Thu, 5 Sep 2019 16:08:53 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Sugars and sweeteners: Science, innovations, and
           consumer guidance for Asia
    • Abstract: Drewnowski, Adam; Tappy, Luc; Forde, Ciaran G; McCrickerd, Keri; Tee, E Siong; Chan, Pauline; Amin, Latifah; Trinidad, Trinidad P; Amarra, Maria Sofia
      Background and Objectives: Rising obesity in Southeast Asia, one consequence of economic growth, has been linked to a rising consumption of energy from added sugars. This symposium, organized by ILSI Southeast Asia, explored regional issues related to dietary sugars and health and identified ways in which these issues could be addressed by regional regulatory agencies, food producers, and the consumer.

      Methods and Study Design: Papers on the following topics were presented: 1) current scientific evidence on the effects of sugars and non-caloric sweeteners on body weight, health, and eating behaviors; 2) innovations by food producers to reduce sugar consumption in the region; 3) regional dietary surveillance of sugar consumption and suggestions for consumer guidance. A panel discussion explored effective approaches to promote healthy eating in the region.

      Results: Excessive consumption of energy in the form of added sugars can have adverse consequences on diet quality, lipid profiles, and health. There is a need for better surveillance of total and added sugars intakes in selected Southeast Asian countries. Among feasible alternatives to corn sweeteners (high fructose corn syrup) and cane sugar are indigenous sweeteners with low glycemic index (e.g., coconut sap sugar). Their health benefits should be examined and regional sugar consumption tracked in detail. Product reformulation to develop palatable lower calorie alternatives that are accepted by consumers continues to be a challenge for industry and regulatory agencies.

      Conclusions: Public-private collaborations to develop healthy products and effective communication strategies can facilitate consumer acceptance and adoption of healthier foods.

      PubDate: Thu, 5 Sep 2019 16:08:53 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Addressing nutritional requirements of ageing
           consumers in Asia - recommendations from an expert workshop
    • Abstract: Ong, Sherlin; Woo, Jean; Parikh, Panam; Chan, Ruth; Sun, Jianqin; Chan, Yoke Mun; Wee, Shiou-Liang; Nghiem, Nguyet Thu; Thang, Pham; Setiati, Siti; Huang, Yi-Chen; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Bos, Rolf; de Groot, Lisette CPGM
      The number of older persons in Asia is expected to triple by 2050. Ageing is associated with non-communicable chronic diseases, malnutrition, and geriatric syndromes, which influences the burden on the cost related to healthcare, health outcomes, and the quality of life. Experts in the field of older adult nutrition from Asia, Australia, and Europe were invited to participate in a two-day workshop to review the available data, current policies and programs for the ageing population in different countries of Asia to identify the gaps in knowledge and to develop recommendations for action. In Asia, most of the data pertaining to health status, nutritional status, and nutrient intake of the older persons were mainly obtained by conducting studies in nursing homes or hospitals and small cohort studies. There were limited country-specific data on this population. Moreover, the available data pertaining to different countries were difficult to compare due to differences in the reporting format and reference values used. Although nutrition initiatives and policies were realized and public education was conducted to support the older persons, most of these efforts targeted the general population rather than the older persons population segment. In healthcare management, a higher amount of education is required pertaining to the knowledge of nutritional requirements and appropriate feeding of the older persons to reduce underfeeding and its consequences. The expert group recommended the use of a systematic approach for reviewing data pertaining to different countries, initiatives, and programs to further evaluate the available data to underpin future research.

      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jun 2019 20:42:41 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Nutrition support for critically ill patients in
           China: Role of the pharmacist
    • Abstract: Zhou, Xin; Qiu, Feng; Wan, Dong; Sun, Shusen; Yao, Gaoqiong; Liu, Yu; Li, Juan
      Background and Objectives: The participation of a nutrition support pharmacist (NSP) in a multidisciplinary team (MDT) for patients receiving nutrition support therapy (NST) may lead to more favourable outcomes and fewer complications and adverse events. However, few studies have demonstrated the role of NSPs in MDTs in China. To investigate pharmacy interventions and physician acceptance of these interventions for patients receiving NST in an intensive care unit (ICU). Methods and Study Design: A prospective study over a 12-month period was conducted in an ICU at an academic hospital in China. Interventions were documented and divided into the following categories: indication of NST, parenteral nutrition (PN) prescription and delivery, enteral nutrition (EN) route and formulation, fluids and electrolytes, laboratory test monitoring, nutritional supplements, and other medication-related problems. Data regarding the intervention categories, timing, acceptance rates, and methods of communication to discuss pharmacy interventions were collected.

      Results: In total, 247 interventions for 120 patients were identified. The overall acceptance rate of interventions was 85.0% (210/247), and more than half of the interventions (143, 57.9%) were performed during daily follow-up. The most common intervention categories were PN prescription and delivery (81/247, 32.8%), EN route and formula (33/247, 13.4%), indication of NST (33/247, 13.4%), and nutritional supplements (30/247, 12.1%). The most accepted intervention category was PN prescription and delivery (79/81, 97.5%), and the most common method of communication was oral communication during MDT rounds (201/247, 81.4%).

      Conclusions: This study demonstrated the unique perspectives offered and importance of having pharmacists as members of MDTs.

      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jun 2019 20:42:41 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Bioavailability and incorporation of nonheme iron from
           a representative Chinese diet in young urban Chinese women
    • Abstract: Yang, Lichen; Ren, Tongxiang; Zhang, Yuhui; Huang, Zhengwu; Wang, Zhilin; Gou, Lingyan; Wang, Jun; Piao, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoguang
      Background and Objectives: This study assessed the bioavailability and biological incorporation of nonheme iron from staple food diets in healthy young urban Chinese women and determined the relevant effects of typical regional patterns of staple foods in South and North China.

      Methods and Study Design: Twenty-two young urban Chinese women aged 20-23 years were enrolled and randomly allocated to two groups, with rice (rice group) and steamed buns (steamed buns group) as the staple food, respectively. Each participant received three meals daily containing approximately 3.25 mg of stable 57FeSO4 for 2 consecutive days, along with daily intravenous injection of approximately 2.0 mg of 58FeSO4. Nonheme iron absorption and infused iron incorporation rates were assayed.

      Results: In all participants, the rice group, and the buns group, nonheme iron intake was 7.2+-1.6, 5.9+-0.6, and 8.4+-1.2 mg, respectively; mean 57FeSO4 absorption rate was 22.2%+-9.6%, 22.2%+-10.6%, and 22.2%+-8.9%, respectively; and the mean infused 58FeSO4 incorporation rate was 91.6%+-8.2%, 93%+-7.3%, and 90%+-9.1%, respectively. No substantial differences existed in the nonheme iron intakes and the 57FeSO4 absorption and 58FeSO4 incorporation rates between the rice and buns groups (all p>0.05).

      Conclusions: The bioavailability and incorporation rates of nonheme iron from representative comprehensive Chinese diets in healthy young urban Chinese women were evaluated. Our results can facilitate the establishment of dietary reference intake for iron in Chinese women.

      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jun 2019 20:42:41 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Pretreatment nutritional risk as a prognostic factor
           in head and neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy or
    • Abstract: Liu, Weixin; Gao, Li; Huang, Xiaodong; Luo, Jingwei; Zhang, Shiping; Wang, Kai; Qu, Yuan; Xiao, Jianping; Xu, Guozhen; Li, Yexiong; Yi, Junlin
      Background and Objectives: Head and neck cancer patients often experience nutritional deterioration, which decreases their treatment tolerance and is associated with poor outcomes. We analyzed nutritional status in head and neck cancer patients before and during treatment, and its impact on clinical outcomes.

      Methods and Study Design: Between January 2009 and April 2012, 336 head and neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy were prospectively entered into the study. The Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002) assessment was used to evaluate their nutritional status.

      Results: A total of 227 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and 109 patients with head and neck cancers were analyzed. The proportion of patients receiving radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy at nutritional risk was 61.3%, with 11.9% at risk before treatment and 49.4% developing risk during treatment. In multivariate analysis, nutritional risk before treatment was associated with T stage for the two groups. Risk was significantly higher in patients receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy during treatment for nasopharygeal carcinoma patients. The prognosis of pretreatment nutritional risk patients was worse than those becoming at risk during treatment and those without nutritional risk (3-year overall survival 62.9% vs 81.7% vs 80.6%, 'p'=0.026; 3-year disease-free survival 64.8% vs 84.5% vs 84.4%, 'p'=0.019).

      Conclusions: The incidence of nutritional risk is high in head and neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, especially during treatment. Pretreatment nutritional risk evaluated using the NRS 2002 can predict patient prognosis.

      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jun 2019 20:42:41 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - The impact of daily use of an enteral feeding
           checklist on clinical outcomes in shock patients: A retrospective cohort
    • Abstract: Mao, Zhi; Yu, Qing; Liu, Chao; Hu, Pan; Hu, Xin; Pan, Liang; Kang, Hongjun; Zhou, Feihu
      Background and Objectives: The optimal delivery of enteral nutrition in shock patients has an important prognostic clinical value; thus, checklists for standardizing enteral nutrition should be developed. This study examined whether the use of an enteral feeding checklist can improve enteral nutrition in shock patients.

      Methods and Study Design: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. A multidisciplinary working group developed an enteral feeding checklist. Information on patients' demographics, checklist items, and clinical outcomes was collected.

