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  Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 7268 journals)
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    - SURGERY (353 journals)
    - UROLOGY, NEPHROLOGY AND ANDROLOGY (135 journals)

MEDICAL SCIENCES (1810 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access  
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
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Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
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Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access  
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access  
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Fundeni Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access  
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Journal Khulna     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Research Council Bulletin     Open Access  
Basal Ganglia     Hybrid Journal  
Basic Sciences of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BC Medical Journal     Free  
Benha Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bijblijven     Hybrid Journal  
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biologics in Therapy     Open Access  
Biology of Sex Differences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomarker Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover American Journal of Biomedical Engineering
  [11 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2163-1050 - ISSN (Online) 2163-1077
   Published by SAP Homepage  [105 journals]
  • Design of a Microcontroller Based and X-Ray Waveform Independent kVp-Meter

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Y. Ülgen,M. TümerThe kVp setting is one of the major factors affecting the image quality in X-ray imaging and should be annually measured and calibrated if necessary. In this work, a kVp-meter is designed around the ATmega16 (Atmel) microcontroller, based on the physical principle that the linear attenuation coefficient of materials, namely copper has a smooth dependence on the energy level of the X-ray photons. Based on the logarithm of the ratio of the radiation intensities through 0.5mm and 1mm thick copper filters, a look-up table is generated in the range 60-120kVp. Logarithmic operation increased the precision at higher kVp values. Since sampling is performed over the exposure period in a continuous manner, the measurement is not affected by the X-ray waveform. A prototype unit was built and the performance was tested in terms of accuracy, precision and reliability.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Ultrasound Radio Frequency Signal Simulation Considering Doppler Effect by
           Use of Linear Time Variant Model

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  M. B. Khodabakhshi,H. Behnam,H. P. MehrabanyThis study aims to propose a computer simulation method for generating blood flow ultrasound signals. It mainly focuses on the simulation of radio frequency (RF) of moving objects in vessels, because RF signals contain more information than Doppler signal simulation. This method simulates RF signal on the basis of the acoustic field calculations. Furthermore, the resulting signal also includes Doppler Effect. The Doppler Effect is introduced while assuming the system is linear time variant (LTV). That is, when a scatterer moves, its spatial impulse response changes by time. Therefore, we could consider the desired Doppler Effect in the signals. Different velocity of a cardiac cycle is applied to the model and their corresponding frequency shifts are calculated by applying fast Fourier transform. The results of study show correct frequency shifts in the simulated signal. We further compared our simulated signal with a RF signal recorded from human aorta by a longitudinal scan. According to the results, the normalized root mean square error in one cardiac cycle between velocity profile of the simulated and experimental signals is 13.02% and that verifies the similarity of our proposed method to the real data.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Response to Ultra-high Molecular Weight Polyethylene Particles

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  M. K. MusibUltrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is widely used in the field of orthopedics to fabricate various orthopedic total joint (primarily hip, knee and shoulder) device components. In spite of its biocompatibility and excellent mechanical properties, wear debris particles are released during use at the articulating surfaces, usually at the implant-implant, bone-implant and cement-bone and cement-implant interfaces. Prior studies have shown that these wear debris particles are responsible for periprosthetic bone resorption (wear-mediated osteolysis) which leads to implant loosening and eventually failure of the prosthetic device. Previously investigators have implicated the size, shape, and number of UHMWPE wear particles released from implants in vivo and in situ to the wear-mediated-osteolytic phenomenon. In this short review I will discuss some of the in vitro and in vivo studies pertaining to the response to the wear-debris particles.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Direct Condensation Reaction for Grafting of Polyethylene Glycol
           Monomethyl Ether on Poly(Methacrylic Acid-co-Methyl Methacrylate) for
           Application in Biomedical Engineering

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  A. Negahi Shirazi,M. Imani,S. SharifiSynthesis, characterization and cytotoxicity evaluation of copolymers based on polyethylene glycol monmethyl ether-g-poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) are reported via a polymeric precursor method. Grafting was accomplished based on direct condensation reaction in the presence of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide as an esterification-promoting agent catalyzed by dimethylamino pyridine. Polyethylene glycol grafted copolymers were characterized using various spectroscopic techniques; in addition, their biocompatibility was studied. Manifestation of bands assigned to the ester functional groups in Fourier transform infrared spectra and nuclear magnetic resonance was employed for structural characterization of the grafted copolymers. Performance of grafting reaction was guaranteed by determination of grafting efficacy. Cytotoxicity evaluations of the grafted copolymer using L929 fibroblast cell line elucidated acceptable biocompatibility profile; consequently, the applicability of the copolymers is confirmed for biomedical applications.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • A Bayesian Recursive Algorithm for Freespace Estimation Using a
           Stereoscopic Camera System in an Autonomous Wheelchair

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Thanh H. Nguyen,Hung T. NguyenThis paper proposes a Bayesian Recursive (BR) algorithm for detecting freespace for people with severe disability operating an autonomous wheelchair with a stereoscopic camera system. Based on the left and right images captured from the camera system, the Sum of Absolute Differences (SAD) algorithm is used to produce a stereo disparity map. In short, a three-dimensional (3D) point map is converted to a two-dimensional (2D) distance map. This is generated from the disparity map using a geometric projection. Being based on uncertain information captured from the camera system, the BR algorithm for freespace estimation is developed as a recursive expression for the posterior probability function. The average probability values are calculated for the height and width of the freespace, and these assist to plan a power wheelchair pathway. Based on the average probability of the estimated height and width of the freespace, a Bayesian decision for the power wheelchair to autonomously navigate through the freespace is made. Moreover, Obstacle avoidance problem based on 2D map is considered in this paper. As further support for the method, experimental results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Wheelchair Movement Control VIA Human Eye Blinks

