Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8667 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2404 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 201 - 400 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
Asian Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atención Primaria Práctica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
AUP Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (AJUM)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine     Open Access  
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Journal Khulna     Open Access  
Basal Ganglia     Hybrid Journal  
Basic Sciences of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batı Karadeniz Tıp Dergisi / Medical Journal of Western Black Sea     Open Access  
Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings     Hybrid Journal  
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BC Medical Journal     Free  
Benha Medical Journal     Open Access  
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bijblijven     Hybrid Journal  
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal  
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectronic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Biologics in Therapy     Open Access  
Biology of Sex Differences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomarker Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical & Life Sciences Collection     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biomedical Informatics Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Optics Express     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Photonics     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
Biomedical Research Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Biomedicine Hub     Open Access  
Biomedicines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomedika     Open Access  
Biomolecular and Health Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biophysics Reports     Open Access  
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Biosafety and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biosalud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biostatistics & Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Birat Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BIRDEM Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Birth Defects Research     Hybrid Journal  
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
BJR|Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BJS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Black Sea Journal of Health Science     Open Access  
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Blickpunkt Medizin     Hybrid Journal  
BMC Biomedical Engineering     Open Access  
BMC Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
BMC Medical Research Methodology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
BMC Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
BMC Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BMC Research Notes     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
BMH Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMI Journal : Bariátrica & Metabólica Iberoamericana     Open Access  
BMJ     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1884)
BMJ Case Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BMJ Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BMJ Innovations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BMJ Leader     Hybrid Journal  
BMJ Open     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
BMJ Open Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
BMJ Open Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMJ Sexual & Reproductive Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BMJ Surgery, Interventions, & Health Technologies     Open Access  
Bodine Journal     Open Access  
Boletín del Consejo Académico de Ética en Medicina     Open Access  
Boletín del ECEMC     Open Access  
Boletin Médico de Postgrado     Open Access  
Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México     Open Access  
Bone     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Bone and Tissue Regeneration Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Reports     Open Access  
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Bozok Tıp Dergisi / Bozok Medical Journal     Open Access  
Brachytherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Brain and Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Brain Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brain Connectivity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Brain Impairment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Pain (BrJP)     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Breastfeeding Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
British Journal of Biomedical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
British Journal of General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
British Journal of Hospital Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Buddhachinaraj Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bulletin Amades     Open Access  
Bulletin de la Société de pathologie exotique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Legal Medicine     Open Access  
Bulletin of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin of the History of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Free  
Bulletin of the Scientific Centre for Expert Evaluation of Medicinal Products     Open Access  
Bundesgesundheitsblatt - Gesundheitsforschung - Gesundheitsschutz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Burapha Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Burns     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cadernos de Naturologia e Terapias Complementares     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Calcified Tissue International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Bulletin of Medical History     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Medical Association Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Canadian Medical Education Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Prosthetics & Orthotics Journal     Open Access  
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Care Management Journals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports     Open Access  
Case Reports in Acute Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Clinical Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Study and Case Report     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
CASUS : Revista de Investigación y Casos en Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cell & Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cell Adhesion & Migration     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cell and Molecular Response to Stress     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cell and Tissue Transplantation and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cell Cycle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Cell Death and Differentiation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cell Death Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Health and Cytoskeleton     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cell Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CEN Case Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Central African Journal of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ceylon Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Cell & Bioscience
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.447
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2045-3701
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • LncRNA SNHG7 promotes pancreatic cancer proliferation through ID4 by
           sponging miR-342-3p

