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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2098 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access  
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)     Open Access  
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta Medica International     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acupuncture and Natural Medicine     Open Access  
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / Health Sciences Journal of Adıyaman University     Open Access  
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Medical Ethics     Open Access  
Advances in Medical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access  
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Skeletal Muscle Function Assessment     Open Access  
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
AJSP: Reviews & Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Althea Medical Journal     Open Access  
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Anatomica Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ankara Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası     Open Access  
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Hypertension     Open Access  
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Annals of Health Research     Open Access  
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives Medical Review Journal / Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi     Open Access  
Archives of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology     Open Access  
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access  
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASHA Leader     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine     Open Access  
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.909
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 4  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0192-415X - ISSN (Online) 793-6853
Published by World Scientific Homepage  [119 journals]
  • The Effectiveness of Acupuncture for Osteoporosis: A Systematic Review and
    • Authors: Hong Pan, Rongjiang Jin, Mengxiao Li, Zhihong Liu, Qing Xie, Pu Wang
      Pages: 489 - 513
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 03, Page 489-513, 2018.
      To summarize the existing evidence and evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture as a clinical treatment for osteoporosis. Six English and four Chinese databases were searched from their inception to April 2017. Randomized controlled trials were included, in which warm acupuncture, needling or electroacupuncture were compared with sole Western medicine with osteoporosis. All the data were assessed and extracted by two authors independently. The bias risk assessment recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool was used to assess the quality of the selected studies. This meta-analysis was conducted by using RevMan 5.3. Pooled analyses were calculated by standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Heterogeneity was assessed by I2 test. Thirty-five studies involving 3014 patients were located. Meta-analysis showed that warm acupuncture could increase the bone mineral density of lumar (SMD [math] 0.93, 95% CI [math] 0.65, 1.21, [math][math]0.00001) and femur (MD[math][math][math]0.11, 95% CI[math][math][math]0.05, 0.16, P[math][math][math]0.0002), the level of serum calcium (MD[math][math][math]0.18, 95% CI[math][math][math]0.13, 0.24, [math][math]0.00001) and estradiol (SMD[math][math][math]0.65, 95% CI[math][math][math]0.32, 0.98, P[math][math][math]0.0001), relieve pain (MD[math][math][math]–1.64, 95% CI[math][math][math]–2.69, –0.59, P[math][math][math]0.002), decrease the level of serum alkaline phosphatase (MD[math][math][math]–7.8, 95% CI[math][math][math]–14.17, –0.84, P [math] 0.03) compared with sole Western medicine. Electroacupuncture could relieve pain (MD[math][math] –1.32, 95% CI[math][math][math]–2.15, –0.48, P[math][math][math]0.002), increase the level of serum calcium (MD[math][math][math]–0.12, 95% CI [math] –0.16,-0.09, [math][math]0.00001) and decrease the level of serum alkaline phosphatase (MD [math] –3.63, 95% CI [math] –6.60, –0.66, P [math] 0.02) compared with sole Western medicine. Needling could relieve pain (MD [math] –2.27, 95% CI [math] –3.11, –1.43, [math][math]0.00001) compared with sole Western medicine. This present systematic review indicated that acupuncture could be an effective therapy for treating osteoporosis. Warm acupuncture seemed to more effective than electroacupuncture and needling for osteoporosis in comparison to sole Western medicine.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:37:24Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500258
  • Anti-Apoptotic Mechanisms of Acupuncture in Neurological Diseases: A
    • Authors: Wa Cai, Wei-Dong Shen
      Pages: 515 - 535
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 03, Page 515-535, 2018.
      Apoptosis, known as programmed cell death, plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. Most of these diseases can be obviously alleviated by means of acupuncture treatment. Current research studies have shown that the efficacy of acupuncture to these medical conditions is closely associated with the anti-apoptotic potentials. Mainly based on the acupuncture’s anti-apoptotic efficacy in prevalent neurological disorders, including cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, Alzheimer’s disease, depression or stress related-modes, spinal cord injuries, etc., this review comes to a conclusion that the anti-apoptotic effect of acupuncture treatment for neurological diseases, evidently reflected through Bcl-2, Bax or caspase expression change, results from regulating mitochondrial or autophagic dysfunction as well as reducing oxidative stress and inflammation. The possible mechanisms of acupuncture’s anti-apoptotic effect are associated with a series of downstream signaling pathways and the up-regulated expression of neurotrophic factors. It is of great importance to illuminate the exact mechanisms of acupuncture treatment for neurological dysfunctions.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:37:26Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X1850026X
  • Platycodin D Reverses Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy and Fibrosis in
           Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats
    • Authors: Yuan-Chuan Lin, Yu-Chen Lin, Wei-Wen Kuo, Chia-Yao Shen, Yi-Chang Cheng, Yueh-Min Lin, Ruey-Lin Chang, Vijaya V. Padma, Chih-Yang Huang, Chih-Yang Huang
      Pages: 537 - 549
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 03, Page 537-549, 2018.