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  K. S. K. S.Many disorders can disrupt the neuromuscular channels used by the brain to communicate with and control its external environment. Patients with severe neural disorders lose most of voluntary muscle control. Some patients can control their eye movements and may be able to communicate. In the absence of methods for repairing the damage done by these disorders, the only option for restoring function to those with motor impairments is to provide the brain with a new, muscular/non-muscular and non invasive communication and control channel, a direct Brain Machine Interface (BMI) for conveying messages and commands to the external world. An attempt has been provided to collect the brain activities and extract specific estimations to control the wheelchair movement. The data has been collected though fourteen electrodes fixed on the scalp by modern strategy (without non-drying conductive past). This method has used a wireless communication head set based on the hydration sensors and Bluetooth technology. Four movements are detected (turn right – turn left – forward - stop) based on the eye blinks (right wing, left wing, single/double blinks). The wavelet has used to extract best signals and NN system to take the learning sessions and give the required action.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Feature Selection and Classification of Breast Cancer on Dynamic Magnetic
           Resonance Imaging Using ANN and SVM

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  F. Keyvanfard,M. A. Shoorehdeli,M. TeshnehlabBreast cancer Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a powerful diagnostic tool for breast cancer detection due to its high sensitivity and has established a role where findings from conventional mammography techniques are equivocal[1]. In the clinical setting, the ANN has been widely applied in breast cancer diagnosis using a subjective impression of different features based on defined criteria. In this study, feature selection and classification methods based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) are applied to classify breast cancer on dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The database including benign and malignant lesions is specified to select the features and classify with proposed methods. It was collected from 2004 to 2006. A forward selection method is applied to find the best features for classification. Moreover, several neural networks classifiers like MLP, PNN, GRNN and RBF has been presented on a total of 112 histopathologically verified breast lesions to classify into benign and malignant groups. Also support vector machine have been considered as classifiers. Training and recalling classifiers are obtained with considering four-fold cross validation.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Application of Neural Networks in Diagnosis of Valve Physiological Heart
           Disease from Heart Sounds

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  N. Mehrshad,O. Mokhlessi,H. M. Rad,A. MokhlessiClassification of the sound heart into different valve-physiological heart disease categories is a complex pattern recognition task. In this paper application of various types of neural networks are introduced for diagnosing heart disease). At first a method is described for extracting useful features from the sound hearts and then a simple algorithm is introduced for heart sounds recognition. In fact, feature vectors are formed based on a wavelet decomposition of the sounds. The heart sound diseases are classified into normal heart sound and the other six valve physiological heart categories. Different types of artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used for this purpose. Those are Multilayer perceptron (MLP) with back propagation training algorithm, Elman Neural Network (ENN) and Radial Basis Function (RBF) Network. Expensive experimental results show an average recognition score of 81.25% to 96.42%.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • A Novel Approach for Classification of Underactuated Mechanism in
           Myoelectric Hand

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  M. Mariappan,Sh. M. M. Jan,M. IftikharConcept of underactuation makes it possible to create such robotic hands that automatically adapt to the shape of the grasped object without using a complex control system or a large number of actuators. In underactuated hand prostheses, depending upon control strategy used, one can get more and more degree of freedoms (DOFs) to make its prosthetic device more versatile and easy to control. In spite of all the great work done by the researchers on underactuated prosthetic hands, no one has given any relationship between the number of motors (or actuators) and the number of degree of freedoms (DOFs). This novel concept named as “Coefficient of UAM” (CoUAM) is “the ratio between numbers of motors to the number of DOFs”. By reviewing various known studies, CoUAM of randomly selected prosthetic hands is calculated separately and analyzed merits/demerits, cost, weight, appearance, ease of controllability and their functionality to make this approach more objective and useful for the future researchers. Hence target of this paper is to assess a Coefficient of UAM (CoUAM) of different types of prostheses available and then classify them into red, green and yellow zones.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Enhancement of Infra-Red Images of Human Hand

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Anup Pillai,Sam Mil'shteinAmong the various technologies used for medical imaging, Infra-Red methods occupies very important place, as IR light interaction with human body became to be a base for thermography, tomography and visualization of blood vessels. Different types of medical imaging techniques exists which are classified on the basis of the wavelength of the radiation used, the mode of operation (transmission or reflection) and the reproduction of the acquired information in the form of images. The human hand is one of the most complicated mechanical –biological objects. The complexity of various bones and tendons, joints and muscles, various soft tissues and network of blood vessels presents a significant challenge to any visualization technique. The request of medical professionals for clarity of hand images requires elimination of some parts of the image, colorizing, and contrast enhancement. In this study, we report significant improvement of IR images of the hand. Enhanced IR images allow clear visualization of tendons which are otherwise seen only by MRI.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • A Preliminary Investigation into the Design of an Implantable Optical
           Blood Glucose Sensor

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  M. Siaj,A. Trabelsi,M. BoukadoumA preliminary investigation into the design of a near-infrared (NIR) optical bio-implant for accurate measurement of blood glucose level is reported. The use of an array of electrically pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) diodes at specific wavelengths for high-power narrow single-frequency emission leads to a high signal-to-noise ratio in the measured NIR absorption spectrum while maximizing the sensor’s sensitivity to small absorption changes. The emission wavelengths lie within the combination and first-overtone spectral bands known to be dominated by glucose absorption information. A Quantum well infrared (QWI) photodiode transducer senses the received optical power after passing through the blood sample, followed by an artificial neural network (ANN) for the measurement of glucose in a whole blood matrix. For an independent test set made with fresh bovine blood, the optimal ANN topology for processing the two selected spectral bands yielded a standard error of prediction of 0.42 mM (i.e., 7.56 mg/dl) over the glucose level range of 4-20 mM. The empirical results obtained with a prototype mounted on PCB for blood glucose monitoring are closely correlated with the absorption spectra collected on a Vertex 70 Bruker spectrometer.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Handheld Imaging System for Contactless Tri-Modal Biometric Identification