    • Abstract: Background Small nucleolar RNA host gene 7 (SNHG7) is a novel identified oncogenic gene in tumorigenesis. However, the role that SNHG7 plays in pancreatic cancer (PC) remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the functional effects of SNHG7 on PC and the possible mechanism. Methods The expression levels of SNHG7 in tissues and cell lines were measured by RT-qPCR. Cell viability, apoptosis, migration and invasion were examined to explore the function of SNHG7 on PC. Bioinformatics methods were used to predict the target genes. The mechanism was further investigated by transfection with specific si-RNA, miRNA mimics or miRNA inhibitor. Tumor xenograft was carried out to verify the effects of SNHG7 in vivo. Results We found that SNHG7 was overexpressed in both PC tissues and cell lines. High expression level of SNHG7 was correlated with the poor prognosis. SNHG7 knockdown inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of PC cells. Moreover, SNHG7 was found to regulate the expression of ID4 via sponging miR-342-3p. Additionally, this finding was supported by in vivo experiments. Conclusions LncRNA SNHG7 was overexpressed in PC tissues, and knockdown of SNHG7 suppressed PC cell proliferation, migration and invasion via miR-342-3p/ID4 axis. The results indicated that SNHG7 as a potential target for clinical treatment of PC.
      PubDate: 2019-03-22
  • Communication between mitochondria and other organelles: a brand-new
           perspective on mitochondria in cancer

    • Abstract: Abstract Mitochondria are energy factories of cells and are important pivots for intracellular interactions with other organelles. They interact with the endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, and nucleus through signal transduction, vesicle transport, and membrane contact sites to regulate energy metabolism, biosynthesis, immune response, and cell turnover. However, when the communication between organelles fails and the mitochondria are dysfunctional, it may induce tumorigenesis. In this review, we elaborate on how mitochondria interact with the endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, and cell nuclei, as well as the relation between organelle communication and tumor development .
      PubDate: 2019-03-19
  • Function and dysfunction of plasma cells in intestine

    • Abstract: Abstract As the main player in humoral immunity, antibodies play indispensable roles in the body’s immune system. Plasma cells (PCs), as antibody factories, are important contributors to humoral immunity. PCs, recognized by their unique marker CD138, are always discovered in the medullary cords of spleen and lymph nodes and in bone marrow and mucosal lymphoid tissue. This article will review the origin and differentiation of PCs, characteristics of short- and long-lived PCs, and the secretion of antibodies, such as IgA, IgM, and IgG. PCs play a crucial role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis using immunomodulation though complex mechanisms. Clearly, PCs play functional roles in maintaining intestinal health, but more details are needed to fully understand all the other effects of intestinal PCs.
      PubDate: 2019-03-13
  • Radiation: a poly-traumatic hit leading to multi-organ injury

    • Abstract: Abstract The range of radiation threats we face today includes everything from individual radiation exposures to mass casualties resulting from a terrorist incident, and many of these exposure scenarios include the likelihood of additional traumatic injury as well. Radiation injury is defined as an ionizing radiation exposure inducing a series of organ injury within a specified time. Severity of organ injury depends on the radiation dose and the duration of radiation exposure. Organs and cells with high sensitivity to radiation injury are the skin, the hematopoietic system, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, spermatogenic cells, and the vascular system. In general, acute radiation syndrome (ARS) includes DNA double strand breaks (DSB), hematopoietic syndrome (bone marrow cells and circulatory cells depletion), cutaneous injury, GI death, brain hemorrhage, and splenomegaly within 30 days after radiation exposure. Radiation injury sensitizes target organs and cells resulting in ARS. Among its many effects on tissue integrity at various levels, radiation exposure results in activation of the iNOS/NF-kB/NF-IL6 and p53/Bax pathways; and increases DNA single and double strand breaks, TLR signaling, cytokine concentrations, bacterial infection, cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytoplasm, and possible PARP-dependent NAD and ATP-pool depletion. These alterations lead to apoptosis and autophagy and, as a result, increased mortality. In this review, we summarize what is known about how radiation exposure leads to the radiation response with time. We also describe current and prospective countermeasures relevant to the treatment and prevention of radiation injury.
      PubDate: 2019-03-12
  • MFAP5 promotes basal-like breast cancer progression by activating the EMT