      Results: In total, 148 patients were included. The checklist was used for 35 patients but not for the remaining 113 patients. Patients in the checklist group received enteral nutrition earlier (2.6 vs 4.6 days, 'p'=0.017) and had a lower mechanical ventilation rate (62.9% vs 85.0%, 'p'=0.004). The checklist group had shorter intensive care unit stay (mean 17.3 vs 25.7 days, p=0.043). No significant differences were observed in 28- and 90- day mortality, mechanical ventilation duration, and intolerance to enteral nutrition.

      Conclusions: The use of an enteral feeding checklist in shock patients was associated with earlier enteral nutrition delivery and decreased intensive care unit stay.

      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jun 2019 20:42:41 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Barriers to enteral feeding of critically ill adults
           in Korea
    • Abstract: Chang, Sun Ju; Kim, Hyunjung
      Background and Objectives: Evaluating barriers to provision of enteral nutrition in intensive care units and planning an appropriate intervention can improve nutritional nursing practice in these units. This study aimed to develop a Korean version of the Barriers to Enterally Feeding Critically Ill Patients Questionnaire (BEFIP-K) and to explore the barriers to enteral feeding of critically ill patients in Korea.

      Methods and Study Design: The 24- item BEFIP-K was developed according to the process laid down by the World Health Organization. Its psychometric properties were assessed, including acceptability; validity, which included content validity and construct validity; and reliability, which consisted of internal consistency and item-total correlation, using data from 207 critical care nurses in four tertiary hospitals in South Korea.

      Results: The calculated content validity indices for each item were from 0.88 to 1.00. As for the exploratory factor analysis, 24 items were loaded on five domains, accounting for 56.9% of the total variance. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the total scale was 0.913 and the coefficients for item-total correlation analyses ranged from 0.469 to 0.694. The total BEFIP-K score was 32.1, with a range from 18.5 to 45.4.

      Conclusions: The findings support that the BEFIP-K is a feasible, valid instrument for assessing barriers to provision of enteral nutrition.

      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jun 2019 20:42:41 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Oat porridge consumption alleviates markers of
           inflammation and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic adults
    • Abstract: Pavadhgul, Patcharanee; Bumrungpert, Akkarach; Harjani, Yashna; Kurilich, Anne
      Background and Objectives: Oats contain antioxidant phytochemicals that may help reduce inflammation as well as oxidative stress. In this study we aimed to investigate the effect of oat porridge consumption on inflammatory marker levels and oxidative stress in Thai adults with high blood lipid levels.

      Methods and Study Design: A randomized crossover study was conducted. Hypercholesterolemic adults were randomly assigned to a 4-week daily consumption of oat or rice porridge. After 4 weeks, they were switched to alternate intervention arms for 4 weeks. At baseline, before and after each intervention period, inflammatory markers including hsCRP, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, and MCP-1 and antioxidant status markers including ORAC, FRAP, and MDA of all subjects were measured.

      Results: Compared to baseline, levels of hsCRP, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha were significantly decreased after oat porridge consumption (mean change: -0.6+-0.9 mg/L, -26.9+-27.6 pg/mL, -56.3+-27.6 pg/mL, and - 9.7+-11.6 pg/mL, p
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jun 2019 20:42:41 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Impact of nutritional status on length of stay and
           hospital costs among patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital in
    • Abstract: Bhirommuang, Nuttapimon; Komindr, Surat; Jayanama, Kulapong
      Background and Objectives: Malnutrition has high prevalence among hospitalized patients but goes unrecognized in many patients. Early detection of malnutrition using an effective screening tool is required. This study aimed to examine the effects of nutritional status determined by the Nutrition Alert Form (NAF) and its individual sections on length of stay (LOS) and hospital costs in hospitalized patients, to investigate their associated factors, and to determine hospital malnutrition prevalence.

      Methods and Study Design: This retrospective cohort study enrolled 2,906 hospitalized patients aged >=15 years in Ramathibodi Hospital between January and September 2016. At admission, nutritional status was screened using NAF. Nutrition status was defined as: NAF-A (normal/mild malnutrition; scores of 0-5), NAF-B (moderate malnutrition; 6-10), and NAF-C (severe malnutrition; >=11). Information regarding LOS and hospital costs during patients' hospitalization was also collected.

      Results: The prevalence of malnutrition was 15.3%. After adjusting for age, sex and primary diagnosis, we found significantly longer LOS and higher hospital costs among those with NAF-B and NAF-C, in comparison with patients having NAF-A. The highest increase in LOS was in male patients aged >=60 years with NAF-C. The highest increase in LOS and hospital costs was associated with higher scores for functional capacity.

      Conclusions: Higher levels of malnutrition screened using the NAF were significantly associated with longer LOS and higher hospital costs. Older adult patients had the highest risk of being malnourished and developing negative consequences. A prospective study of nutritional support by a nutrition care team is underway.

      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jun 2019 20:42:41 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Fish and meat intakes and prevalence of anemia among
           the Japanese elderly
    • Abstract: Imai, Eri; Nakade, Makiko
      Background and Objectives: Information about an association between animal food intakes and risk of anemia is still limited. This study aimed to investigate the association between fish and meat intake and anemia risk in the Japanese elderly.

      Methods and Study Design: A nationally representative sample of 6,469 aged 65 years and over was obtained from pooled data of annual National Health and Nutritional Survey in Japan during 2002-2011. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentrations
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jun 2019 20:42:41 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Consumption of black food decreases the risk of
           abdominal obesity in Korean women
    • Abstract: Chung, Sangwon; Chung, Min-Yu; Choi, Hyo-Kyoung; Park, Jae Ho; Hwang, Jin-Taek
      Background and Objectives: The association between black-colored foods (black foods) such as black beans, known for their high antioxidant capacity, and the prevention of metabolic diseases has been explored, but not in a large population. Therefore, this study examined relationships between the consumption of black foods and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

      Methods and Study Design: Data from 9,499 40-65-year old subjects (3,675 men and 5,824 women) from the 2010-2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used in the analysis. Black food consumption was estimated using 24-h dietary recall data, and analyses were performed according to black food consumer and non-consumer groups.

      Results: The average total consumption of black foods was higher in women than men. The total black food consumer group in women had a 24% reduced risk of abdominal obesity than the non-consumer group (p=0.007). Furthermore, waist circumference decreased significantly with an increase in total black food consumption in women. High consumption of total black foods and black beans reduced the risk of abdominal obesity by 26% (p for trend=0.012) and 29% (p for trend=0.003) compared with no consumption. No risk factors for metabolic syndrome were associated with black food consumption in men.

      Conclusions: In conclusion, black foods, including black beans, may have beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome components, especially abdominal obesity.

      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jun 2019 20:42:41 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Food-based recommendations for Minangkabau women of
           reproductive age with dyslipidemia
    • Abstract: Fahmida, Umi; Djuwita, Ratna; Abdullah, Murdani; Witjaksono, Fiastuti
      Background and Objectives: Considering the impact of unfavorable dietary practices on inadequate nutrient intake, this cross-sectional study aimed to explore dietary practices, including problem nutrients, and develop local food-based recommendations (FBRs) to improve the intake of problem nutrients among women of reproductive age (WoRA) with dyslipidemia in Minangkabau, Indonesia.

      Methods and Study Design: The study was conducted in the Padang township inhabited mostly by the Minangkabau tribe. Accordingly, 74 WoRA with dyslipidemia completed the study. Two replicate 24-h recalls and a 5-day food record were used to assess food consumption patterns. Then, linear programming (LP) analysis using three modules of the WHO Optifood software was employed to identify problem nutrients and develop FBRs.

      Results: Median (5th and 95th percentiles) weekly consumption frequencies for grain; meat, fish, and eggs; and added fat were 18 (14-27), 11 (6-16), and 15 (7-30), while those for fruits and vegetables were 2 (0-11) and 7 (2-16), respectively. Based on the aforementioned food pattern, PUFA (both n-3 and n-6 fatty acids), dietary fiber, iron, and zinc were identified as typical problem nutrients. The final FBR emphasized on incorporating locally available nutrient-dense foods, as well as food groups and sub-groups, which would improve the intake of problem nutrients.

      Conclusions: Minangkabau WoRA have dietary practices that predispose them to dyslipidemia. Moreover, the LP approach is a sensitive tool for identifying nutrient-dense foods that could potentially improve problem nutrient intake, as well as those that need to be limited in the final FBR.

      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jun 2019 20:42:41 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Subcutaneous and visceral fat volumes measured by MRI
           and their relationships with nutrient intakes among adults
    • Abstract: Tayyem, Reema F; Al-Radaideh, Ali M; Hammad, Shatha S; Al-Hajaj, Sabal; Allehdan, Sabika S; Agraib, Lana M; Al-Fayomi, Kholoud I; Malkawi, Amer A; Hijjawi, Nawal S
      Background and Objectives: Types and amounts of nutrients may influence the volume of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). This study targeted to investigate the relationship between SAT and VAT volumes and macro- and micronutrients intake among adults.

      Methods and Study Design: Data were collected via a private face-to-face interview, in which diet history was obtained using validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The different fat volumes were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning.