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  S. Mil’shtein,V. Oliyil Kunnil,C. McPherson,A. PillaiFingerprinting is the most widely used form of biometric identification because large databases are already available and law enforcement agencies have decades of experience with this technology. In addition, many fingerprinting units on the market are small in size, low power, and inexpensive. Common deficiencies carried by current fingerprinting technologies are distortions introduced when the finger touches the surface of the reader. The current study describes the development of a novel, handheld, contactless fingerprinting system which is capable of acquiring individual fingers with 180 degree view (first modality). Liveliness is examined by transmitted Infra-Red (IR) light (second modality), which allows the viewing of blood vessel networks and “four-slap” images and palm prints (third modality). This system is able to produce fingerprint images which are approximately 99% accurate representations of a finger’s surface. This was verified by examining a NIST certified aluminum test sample. As demonstrated in our study, this is compared to an average of 15% distortion of the distances between a finger’s ridges when imaged with contact based systems. Our radial line-scan imaging allows for “nail-to-nail” acquisition of an individual fingerprint, where the format of the recorded image is analogous to an “ink-rolled” fingerprint. The system will securely and wirelessly transfers fingerprint images to any law enforcement center via built-in Wi-Fi connection.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Distance and Location of Both Mobile Phones and Health Care Units:
           Determines the Interference Level

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Selcuk Helhel,Zeynep Akin Colak,Sukru Ozen60 Million mobile phone holders in the country forces clinics and cellular phones have been started to be in concern as an electromagnetic interference (EMI) source in hospitals. Hospital buildings are very huge buildings that they are not allowing deep radio penetration through the hole those results in higher uplink power transmission (2W of maximum). These two reasons were our motivation to make an investigation to examine the EMI issues surrounding medical equipment, due to interference from communication devices, including GSM900, GSM1800, and 3G digital mobile phones. Electromagnetic interference, particularly of the ECG and ted EEG device was observed, and exposure begins within the range of 1.25m. It has been observed that uplink power is not a reason of interference itself, but the locations of mobiles and health care units are also the reason of interference.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Modeling of the Flow within Scaffolds in Perfusion Bioreactors

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  X. Yan,X.B. Chen,D.J. BergstromTissue engineering aims to produce artificial organs and tissues for transplant treatments, in which cultivating cells on scaffolds in bioreactors is of critical importance. To control the cultivating process, the knowledge of the fluid flow inside and around a scaffold in the bioreactor is essential. However, due to the complicated microstructure of a scaffold, it is difficult, or even impossible, to gain such knowledge experimentally. In contrast, numerical methods employing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have proven promising to alleviate the problem. In this research the fluid flow in perfusion bioreactors is studied with numerical methods. The emphasis is on investigating the effect of the controllable parameters in both the scaffold fabrication (i.e., the diameter of scaffold strand and the distance between two strands) and cell culture process (i.e., the flow rate) on the distribution of shear stress within the scaffold in a perfusion bioreactor. The knowledge obtained in this study will allow for improved control strategies in scaffold fabrication and cell culturing experiments.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Effect of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 in Biological Regulation of
           Primary Chondrocyte

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Seyed Ali Khaghani,Morgan C. T. Denyer,Mansour Youseffi The effect of transforming growth factors-β (TGF-βs) in the regulation and control of cell growth is widely studied, but the capability of these cytokines to regulate chondrocyte cell functions such as migration, cell death, proliferation, differentiation and wound repair is not clearly understood. In this work the effect of TGF-β1 on the biological regulation of chondrocyte was evaluated using a model wound closure assay. The experiments were carried out on primary chondrocyte cells with fibroblast like and chondrocytic phenotypes. The cells were isolated from knee articular cartilage of five day old Sprague-Dawley neonate rats and seeded at low density to obtain a fibroblast like morphology. Chondrocytes with chondrocytic phenotype were derived by seeding at high density.The results revealed that TGF-β1 slowed down proliferation and migration of cells into a model wound. It was also found that cell attachment, as determined by the detachment time during trypsinization, was greater for cells with a fibroblast like morphology when compared with cells exhibiting chondrocytic morphology. Treatment with TGF-β1 was found to increase the detachment times of fibroblast like chondrocytes, indicating that TGF-β1enhanced cell attachment of this cell type, whilst treatment with TGF-β1 decreased detachment time for the chondrocytic type chondrocyte cells indicating that TGF-β1 decreased cell attachment in these cells.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • A New Interactive 3-D Numerical Model of the Human Mandible for
           Peri-Implant Analysis in-Vivo Compared With Cone Beam Computed Tomography
           3-D Quality

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Tamer M. Nassef,M. Alkhodary,Mona K. Marei,Magdy A. Awadalla,R. MoustafaDental implants have been widely and increasingly used in the past few decades to support and retain partial and complete dental prosthesis. The fear of failure due to mechanical overloading increased the need for stress-strain analysis along bone-implant interface of the ever growing designs of dental implants. Finite element analysis (FEA) was used by many authors to evaluate stresses around dental implants and to predict their survivability, where to extract a robust FEA model a realistic information system must be used. In this study an interactive 3-D model was retrieved from Computed Tomography (CT) images utilizing, a proposed software are used to obtain high image quality of the jaw bones scanned by 3-D CT compared with Cone Beam Computed tomography (CBCT) output. Identification of different anatomical regions set for mandible cortical and spongy bones with soft tissues by generated 3-D models and validated with real measurements from solid model.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Simulation of Action Potential Propagation in Cardiac Ventricular Tissue
           Using an Efficient PDE Model

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  S. H Sabzpoushan,Alireza Faghani GhodratSignal transmission in the form of propagating waves of electrical excitation is a fast type of communication and coordination between cells that is known in cardiac tissue as the action potential.In this article we used an efficient model of cardiac ventricular cell that is based on partial differential equations(PDE).After that a computational algorithm for action potential propagation was represented that according to this algorithm and proposed efficient model, We demonstrated action potential propagation in one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) space lattices using the central finite-difference method.In addition we investigated the effect of obstacles on the propagation of normal action potential using represented 2D excitable medium.Our results show that proposed efficient model, represented algorithm and excitable media are suitable for simulation of action potential propagation in cardiac tissue.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • A Study on the Effect of the Inter-Sources Distance on the Performance of
           the SSVEP-Based BCI Systems