    • Abstract: Purpose Human basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) is an aggressive malignancy with poor prognosis. Since most current treatments are ineffective, there is an urgent need to identify therapeutic targets for BLBC. Microfibrillar-associated protein 5 (MFAP5) plays an important role in the integration of elastic microfibers and the regulation of endothelial cell behaviors. We previously demonstrated that MFAP5 was significantly overexpressed in BLBC tissues and associated with poor metastasis-free survival of patients with BLBC. However, the detailed role of MFAP5 in BLBC is unclear. Thereby, the current study aimed to investigate the underlying function of MFAP5 in BLBC. Method Functional analyses were conducted for the role of MFAP5 in BLBC in vitro and in vivo. Results Overexpression of MFAP5 resulted in a significant increase in the proliferation, migration, invasion and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers in BLBC in vitro and in vivo. In addition, other metastasis animal models by tail intravenous injection of BT20 cells further confirmed that MFAP5 overexpression promoted BLBC proliferation and BT20 cells metastasis. We found that the TGF-β or Notch inhibitor significantly reversed the tumorigenicity and metastasis of MFAP5-induced BLBC cells. Conclusion Our findings suggest that MFAP5 may promote EMT in BLBC metastasis via the TGF-β/Notch pathway.
      PubDate: 2019-03-07
  • Short-term and long-term outcomes of liver resection for HCC patients with
           portal vein tumor thrombus

    • Abstract: Background Portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a sign of advanced stage disease, which is associated with poor prognosis. Liver resection (LR) may provide better prognosis in selected patients. In the present study, we aimed to assess information from HCC patients with PVTT who died within 3 months or 2 years after LR in order to identify preoperative factors correlated to short-term or long-term survival, by which inappropriate selection of patients for LR might be avoided in the future. Methods A retrospective cohort study consisting of 487 consecutive cases of HCC patients with PVTT was performed from 2008 to 2010 at Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital. Medical records, including laboratory values, imaging results and treatment information, were obtained from participants. Study endpoints were survival at 3 months and 2 years post-hepatectomy. Logistic regression analysis was utilized to determine the significant pre-operative factors influencing short-term or long-term survival. Results In multivariable analysis, α-fetoprotein, total bilirubin and radiologic ascites were significantly associated with short-term survival, while α-fetoprotein level, clinical significant portal hypertension, extent of PVTT and tumor differentiation were factors significantly associated with long-term survival. Conclusions The independent risk factors of poor short-term survival were the liver function-associated, such as factors radiologic ascites and total bilirubin, while tumor differentiation indicating the tumor biology was associated with longer-term survival. In addition, α-fetoprotein was a risk factor associated with both short-term and longer-term survivals.
      PubDate: 2019-03-06
  • The Y-linked proto-oncogene TSPY contributes to poor prognosis of the male
           hepatocellular carcinoma patients by promoting the pro-oncogenic and
           suppressing the anti-oncogenic gene expression

    • Abstract: Background Liver cancer is one of the major causes of cancer death worldwide, with significantly higher incidence and mortality among the male patients. Although sex hormones and their receptors could contribute to such sex differences, the story is incomplete. Genes on the male-specific region of the Y chromosome could play a role(s) in this cancer. TSPY is the putative gene for the gonadoblastoma locus on the Y chromosome (GBY) that is ectopically expressed in a subset of male hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Although various studies showed that TSPY expression is associated with poor prognosis in the patients and its overexpression promotes cell proliferation of various cancer cell lines, it remains unclear how TSPY contributes to the clinical outcomes of the HCC patients. Identifying the downstream genes and pathways of TSPY actions would provide novel insights on its contribution(s) to male predominance in this deadly cancer. Results To determine the effects of TSPY on HCC, a TSPY transgene was introduced to the HCC cell line, HuH-7, and studied with RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis. The results showed that TSPY upregulates various genes associated with cell-cycle and cell-viability, and suppresses cell-death related genes. To correlate the experimental observations with those of clinical specimens, transcriptomes of male HCCs with high TSPY expression were analyzed with reference to those with silent TSPY expression from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). The comparative analysis identified 49 genes, which showed parallel expression patterns between HuH-7 cells overexpressing TSPY and clinical specimens with high TSPY expression. Among these 49 genes, 16 likely downstream genes could be associated with survival rates in HCC patients. The major upregulated targets were cell-cycle related genes and growth factor receptor genes, including CDC25B and HMMR, whose expression levels are negatively correlated with the patient survival rates. In contrast, PPARGC1A, SLC25A25 and SOCS2 were downregulated with TSPY expression, and possess favorable prognoses for HCC patients. Conclusion We demonstrate that TSPY could exacerbate the oncogenesis of HCC by differentially upregulate the expression of pro-oncogenic genes and downregulate those of anti-oncogenic genes in male HCC patients, thereby contributing to the male predominance in this deadly cancer.
      PubDate: 2019-03-04
  • PNS-R1 inhibits Dex-induced bronchial epithelial cells apoptosis in asthma
           through mitochondrial apoptotic pathway