      Results: Participants with the lowest VAT volume had the highest intake of saturated fats, monounsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids (p
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jun 2019 20:42:41 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Low riboflavin intake is associated with
           cardiometabolic risks in Korean women
    • Abstract: Shin, Woo-Young; Kim, Jung-Ha
      Background and Objectives: Metabolic syndrome is a leading global public health concern. Nutritional approaches are important for preventing and managing cardiometabolic risks, including metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to examine the potential association between riboflavin intake and cardiometabolic risks according to sex among Koreans.

      Methods and Study Design: We used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2015-2016, a nationwide cross-sectional survey that assesses the health and nutritional status of the Korean population. A total of 6,062 individuals aged >=19 years were included. The nutrition survey was performed using 24-h dietary recall.

      Results: A significant association was observed between low riboflavin intake with only increased HDL-cholesterol (OR 1.362, 95% CI 1.017-1.824, p=0.038) among metabolic syndrome and its components in men, whereas insufficient riboflavin intake was positively associated with hypertension (OR 1.352, 95% CI 1.085-1.685, p=0.007), diabetes (OR 1.493, 95% CI 1.137-1.959, p=0.004) and metabolic syndrome (OR 1.289, 95% CI 1.014-1.640, p=0.038) in women after adjusting for the other covariates. For post-menopausal women, central obesity was also correlated with insufficient riboflavin intake (OR 1.315, 95% CI 1.019-1.696, p=0.035).

      Conclusions: Insufficient riboflavin intake may contribute to development of cardiometabolic disorder, particularly in women. It was also found that riboflavin may have different influences on its risks in women according to menopausal status. This study highlighted the importance of public policies targeted at these sex-specific groups for reducing cardiometabolic risks.

      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jun 2019 20:42:41 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Duration of periconceptional folic acid
           supplementation and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus
    • Abstract: Huang, Lili; Yu, Xiaoling; Li, Li; Chen, Yuanhua; Yang, Yuanyuan; Yang, Yuying; Hu, Yan; Zhao, Yangyang; Tang, Haishan; Xu, Dexiang; Zhao, Mei
      Background and Objectives: Increased consumption of folic acid is prevalent, raising concerns about possible adverse effects. This prospective study aimed to explore the associations between the duration of folic acid supplementation and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Chinese women.

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 326 pregnant women were prospectively included for detailed information on folic acid supplementation during pre-pregnancy and early pregnancy, lipid profiles at 16-18 weeks, and subsequent GDM diagnosis at 24-28 weeks. Associations among folic acid supplementation, lipid profiles, and risk of GDM were analyzed using linear and logistic regression models, adjusting for potential confounders.

      Results: The incidence of GDM in participants was 10.1%. We observed a U-shape relation between duration of folic acid supplementation and risk of GDM. Women who did not take folic acid and took folic acid for >90 days had a higher incidence of GDM compared to those who took folic acid for 90 days with taking folic acid for
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jun 2019 20:42:41 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Socioeconomic disparity in the diet quality of
           pregnant women in Northwest China
    • Abstract: Li, Shanshan; Lei, Fangliang; Zhang, Ruo; Liu, Danmeng; Qu, Pengfei; Cheng, Yue; Liu, Xin; Chen, Fangyao; Dang, Shaonong; Yan, Hong
      Background and Objectives: Few studies have described the socioeconomic disparity of dietary quality in Northwest China. The present study aimed to evaluate the diet quality of pregnant women in Shaanxi province of Northwest China by using the Diet Balance Index for Pregnancy (DBI-P) and explored the relationships with socioeconomic status (SES).

      Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional analysis of data from 7,630 women who were pregnant during 2012-2013 was performed. Dietary intake during the whole pregnancy was assessed by FFQ within 12 months (median, 3 months; 10th-90th percentile, 0-7 months) after delivery. Diet quality evaluated by the DBI-P was related to socioeconomic factors.

      Results: Most women had insufficient consumption of vegetables (72.27%), dairy (89.58%), meat (82.07%), fish and shrimp (92.23%), eggs (62.54%), and dietary variety (97.92%). 67.76% of women had excessive intake of grains, and 87.77% and 69.79% of participants had surplus consumption of edible oil and salt respectively. Women with higher education, occupation and household wealth index (HWI) consumed more vegetables, fruit, dairy, soybean and nuts, meat, fish and shrimp, eggs, edible oil, alcohol and dietary variety but less grains and salt. After adjusting for confounders, education, occupation and HWI were negatively associated with the level of inadequate dietary intake. Conversely, individuals with medium HWI had higher level of excessive dietary intake compared to low HWI groups.

      Conclusions: The diet quality of pregnant women in Northwest China was associated with SES. Socioeconomic disparities in diet quality should be considered when planning nutrition interventions for pregnant women.

      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jun 2019 20:42:41 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Breast milk selenocystine as a biomarker for selenium
           intake in lactating women at differential geographical deficiency risk in
    • Abstract: He, Meng-Jie; Zhang, Shuang-Qing; Liu, Liping; Han, Feng; Chai, Yingjuan; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Shijin; Wang, Qin; Liu, Yiqun; Sun, Licui; Lu, Jiaxi; Yang, Qiu; Huang, Linghe; Huang, Zhen-Wu
      Background and Objectives: A reliable biomarker for optimal selenium (Se) intake in lactating women is not currently available.

      Methods and Study Design: Daily dietary Se intake in lactating women was calculated from a 24-hour meal record survey for over 3 days. Se levels in plasma and breast milk were measured through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Plasma selenoprotein P 1 levels and glutathione peroxidase 3 activity were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to analyze proteinaceous Se species in enzymatically digested breast milk.

      Results: Dietary Se intakes of lactating women from Liangshan, Beijing, and Enshi were 41.6+-21.2 ng/d, 51.1+-22.6 ng/d, and 615+-178 ng/d, respectively (p
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jun 2019 20:42:41 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Composition requirements of follow-up formula for
           6-12-month-old infants: Recommendations of a Chinese expert group
    • Abstract: Han, Junhua; Kang, Lingling; Liang, Dong; Li, Huzhong; Su, Yixiang; Zhang, Yumei; Yang, Yuexin
      Background and Objectives: The Chinese national standard of formula for 6-12-month-old infants (GB 10767- 2010) requires review and revision because it does not correspond to current scientific knowledge and data. The aim of this paper was to summarize the formula composition recommended for 6-12-month-old infants by a Chinese expert group.

      Methods and Study Design: Formula composition recommendations for 6-12-month-old infants were devised by a Chinese expert group based on a detailed systematic review, which included nutrient intake, nutrient content of Chinese women's breast milk, and the latest adequate intake and tolerable upper intake levels, also referencing the Codex Alimentarius recommendations and those of other countries and considering the practice in products on the market.

      Results: Compared with current standards, it was recommended that most compositional requirements be modified, including decreasing the maximum energy density from 85 to 75 kcal/100 mL, decreasing the protein content in milk-based formula from 2.9-5.0 g/100 kcal to 1.8-3.5 g/100 kcal, increasing the minimum content of lipids from 2.9 g/100 kcal to 3.5 g/100 kcal, providing the maximum amount of vitamins and minerals (including vitamin E, vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, niacin, folic acid, pantothenic acid, vitamin C, biotin, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, and iodine), and changing the content of optional components such as taurine, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid.

      Conclusions: These nutrient standard modifications based on recent evidence are expected to enhance feeding practices and further guarantee the health of 6-12-month-old infants in China.

      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jun 2019 20:42:41 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Iodine nutritional status and prevalence of goitre
           among school going children: A cross-sectional study to assess progress
    • Abstract: Bali, Surya; Nayak, Pritish Kumar
      Background and Objectives: Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) has been a major public health challenge for the Indian subcontinent over many years. Our study was conducted in Tikamgarh district of Madhya Pradesh, an iodine deficiency disorders-endemic district, with the objective to estimate total goitre rate and iodine nutrition status.

      Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional study with 30 cluster sampling was conducted between June to July 2016 among school-going children in the age group of 6-12 years. Ninety children from each school (30x90=2700) were selected for the assessment of Goitre. Total 540 salt samples and 270 urine samples were collected to estimate salt iodine content from their house-hold and urine iodine excretion (UIE) respectively. A total of 150 households and 30 shopkeepers were interviewed to understand the awareness level for salt iodization.

      Results: Goitre rate in Tikamgarh district was 1.9% with prevalence of grade I and II was 1.7% and 0.2% respectively. The median UIE level was 200 mcg/L. The 20% the population had iodine deficiency, 28.9% population had adequate iodine nutrition and 51.1% population had either more than adequate level of iodine. The 72.4% of the population consume adequately iodized salt (>=15 ppm).

      Conclusions: Our study concludes that Tikamgarh district is non-endemic for IDDs against the earlier classification as an IDD-endemic district. About 20% population has 'iodine deficiency' and approximately 51.1% population has 'more than adequate iodine intake'. We recommend stringent programme monitoring, undertake periodic assessment of IDD and explore manifestations of excess iodine intake (>=300 mcg/L) such as Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism in future.

      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jun 2019 20:42:41 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Food frequency questionnaire reproducibility for
           middle-aged and elderly Japanese
    • Abstract: Maruyama, Koutatsu; Ikeda, Ai; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Sawada, Norie; Shimazu, Taichi; Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Tanaka, Junta; Yamaji, Taiki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tsugane, Shoichiro
      Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the reproducibility of a self-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) originally developed for the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study (JPHC study) and modified for use in the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT) study.