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Seyed Navid Resalat,Seyed Kamaledin SetarehdanBrain Computer Interfacing (BCI) systems, which are a new communicating channel between humans and the computers are growing rapidly. One such a method is based on the Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEP), which can be recorded during visual stimulating of the subject by a twinkling light source with a fixed frequency. An important parameter to be considered is the effect of the inter-sources distance on the accuracy of such BCI systems. In particular inter-sources (LEDs) distances of 4, 14, 24, 44 and 64 cm when the sources plane is located 60 cm away from the subject's eyes (producing inter-sources visual angles of 3.8°, 13.4°, 22.6°, 40.2° and 56° respectively) were examined. In addition, four different sweep lengths of 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 seconds are considered. In addition, due to the usage of the AR models for feature extraction from the SSVEP signals, selection of the best AR model together with the best classifier among the LDA, the SVM and the Naïve Bayes are studied. It is showed that the BCI system with D=44 cm, AR order of 13 and either the LDA or the SVM classifiers could produce the best results compared to the other cases.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • From Carbides to Co5 and Co13 Metallofullerenes: First-Principles Study
           and Design

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Andrew KuznetsovTrigonal-bipyramidal Co5 and icosahedral Co13 magnetic clusters were investigated in various organic environments by the first principle calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT). Adjacent carbon atoms decreased the total spin magnetic moment of the metallic clusters, such that Co5C5 and C13C12 carbides demonstrated 23.1 and 22.6 %, as well as Co5@C60 and Co13@C80 endohedral matallofullerenes showed 80.5 and 87.1 % of magnetic activities of pure cobalt clusters, respectively. As a result of increasing the number of carbon atoms on the surface, reduction of magnetism and saturation of suppression of magnetic activity was clearly shown in the case of Co13Cn carbide particles. An asymmetric impact of carbon atoms on magnetism of cobalt clusters was revealed and the screen effect depending on the size of fullerenes was described. The endohedral fullerene Co5@C80 demonstrated improved characteristics, such as 90.6 % remaining magnetic activity of pure Co5 cluster, highest magnetic moment at 2.39 µB/Co-atom, and a size of 8.5 Å. Since a variety of materials can be nanosized, the scope and limitations of an ab initio approach for scaling design is discussed.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Effect Assessment of Parkinson Disease on Default Mode Network of the
           Brain with ICA and SCA Methods in Resting State FMRI Data

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Mahdieh Ghasemi,Ali Mahloojifar,Mojtaba ZareiParkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by tremor, rigidity, and slowness of movements. Determining changes of spontaneous activity and connectivity of the brain is a critical step towards treatment of PD patients. Resting State functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (RS-fMRI) is a non-invasive method that we use in this work to investigate changes of default mode network of the brain in PD. To this end, we apply two methods, Seed Correlation Analysis (SCA) and probabilistic independent Component Analysis (PICA). The results of advanced statistical group analysis on SCA values show that there is negative significant correlation between motor cortex and cerebellum in healthy, while this connection in PD is positive and not significant. This result implies the disturbance of equilibrium function of the brain in resting. Moreover, in both groups, there is significant positive correlation between areas located in basal ganglia. The results show that in healthy, there is not significant correlation between motor areas and basal ganglia, while in PD there are significant negative correlations between motor cortex and cerebellum with areas located in basal ganglia. The comparison of five ICs extracted by PICA showed lower DMN activation in basal ganglia. Finally, The result of our study show that the functional correlations between ROIs are more affected in PD than pattern maps of activity by PICA.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Diazinon Affects the Cytoarchitecture of Seminiferous Epithelium in Rat
           Testis

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Damodar D.,Urban J. A. D’Souza,Anupam Biswas,Shankara Bhat Chemical pollution and reproductive toxicity has a close association leading into a possible infertility. Testicular toxicity induced by chemicals is easy to evaluate since it has a pool of differentiating cells of different stages in the seminiferous epithelium. Most of the pesticide related preclinical studies have heavily dependent upon investigations on sperm density, abnormal sperm percent, reproductive hormone levels etc. Most of the toxins, in addition may affect the seminiferous tubular architecture, harmony as well as supporting cells such as Sertoli cells. Diazinon and its adverse sperm toxic effects are documented earlier but its effects on seminiferous tubules are less recorded. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of oral administration of diazinon (6mg, 7.5mg and 10mg/kg body weight/day for 5 and 30days) on acetylcholine esterase activity, histological aspects of testes and seminiferous tubular morphometry (STD & SEH). Acetylcholine esterase activity was significantly decreased as a sign of toxicity, the dose tested. The STD and SEH were significantly decreased in all the 30days diazinon exposed groups. Histologically testes showed vacuoles, disruption and sloughing of basal germinal epithelium. This study confirms that diazinon disrupts cytoarchitectural components which may interfere with spermatogenesis.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • A Study of the Potential of EIIP Mapping Method in Exon Prediction Using
           the Frequency Domain Techniques

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Mai S. MabroukRecently, a number of numerical DNA sequence representations have evolved in order to transform the DNA sequence analysis problems from the traditional string processing domain to the discrete signal processing domain. On the other hand, the coding regions (exons) detection problem has received a special attention due to the 3-base periodicity property of exons which can be easily detected using simple discrete signal processing techniques. The 3-base periodicity in the nucleotide arrangement is evidenced as a sharp peak at frequency f =1/3 in the frequency domain power spectrum. In this paper, we exploit the 3-base periodicity property of a set of the Electron-Ion Interaction Pseudopotential (EIIP) coded DNA sequences by employing a frequency domain power spectrum estimation techniques as Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT),Auto Regressive (AR), Singular Vector Decomposition (SVD) and Digital filtering methods. Also, we give a brief comparison of these methods In order to enhance the coding prediction performance as well as the computational complexity. Results provided that both STFT and digital filtering techniques for EIIP coded sequences performs with highest accuracy compared with AR and SVD methods.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Analysis of CT Images of Liver for Surgical Planning