    • Abstract: Abstract Dexamethasone (Dex) are widely used for the treatment of asthma. However, they may cause apoptosis of bronchial epithelial cells and delay the recovery of asthma. Therefore, it is an urgent problem to find effective drugs to reduce this side effects. Panax notoginseng saponins R1 (PNS-R1) is known to exhibit anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic properties in many diseases. We aim to investigate whether PNS-R1 can reduce Dex-induced apoptosis in bronchial epithelial cells. In this study, the anti-apoptotic effects of PNS-R1 were investigated by conducting in vitro and in vivo. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining flow cytometry analysis and TUNEL assay were conducted to detect apoptotic cells. Mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by JC-1 analysis. Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis were conducted to measure caspase3, Bcl-2, Bax, Cyt-c, Apaf-1, cleaved-caspase3 and cleaved-caspase9 levels in lung tissues and 16HBE cells. Our findings demonstrated that Dex could induce apoptosis of bronchial epithelial cells and upregulate caspase3 expression of lung tissues. Western blot showed that Dex increased Bax, Cyt-c, Apaf-1, cleaved-caspase9, cleaved-caspase3 expression and decreased Bcl-2 expression. PNS-R1 could suppress Dex-induced apoptosis of bronchial epithelial cells by inhibiting Bax, Cyt-c, Apaf-1, cleaved-caspase9, cleaved-caspase3 expression and upregulating Bcl-2 expression. Flow cytometry analysis showed PNS-R1 alleviated JC-1 positive cells induced by Dex in 16HBE cells. These results showed that PNS-R1 alleviated Dex-induced apoptosis in bronchial epithelial cells by inhibition of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Furthermore, our findings highlighted the potential use of PNS-R1 as an adjuvant drug to treat asthma.
      PubDate: 2019-02-25
  • Myopia disease mouse models: a missense point mutation (S673G) and a
           protein-truncating mutation of the Zfp644 mimic human disease phenotype

    • Abstract: Abstract Zinc finger 644 (Zfp644 in mouse, ZNF644 in human) gene is a transcription factor whose mutation S672G is considered a potential genetic factor of inherited high myopia. ZNF644 interacts with G9a/GLP complex, which functions as a H3K9 methyltransferase to silence transcription. In this study, we generated mouse models to unravel the mechanisms leading to symptoms associated with high myopia. Employing TALEN technology, two mice mutants were generated, either with the disease-carrying mutation (Zfp644S673G) or with a truncated form of Zfp644 (Zfp644Δ8). Eye morphology and visual functions were analysed in both mutants, revealing a significant difference in a vitreous chamber depth and lens diameter, however the physiological function of retina was preserved as found under the high-myopia conditions. Our findings prove that ZNF644/Zfp644 is involved in the development of high-myopia, indicating that mutations such as, Zfp644S673G and Zfp644Δ8 are causative for changes connected with the disease. The developed models represent a valuable tool to investigate the molecular basis of myopia pathogenesis and its potential treatment.
      PubDate: 2019-02-21
  • Hypoxia destroys the microstructure of microtubules and causes dysfunction
           of endothelial cells via the PI3K/Stathmin1 pathway