      Methods and Study Design: Participants included 98 men and 142 women aged 40-74 years from the five areas included in the JPHCNEXT protocol. In November 2012, participants were recruited and asked to complete the first nutrition survey. The second nutrition survey was completed after 1 year.

      Results: We estimated daily energy as well as 53 nutrient and 29 food group intakes using the FFQ. To assess reproducibility, we calculated Spearman correlation coefficients between both FFQs, which showed mostly intermediate-to-high values. Median (range) correlation coefficients and quartile distribution in the same and adjacent categories for energy-adjusted nutrient intakes were 0.55 (0.42-0.84) and 84.7% (76.5%-98.0%) in men and 0.54 (0.35-0.80) and 84.5% (76.1%-94.4%) in women. The respective values for energy-adjusted food group intakes in men and women were also mostly intermediate to high: 0.54 (0.39-0.79) and 83.7% (75.5%-90.8%) in men and 0.57 (0.40-0.83) and 84.5% (77.5%-93.7%) in women.

      Conclusions: The FFQ developed for the JPHC-NEXT study has reasonable reproducibility. Because this FFQ has also been validated in a previous study, it can be considered a useful dietary assessment tool to examine associations between dietary consumption and lifestyle-related diseases.

      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jun 2019 20:42:41 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Increased coffee, tea, or other sugar-sweetened
           beverage consumption in adolescents is associated with less satisfactory
           dietary quality, body fatness and serum uric acid profiles over the past
           18 years in Taiwan
    • Abstract: Shih, Ya-Hui; Wu, Hsin-Chuan; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chang, Hsing-Yi
      Background and Objectives: Taiwan has a high density of convenience stores and beverage shops, which makes sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) very accessible to teenagers. This study examined the changes and the association between SSBs and biomarkers and nutrient intake, for teenagers over the course of 18 years using a national representative sample.

      Methods and Study Design: This cross-sectional study used data from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT). Complete data for teenagers aged 13 to 19 years including a 24-hour dietary recall, anthropometric and clinical measurements, and SSBs from two periods were analyzed (1993-1996: N=1820; 2010-2011: N=2513). SAS callable SUDAAN was used for statistical analysis, adjusting for the sampling scheme. Log transformation was used for non-normal variables before linear models were used. Coffee or tea and SSB (excluding tea or coffee) consumers were categorized as non-drinkers, low (below), or high (above) consumers based on median intake during 1993-1996.

      Results: Intake of coffee or tea increased significantly in the 18 years of this study (p
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jun 2019 20:42:41 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Young adult vegetarians in Shanghai have comparable
           bone health to omnivores despite lower serum 25(OH) vitamin D in vegans: A
           cross-sectional study
    • Abstract: Xie, Luyao; Wang, Bian; Cui, Xueying; Tang, Qingya; Cai, Wei; Shen, Xiuhua
      Background and Objectives: The association between a vegetarian diet and bone mineral density (BMD) remains unclear, particularly in young adults. This study was designed to compare the bone health status of young vegetarians and omnivores in Shanghai, China.

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 246 vegetarians (following a vegan or lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet for at least 1 year) and 246 age- and sex-matched omnivores were recruited among young adult residents of Shanghai, China. The ultrasound bone mineral density analyser CM-200 was employed to measure calcaneus mineral densities, and blood samples were collected to determine serum 25- hydroxyvitamin D status. Intakes of protein, calcium and vitamin D were assessed by the 24-hour dietary recall method.

      Results: The average age of the vegetarians was 32.7+-6.5 years, 83.3% of whom were female; 71.3% of the participants had been vegetarians for no more than 5 years. After adjusting for some potential cofounding factors, the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration of vegans (15.0+-13.4 mug/L) was significantly lower than that of omnivores (17.6+-8.8 mug/L, p
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jun 2019 20:42:41 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Serum potassium and handgrip strength as predictors of
           sleep quality among hemodialysis patients in Malaysia
    • Abstract: Ling Ling, Lina; Chan, Yoke Mun; Daud, Zulfitri 'Azuan Mat
      Background and Objectives: Poor sleep quality is prevalent among hemodialysis (HD) patients and leads to adverse health outcomes. This study investigated the association of nutritional parameters with sleep quality among Malaysian HD patients.

      Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 184 Malaysian HD patients. Anthropometric measurements and handgrip strength (HGS) were obtained using standardized protocols. Relevant biochemical indicators were retrieved from patients' medical records. Nutritional status was assessed using the dialysis malnutrition score. The sleep quality of patients was determined using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire on both dialysis and non-dialysis days.

      Results: Slightly more than half of the HD patients were poor sleepers, with approximately two-third of them having a sleep duration of
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jun 2019 20:42:41 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Activity energy expenditure, screen time and dietary
           habits relative to gender among Saudi youth: Interactions of gender with
           obesity status and selected lifestyle behaviours
    • Abstract: Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Albawardi, Nada M
      Background and Objectives: Lifestyle-related risks are linked to several non-communicable diseases, with enormous global mortality and economic cost. Women in Saudi Arabia are faced with high prevalence of obesity, inactivity and sedentary behaviours. This study examined the interaction effects of gender with obesity status and lifestyle behaviours among Saudi adolescents.

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 2888 adolescents (1500 females) aged 15-19 years were randomly selected from secondary schools in three major cities in Saudi Arabia, using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured and physical activity (PA), screen time, sleep duration and dietary habits were assessed using a validated questionnaire. ANCOVA and multivariate tests were used while controlling for age.

      Results: A number of lifestyle behaviours displayed significant gender effects, with some selected variables having multiple interaction effects. Total activity energy expenditure and sum of vigorous-intensity PA showed significant interaction effects between gender and obesity status, whereas sum of moderate activity energy expenditure, non-leisure-time PA and sleep duration exhibited significant interaction effects between gender and screen time. Vegetable intake showed significant three-way interaction effects between gender, waist/height ratio and screen time.

      Conclusions: The presence of several lifestyle behavioural risks, including physical inactivity, sedentary behaviours and some dietary habits was confirmed. The high inactivity level and screen time represents a double burden on the health of young Saudi females. Future studies must address the psycho-social, cultural and environmental determinants associated with healthy lifestyle relative to gender and initiate novel interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour.

      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jun 2019 20:42:41 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Metabolic dynamics in critically injured patients: A
           prospective cohort study integrated with 1H NMR metabolomics
    • Abstract: Zhou, Yubo; Wang, Kai; Zeng, Jun; Li, Wei; Peng, Jin; Zhou, Zhiyuan; Deng, Pengchi; Sun, Mingwei; Yang, Hao; Li, Shijun; Lu, Charles Damien; Jiang, Hua
      Background and Objectives: By combining the techniques of metabolomics and computational biology, this research aims to explore the mechanism of metabolic dynamics in critically injured patients and develop a new early warning method for mortality.

      Methods and Study Design: A prospective cohort study was conducted, group plasma samples of critically injured patients were collected for 1H-NMR metabolomics analysis. The data was processed with partial least squares regression, to explore the role of enzyme-gene network regulatory mechanism in critically injured metabolic network regulation and to build a quantitative prediction model for early warning of fast death.

      Results: In total, 60 patients were enrolled. There were significant differences in plasma metabolome between the surviving patients and the deceased ones. Compared to the surviving patients, 112 enzymes and genes regulating the 6 key metabolic marker disturbances of neopterin, corticosterone, 3-methylhistidine, homocysteine, Serine, tyrosine, prostaglandin E2, tryptophan, testosterone and estriol, were observed in the plasmas of deceased ones. Among patients of different injury stages, there were significant differences in plasma metabolome. Progressing from T0 to T50 stages of injury, increased levels of neopterin, corticosterone, prostaglandin E2, tryptophan and testosterone, together with decreased levels of homocysteine, and estriol, were observed. Eventually, the quantitative prediction model of death warning was established. Cross-validation results showed that the predictive effect was good (RMSE=0.18408, R2=0.87 p=0.036).

      Conclusions: Metabolomics approaches can be used to quantify the metabolic dynamics of patients with critically injuries and to predict death of critically injured patients by plasma 1H-NMR metabolomics.

      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jun 2019 20:42:41 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - The innovation of functional foods in Asia: IFFA 2018
    • Abstract: Chumphukam, Orada; Chaiwangyen, Wittaya; Sivamaruthi, Bhagavathi Sundaram; Chaiyasut, Chaiyavat; Natakankitkul, Surapol; Kangwan, Napapan; Tantipaiboonwong, Payungsak; Tipsuwan, Wachiraporn; Promnoi, Kanokarn; Lapinee, Chaipat; Singsai, Kanathip; Pintha, Komsak; Wattanatorn, Wiboon; Sanguansermsri, Mondhon; Suttajit, Maitree
      Functional foods (FF) are commonly consumed by Asians, and this trend has increased in recent years. Despite the reported health benefits of FF, it is necessary scrutiny and updates of the underpinning research are important. The first international conference on functional food innovation in Asia (IFFA 2018) took place on January 22nd- 24th, 2018, at the University of Phayao, Thailand. Domestic and international speakers, researchers, nutritionists, dieticians, research scholars and students shared their knowledge and experience in FF research. Key features were the potential beneficial roles of FF in health and disease, the current situation with FF in Asia and innovative trends. The IFFA 2018 involved 2 keynote speakers, 34 invited speakers and 10 sessions. About 250 people from across Asia participated. Key themes, discussions, innovative opportunities, and future directions to link research in academia with health-directed applications as FF are summarised.