      Platycodin D (PD) is the main active saponin isolated from Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) and is reported to exhibit anticancer, anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammation and anti-obesity biological effects. The current study aims to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of PD in cardiac fibrosis and for hypertrophy in spontaneous hypertension rats (SHRs) and to verify inhibition of the signaling pathway. Significant increases in the cardiac functional indices of left ventricular internal diameter end diastole (LVIDd) and left ventricular internal diameter end systole (LVIDs); the eccentric hypertrophy marker p-MEK5; concentric hypertrophy markers, such as CaMKII[math] and calcineurin; and expression levels of NFATc3, p-GATA4 and BNP were observed in spontaneously hypertensive groups. PD treatment reversed these increases in SHRs. In addition, an increase in the fibrosis markers FGF2, uPA, MMP2, MMP9, TGF[math]-1 and CTGF during cardiac hypertrophy was detected by western blotting analyses. These results demonstrated that PD treatment considerably attenuates cardiac fibrosis. Histopathological examination revealed that PD treatment remarkably reduced collagen accumulation in contrast to spontaneously hypertensive groups. This study clearly suggests that PD provides myocardial protection by alleviating two damaging responses to hypertension, fibrosis and hypertrophy, in the heart.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:37:31Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500271
  • Protective Effects of Ginsenoside Rb1 against Blood–Brain Barrier Damage
           Induced by Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Tat Protein and Methamphetamine
           in Sprague-Dawley Rats
    • Authors: Juan Li, Bairui Zeng, Xiao Hu, Zhen Li, Dongxian Zhang, Genmeng Yang, Jiejie Dai, Xiaofeng Zeng
      Pages: 551 - 566
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 03, Page 551-566, 2018.
      Although antiretroviral therapy has helped to improve the lives of individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), these patients are often still afflicted with HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders, which can lead to neurocognitive impairment and even dementia, and continue to hamper their quality of life. Methamphetamine abuse in HIV-1 patients poses a potential risk for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, because methamphetamine and HIV-1 proteins such as transactivator of transcription can synergistically damage the blood–brain barrier (BBB). In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of methamphetamine and HIV-1 Tat protein on the blood–brain barrier function and to determine whether ginsenoside Rb1 (GsRb1) plays a role in protecting the BBB. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. The experimental groups received methamphetamine and HIV-1 Tat protein or both and the control group received saline or GsRb1 pretreatment. Oxidative stress-related factors, tight junction (TJ) proteins, blood–brain barrier permeability, and morphological changes were recorded in each group. The results showed that the group treated with Methamphetamine[math]Tat showed a significant change at the ultrastructural level and in the levels of oxidative stress-related factors, TJ proteins, and BBB permeability, suggesting that the BBB function was severely damaged by HIV-1 Tat and methamphetamine synergistically. However, malondialdehyde levels and BBB permeability were lower and the oxidative stress-related factors superoxide dismutase and glutathione were higher in the GsRb1-treated group than in the Methamphetamine[math]Tat-treated group, indicating that GsRb1 can protect the BBB against the toxic effects of HIV-1 Tat and methamphetamine. These results show that GsRb1 may offer a potential therapeutic option for patients with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders or other neurodegenerative diseases.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:37:39Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500283
  • Total Flavones of Abelmoschus manihot Exhibits Pro-Angiogenic Activity by
           Activating the VEGF-A/VEGFR2-PI3K/Akt Signaling Axis
    • Authors: Gui-Song Zhu, Ling-Yi Tang, Dong-Ling Lv, Meng Jiang
      Pages: 567 - 583
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 03, Page 567-583, 2018.
      Angiogenesis is a process of new blood vessel formation from pre-existing vessels. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) binds to VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) and thus activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway play a central role in angiogenesis. Total flavones of Abelmoschus manihot (TFA), the major active component of the traditional Chinese herb Abelmoschus manihot, display novel pro-angiogenic activity. However, little information concerning its underlying mechanism is available. Here we investigate the pro-angiogenesis of TFA with the aim of understanding its mechanism of action. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model were used to evaluate pro-angiogenesis of TFA using cell viability, wounding healing, transwell invasion, tube formation, RT-qPCR and Western blot methods. LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, was used to interfere with PI3K/Akt pathway signal for assessing the underlying mechanism. Results in vitro indicated TFA obviously promoted HUVECs proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation. Furthermore, TFA markedly augmented PI3K and Akt phosphorylation and up-regulated VEGF-A and VEGFR2 expression in HUVECs. However, pre-treatment with LY294002 not only markedly attenuated TFA-induced cells proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation, but also significantly abolished TFA-induced VEGF-A and VEGFR2 over-expression as well as PI3K and Akt phosphorylation. Experiments in CAM model showed TFA significantly promoted the formation of branched blood vessels and was dramatically suppressed by LY294002. Taken together, TFA promoted angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo which, however, were counteracted by LY294002, suggesting at least in part, TFA exhibits pro-angiogenic activity by activating the VEGF-A/VEGFR2-PI3K/Akt signaling axis.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:37:27Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500295
  • Hypouricemic Effects of Armillaria mellea on Hyperuricemic Mice Regulated
           through OAT1 and CNT2
    • Authors: Tianqiao Yong, Shaodan Chen, Yizhen Xie, Diling Chen, Jiyan Su, Ou Shuai, Huiping Hu, Dan Zuo, Danling Liang
      Pages: 585 - 599
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 03, Page 585-599, 2018.