    • Abstract: Background Endothelial cells (EC) are sensitive to changes in the microenvironment, including hypoxia and ischemia. Disruption of the microtubular network has been reported in cases of ischemia. However, the signaling pathways involved in hypoxia-induced microtubular disruption are unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in hypoxia-induced microtubular disassembly in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results HUVECs were cultured under normoxic or hypoxic conditions and pretreated with or without colchicine or paclitaxel. The MTT assay, Transwell assay, trans-endothelial permeability assay, and 5-bromo-2′-deoxy-uridine staining were used to test the survival rate, migration, permeability, and proliferation of cells, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy and phalloidin staining were used to observe the microstructure and polymerization of microtubules. The results show that the functions of HUVECs and the microtubular structure were destroyed by hypoxia, but were protected by paclitaxel and a reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor. We further used western blot, a luciferase assay, and co-immunoprecipitation to describe a non-transcription-independent mechanism for PI3K activation-inhibited microtubular stability mediated by Stathmin1, a PI3K interactor that functions in microtubule depolymerization. Finally, we determined that hypoxia and ROS blocked the interaction between PI3K and Stathmin1 to activate disassembly of microtubules. Conclusion Thus, our data demonstrate that hypoxia induced the production of ROS and damaged EC function by destroying the microtubular structure through the PI3K/stathmin1 pathway.
      PubDate: 2019-02-18
  • Exosomes: biogenesis, biologic function and clinical potential

    • Abstract: Abstract Exosomes are nano-sized biovesicles released into surrounding body fluids upon fusion of multivesicular bodies and the plasma membrane. They were shown to carry cell-specific cargos of proteins, lipids, and genetic materials, and can be selectively taken up by neighboring or distant cells far from their release, reprogramming the recipient cells upon their bioactive compounds. Therefore, the regulated formation of exosomes, specific makeup of their cargo, cell-targeting specificity are of immense biological interest considering extremely high potential of exosomes as non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers, as well as therapeutic nanocarriers. In present review, we outline and discuss recent progress in the elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms of exosome biogenesis, the molecular composition of exosomes, and technologies used in exosome research. Furthermore, we focus on the potential use of exosomes as valuable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for their cell-lineage and state-specific contents, and possibilities as therapeutic vehicles for drug and gene delivery. Exosome research is now in its infancy, in-depth understanding of subcellular components and mechanisms involved in exosome formation and specific cell-targeting will bring light on their physiological activities.
      PubDate: 2019-02-15
  • Comparison of osteogenic differentiation capacity in mesenchymal stem
           cells derived from human amniotic membrane (AM), umbilical cord (UC),
           chorionic membrane (CM), and decidua (DC)