      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jun 2019 20:42:41 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Advances in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid nutrition
    • Abstract: Li, Duo; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Sinclair, Andrew J
      There is conclusive evidence to demonstrate the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in human development and growth, vision, and cell membrane fluidity (membrane order). N-3 PUFA also contribute to human health maintenance through correction of arrhythmias, inhibition of platelet aggregation and prolongation of clotting time, lowering blood pressure, lowering serum triglycerides and plasma homocysteine, being antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory, being cardio-protective, increasing insulin sensitivity in Asians, and decreasing the risk of breast and colorectal cancers. This understanding of a wide spectrum of biological effects attributable to n-3 PUFA has been unsettled by a systematic review of randomized clinical intervention trials (RCTs) which has reported that n-3 PUFA have negligible or no effect on all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. Here, possible reasons for the inconsistencies in regard to n-3 PUFA and cardiovascular diseases, along with the implications for their broader biology, are considered.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Reviewing the effects of dietary salt on cognition:
           Mechanisms and future directions
    • Abstract: Kendig, Michael D; Morris, Margaret J
      Background and Objectives: Consumption of salt exceeds dietary guidelines for many countries around the world, despite efforts to increase awareness of the potential cardiovascular health risks. Emerging evidence, primarily from rodent models, indicates that high salt intake may also impair aspects of cognitive function. To our knowledge, here we provide the first review of the effects of salt on cognition. To review literature on the effects of high-salt diets on cognitive measures across human and non-human animal research to generate targeted questions for future studies.

      Methods and Study Design: Non-systematic literature review of studies manipulating (in rodents) or measuring (in humans) salt intake and assessing performance on cognitive measures.

      Results: Studies in humans have focused on older populations and show mixed associations between salt intake and cognitive performance. By contrast, most rodent studies have found impairments in cognition following chronic consumption of high-salt (typically 7-8%) diets. Most report impairments in tasks assessing spatial memory with corresponding increases in hippocampal oxidative stress and inflammatory responses originating in the gut. Notably, several rodent studies reported that high-salt diets impaired cognitive function in the absence of blood pressure changes.

      Conclusions: Contrasting results from human and animal studies emphasise the need for further studies to clarify whether salt intake affects cognition. Testing cognition in high-salt diet models that induce hypertension will increase the translatability of future studies in rodents. A challenge for research in humans is isolating the effects of salt from those of fat and sugar that tend to co-occur in 'western' diets.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - The impact of mandatory iodine fortification and
           supplementation on pregnant and lactating women in Australia
    • Abstract: Hurley, Stephen; Eastman, Creswell J; Gallego, Gisselle
      Background and Objectives: In Australia, two public health measures were introduced between 2009 and 2010 to reduce iodine deficiency. However there has been a shortage of information regarding their effectiveness and the ongoing prevalence of iodine deficiency in Australia. The primary aim of this study was to assess the extent to which these public health measures have reduced rates of iodine deficiency among pregnant and lactating women.

      Methods and Study Design: A review was conducted to identify all studies published since January 2010 that quantitatively measured the iodine status of pregnant and/or lactating women in Australia.

      Results: We found 25 publications, of which seven were included in this review after our exclusion criteria were applied. Of the seven included publications, three demonstrated the pregnant and lactating women in their studies to be iodine replete (median urinary iodine concentrations (MUIC) greater than 150 mug/L, or a breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) of greater than 100 mug/L). The remaining four publications found MUIC of pregnant and lactating women to be below the 150 mug/L threshold, in the mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency category. Only two studies, documented iodine sufficiency among pregnant and lactating women in the absence of iodine supplementation.

      Conclusions: Many pregnant and lactating women in Australia remain at least mildly iodine deficient. Antenatal iodine supplementation was the factor most consistently associated with an adequate iodine status. Larger, more representative studies or sentinel studies with a National coordination are needed to understand the differences in iodine status that exist across the country.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Utility of different indices in screening Chinese
           postmenopausal women for hepatic steatosis
    • Abstract: Liu, Peng Ju; Ma, Fang; Zhu, Yan Ning; Lou, Hui Ping
      Background and Objectives: To analyze the potential of fatty liver index (FLI) and several obesity indices and to explore which index is best for predicting nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Chinese postmenopausal women.

      Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 680 Chinese postmenopausal women. NAFLD was defined as a hepatic steatosis observed on liver ultrasonography in the absence of a second cause. Odds ratio and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) between hepatic steatosis and FLI as well as different obesity indices were evaluated by Binary Logistic regression model. Receiver operating characteristic curve and area under curve (AUC) were used to compare the ability of predicting hepatic steatosis between FLI and obesity indices.

      Results: The upper values of all indices were significantly associated with the presence of hepatic steatosis (all p
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Energy requirements for patients in convalescent
           rehabilitation using motor scores as in the functional independent measure
    • Abstract: Inoue, Hiromasa; Morioka, Kokoro; Okamoto, Kozue; Tsutsumi, Hitose; Ishino, Shinsuke; Kiritani, Naoko; Kubo, Hiroaki; Nara, Masanobu; Tsuji, Yoshiro
      Background and Objectives: Although appropriate nutrition management could improve rehabilitation outcomes, more than 40% of patients in a convalescent rehabilitation ward (CRW) suffer from malnutrition. The study was undertaken to investigate whether adequate nutrition for each patient in a CRW could be estimated based on motor scores on the Functional Independence Measure (FIM-M).

      Methods and Study Design: In 218 patients in our CRW, both basal energy expenditure (BEE) on admission and average energy intake (EI) for 2 weeks were calculated, and EI was divided by BEE to estimate the activity index (e-AI). The patients were classified according to FIM-M to investigate the relationship between the FIM-M and the e-AI.

      Results: The e-AI tended to increase in proportion to the FIM-M. In the N group, where the increase-decrease rate for body weight was within 2%, the e-AI induced by a FIM-M greater than 60 was significantly higher than that induced by a FIM-M up to 60 (1.3 vs 1.1, p
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Basal energy expenditure, resting energy expenditure
           and one metabolic equivalent (1 MET) values for young Chinese adults with
           different body weights
    • Abstract: Wu, Jinghuan; Mao, Deqian; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xiaorong; Hong, Ping; Piao, Jianhua; Zhuo, Qin; Yang, Xiaoguang
      Background and Objectives: Accurately assessing energy expenditure (EE) of people with different body weight is essential to facilitate weight management. The aim of this study was to measure basal energy expenditure (BEE), resting energy expenditure (REE) and to explore the true 1 MET value for young Chinese adults with different body weight.

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 251 young Chinese adults were divided into three groups: the normal weight group, the overweight group and the obese group. Their BEE, REE and 1 MET values were measured by Cortex Metamax 3B (MM3B). Multiple linear regressions and correlation analysis were used to examine factors that influence EE in Chinese population.

      Results: The mean measured BEE and REE of young Chinese adults with normal weight, overweight and obesity was 1429, 1609, 1778 kcal/day and 1522, 1712, 1885 kcal/day, respectively. The EE per kilogram body weight decreased with the increasing body weight. The mean oxygen consumption in the three group was 3.78, 3.47, 3.21 mL/kg/min respectively. There was no significant difference in BEE and REE after adjustment for fat-free mass (FFM). The significant influencing factors were body mass index (BMI) and sex in BEE, FFM and BMI in REE in Chinese population.

      Conclusions: BEE and REE were significantly different for different body weights while these differences disappeared after adjustment for FFM, and people with different body weights may have different 1 MET values. Further studies should be conducted to obtain more accurate daily energy requirement and 1 MET value for specific Chinese populations.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Effects of cyclic parenteral nutrition on parenteral
           nutrition-associated cholestasis in newborns
    • Abstract: Bae, Hye Jung; Shin, Seung Han; Kim, Ee-Kyung; Kim, Han-Suk; Cho, Yoon Sook; Gwak, Hye Sun
      Background and Objectives: Parenteral nutrition (PN) is one of the main nutritional methods used in newborns; however, long-term PN may induce PN-associated cholestasis (PNAC). This study aims to evaluate the effect of cyclic PN in the prevention and improvement of PNAC in newborns requiring long-term PN.

      Methods and Study Design: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients admitted at the Seoul National University Children's Hospital neonatal intensive care unit between October 2010 and September 2015 and referred to the nutrition support team with total parenteral nutrition for more than 14 days. The primary outcome was the incidence of PNAC. The incidence of hypoglycemia, changes in direct bilirubin (DB) concentrations, and length of hospital stay were investigated.

      Results: A total of 124 patients were observed in this study. Among these, 100 patients received continuous PN, whereas 24 patients received both continuous and cyclic PN. PNAC occurred in 31.5% (39/124) of study population. The incidence rates of PNAC were 27.4% during continuous PN period and 20.8% during cyclic PN period. Cyclic PN was an independent factor that significantly decreased PNAC incidence (OR=0.154; 95% CI, 0.045-0.529, p=0.003). DB concentrations significantly decreased (p=0.049) with therapeutic cyclic PN, but remained normal with prophylactic cyclic PN. No significant difference in hypoglycemia incidence and length of hospital stay was observed in both continuous PN and continuous to cyclic PN groups.