      Ethanol and water extracts of Armillaria mellea were prepared by directly soaking A. mellea in ethanol (AME) at 65[math]C, followed by decocting the remains in water (AMW) at 85[math]C. Significantly, AME and AMW at 30, 60 and 120[math]mg/kg exhibited excellent hypouricemic actions, causing remarkable declines from hyperuricemic control (351[math][math]mol/L, [math]) to 136, 130 and 115[math][math]mol/L and 250, 188 and 152[math][math]mol/L in serum uric acid, correspondingly. In contrast to the evident renal toxicity of allopurinol, these preparations showed little impacts. Moreover, they showed some inhibitory effect on XOD (xanthine oxidase) activity. Compared with hyperuricemic control, protein expressions of OAT1 (organic anion transporter 1) were significantly elevated in AME- and AMW-treated mice. The levels of GLUT9 (glucose transporter 9) expression were significantly decreased by AMW. CNT2 (concentrative nucleoside transporter 2), a key target for purine absorption in gastrointestinal tract was involved in this study, and was verified for its innovative role. Both AME and AMW down-regulated CNT2 proteins in the gastrointestinal tract in hyperuricemic mice. As they exhibited considerable inhibitory effects on XOD, we selected XOD as the target for virtual screening by using molecular docking, and four compounds were hit with high ranks. From the analysis, we concluded that hydrogen bond, Pi–Pi and Pi-sigma interactions might play important roles for their orientations and locations in XOD inhibition.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:37:36Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500301
  • Bergamottin Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Cells and Weight Regulation in
           Diet-Induced Obese Mice
    • Authors: Jeong-Hyeon Ko, Dongwoo Nam, Jae-Young Um, Sang Hoon Jung, Kwang Seok Ahn
      Pages: 601 - 615
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 03, Page 601-615, 2018.
      Obesity is a serious and increasing health problem worldwide, and the inhibition of adipogenesis is considered to be a potential therapeutic target for it. Bergamottin (BGM), a component of grapefruit juice, has been reported to regulate lipolysis. However, the physiological role of BGM in obesity has not been evaluated so far. In the present study, we investigated the effects of BGM on obesity in 3T3-L1 cells and in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). BGM inhibited adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells along with a significant decrease in the lipid content by downregulating the expression of two critical adipogenic factors, CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBP[math]) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR[math]). The expressions of target proteins such as adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), adiponectin, and resistin were also decreased by BGM. It activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by increasing phosphorylation of AMPK and the downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), indicating that BGM exerted its antiadipogenic effect through AMPK activation. In the HFD-induced obese mouse model, BGM administration significantly reduced the weight and sizes of white adipose tissue as well as the weight gain of mice fed HFD. Moreover, UCP1 and PGC1[math] expressions, well-known as brown adipocyte marker genes, were higher in the BGM-treated HFD mice than that in the HFD-induced obese mice. This study suggests that BGM suppress adipogenesis by AMPK activation in vitro and reduces body weight in vivo.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:37:23Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500313
  • Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate-Rich Green Tea Extract Ameliorates Fatty Liver
           and Weight Gain in Mice Fed a High Fat Diet by Activating the Sirtuin 1
           and AMP Activating Protein Kinase Pathway
    • Authors: Ui-Jin Bae, John Park, Il Woon Park, Byung Min Chae, Mi-Ra Oh, Su-Jin Jung, Geon-Seek Ryu, Soo-Wan Chae, Byung-Hyun Park
      Pages: 617 - 632
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 03, Page 617-632, 2018.
      The prevalence of metabolic diseases has risen globally in parallel with the obesity epidemic over the past few decades. Green tea has been reported to have metabolically beneficial effects on obesity; however, the mechanism by which green tea regulates lipid metabolism is not clearly understood. Male c57BL/6 mice were fed a normal chow diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), or an HFD supplemented with various doses of epigallocatechin gallate-rich green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks. GTE supplementation reduced body weight gain, prevented hepatic fat accumulation, decreased hypertriglyceridemia, and improved hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice. The underlying mechanisms of these beneficial effects of GTE might involve the upregulation of sirtuin 1 and AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the downregulation of enzymes related to de novo lipogenesis. Consistent with the in vivo findings, GTE increased the expression and activity of sirtuin 1, enhanced the binding of sirtuin 1 to liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and subsequent deacetylation of LKB1, and reduced triglyceride accumulation in HepG2 cells. These results suggest the possible therapeutic potential of dietary epigallocatechin gallate-rich GTE supplementation for preventing the development and progression of hepatic steatosis and obesity.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:37:35Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500325
  • Alleviation of Hippocampal Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress by Allomyrina
           dichotoma Larvae Extract
    • Authors: Jongwan Kim, Md. Nazmul Haque, Tae-Won Goo, Il Soo Moon
      Pages: 633 - 650
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 03, Page 633-650, 2018.