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Amir H. Foruzan,Yen-Wie Chen,Reza A. Zoroofi,Masaki KaiboriWe developed a Computer Assisted Surgery system which prepared a virtual environment for a physician to interact with the liver and decide on the therapy planning. It was composed of three modules: liver segmentation, vessel extraction, and simulator. We proposed a semi-automatic method to segment the liver. Hepatic veins, portal veins, and hepatic arteries were extracted from multi-phase CT datasets. The simulator visualized the segmented objects and provided for a physician a virtual scalpel to cut the liver. Initially, a transparent view of the liver was shown to the physician that revealed the location of the vascular structures. During the surgery, a toggling option made it possible to switch between a transparent and an opaque view. The width, height, and depth of the cut could be changed by user interaction. The proposed system is a framework which can later be extended to a complete system for analysis of hepatic diseases and therapy planning.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Biomedical Image Watermarking in Wavelet Domain for Data Integrity Using
           Bit Majority Algorithm and Multiple Copies of Hidden Information

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Koushik Pal,G. Ghosh,M. BhattacharyaThe current paper presents a novel and unique scheme for biomedical image watermarking in wavelet domain by hiding multiple copies of the same data in the cover image using bit replacement in the horizontal (HL) and vertical (LH) resolution approximation image components. The proposed scheme uses an approach for recovering the hidden information from the damaged copies due to unauthorized alteration of the data by applying an algorithm to find the closest twin of the embedded information by bit majority algorithm. Experimental results of the proposed watermarking technique show much enhancement in the visual and statistical invisibility of hidden information after data recovery that supports the improvement in performance.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Electronic Cough Monitor

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Musaab Hassan,Asiel Satti,Azza Hussien,Tarteel Tag El-Din Cough is an important symptom to consider when diagnosing diseases. Hence, information about level as well as the rate of cough could be very useful for physicians. In this work, a cough monitoring system was designed. The designed system was capable of recording only cough sounds using appropriate circuit. The circuit utilizes a simple transducer (unidirectional microphone). An LED (light emitting diode) was caused to light every time a cough sound is detected. The design was also accompanied with a programmed alarm (using ATmega8535L) if the number of coughs exceeds certain number.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Synthesis and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite/TiO2n Nanocomposites for
           Bone Tissue Regeneration

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Sarah A. de Lima, Enori Gemelli,Nelson H. A. CamargoThe development of nanostructured powders and materials is an innovative alternative that promises to replace many conventional autogenous, halogenous and exogenous biomaterials in the near future. Nanostructured biomaterials stand out as a highly current research topic and appear auspicious for biomedical applications, implant fixation and bone tissue reconstruction because their features differ from conventional biomaterials in terms of wettability, granule, grains surface area, and microporosity, which are favorable for new bone formation. The hydroxyapatite used as bone matrix in this study was produced by the Biomaterials Group of the Santa Catarina State University – UDESC (Brazil). The hydroxyapatite (HA) powder was obtained from synthesis by the dissolution-precipitation reaction of solid/liquid phase of CaO and phosphoric acid to form a composition with a Ca/P molar ratio of 1.67. The powder resulting from the synthesis was calcined at 900ºC/2h, generating the HA phase with a low content of tricalcium phosphate -TCP (whitlockite). The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize four HA/TiO2n nanocomposite powder compositions in the form of microporous granules in concentrations of 1, 2, 3 and 5 vol.% of TiO2n. The phase morphology, powder and granule surface area, and bonding bands in different powder and granule compositions were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas absorption (BET).
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Detection and Quantification of Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque Using
           Different Imaging Modalities

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Mohammad Karimi MoridaniThe behavior and composition of coronary atherosclerotic plaques are ultimately responsible for the threat of acute ischemic events in patients with coronary artery disease. Different imaging modalities have been developed over the last several years in order to better characterize the atherosclerotic plaque and attempt to predict those in peril of complication. Recent advances in imaging modalities, including invasive and non-invasive studies, have allowed us to examine the histological components that comprise these plaques. Specific information such as variations in temperature, plaque stiffness and calcification level is currently being researched as well as biological and chemical markers. Since vulnerable plaques cannot be identified by stress testing or angiography, new modalities such as intravascular ultrasound, intracoronary thermography, intravascular palpography, optical coherence tomography, intravascular radiation detection, magnetic resonance imaging, radionucleotide imaging, and spectroscopy are under investigation. In this paper we consider to analyze and compare the Atherosclerotic Plaque detection methods.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Nanodimensional and Nanocrystalline Calcium Orthophosphates

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Sergey V. DorozhkinNano-sized particles and crystals play an important role in the formation of calcified tissues of various animals. For example, nano-sized and nanocrystalline calcium orthophosphates in the form of apatites of biological origin represent the basic inorganic building blocks of bones and teeth of mammals. Namely, according the recent developments in biomineralization, tens to hundreds nanodimensional crystals of a biological apatite are self-assembled into these complex structures. This process occurs under a strict control by bioorganic matrixes. Furthermore, both a greater viability and a better proliferation of various types of cells have been detected on smaller crystals of calcium orthophosphates. Thus, the nano-sized and nanocrystalline forms of calcium orthophosphates have a great potential to revolutionize the hard tissue-engineering field, starting from bone repair and augmentation to controlled drug delivery systems. This review reports on current state of the art and recent developments on the subject, starting from synthesis and characterization to biomedical and clinical applications. Furthermore, the review also discusses possible directions for future research and development.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • MRI Monomodal Feature-Based Registration Based on the Efficiency of
           Multiresolution Representation and Mutual Information

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Nemir Al-Azzawi,Wan Ahmed K. Wan AbdullahImage registration methods based on mutual information criteria have been widely used in monomodal medical image registration and have shown promising results. Feature-based registration is an efficient technique for clinical use, because it can significantly reduce computational costs. In general, the majority of registration methods consist of the following four steps: feature extraction, feature matching, transformation of the models and, finally, resampling the image. It was noted that the accuracy of the registration process depends on matching a feature and control points (CP) detection. Therefore in this paper has been to rely on this feature for magnetic resonance image (MRI) monomodal registration. We have proposed to extract the salient edges and extracted a CP of medical images by using efficiency of multiresolution representation of data nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT). The MR images were first decomposed using the NSCT, and then Edge and CP were extracted from bandpass directional subband of NSCT coefficients and some proposed rules. After edge and CP extraction, mutual information (MI) was adopted for the registration of feature points and translation parameters are calculated by using particle swarm optimization (PSO). We implement experiments to evaluate the performance of the NTSC and MI similarity measures for 2-D monomodal registration. The experimental results showed that the proposed method produces totally accurate performance for MRI monomodal registration.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Marginal Adaptation of Nanofilled, Packable and Hybrid Dental Composite
           Resins Stored in Artificial Saliva