      Conclusions: Cyclic PN could be effective in the prevention and improvement of PNAC and also safe in terms of hypoglycemia in newborns.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Tolerability of partially and extensively hydrolysed
           milk formulas in children with cow's milk allergy
    • Abstract: Inuo, Chisato; Tanaka, Kenichi; Nakajima, Yoichi; Yamawaki, Kazuo; Matsubara, Takeshi; Iwamoto, Hiroshi; Tsuge, Ikuya; Urisu, Atsuo; Kondo, Yasuto
      Background and Objectives: The safety and tolerability of hydrolysed cow's milk protein-based formulas, particularly partially hydrolysed formulas (pHFs), in children with cow's milk allergy (CMA) remain poorly understood. We evaluated the tolerability of hydrolysed cow's milk-based formulas in children with CMA.

      Methods and Study Design: A three-period double-blind crossover evaluation compared the allergic tolerance against three dietary cow's milk-based formulas: extensively hydrolysed cow's milk formula (eHF), pHF, and regular cow's milk formula (rCMF). The primary outcome was the rate of tolerance against a maximum of 20.0 mL of formula.

      Results: Controlled food challenges were performed in 25 children (18 boys; 7 girls) with a median age of 4.25 years (range: 1-9 years) diagnosed with CMA. The median cow's milk-specific immunoglobulin E level was 31.9 UA/mL (range: 1.16-735 UA/mL). The tolerance rate ratios for rCMF were lower than those for pHF (2 vs 16; p
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Pectin-containing liquid enteral nutrition for
           critical care: A historical control and propensity score matched study
    • Abstract: Nakamura, Kensuke; Inokuchi, Ryota; Fukushima, Kazutaka; Naraba, Hiromu; Takahashi, Yuji; Sonoo, Tomohiro; Hashimoto, Hideki; Doi, Kent; Morimura, Naoto
      Background and Objectives: Pectin-containing liquid enteral nutrition (PCLEN) contains pectin, which becomes solid in the stomach and therefore mitigates vomiting and diarrhea. Its efficacy for use in critical care medicine was evaluated.

      Methods and Study Design: We used liquid enteral nutrition (LEN) (traditional LEN (TLEN)) as the primary LEN at the emergency and critical care center. We adopted PCLEN as the primary LEN from 2014. During 2012-2016, 954 patients admitted to intensive care units and emergency wards were given PCLEN or TLEN. We conducted propensity score matching for 693 eligible patients for age, sex, and organ dysfunctions for six organs.

      Results: We included 199 PCLEN patients and 199 TLEN patients. Severity was higher in the PCLEN group. The enteral nutrition failure rate was significantly lower for PCLEN than for TLEN. The diarrhea incidence rates were 28.1% vs 38.2% (p=0.033), and the incidence rates of nosocomial pneumonia were 4.5% and 9.6% (p=0.048). For PCLEN, the enteral nutrition failure rates were not different for patients with gastric acid inhibitors and without them.

      Conclusions: PCLEN can be used effectively for critically ill patients irrespective of the use of gastric acid inhibitors. It can decrease the incidence of enteral nutrition failure and diarrhea.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Nutritional status of patients admitted to a
           metropolitan tertiary care vascular surgery unit
    • Abstract: Thomas, Jolene; Delaney, Christopher; Suen, Jenni; Miller, Michelle
      Background and Objectives: Undernutrition in vascular surgery patients has a significant impact on clinical outcomes. This observational study aimed to investigate the nutritional status of a heterogeneous sample of vascular surgery inpatients and to determine the prevalence of nutritional risk, malnutrition (including nutrient deficiencies) and sarcopenia.

      Methods and Study Design: All participants were screened for risk of malnutrition using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and assessed using the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA). Micronutrient status was examined via plasma/serum samples. The presence of sarcopenia was explored using an accepted algorithm incorporating gait speed, muscle mass (DEXA) and grip strength.

      Results: 322 participants (69% male, mean age 67.6+-14.1y) consented to the study. 12.5% were identified as at risk of malnutrition by the MUST while 15.8% were deemed malnourished by the PG-SGA. Only 5% were diagnosed as sarcopenic. Prevalence of malnutrition was much higher when micronutrients were examined with 79% showing low vitamin C, 56% low vitamin D and over 40% having low zinc, vitamin B-12 and folate. A smaller proportion were also low in selenium (19%).

      Conclusions: Patients with vascular disease are a nutritionally vulnerable group. The MUST and PG-SGA did not identify the full extent of nutritional deficiencies. Further investigation is warranted to assess tool validity in this group. A number of micronutrients are crucial in these patients and hence a more comprehensive assessment that encompasses a wider range of parameters, including micronutrient status appears warranted.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Effects of 1-year weight loss intervention on
           abdominal skeletal muscle mass in japanese overweight men and women
    • Abstract: Tanaka, Noriko I; Murakami, Haruka; Aiba, Naomi; Morita, Akemi; Watanabe, Shaw; Miyachi, MotohikoSaku Control Obesity Program (SCOP) Study Group
      Background and Objectives: Limited information is available on how weight loss intervention programs affect skeletal muscle mass especially in trunk.

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 235 overweight Japanese men and women aged 40-64 years with a body mass index of 28.0 to 44.8 kg/m2 participated in this randomized controlled intervention study. They were randomly divided into a lifestyle intervention group and control group. Before and after the one-year lifestyle intervention for weight loss an abdominal transverse image was acquired by computed tomography. The cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, and skeletal muscle of rectus abdominis, abdominal oblique, iliopsoas, and erector spinae muscle were calculated.

      Results: The body weight changed by approximately -5% in the intervention groups. The corresponding values for subcutaneous fat and visceral fat CSAs were -10.8 to -17.5% in both sexes. The reductions observed in skeletal muscle CSAs were significantly less (-6.0% and -7.2% in the men and women intervention groups respectively) than those in fat tissue CSAs. The CSA of each of the four skeletal muscle groups also significantly decreased; however, after adjustments for body weight at each time point, only reductions in the iliopsoas muscle in both sex and abdominal oblique muscles in men remained significant.

      Conclusions: The lifestyle weight loss intervention might reduce the relative amount of the abdominal skeletal muscles especially in iliopsoas muscle.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Eating rate as risk for body mass index and waist
           circumference obesity with appropriate confounding factors: A
           cross-sectional analysis of the Shizuoka- Sakuragaoka J-MICC Study
    • Abstract: Wuren, M A; Endoh, Kaori; Kuriki, KiyonoriThe Shizuoka-Sakuragaoka J-MICC Study group
      Background and Objectives: The relationship between eating rate (ER) and increased risk of obesity in relation to body mass index (BMI, i.e., total body fat) and waist circumference (WC, i.e., abdominal fat) has not been fully examined. Considering gender differences, we identified unknown confounding factors (CFs) for each risk, and then assessed the two actual obesity risks, adjusting for the CFs.

      Methods and Study Design: Using a questionnaire, we collected data for ER (slow, normal as "reference," and fast) and related factors and measured BMI and WC for 3,393 men and 2,495 women. Using multiple logistic regression models, odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated adjusting for both conventional and candidate CFs.

      Results: The following factors were identified as appropriate CFs, but were differed between the two obesity types: fast food consumption in both genders, sleep duration and restaurants/food service use in men, and family structure and packed lunch in women. In men, actual risks of BMI obesity and WC obesity were negatively associated with slow ER (ORs and 95% CIs; 0.70 and 0.52-0.96, and 0.69 and 0.50-0.96), but positively associated with fast ER (1.48 and 1.25-1.76, and 1.45 and 1.21-1.74). In women, those risks were positively related to fast ER (1.78 and 1.39-2.26, and 1.34 and 1.11-1.61).

      Conclusions: For both BMI obesity risk and WC obesity risk, we conclude that slow and fast ER were related to decreased and increased risks when adjusted for appropriate CFs, which differed by gender and the obesity type.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Self-reported behavior of eating quickly is correlated
           with visceral fat area in Japanese non-obese adults
    • Abstract: Iwasaki, Takahiro; Hirose, Akiko; Azuma, Tetsuji; Watanabe, Kazutoshi; Deguchi, Fumiko; Obora, Akihiro; Kojima, Takao; Tomofuji, Takaaki
      Background and Objectives: This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between eating speed and fat accumulation in Japanese non-obese adults.

      Methods and Study Design: In total, 381 non-obese participants aged 35-74 years underwent a health checkup including fat distribution. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging to quantify visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA). Information on eating speed was obtained using a self-administrated questionnaire.

      Results: The numbers of participants with self-reported behavior of eating slowly, medium, or quickly were 24 (6.3%), 180 (47.2%), and 177 (46.5%), respectively. The prevalence of VFA >=100 cm2 was higher in the eating quickly group than in the eating slowly (p
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Effects of skipping breakfast on dietary intake and
           circulating and urinary nutrients during pregnancy
    • Abstract: Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi; Matsuzaki, Masayo
      Background and Objectives: More than 20% of pregnant Japanese women regularly skip breakfast, thereby resulting in a low intake of several nutrients that are required for fetal development and prevention of pregnancy complications. However, whether skipping breakfast affects circulating levels of these nutrients remains unclear. We investigated whether skipping breakfast during pregnancy was associated with decreases in dietary intake and circulating and urinary levels of several nutrients, including fatty acids and vitamins.