      In the brain, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress results in synaptic dysfunction and eventually leads to neurodegeneration. Allomyrina dichotoma larvae are a Chinese ethnomedicine and are widely used in East Asia. In the present study, we investigated the ability of ethanol extract of A. dichotoma larvae (ADE) to improve synaptic structure and function by activating unfolded protein response (UPR) under ER stress in animal and neuron culture models. ER stress was induced in obese mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) or by treating dissociated cultures of rat embryonic (E19) hippocampal neurons with tunicamycin (TM). Western blot and real-time or conventional RT-PCR were performed to analyze the expressions of ER stress marker proteins. In dissociated hippocampal cultures, immunocytochemistry was performed for synaptic proteins, and cultures were stained with styryl dye FM1-43 to assess presynaptic activities. In HFD-fed obese mice, ADE efficiently reduced the expressions of ER stress markers, such as, xbp-1, chop, atf4, erdi4, and eIf2a, and those of the ER chaperone/foldases Bip/grp78, Ero-1l, and PDI. Unconventionally spliced xbp-1s mRNA was not detected. In primary rat hippocampal cultures under ER stress, ADE significantly lowered the nuclear expression of CHOP, inhibited the downregulations of postsynaptic proteins, such as, GluN2A, GluN2B, and PSD-95, and maintained the pool size of recycling presynaptic vesicles. The study shows that ADE potently suppressed the induction of ER stress and maintained the structure and function of hippocampal neurons, and suggests that ADE is a potentially valuable food supplement and preventive therapeutic for ER stress-related nervous disorders.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:37:21Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500337
  • Asatone Prevents Acute Lung Injury by Reducing Expressions of NF-[math]B,
           MAPK and Inflammatory Cytokines
    • Authors: Heng-Yuan Chang, Yi-Chuan Chen, Jaung-Geng Lin, I-Hsin Lin, Hui-Fen Huang, Chia-Chou Yeh, Jian-Jung Chen, Guan-Jhong Huang
      Pages: 651 - 671
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 03, Page 651-671, 2018.
      Asatone is an active component extracted from the Chinese herb Radix et Rhizoma Asari. Our preliminary studies have indicated that asatone has an anti-inflammatory effect on RAW 264.7 culture cells challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Acute lung injury (ALI) has high morbidity and mortality rates due to the onset of serious lung inflammation and edema. Whether asatone prevents ALI LPS-induced requires further investigation. In vitro studies revealed that asatone at concentrations of 2.5–20[math][math]g/mL drastically prevented cytotoxicity and concentration-dependently reduced NO production in the LPS-challenged macrophages. In an in vivo study, the intratracheal administration of LPS increased the lung wet/dry ratio, myeloperoxidase activity, total cell counts, white blood cell counts, NO, iNOS, COX, TNF-[math], IL-1[math], and IL-6 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as mitogen-activated protein kinases in the lung tissues. Pretreatment with asatone could reverse all of these effects. Asatone markedly reduced the levels of TNF-[math] and IL-6 in the lung and liver, but not in the kidney of mice. By contrast, LPS reduced anti-oxidative enzymes and inhibited NF-[math]B activations, whereas asatone increased anti-oxidative enzymes in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and NF-[math]B activations in the lung tissues. Conclusively, asatone can prevent ALI through various anti-inflammatory modalities, including the major anti-inflammatory pathways of NF-[math]B and mitogen-activated protein kinases. These findings suggest that asatone can be applied in the treatment of ALI.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:37:33Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500349
  • The Polyphenolic Compound Curcumin Conjugation with an Alkyne Moiety in
           the Process of Autophagy
    • Authors: Peiyi Yan, Xin Sun, Xiaochen Chen, Yun Chen, Xiao Wang, Dan Su, Hongying Zhou, Liang Gao, Liqin Lu, Jigang Wang, Jianbin Zhang
      Pages: 673 - 687
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 03, Page 673-687, 2018.
      Curcumin is a hydrophobic polyphenol derived from turmeric: the rhizome of the herb Curcumalonga. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process, in which cellular proteins and organelles are engulfed in autophagosome and then fuses with lysosome for degradation. Our previous study showed that Curcumin activates lysosome and induce autophagy through inhibition of AKT (protein kinase K, PKB)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. But whether Curucmin affects the fusion of autophagosome-lysosome is still not clear. Here, we used Curcumin-probe conjugation with an alkyne moiety to label mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and found that Curcumin targets autophagy-related proteins, enhances autophagic flux and activates lysosome in cells. Moreover, Curcumin treatment promotes the fusion of autophasosome-lysosome in MEFs. Second, the enhanced fusion of autophagosome-lysosome is attributed to mTOR suppression. Third, blockage of the autophagosome-lysosome fusion leads to cell growth inhibition by Curcumin. Taken together, data from our study indicates the importance of the fusion of autophagosome-lysosome in Curcumin-induced autophagy, which may facilitate the development of Curcumin as a potential therapeutic agent for oxidative stress-related diseases.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:37:29Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500350
  • The Anticancer Effects of Garlic Extracts on Bladder Cancer Compared to
           Cisplatin: A Common Mechanism of Action via Centromere Protein M
    • Authors: Won Tae Kim, Sung-Pil Seo, Young Joon Byun, Ho-Won Kang, Yong-June Kim, Sang-Cheol Lee, Pildu Jeong, Hye-Jin Song, Soo Young Choe, Dong-Joon Kim, Seon-Kyu Kim, Yun Sok Ha, Sung-Kwon Moon, Geun Taek Lee, Isaac Yi Kim, Seok Joong Yun, Wun-Jae Kim
      Pages: 689 - 705
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 03, Page 689-705, 2018.