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Mohamed El-Nawawy,Lubna Koraitim,Ossama Abouelatta,Hanan HegaziResin based composites are possibly the most universal material available in dentistry as they are used in a huge variety of clinical applications, ranging from filling material, luting agent, indirect restorations and metal facing for endodontic posts and cores. The growth of bacteria on the composite resin surfaces, secondary caries and pulp damage or marginal imperfections may occur at the site of gap formation. In this study, marginal adaptation of three composites were measured and compared. A total of sixty human mandibular first molars were used. The teeth were divided into three main groups (20 teeth each) according to the composite resins that were used. In group I, Surefil (packable composite) was used as the restorative material. In group II, Esthet-X-improved (nanofilled composite) was used, while in group III Glacier (hybrid composite) was used. Each group was subdivided into four subgroups (five teeth each) according to the storage intervals (24 hours, one week, two weeks, and three weeks). In each group, occlusomesial cavities were prepared with diamond burs and restored with the composite, according to manufacturer's instructions. In all specimens, composite was applied to the cavity using incremental technique. All the restored teeth were subjected to in vitro thermal cycling and mechanical loading simulating a total of six months in vivo function. Marginal adaptation was evaluated using Measurescope-10 and the results were confirmed with scanning electron microscope. These specimens were dried, sputter coated with gold-palladium and then photographed with SEM at 1500x. A highly significant difference in marginal adaptation was found between the used composites. After specimen storage in artificial saliva, there was a gradual improvement in the marginal adaptability of the specimens. It can be concluded that the marginal adaptation of the nanofilled composite was the best when compared to the other composites.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • An Efficient Fully Automated Method for Gridding Microarray Images

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Fatma El-Zahraa Labib,Islam Fouad,Mai Mabrouk,Amr SharawyDNA microarray is a powerful tool and is widely used in genetics to monitor expression levels of thousands of genes in parallel. The gene expression process consists of three stages: gridding, segmentation and quantification. Gridding deals with finding areas in the microarray image which contain one spot using grid lines. This step can be done manually or automatically. In this paper, we propose an efficient and simple automatic gridding method for microarray image analysis. This method was implemented using MATLAB software and found very effective for gridding arrays with low intensity, poor quality spotsand tested by a number of microarray images. Results show that this method gives high accuracy of 76.9% improved to 98.6% when a preprocessing step is considered, rendering the method a promising technique for an efficient and automatic gridding the noisy microarray images.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Radiofrequency Ablation Versus High-Frequency Ablation In-Vivo Comparison

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Kourtiche D.,Rouane A.,Bru P.The high frequency (HF) intracardiac ablation has shown its ability to obtain atrioventricular blocks (AVB) with relatively low power. In this paper, the equipment used in High Frequency (HF) ablation technique is described. The frequency used is from 500 kHz to 1 MHz in the case of Radiofrequency (RF) technique and 27.12 MHz for HF technique. Ablation under the same conditions using the Nakagawa protocol was done. Quantitative comparison of the two methods shows efficiency of the HF technique. The results obtained in this study show that the HF technique produces lesions wider and deeper than that obtained with RF technique. Thus, HF technique is more appropriate for cardiac ablations in the ventricle. The results also showed that HF technique provides linear lesions thus delimiting the necrotic tissue from healthy tissue. With the RF technical, dimensions of the obtained lesion are (9x7x5) mm3 for 270 joules applied power. With the same energy, the dimensions of lesion are (10x9x5) mm3 for the HF Technique.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Analysis of Cerebral Infarct Signal Intensity on Diffusion-Weighted MR
           Images Using Frequency Domain Techniques

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  S. S. Shanbhag,G. R. Udupi,K. M. Patil,K. RanganathEarly and accurate diagnosis of cerebral infarction plays a vital role in the implementation of successful treatment and thereby improving the quality of life. Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DW-MRI) is a highly sensitive tool for the detection of early changes in the water diffusion that characterizes various brain pathologies, largely, cerebral infarctions. Studies were performed on a set of Diffusion Weighted (DW) images of the human brain (in the axial plane) to find the relationship between the light intensity High Frequency Power (HFP) values and the time course of cerebral infarction, and to present evidence in defining the stages of cerebral infarction. Analysis of the results show that the difference in the light intensity HFP values on the DW images for the subjects with cerebral infarction compared to their contralateral normal hemisphere, were highly significant (p < 0.01) in the areas of the brain, where there was a high incidence of infarction. The relative increase in the light intensity HFP values (RHFP) for the subjects with cerebral infarction were in the range of (153.06 – 1780.43) times compared to their corresponding HFP values on the contralateral normal hemisphere. The observed RHFP values increased progressively with time and were at the peak for the examinations between 1 to 4 days and thereafter reduced to reach the minimum after 15 days. There was a negative correlation (r = - 0.74) observed between the RHFP values and the time stage of cerebral infarction. The evolution of the RHFP values observed subsequent to infarction is suggestive that they can be supportive in understanding the developmental stages of infarction and can be helpful in predicting the stage of infarction. The quantitative changes in the light intensity HFP values can be assessed to derive information about the early changes taking place in the brain tissue. Further their adoption in clinical diagnosis and treatment of cerebral infarction could be helpful and informative. In conclusion, the proposed method could positively assist the neuro-surgeons for speedy diagnosis and execution of treatment to protect the subjects from additional damage to their brain tissue. In summary, the present study provides evidence that the light intensity HFP values on the DW images in the region of cerebral infarction can be used to markedly distinguish the infarct subjects quantitatively from the normal subjects. The relative increase in the light intensity HFP values on the DW images for the subjects with cerebral infarction were in the range of (153.06 – 1780.43) times compared to their corresponding HFP values on the contralateral normal hemisphere. The quantitative changes in the values of the light intensity HFP parameter on the DW images can be assessed and positively employed to provide useful information about the early changes taking place in the brain tissue and can be helpful in determining the stage of cerebral infarction. Therefore the adoption of the proposed quantitative method in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of cerebral infarction could be helpful and instructive.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Left Ventricle Segmentation in Cardiac MRI Images