    • Abstract: Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been extensively explored as a promising therapeutic agent in the field of bone tissue engineering due to their osteogenic differentiation ability. In this study, the osteogenic differential ability and the effect of fibronectin and laminin on the osteogenic differentiation in four types of MSCs derived from placental tissue are compared to determine the ideal source for bone reconstruction tissue engineering. Results The present study examines the osteogenic differentiation levels of four types of MSCs using alizarin red staining and quantifies the calcium levels and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. In addition, this study examines the osteoblast differentiation protein markers osterix, collagen I, osteopontin, and osteocalcin using a Western blot assay. qPCR and EdU labeling assays were employed to identify the kinetics of osteogenic differentiation. Calcium deposit levels, ALP activity, and osteopontin and osteocalcin concentrations were determined to confirm the role of Extracellular matrix (ECM) components role on the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. The data demonstrated that MSCs isolated from different layers of placenta had different potentials to differentiate into osteogenic cells. Importantly, AM-MSCs and UC-MSCs differentiated into the osteoblast stage more efficiently and quickly than CM-MSCs and DC-MSCs, which was associated with a decrease in their proliferation ability. Among the different types of MSCs, AM-MSCs and UC-MSCs had a higher osteogenic differentiation potential induced by fibronectin due to enhanced phosphorylation during the Akt and ERK pathways. Conclusions Taken together, these results indicate that AM-MSCs and UC-MSCs possess a higher osteogenic potential, and fibronectin can robustly enhance the osteogenic potential of the Akt and ERK pathways.
      PubDate: 2019-02-11
  • Regional methylome profiling reveals dynamic epigenetic heterogeneity and
           convergent hypomethylation of stem cell quiescence-associated genes in
           breast cancer following neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    • Abstract: Background Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) induces a pathological complete response (pCR) in ~ 30% of patients with breast cancer. However, aberrant DNA methylation alterations are frequent events during breast cancer progression and acquisition of chemoresistance. We aimed to characterize the inter- and intra-tumor methylation heterogeneity (MH) in breast cancer following NAC. Methods DNA methylation profiles of spatially separated regions of breast tumors before and after NAC treatment were investigated using high-density methylation microarray. Methylation levels of genes of interest were further examined using multiplexed MethyLight droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). Results We have discovered different levels of intra-tumor MH in breast cancer patients. Moreover, NAC dramatically altered the methylation profiles and such changes were highly heterogeneous between the patients. Despite the high inter-patient heterogeneity, we identified that stem cell quiescence-associated genes ALDH1L1, HOPX, WNT5A and SOX9 were convergently hypomethylated across all the samples after NAC treatment. Furthermore, by using MethyLight ddPCR, we verified that the methylation levels of these 4 genes were significantly lower in breast tumor samples after NAC than those before NAC. Conclusions Our study has revealed that NAC dramatically alters epigenetic heterogeneity in breast cancer and induces convergent hypomethylation of stem cell quiescence-associated genes, ALDH1L1, HOPX, WNT5A and SOX9, which can potentially be developed as therapeutic targets or biomarkers for chemoresistance.
      PubDate: 2019-02-07
  • Growth inhibition and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells induced by
           Vitamin D-Nanoemulsion (NVD): involvement of Wnt/β-catenin and other
           signal transduction pathways

    • Abstract: Background More than the two decades, the question of whether vitamin D has a role in cancer frequency, development, and death has been premeditated in detail. Colorectal, breast, and prostate cancers have been a scrupulous spot of center, altogether, these three malignancies report for approximately 35% of cancer cases and 20% of cancer demises in the United States, and as such are a chief public health apprehension. The aim was to evaluate antitumor activity of Vitamin D-Nanoemulsion (NVD) in colorectal cancer cell lines and HCT116 xenograft model in a comprehensive approach. Methods Two human colorectal cancer cell lines HCT116 and HT29 (gained from College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, KSA were grown. 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide protocol were performed to show the impact of NVD and β-catenin inhibitor (FH535) on the viability of HCT116 and HT29 cell lines. Apoptosis/cell cycle assay was performed. Analysis was done with a FACScan (Becton–Dickinson, NJ). About 10,000 cells per sample were harvested and Histograms of DNA were analyzed with ModiFitLT software (verity Software House, ME, USA). Western blotting and RT-PCR were performed for protein and gene expression respectively in in vitro and in vivo. Results We found that NVD induced cytotoxicity in colorectal cells in a dose-dependent manner and time dependent approach. Further, our data validated that NVD administration of human colorectal cancer HCT116 and HT29 cells resulted in cell growth arrest, alteration in molecules regulating cell cycle operative in the G2 phase of the cell cycle and apoptosis in a dose dependent approach. Further our results concluded that NVD administration decreases expression of β-catenin gene, AKT gene and Survivin gene and protein expression in in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion Our findings suggest that targeting β-catenin gene may encourage the alterations of cell cycle and cell cycle regulators. Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway possibly takes part in the genesis and progression of colorectal cancer cells through regulating cell cycle and the expression of cell cycle regulators.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Long non-coding RNA BLACAT1 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and
           metastasis by miR-150-5p/CCR2