      Although garlic induces apoptosis in cancer cells, it is unclear whether the effects are similar to those of cisplatin against bladder cancer (BC). Therefore, this study investigated whether garlic extracts and cisplatin show similar activity when used to treat BC. The effect of garlic on T24 BC cell line was examined in a BALB/C-nude mouse xenograft model and compared with that of cisplatin. Tissue microarray analysis and gene network analysis were performed to identify differences in gene expression by control tumors and tumors exposed to garlic extract or cisplatin. Investigation of gene expression based on tissues from 165 BC patients and normal controls was then performed to identify common targets of garlic and cisplatin. Tumor volume and tumor weight in cisplatin (0.05[math]mg/kg)- and garlic-treated mice were significantly smaller than those in negative control mice. However, cisplatin-treated mice also showed a significant reduction in body weight. Microarray analysis of tumor tissue identified 515 common anticancer genes in the garlic and cisplatin groups ([math]). Gene network analysis of 252 of these genes using the Cytoscape and ClueGo software packages mapped 17 genes and 9 gene ontologies to gene networks. BC (NMIBC and MIBC) patients with low expression of centromere protein M (CENPM) showed significantly better progression-free survival than those with high expression. Garlic extract shows anticancer activity in vivo similar to that of cisplatin, with no evident of side effects. Both appear to act by targeting protein-DNA complex assembly; in particular, expression of CENPM.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:37:38Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500362
  • Revealing the Neural Mechanisms Underlying the Beneficial Effects of Tai
           Chi: A Neuroimaging Perspective
    • Authors: Angus P. Yu, Bjorn T. Tam, Christopher W. Lai, Doris S. Yu, Jean Woo, Ka-Fai Chung, Stanley S. Hui, Justina Y. Liu, Gao X. Wei, Parco M. Siu
      Pages: 231 - 259
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 02, Page 231-259, 2018.
      Tai Chi Chuan (TCC), a traditional Chinese martial art, is well-documented to result in beneficial consequences in physical and mental health. TCC is regarded as a mind-body exercise that is comprised of physical exercise and meditation. Favorable effects of TCC on body balance, gait, bone mineral density, metabolic parameters, anxiety, depression, cognitive function, and sleep have been previously reported. However, the underlying mechanisms explaining the effects of TCC remain largely unclear. Recently, advances in neuroimaging technology have offered new investigative opportunities to reveal the effects of TCC on anatomical morphologies and neurological activities in different regions of the brain. These neuroimaging findings have provided new clues for revealing the mechanisms behind the observed effects of TCC. In this review paper, we discussed the possible effects of TCC-induced modulation of brain morphology, functional homogeneity and connectivity, regional activity and macro-scale network activity on health. Moreover, we identified possible links between the alterations in brain and beneficial effects of TCC, such as improved motor functions, pain perception, metabolic profile, cognitive functions, mental health and sleep quality. This paper aimed to stimulate further mechanistic neuroimaging studies in TCC and its effects on brain morphology, functional homogeneity and connectivity, regional activity and macro-scale network activity, which ultimately lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of TCC on human health.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-03-15T09:40:22Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500131
  • Ethnomedicine, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Smilax glabra: An
           Important Traditional Chinese Medicine
    • Authors: Shiyao Hua, Yiwei Zhang, Jiayue Liu, Lin Dong, Jun Huang, Dingbo Lin, Xueyan Fu
      Pages: 261 - 297
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 02, Page 261-297, 2018.
      Smilax glabra (SG) Roxb., a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, has been extensively used worldwide for its marked pharmacological activities for treating syphilitic poisoned sores, limb hypertonicity, morbid leucorrhea, eczema pruritus, strangury due to heat, carbuncle toxin, and many other human ailments. Approximately 200 chemical compounds have been isolated from SG Roxb., and the major components have been determined to be flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides, phenolic acids, and steroids. Among these active compounds, the effects of astilbin, which is used as a quality control marker to determine the quality of SG Roxb., have been widely investigated. Based on in vivo and in vitro studies, the primary active components of SG Roxb. possess various pharmacological activities, such as cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory effects, anti-oxidant, hepatoprotective, antiviral, antibacterial, and cardiovascular system protective activities. However, an extensive study to determine the relationship between the chemical compositions and pharmacological effects of SG Roxb. has not been conducted and is worth of our study. Improving the means of utilizing the effects of SG is crucial. The present paper reviews the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of SG Roxb. and assesses its ethnopharmacological use in order to explore its therapeutic potential for future research.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-03-15T09:40:34Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500143
  • Phytotherapeutic Activities of Sanguisorba officinalis and its Chemical
           Constituents: A Review
    • Authors: Eungyeong Jang, Kyung-Soo Inn, Young Pyo Jang, Kyung-Tae Lee, Jang-Hoon Lee
      Pages: 299 - 318
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 02, Page 299-318, 2018.