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Mohamed I. Eladawy,Ahmed Farag,Franco M. Montevecchi,Marwa M. A. Hadhoud,Umberto MorbiducciImaging of the left ventricle using cine short-axis MRI sequences, considered as an important tool that used for evaluating cardiac function by calculating different cardiac parameters. The manual segmentation of the left ventricle in all image sequences takes a lot of time, and therefore the automatic segmentation of the left ventricle is main step in cardiac function evaluation. In this paper, we proposed an automatic method for segmenting the left ventricle in cardiac MRI images. We applied pixel classification method by using number of features and KNN classifier for segmenting the left ventricle Cavity, and from its output we can get the endocardial contour. Then, we transformed image pixels from Cartesian to polar coordinates for segmenting the epicardial contour. This method was tested on large number of images, and we achieved good results reached to 95.61% sensitivity, and 98.9% specificity for endocardium segmentation, and 93.32% sensitivity, and 98.49% specificity for epicardium segmentation. The results of the proposed method show the availability for fast and reliable segmentation of the left ventricle.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Lung Cancer Detection by Using Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy
           Clustering Methods

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Fatma Taher,Naoufel Werghi,Hussain Al-Ahmad,Rachid SammoudaThe early detection of lung cancer is a challenging problem, due to the structure of the cancer cells, where most of the cells are overlapped with each other. This paper presents two segmentation methods, Hopfield Neural Network (HNN) and a Fuzzy C-Mean (FCM) clustering algorithm, for segmenting sputum color images to detect the lung cancer in its early stages. The manual analysis of the sputum samples is time consuming, inaccurate and requires intensive trained person to avoid diagnostic errors. The segmentation results will be used as a base for a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system for early detection of lung cancer which will improve the chances of survival for the patient. However, the extreme variation in the gray level and the relative contrast among the images make the segmentation results less accurate, thus we applied a thresholding technique as a pre-processing step in all images to extract the nuclei and cytoplasm regions, because most of the quantitative procedures are based on the nuclear feature. The thresholding algorithm succeeded in extracting the nuclei and cytoplasm regions. Moreover, it succeeded in determining the best range of thresholding values. The HNN and FCM methods are designed to classify the image of N pixels among M classes. In this study, we used 1000 sputum color images to test both methods, and HNN has shown a better classification result than FCM, the HNN succeeded in extracting the nuclei and cytoplasm regions.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Non-Invasive BCI for the Decoding of Intended Arm Reaching Movement in
           Prosthetic Limb Control

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Ching-Chang Kuo,Jessica L. Knight,Chelsea A. Dressel,Alan W. L. ChiuNon-invasive electroencephalography (EEG) based brain-computer interface (BCI) is able to provide an alternative means of communication with and control over external assistive devices. In general, EEG is insufficient to obtain detailed information about many degrees of freedom (DOF) for arm movements. The main objectives are to design a non-invasive BCI and create a signal decoding strategy that allows people with limited motor control to have more command over potential prosthetic devices. Eight healthy subjects were recruited to perform visual cues directed reaching tasks. Eye and motion artifacts were identified and removed to ensure that the subjects’ visual fixation to the target locations would have little or no impact on the final result. We applied a Fisher Linear Discriminate (FLD) classifier to perform single-trial classification of the EEG to decode the intended arm movement in the left, right, and forward directions (before the onsets of actual movements). The mean EEG signal amplitude near the PPC region 271-310ms after visual stimulation was found to be the dominant feature for best classification results. A signal scaling factor developed was found to improve the classification accuracy from 60.11% to 93.91% in the binary class (left versus right) scenario. This result demonstrated great promises for BCI neuroprosthetics applications, as motor intention decoding can be served as a prelude to the classification of imagined motor movement to assist in motor disable rehabilitation, such as prosthetic limb or wheelchair control.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Sub-THz Vibrational Spectroscopy of Bacterial Cells and Molecular
           Components

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Tatiana Globus,Tatiana Dorofeeva,Igor Sizov,Boris Gelmont,Maryna Lvovska,Tatyana Khromova,Olga Chertihin,Yulia KoryakinaIn this work, sub-terahertz (THz) spectroscopy is applied to characterize lyophilized and invitro cultured bacterial cells of non-pathogenic species of Escherichiacoli(E.coli) andBacillussubtilis(BG),spores of BGand DNA from E.coli. One of the goals of this research is to demonstrate that Fourier Transform (FT) spectroscopy in the frequency region of 10–25 cm-1 is sensitive enough to reveal characteristic spectral features from bio-cells and spores in different environment, to verify the differences between species, and to show the response of spores to vacuum and response of cultured cells to heat. The experimental technique was significantly improved for sensitivity and reliability. Observed spectra taken with a spectral resolution of 0.25 cm-1 using FT spectrometer with a detector operating at 1.7 K are rich in well resolved features having spectral widths of ~0.5–1 cm-1. The reproducibility of experimental results was verified and confirmed. Measured spectra from E.coli DNA and from the entire cell have many similarities, thus demonstrating that the cellular components might contribute to the vibrational spectrum of the cell. The results of this work confirm that observed spectroscopic features are caused by fundamental physical mechanism of interaction between THz radiation and biological macro-molecules. Particularly, the analysis of results indicates that the spectroscopic signatures of microorganisms originate from the combination of low frequency vibrational modes or group of modes at close frequencies (vibrational bands) within molecular components of bacterial cells/spores, with the significant contribution from the DNA. The significance of this study is justified by necessity for a fast and effective, label free and reagent free optical technology to protect against environmental and other biological threats, as well as for general medical research. The obtained results show that THz vibrational spectroscopy promises to add quantitative genetic information to the characteristic signatures of biological objects, increasing the detection accuracy and selectivity when appropriate spectral resolution is used.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Multifrequency REG: Fundamental Background, Informational Meaning and Ways
           of Data Analysis and Automation