    • Abstract: Background Breast cancer was dangerous to women health. A growing number of evidences indicate that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have many functions in the development and progression of breast cancer and may serve as the markers of diagnosis or prognosis. BLACAT1 is one of lncRNA and the roles of it in breast cancer is not clear. In this study, it is aimed to explore the roles and molecular mechanisms of BLACAT1 in breast cancer. Results We found BLACAT1 took part in breast cancer cell aggressive phenotype. The real-time PCR result showed that BLACAT1 was up-regulated in tumor tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues. The molecular mechanism experiments demonstrated that BLACAT1 down-regulation suppressed the proliferation and metastasis of human breast cancer cells by regulating miR-150-5p targeting CCR2. The clinical studies indicated that lack of BLACAT1 was related to tumor size, metastasis. Conclusion: The present study verified the involvement of the BLACAT1 in the mediation of cell survival and metastasis through miR-150-5p targeting CCR2 in breast cancer cells.
      PubDate: 2019-01-30
  • Critical role of Tim-3 mediated autophagy in chronic stress induced

    • Abstract: Background Psychological and physical stress can either enhance or suppress immune functions depending on a variety of factors such as duration and severity of stressful situation. Chronic stress exerts a significantly suppressive effect on immune functions. However, the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain to be elucidated. Autophagy plays an essential role in modulating cellular homeostasis and immune responses. However, it is not known yet whether autophagy contributes to chronic stress-induced immunosuppression. T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (Tim-3) has shown immune-suppressive effects and obviously positive regulation on cell apoptosis. Tim-3 combines with Tim-3 ligand galectin-9 to modulate apoptosis. However, its impact on autophagy and chronic stress-induced immunosuppression is not yet identified. Results We found remarkably higher autophagy level in the spleens of mice that were subjected to chronic restraint stress compared with the control group. We also found that inhibition of autophagy by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) significantly attenuated chronic stress-induced alterations of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels. We further elucidated that 3-MA dramatically inhibited the reduction of lymphocyte numbers. Moreover, chronic stress dramatically enhanced the expression of Tim-3 and galectin-9. Inhibition of Tim-3 by small interfering RNA against Tim-3 significantly decreased the level of autophagy and immune suppression in isolated primary splenocytes from stressed mice. In addition, α-lactose, a blocker for the interaction of Tim-3 and galectin-9, also decreased the autophagy level and immune suppression. Conclusion Chronic stress induces autophagy, resulting with suppression of immune system. Tim-3 and galectin-9 play a crucial regulatory role in chronic stress-induced autophagy. These studies suggest that Tim-3 mediated autophagy may offer a novel therapeutic strategy against the deleterious effects of chronic stress on the immune system.
      PubDate: 2019-01-22
  • Scutellarin protects human retinal pigment epithelial cells against
           hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced oxidative damage

    • Abstract: Background Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a severe blinding complication of retinal detachment surgery. Increasing evidence demonstrate that PVR is associated with oxidative stress. Scutellarin is a natural flavone compound that has been reported to have anti-oxidative activity. However, the effect of scutellarin on PVR remains unknown. In the current study, we assessed the effect of scutellarin on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative injury in human retinal pigment epithelium cells (ARPE-19). Methods ARPE-19 cells were pretreated with different concentrations of scutellarin for 2 h, and then challenged with H2O2 (1 mM) for 24 h. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) activity were measured to assess the level of oxidative stress. Flow cytometry was performed to detect the apoptosis rate of ARPE-19 cells. Expression levels of bcl-2, bax, cleaved-caspase-3, p-JAK2, JAK2, p-STAT3, and STAT3 were measured using western blot. Results Our results revealed that scutellarin improved the cell viability of H2O2-induced ARPE-19 cells. Scutellarin alleviated the H2O2-induced oxidative stress in ARPE-19 cells, which was illustrated by reduced levels of ROS and MDA, accompanied by increased SOD activity and GSH level. The increased apoptosis rate of ARPE-19 cells caused by H2O2 induction was significantly decreased after scutellarin treatment. H2O2 treatment resulted in significant increase in bax expression and decrease in bcl-2 expression, while the changes in the expressions of bax and bcl-2 were reversed by scutellarin treatment. In addition, scutellarin promoted the activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in H2O2-induced ARPE-19 cells. Suppression of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway abolished the protective effects of scutellarin on H2O2-induced ARPE-19 cells. Conclusion These findings suggested that scutellarin was capable for alleviating H2O2-induced oxidative damage in ARPE-19 cells, which might be ascribed to the activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.
      PubDate: 2019-01-21
  • Long non-coding RNA ANRIL-mediated inflammation response is involved in
           protective effect of rhein in uric acid nephropathy rats