      Sanguisorba officinalis Linne (S. officinalis, Rosaceae) has been used as a medicinal plant for the treatment of burns, hematemesis, melena, intestinal infections, and dermatitis for a long time in China, Korea, and Japan. The therapeutic efficacy of this herb is intimately associated with its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antifungal, hemostatic, and anticancer activities. Its root contains triterpenoid saponins (zigyuglycoside I: C[math]H[math]O[math] and ziyuglycoside II: C[math]H[math]O8) and tannins (sanguiin H-6: C[math]H[math]O[math]). It has been recently revealed that these active constituents of S. officinalis possess antiwrinkle properties without cytotoxicity. They also have anticancer effects by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Moreover, they can inhibit proliferative tumorigenesis. The underlying mechanism involved in the pharmacological actions of these active constituents is mainly related to p38 MAPK signaling. Although various studies have reported its therapeutic activities and major chemical components, review articles that extensively organize various properties of S. officinalis and its major constituents are still scarce. Taken together, the objective of this paper is to provide overall pharmacological and phytochemical profiles of S. officinalis and its constituents (including ziyuglycoside I, ziyuglycoside II, and sanguiin H-6), and their potential roles in clinical applications for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, bleeding disorders, and cancer.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-03-15T09:40:21Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500155
  • Pharmacological Effects of Scutellarin, An Active Component of Genus
           Scutellaria and Erigeron: A Systematic Review
    • Authors: Sebastian Chledzik, Jakub Strawa, Katarzyna Matuszek, Jolanta Nazaruk
      Pages: 319 - 337
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 02, Page 319-337, 2018.
      Flavonoid compound scutellarin (Scu) is quite frequently met in the plant kingdom, particularly in the genus Scutellaria (Lamiaceae) and Erigeron (Asteraceae). The extract of the herb of Erigeron breviscapus, containing this component in high amount, has been used for many years in traditional Chinese medicine. In recent years, studies have made great progress on the usefulness of Scu for treating various diseases by testing its mechanism of action. They support the traditional use of Scu rich plant in heart and cerebral ischemia. Scu can potentially be applied in Alzheimer’s disease, Helicobacter pylori infection, vascular complications of diabetes and as an inhibitor of certain carcinomas. Various methods were designed to improve its isolation from plant material, solubility, absorption and bioavailability. On the basis of recent studies, it is suggested that Scu could be a promising candidate for new natural drug and deserves particular attention in further research and development.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-03-15T09:40:29Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500167
  • Chicoric Acid Improves Heart and Blood Responses to Hypobaric Hypoxia in
           Tibetan Yaks
    • Authors: Hua Wu, Dan Luo, Changxing Li, Hui Zhang, A Shunxian, Yuanxin Zhang, Chao Sun
      Pages: 339 - 355
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 02, Page 339-355, 2018.
      Yak is a wild bovine species living on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau that demonstrates good adaptability to the hypoxic environment. Chicoric acid, a natural phenolic compound, is known as having anti-oxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. However, its effect on hypoxia adaptability of yak is still unclear. In this study 40 yaks were selected that were of similar age, parity and weight, and divided into the control group and experimental groups 1, 2, 3, randomly. Results showed that chicoric acid significantly improved RBC, HGB, and WBC. There are significantly beneficial effects to increasing total protein contents ([math]): all treatments increased HDL-C contents, and supplementations 100[math]mg/h significantly decreased the content of TG on the 60th day ([math]). Contents of the serum related enzymes like ALP, GOP and GPT showed varying degrees of change, but no significant differences and the indexes of anti-oxidant capacity (T-AOC and GSH-Px) were significantly improved ([math]), but MDA was decreased ([math]) under the action of the chicoric acid. Hypoxia-inducible factor in serum such as HIF-2[math], EPO, ROS, Fe[math] and Tf are all significantly decreased ([math]). The myocardial mitochondrial parameters mtDNA, UCP2, PGC1-[math], NRF1 and mitochondrial complexes were altered remarkably. Some indicators of glucose metabolism presented variation trends. Taken together, chicoric acid has shown a positive effect on the adaptive ability of yak in high altitude, hypoxic environment in plateau areas. Our findings reported a new potential means to enhance immunity and inflammatory response and improve the anti-oxidant capacity.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-03-15T09:40:17Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500179
  • Antidepressant-Like Effects of Vaccinium bracteatum in Chronic Restraint
           Stress Mice: Functional Actions and Mechanism Explorations
    • Authors: Dool-Ri Oh, Yujin Kim, Eun-Jin Choi, Myung-A Jung, Kyo-Nyeo Oh, Ji-Ae Hong, Donghyuck Bae, Kwangsu Kim, Huwon Kang, Jaeyong Kim, Young Ran Kim, Seung Sik Cho, Chul-Young Choi
      Pages: 357 - 387
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 02, Page 357-387, 2018.