      Methods and Study Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted at a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan, between June and October 2010. Nutrient intakes were assessed using a validated diet history questionnaire. Blood and 24-hour urinary samples were collected for assessing circulating and urinary excretion levels of nutrients. Skipping breakfast was defined as forgoing breakfast including a staple food, such as rice or bread, two or more times per week. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to compare nutrient levels between breakfast skippers and non-skippers after adjusting for confounders.

      Results: Of 97 healthy pregnant women in the second trimester, 37 (38.1%) skipped breakfast two or more times per week. In multiple linear regression analysis, breakfast skippers had significant lower energy-adjusted intakes of protein than non-skippers (p=0.019). In addition, breakfast skippers had significantly lower levels of plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (p=0.008), plasma docosahexaenoic acid (p=0.027), serum beta- carotene (p=0.013), urinary urea nitrogen (p=0.027), and urinary potassium (p=0.006), compared to non-skippers.

      Conclusions: Healthcare professionals need to suggest effective strategies for encouraging breakfast skippers to have breakfast regularly and to increase the intake of these nutrients.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - The dietary intake of two groups of lactating women in
           shanghai during the puerperium
    • Abstract: Hu, Rui; Fei, Jun; Zhai, Yingchen; Feng, Yi; Warren, Janet; Jin, Yi; Papi, Bianca; Stahl, Bernd; Wang, Zhixu; Li, Jing
      Background and Objectives: Lactation is a time of increased nutritional requirements for mothers, and inadequate nutrient intake may have a detrimental effect on a woman's nutritional status. To investigate the dietary intake of two groups of women in Shanghai during the traditional confinement period.

      Methods and Study Design: Two groups of women (1) a community dwelling sample (n=92); (2) residents in a Maternity Care Centre (MCC) (n=30), kept a prospective dietary record which was complemented by photographing. This data collection was done on a single day on three occasions in the community group, and for three days on five occasions in the MCC one. The mean nutrient intakes of the two groups were compared at common time points to dietary reference intakes, and the food intake was compared to dietary guidelines.

      Results: Over half of this population had high body mass indices (BMIs) which reported that an excessive proportion of calories had come from fat intake. The mean intakes of sodium were higher than the recommended. Fruit, vegetable, bean, tuber, and milk intakes were lower than the recommendations. Over 70% of the women failed to meet the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for calcium. A notable proportion of all women failed to meet the EAR for vitamin C, thiamin, and riboflavin. Dietary fiber intakes were low, with a group mean intake value less than half the Adequate Intake (AI).

      Conclusions: This study on dietary intakes indicates nutritional intake issues may exist among lactating women in Shanghai, particularly in community-dwelling women.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Prevalence of and factors associated with thiamin
           deficiency in obese Thai children
    • Abstract: Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Srisawat, Chatchawan; Chotipanang, Kwanjai; Junnu, Sarawut; Kunnangja, Supawan; Wongarn, Renu; Sriboonnark, Wipawee; Tirapongporn, Hathaichanok; Phuangphan, Phakkanan
      Background and Objectives: Obesity is a state that results from excessive energy consumption, and obese people often have micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and factors associated with thiamin deficiency in obese Thai children.

      Methods and Study Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University during 2014 to 2017. Children aged 7-15 years old with exogenous obesity were recruited. Symptoms and signs of thiamin deficiency were evaluated. Erythrocyte transketolase activity was measured by thiamin pyrophosphate effect (TPPE), with >=15% indicating thiamin deficiency. Dietary consumption from a 5-day food diary and food frequency questionnaire was calculated by INMUCAL software. Other medical complications of obesity were also evaluated.

      Results: One hundred and twenty-four subjects (81 males and 43 females) were enrolled, with a mean age of 10.9 years. Fifty-two subjects had abnormal TPPE for an overall prevalence of thiamin deficiency of 42%. Manifestations of thiamin deficiency included numbness, weakness, and calf muscle cramping. TPPE test results were correlated with at least one symptom or a sign of thiamin deficiency (p
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Dietary exposure to sulfites in Indonesians
    • Abstract: Fanaike, Ruki; Andarwulan, Nuri; Prangdimurti, Endang; Indrotristanto, Nugroho; Puspitasari, Rina
      Background and Objectives: Information on dietary exposure to sulfites as preservative in consumer is needed as a scientific base for food safety policy making. The objective of this research was to conduct dietary exposure assessment to sulfites in consumers by using a deterministic method.

      Methods and Study Design: The scope of work was identification of food products containing sulfites, determination of food consumption data from the individual food consumption survey report of 2014, determination of sulfite concentration in food, and calculation of sulfite exposure.

      Results: 3,428 (9%) of 37,613 food products registered in National Agency of Drug and Food Control (2012-2015) may contain sulfite. The most used sulfite in food products was sodium metabisulfite. The mean of food containing sulfite consumption in all age groups was 131.4 g/person/day. The estimation of total exposure for all age groups were 0.27 mg/kgBW/day (38.6% ADI), 0.25 mg/kgBW/day (35.7% ADI) and 0.08 mg/kgBW/day (11.4% ADI) by using concentrations of Maximum Permitted Limit, reported maximum used level and reported maximum product test result, respectively. Food category contributed to the highest exposure in all age groups was spices, condiments, vinegar, powder or mixture for soups and broths, and other soy sauce category.

      Conclusions: The highest total exposure to sulfites was found in 0-59 month age group. The highest total exposure for the MPL (0.79 mg/kgBW/day) and the reported maximum used level (0.73 mg/kgBW/day) exceeded 112.9% ADI and 104.3% ADI, respectively while the exposure using reported maximum test result was still below ADI (0.25 mg/kgBW/day or 35.7% ADI).

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Quantitative estimates of dietary intake in households
           of South Tarawa, Kiribati
    • Abstract: Eme, Paul Eze; Burlingame, Barbara; Douwes, Jeroen; Kim, Nicholas; Foliaki, Sunia
      Background and Objectives: Malnutrition is a public health problem especially among the Pacific Small Island developing nations. This study assessed malnutrition with dietary intakes in households of South Tarawa, Kiribati, a West Pacific Island Nation State.

      Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional community-based study design was used. One hundred and sixty-one households were selected from Betio, Bikenibeu and Teaorereke towns using a systematic random sampling method. About 35% each of the households was selected from Bikenebue and Besio while 30.4% was selected from Teaoraeke. Family (including children) dietary surveys including 24- hour dietary recall were administered to assess adequacy of nutrient intakes and dietary diversity using Household Diet Diversity Scores. A 3-day weighed food record was collected on a sub-sample. Data were analysed using FoodWorks Pro 8 for nutrient intake and Statistical Product for Service Solution (SPSS) version 21 for descriptive statistics.

      Results: Sixty-one percent of the subjects had the lowest dietary diversity, 36.3% had a medium dietary diversity and only 2.7% had the highest dietary diversity. Based on the weighed food record results (n=29), male subjects of all age groups had adequate intakes of riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, magnesium, iron and zinc, but had high intakes of protein and sodium; and low intakes of potassium and calcium. Female subjects had adequate intakes of vitamin C, iron, magnesium and zinc, but had high intakes of protein and sodium; and low intakes of potassium and calcium.

      Conclusions: Across all groups, 61% of the adult Kiribati population studied showed low dietary diversity, and a high prevalence of multiple micronutrient deficiencies.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Longitudinal nutritional changes in aging Australian
    • Abstract: Hill, Edward; Hodge, Alison; Clifton, Peter; Shivappa, Nitin; Hebert, James R; Dennerstein, Lorraine; Campbell, Stephen; Szoeke, Cassandra
      Background and Objectives: The importance of diet for the maintenance of health during aging is attracting a growing body of research interest. Given dietary intakes, along with BMI, are substantial contributors to disease burden, this study aimed to investigate prospective changes in dietary patterns and nutrient intakes in a sample of mid to late-life women over 14 years.

      Methods and Study Design: Participants were from the Women's Healthy Ageing Project (WHAP); a longitudinal cohort of Australian-born women within the Melbourne metropolitan area. 173 participants were included in this analysis, their mean age in 1998 was 55 years (range 51-62) and in 2012 was 70 years (range 66-76). Diet was assessed using the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies Version 2 in 1998 and 2012. Nutritional intakes, Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) scores, Mediterranean Diet (MD) scores, sociodemographic and physical measures were calculated for all participants at both time points.

      Results: Energy intake was found to significantly decrease over time (p
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Soy product consumption and type 2 diabetes among
           adults in Beijing, China
    • Abstract: Zhu, Zhu; He, Haizhen; Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Ting; Zhou, Guirong; Zhuang, Guoliang; Wang, Peiyu; Liu, Aiping
      Background and Objectives: To examine the association between the frequency of soy products consumption and type 2 diabetes or impaired fasting glucose.

      Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional study of 3,314 subjects aged 18-79 years was conducted in Beijing, China in 2016. Consumption of soy products was assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire and examined with type 2 diabetes or impaired fasting glucose risk using multiple logistic regression.