    • Abstract: Background The aim of this study was to investigate the role of long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL) in anti-inflammation of rhein in uric acid nephropathy (UAN) rats. Methods Rat models of UAN were induced by adenine and potassium oxonate. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to assess inflammation factor in serum and supernatant. ANRIL mRNA level was detected using real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Immunostaining was used to observe pathological changes of renal tissues in rats. Results ANRIL and inflammatory factor levels were highly expressed in patient with UAN. Furthermore, rhein showed an observable effect on anti-inflammatory and renal protection in UAN rats, rhein inhibited expressions of ANRIL in vivo or in vitro. Besides, ANRIL-mediated inflammatory response attenuated protective effect of rhein. Conclusions ANRIL-mediated inflammatory response attenuated the protective effect of rhein in UAN rats. This study showed an understanding of the role and mechanism of ANRIL in UAN, which provides a new target and therapy for the prevention and treatment of UAN.
      PubDate: 2019-01-17
  • IL-33 ameliorates experimental colitis involving regulation of autophagy
           of macrophages in mice

    • Abstract: Background Previously, we have demonstrated that IL-33 administration protecting TNBS-induced experimental colitis is associated with facilitation of Th2/Tregs responses in mice. However, whether IL-33 regulates autophagy to ameliorate experimental colitis is unclear. Results IL-33 administration (2 μg/day, intraperitoneal injection), while facilitating Th2/Tregs responses, also enhances the autophagy in mice with TNBS-induced colitis as well as macrophages. In the meantime, we observed that inhibition of the autophagy with 3-methyladenine (3-MA) (24 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) in mice exacerbates TNBS-induced experimental colitis. On the contrary, administration of rapamycin (2 mg/kg,intragastric administration), an autophagy-enhancer, alleviates the colitis in mice. In vivo, Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that TNBS combined with IL-33 enhanced the autophagy of macrophages in the inflammatory gut tissue. In vitro, treatment with IL-33 promoted the autophagy of macrophages generated from bone marrow cells in dose-dependant manner. Furthermore, the effect of autophagy-enhancement by IL-33 is TLR4 signaling pathway dependant. Our notion was further confirmed by IL-33-deficient bone marrow-derived macrophages cells. Conclusions IL-33 regulates the autophagy is a new immunoregulatory property on TNBS-induced experimental colitis in mice.
      PubDate: 2019-01-14
  • Transmembrane protein 108 involves in adult neurogenesis in the
           hippocampal dentate gyrus

    • Abstract: Background Transmembrane protein 108 (Tmem108) is a risk gene of psychiatric diseases including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression disorder. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms of Tmem108 are largely unknown. Results Here we investigated the pathophysiological function of Tmem108 in the hippocampal dentate gyrus by using Tmem108 mutant mice. Tmem108 highly expressed in the dentate gyrus and CA3 of the hippocampus. Dentate gyrus is a brain region where adult neurogenesis occurs, and aberrant adult neurogenesis in dentate gyrus has been implicated in major depression disorder. Indeed, Tmem108 mutant mice had lower immobility than wild type mice in tail suspension test and forced swimming test. BrdU and anti-Ki67 antibody staining indicated that adult neurogenesis of the hippocampal dentate gyrus region decreased in Tmem108 mutant mice. qPCR results showed that expression of Axin2, DISC1 and β-Catenin, three dentate gyrus adult neurogenesis related genes in Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathway, decreased in Tmem108 mutant mice. Furthermore, Tmem108 enhanced free β-Catenin level in dual luciferase assay. Conclusions Thus, our data suggest that Tmem108 increases adult neurogenesis and plays a complexity role in psychiatric disorders.
      PubDate: 2019-01-11
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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