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Ryabchikova N.,Semernia V.,Panov A.,Andreeva Yu.,Moskalenko Yu.,Weinstein G.,Masalov I.,Halvorson P.A long historical experience of monofrequency rheoencephalography (REG) showed its limited capabilities. The new approach ispresented – multifrequency REG that is REG recording simultaneously at three frequencies - 16, 100 and 200 kHz. The different brain impedances received were analysed on the base of equivalent electrical circuits of brain tissue. First, this enables to calculate intra-extracellular electrical component for evaluation of brain tissue hydration state by means of an original computational method. Second, dynamic cooperative analysis of multi-REG and transcranial Doppler pulsations provides the indices of intracranial CSF mobility (CSFm) and cranial compliance (CCe). Third, spectral analysis of processes recorded provides valuable information of regulatory processes involved. The application of this new approach to investigation of intracranial circulation in healthy persons of different aging groupos and in neurosurgical patients showed its promising effectivity.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Co-culture Microdevice with Oxygen Gradient for Tumor Microenvironment
           Model and Metastasis Imaging

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Takahiro Shiwa,Hideyuki Uchida,Kosuke TsukadaTumor hypoxia is a major therapeutic problem since it decreases radiation effects and leads to metastasis. Oxygen is delivered to tumor tissue via abnormal and dysfunctional microvessels, which forms heterogeneity of tissue oxygenation in the tumor. Mimicking the oxygen gradient for cellular experiments in vitro is important to clarify the mechanisms involved in tumor biology, but the only method to produce hypoxic conditions at a constant level is using gas-controlled incubators, because there is currently no technique for creating an oxygen gradient using culture dishes. We designed a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device integrated with microchannels for cell cultures that enables visualization of cellular distribution under a microscope and co-culture to determine interactions between cancer and other cells. Phosphorescence-based partial oxygen measurements quantified the oxygen gradient, which can be controlled by the gas pressure between the inlet and outlet of the device. A monoculture of endothelial cells with an oxygen gradient in the device showed an increase in cell death in the hypoxic area. In addition, Lewis lung carcinoma cells co-cultured with endothelial cells showed gradient-dependent migration through a membrane pore filter, indicating that the interaction between tumor and endothelial cells under hypoxia is crucial in metastasis. The results suggest that the developed microdevice can be used to study the mechanisms of tumor metastasis under hypoxic conditions.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Pulsed Low Intensity Electromagnetic Field (PEMF) Affects Cell Cycle of
           Human Osteoblast-like Cells in Vi tro

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Nahum Rosenberg,Orit Rosenberg,Michael SoudryHigh frequency electromagnetic field in the range of 4 - 33 kHz given in low frequency bursts of 7-15 Hz (PEMF) is efficient in stimulating osteoblast proliferation and differentiation in vitro. We hypothesize that osteoblast cell cycle changes following this stimulatory PEMF. In order to explore this effect we used primary explant cultures of human osteoblast-like cells. These cells were subjected to low frequency of 20-30 Hz, higher frequency of 5-15 kHz electromagnetic fields and to PEMF (5-15 kHz basic frequency in pulses of 20-30 Hz) with maximal magnetic flux of 10-12 Gauss. The maturation state of the cells was estimated by the measurement of cellular alkaline phosphatase activity and the overall cell death by the LDH activity in culture media. The cell cycle was analyzed by cytometry. The PEMF stimulation significantly increased the proportion of cells in the G1 phase (p
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • New Oxygenation Method Based on Pulse Oximeter

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Soroor Behbahani,Mohammad Ali PishbinThe body’s need of oxygen is certainbecause of its necessity to make energy from the food. Lungs deliver oxygen to the blood and if it cannot get enough oxygen to the blood, the patient feels short of breath, which is very uncomfortable. In this state, oxygen therapy can be helpful. Blood gas measurement provides vital information about oxygenation, ventilation and acid-base status. However, these measurements only provide a snapshot of the patient’s condition taken at the time that blood sample was drawn. Oxygen level can change very quickly. In the absence of continuous oxygenation monitoring, these changes may go undetected until it is too late. In this paper, we present a new method of online oxygenation, which, could give oxygen to the patient with high accuracy and solve many problems involved in other methods. Ten patients; five COPD and five patients suffer of asthmawere examined with this new method of oxygenation. None of the patients exhibited signs of oxygen toxicity during new method of oxygen therapy. Experimental results show the acceptability of new oxygenation method in examined subjects.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
  • Validation of Smart Garments for Physiological and Activity-Related
           Monitoring of Humans in Harsh Environment

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Biomedical Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Emanuele Lindo Secco,Davide Curone,Alessandro Tognetti,Annalisa Bonfiglio,Giovanni MagenesA set of garments capable of monitoring the physiological, activity-related and environmental parameters of emergency operators during their interventions was developed in a European Project called ProeTEX. This work reports the results of the field trials performed with the final prototype release at the APT international Fire Fighting Survival Training Centre in Italy. Four sessions of trials (warm-up, rescue intervention, outdoor fire-fighting intervention and smoky chamber route) were performed in harsh environment by 6 professional Fire-Fighters. The operators wore the ProeTEX prototypes and their Heart Rate (HR), Breathing Rate (BR), Body Temperature (BT), External Temperature (ET), Heat Flux (HF) and GPS speed have been acquired. Percentage of samples out of the physiological range (R%) of the HR, BR and BT, as well as percentage of samples showing high variability (V%) of the HR, BR, BT, ET and HF have been processed. Percentage of GPS samples showing artefacts of their ground speed (S%) have been also computed. The results on the HR, BR and BT signals showed a maximum R% of 2.0, 7.8 and 8.5 respectively, as well as a maximum V% of 14.0, 10.0, 0.2, respectively. Concerning the ET and HH data, a V% lower than 0.0 and 2.9, respectively, was found. Finally, the highest detected value of S% of the GPS speed was 3.5 in all the trials. On the whole these results showed the efficacy of the ProeTEX wearable system and its capability of real-time and continuously monitoring the rescuers while they perform even highly intense activities in harsh environmental conditions.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:10:35
       
 
 
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