      Results: 509 of the 3,314 participants (15.4%) included in the current analyses had diabetes, and among them 453 were diabetes uncontrolled. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was 11.9%. After adjustment for demographic variables, smoke, alcohol, physical activity and BMI, soy products consumption was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes risk and impaired fasting glucose. ORs and 95% CI for diabetes uncontrolled across soy products consumption frequencies (monthly, weekly, daily) were 1 (reference), 0.819 (0.627-1.070), 0.605 (0.387, 0.944) respectively (ptrend=0.033). ORs (95% CI) for impaired fasting glucose across soy products consumption frequencies were 1 (reference), 0.873 (0.661-1.152), 0.616 (0.385, 0.985) respectively (ptrend=0.046).

      Conclusions: Consuming soy products daily may decrease the risk of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Differences and overlap between Sarcopenia and
           physical frailty in older community-dwelling Japanese
    • Abstract: Mori, Hiroyasu; Tokuda, Yasunobu
      Background and Objectives: Sarcopenia and frailty result in loss of function and independence. Sarcopenia may be a risk factor for frailty; however, risk factors for sarcopenia with frailty, and associated incidence of falls and poor quality of life remain unclear. We investigated the clinical characteristics and relevant factors for sarcopenia with frailty in older community-dwelling Japanese.

      Methods and Study Design: This cross-sectional study included 331 Japanese community-dwelling adults aged >=60 years. We assessed falls history in the past year, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), including physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS), age, total energy intake per ideal body weight (TEI/kg IBW), total protein intake/kg IBW, vitamin D intake, and exercise habits. Sarcopenia was determined using low hand grip strength or slow gait speed and low skeletal muscle mass index. Frailty was determined if >=3 components, such as unintended weight loss, exhaustion, low muscle strength, slow gait speed, and low physical activity were present.

      Results: The prevalence of sarcopenia with frailty was 3.6%; such participants had a higher risk of recurrent falls and lower PCS and MCS scores than robust participants. Age, TEI/kg IBW, total protein intake/kg IBW, and vitamin D intake were significantly associated with risk of sarcopenia with frailty by multivariate logistic regression analysis.

      Conclusions: This study showed that sarcopenia with frailty was had higher incidences of recurrent fall and poor HRQOL than robust older adults. Aging and poor energy, protein, and vitamin D intake, may be relevant factors for sarcopenia with frailty.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Development of nutrition science competencies for
           undergraduate degrees in Australia
    • Abstract: Lawlis, Tanya; Coates, Alison Mary; Clark, Karin; Charlton, Karen Elizabeth; Sinclair, Andrew James; Wood, Lisa Gai; Devine, Amanda; Torres, Susan Jane
      Background and Objectives: The need for updated competencies for nutrition scientists in Australia was identified. The aim of this paper is to describe the process of revising of these competencies for undergraduate nutrition science degrees in Australia.

      Methods and Study Design: An iterative multiple methods approach comprising three stages was undertaken: 1. Scoping study of existing competencies; 2. Exploratory survey; and, 3. Modified Delphi process (2 rounds) involving 128 nutrition experts from industry, community, government and academia. A >=70% consensus rule was applied to Rounds 1 and 2 of the Delphi process in order to arrive at a final list of competencies.

      Results: Stage 1: Scoping study resulted in an initial list of 71 competency statements, categorised under six core areas. Stage 2: Exploratory survey-completed by 74 Nutrition Society of Australia (NSA) members; 76% agreed there was a need to update the current competencies. Standards were refined to six core areas and 36 statements. Stage 3: Modified Delphi process-revised competencies comprise five core competency areas, underpinned by fundamental knowledge, skills, attitudes and values: Nutrition Science; Food and the Food System; Nutrition Governance, Sociocultural and Behavioural Factors; Nutrition Research and Critical Analysis; and Communication and Professional Conduct; and three specialist competency areas: Food Science; Public Health Nutrition; and Animal Nutrition.

      Conclusions: The revised competencies provide an updated framework of nutrition science knowledge for graduates to effectively practice in Australia. They may be used to benchmark current and future nutrition science degrees and lead to improved employability skills of nutrition science graduates.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Carotenoid metabolic (BCO1) polymorphisms and personal
           behaviors modify the risk of coronary atherosclerosis: A nested
           case-control study in Han Chinese with dyslipidaemia (2013-2016)
    • Abstract: Cai, Xiao; Lian, Fuzhi; Kong, Yuling; Huang, Liu; Xu, Liangwen; Wu, Yinyin; Ma, Haiyan; Yang, Lei
      Background and Objectives: beta-Carotene-15,15'-oxygenase (BCO1) is a key enzyme involved in carotenoid metabolism and has been linked with the development of coronary atherosclerosis. This study investigated the association between BCO1 polymorphisms and the risk of coronary atherosclerosis in dyslipidemia participants, and analyzed the influence of personal behaviors on coronary atherosclerosis.

      Methods and Study Design: A nested case-control study was conducted from 2013 to 2016 in which 1359 dyslipidemia participants were recruited. Personal lifestyle parameters, mainly physical activities and diet, were obtained by questionnaires and the genotypes of rs11641677, rs11646692, rs12934922, rs6564851 and rs7501331 in BCO1 were analyzed by ligase detection reaction. In 2016, 166 participants were diagnosed with coronary atherosclerosis and 498 age-and gendermatched controls were recruited. The association between BCO1 polymorphisms and risk of coronary atherosclerosis were analyzed with logistic regression, and the effect of gene-behaviors interaction on the risk of coronary atherosclerosis were determined with crossover analysis.

      Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, logistic regression analysis showed that fried food intake (OR=1.637, 95% CI: 1.127 2.378; p=0.010), dessert intake (OR=1.733, 95% CI: 1.158 2.595; p=0.008), and physical activity (OR=0.511, 95% CI: 0.309 0.846; p=0.009) were risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis. Rs12934922 and rs11646692 reflected high susceptibility to coronary atherosclerosis. Crossover analysis indicated that rs12934922 and rs11646692 interacted with physical activity (Inter-OR=8.82; Inter-OR=3.69), fried food intake (Inter-OR=2.95; Inter-OR=2.36) and dessert intake (Inter-OR=3.95; Inter-OR=2.39) to influence the risk of coronary atherosclerosis.

      Conclusions: In dyslipidemia patients, rs12934922 and rs11646692 may influence the development of coronary atherosclerosis. A combination of BCO1 polymorphisms and several behavioral factors may affect the development of coronary atherosclerosis.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Obesity risk and preference for high dietary fat
           intake are determined by FTO rs9939609 gene polymorphism in selected
           Indonesian adults
    • Abstract: Daya, Mulianah; Pujianto, Dwi Ari; Witjaksono, Fiastuti; Priliani, Lidwina; Susanto, Jimmy; Lukito, Widjaja; Malik, Safarina G
      Background and Objectives: Data suggest that genetic factors are associated with BMI. The fat mass and obesity- associated (FTO) gene modulates adipogenesis through alternative splicing and m6A demethylation. Individuals with FTO rs9939609 gene polymorphism have a preference for energy-dense foods. This study investigates the relationship between FTO rs9939609 and obesity and preference for dietary fat intake among selected Indonesian adults.

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 40 non-obese and 40 obese participants aged 19-59 living in Jakarta were recruited. Body composition measurements included body weight, height, BMI, waist circumference, and body fat mass. Dietary intake was assessed using a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire and food recall over 2 24-h periods. Genetic variation was determined using amplification-refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction.

      Results: The genotype distribution of the FTO gene (rs9939609) was at Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium (p=1) with minor allele frequency=0.19. Individuals with AT/AA genotypes had 3.72 times higher risk of obesity (p=0.009) and 5.98 times higher dietary fat intake (p=0.02) than those with TT genotype. Obese participants with the AT/AA genotypes had 1.40 times higher dietary fat intake than those with the TT genotype (p=0.016).

      Conclusions: These findings suggest that Indonesian adults with AT/AA genotypes of the FTO rs9939609 have higher obesity risks and preferences for high dietary fat intake than those with TT genotype.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Combined effect of FTO and MC4R gene polymorphisms on
           obesity in children and adolescents in Northwest China: A case-control
    • Abstract: Yang, Yang; Gao, Xianghui; Tao, Xiujuan; Gao, Qinghan; Zhang, Yuhong; Yang, Jianjun
      Background and Objectives: Fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) genes associated with obesity have been identified through Genome-wide Association Studies. However, no multiple loci interaction studies have been conducted in the Chinese population. This study investigated whether the combined effects of FTO and MC4R increase the risk of obesity in children and adolescents living in Northwest China.

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 370 subjects (170 overweight/obese and 200 normal BMI subjects according to the Working Group on Obesity in China criteria) were enrolled using the random sampling method. FTO rs9939609 and rs9935401 and MC4R rs12970134 and rs17782313 interactions were analysed through generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction, and logistic regression models were used to calculate the risk of the relationship between genotypes and obesity.

      Results: Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis showed a significant gene-gene interaction among FTO rs9939609/MC4R rs12970134/MC4R rs17782313, with a score of 10/10 for the cross-validation consistency and 9 for the sign test (p=0.011). A 2.453-fold increased risk of obesity was observed in individuals carrying the genotypes of FTO rs9939609 TA/AA, MC4R rs12970134 GA/AA, and MC4R rs17782313 TC/CC (adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity; 95% CI=1.12-5.37, p=0.025).

      Conclusions: Our results suggested that FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs12970134, and MC4R rs17782313 are strongly associated with obesity. The combined effects were highly significant on obesity in children and adolescents living in Northwest China.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
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