      The fruit of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. (VBF) is commonly known as the oriental blueberry in Korea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of water VBF extract (VBFW) in a mouse model of chronic restraint stress (CRS) and to identify the underlying mechanisms of its action. The behavioral effects of VBFW were assessed in the forced swim test (FST) and open field test (OFT). The levels of serum corticosterone (CORT), brain monoamines, in addition to the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway were evaluated. VBFW treatment significantly reduced the immobility time and increased swimming time in FST without altering the locomotor activity in unstressed mice. Furthermore, CRS mice treated with VBFW exhibited a significantly decreased immobility time in FST and serum CORT, increased locomotor activity in OFT, and enhanced brain monoamine neurotransmitters. Similarly, VBFW significantly upregulated the ERKs/Akt signaling pathway in the hippocampus and PFC. In addition, VBFW may reverse CORT-induced cell death by enhancing cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein expression through the up-regulation of ERKs/Akt signaling pathways. In addition, VBFW showed the strong antagonistic effect of the 5-HT[math] receptor by inhibiting 5-HT-induced intracellular Ca[math] and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Our study provides evidence that antidepressant-like effects of VBFW might be mediated by the regulation of monoaminergic systems and glucocorticoids, which is possibly associated with neuroprotective effects and antagonism of 5-HT[math] receptor.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-03-15T09:40:37Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500180
  • The Protective Effects of Gardenia jasminoides (Fructus Gardenia) on
           Amyloid-β-Induced Mouse Cognitive Impairment and Neurotoxicity
    • Authors: Cai-Xia Zang, Xiu-Qi Bao, Lin Li, Han-Yu Yang, Lu Wang, Yang Yu, Xiao-Liang Wang, Xin-Sheng Yao, Dan Zhang
      Pages: 389 - 405
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 02, Page 389-405, 2018.
      Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease in the world. Although the exact causes of AD have not yet been fully elucidated, cholinergic dysfunction, mitochondrial damage, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation have been recognized as influential factors. Current drugs that are designed to address only a single target are unable to mitigate or prevent the progression of this complicated disease, so new disease-modifying drugs are urgently needed. Chinese herbs with thousand years of effective usage might be a good source for potential drugs. Gardenia jasminoides J. Ellis (Fructus Gardenia) is a common traditional Chinese medicine with tranquilizing effects, which is an important component of widely-used traditional Chinese medicine for dementia. GJ-4 is crocin richments extracted from Gardenia jasminoides J. Ellis. In our study, we attempted to observe the effects of GJ-4 on learning and memory injury induced by amyloid-[math] 25-35 (A[math] injection in mice. Treatment with GJ-4 dose-dependently enhanced the memory and cognition ability of A[math]-injected mice. Preliminary mechanistic studies revealed the protective effect of GJ-4 was related to its protection of neurons and cholinergic dysfunction. The mechanistic results also indicated that GJ-4 could enhance antioxidant capacity and attenuate neuroinflammation. Our results implied that GJ-4 might be a promising drug to improve cognitive and memory impairment, with multiple targets.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-03-15T09:40:23Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500192
  • p-Coumaric Acid, a Major Active Compound of Bambusae Caulis in Taeniam,
           Suppresses Cigarette Smoke-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation
    • Authors: Woogyeong Kim, Dahae Lim, Jinju Kim
      Pages: 407 - 421
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 02, Page 407-421, 2018.
      [math]-coumaric acid ([math]-CA) is a common compound found in medicinal herbs, including Bambusae Caulis in Taeniam (BC). It has been used to treat various diseases in China and Korea. Our previous study demonstrated that BC inhibits pulmonary and intestinal inflammation. In the present study, we used cigarette smoke (CS) to induce lung inflammation in vivo, and investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of [math]-CA on CS-induced inflammatory mice model. Mice were treated with BC and [math]-CA via oral injection 2[math]h before CS exposure. The body weight and the inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were measured. The levels of relative inflammatory factors were confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The lung histological changes were examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Also, the protein level of nuclear factor-[math]B (NF-[math]B) was evaluated by Western blotting. Our results indicated that BC and [math]-CA inhibited CS-induced lung inflammation by regulating pro-inflammatory productions such as cytokines, chemokine, protease and NF-[math]B. Consequently, these data demonstrated that [math]-CA inhibited pulmonary inflammation by suppressing NF-[math]B activity, through which pro-inflammatory mediators were regulated. Therefore, [math]-CA, which was shown to be a major component of BC, can be considered as a strong therapeutic candidate for treating pulmonary inflammatory diseases.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-03-15T09:40:25Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500209
  • Eucalyptus globulus Inhibits Inflammasome-Activated Pro-Inflammatory
           Responses and Ameliorate Monosodium Urate-Induced Peritonitis in Murine
           Experimental Model
    • Authors: Young-Eun Ji, Xiao Sun, Myong-Ki Kim, Wan Yi Li, Sang Woo Lee, Sushruta Koppula, Sang-Hyeun Yu, Han-Bi Kim, Tae-Bong Kang, Kwang-Ho Lee
      Pages: 423 - 433
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 02, Page 423-433, 2018.
      Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (E. globulus, Myrtaceae) is used in Europe as a traditional folk remedy for inflammation-related disorders such as arthritis, diabetes, asthma, and gout. We investigated this study to evaluate the protective effects of E. globulus extract (EG) on inflammatory responses, and provide scientific and mechanistic evidence in in vitro and in vivo experimental models. LPS-stimulated murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were used to study the regulatory effect of EG on inflammasome activation in vitro. Monosodium urate (MSU)-induced peritonitis was used to study the effect of EG in an in vivo murine model. EG suppressed IL-[math] secretion via the regulation of apoptosis-associated speck-like proteins containing a CARD (ASC) oligomerization and caspase-1 maturation, leading to the inhibition of inflammasome activation. In the in vivo study, EG suppressed the MSU-induced peritonitis by attenuating interleukin (IL)-1[math], providing scientific support for its traditional use in the treatment of inflammation-related disorders.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-03-15T09:40:19Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500210
  • Momordica charantia Inhibits Inflammatory Responses in Murine Macrophages
           via Suppression of TAK1
    • Authors: Woo Seok Yang, Eunju Yang, Min-Jeong Kim, Deok Jeong, Deok Hyo Yoon, Gi-Ho Sung, Seungihm Lee, Byong Chul Yoo, Seung-Gu Yeo, Jae Youl Cho
      Pages: 435 - 452
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 02, Page 435-452, 2018.
      Momordica charantia known as bitter melon is a representative medicinal plant reported to exhibit numerous pharmacological activities such as antibacterial, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antitumor, and hypoglycemic actions. Although this plant has high ethnopharmacological value for treating inflammatory diseases, the molecular mechanisms by which it inhibits the inflammatory response are not fully understood. In this study, we aim to identify the anti-inflammatory mechanism of this plant. To this end, we studied the effects of its methanol extract (Mc-ME) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Specifically, we evaluated nitric oxide (NO) production, mRNA expression of inflammatory genes, luciferase reporter gene activity, and putative molecular targets. Mc-ME blocked NO production in a dose-dependent manner in RAW264.7 cells; importantly, no cytotoxicity was observed. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 were decreased by Mc-ME treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Luciferase assays and nuclear lysate immunoblotting analyses strongly indicated that Mc-ME decreases the levels of p65 [a nuclear factor (NF)-[math]B subunit] and c-Fos [an activator protein (AP)-1 subunit]. Whole lysate immunoblotting assays, luciferase assays, and overexpression experiments suggested that transforming growth factor [math]-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is targeted by Mc-ME, thereby suppressing NF-[math]B and AP-1 activity via downregulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and AKT. These results strongly suggest that Mc-ME exerts its anti-inflammatory activity by reducing the action of TAK1, which also affects the activation of NF-[math]B and AP-1.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-03-15T09:40:30Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500222
  • Ethyl Acetate Fraction from Dendropanax morbifera Leaves Increases T Cell
           Growth by Upregulating NF-AT-Mediated IL-2 Secretion
    • Authors: Jung Up Park, Bok Yun Kang, Young Ran Kim
      Pages: 453 - 467
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 02, Page 453-467, 2018.
      Dendropanax morbifera Leveille (Araliaceae) is an endemic species that grows in Southwestern Korea and has been used as a folk medicine. Several studies reported that D. morbifera leaves have diverse therapeutic potentials. We found that the water extract of D. morbifera leaves increased the growth of EL-4 T cells. The water extract was divided into five fractions: [math]-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, [math]-butanol, and water layers. The ethyl acetate (W-EA) fraction showed a more significant effect than the other fractions on the growth of EL-4 T cells, splenocytes, and isolated murine CD4[math] T cells. We evaluated the W-EA fraction for its immunomodulatory effects focusing on T cell functions. First, we tested the effect of the W-EA fraction on the regulation of interleukin-2 (IL-2), a potent T cell growth factor. The W-EA fraction significantly increased IL-2 secretion in EL-4 T cells activated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin (Io). In addition, the W-EA fraction increased interferon-gamma (IFN-[math] production in isolated murine splenocytes activated with Concanavalin A (ConA). Next, we examined the effect of the W-EA fraction on the regulation of transcriptional factors related to IL-2 production in T cells. The W-EA fraction significantly increased PMA/Io-induced promoter activity of a nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT) in EL-4 T cells, but did not show any significant effects on the promoters of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-[math]B). These results indicate that the W-EA fraction from water extract of D. morbifera leaves enhances IL-2 production at the transcriptional levels via the up-regulation of NF-AT in PMA/Io-activated EL-4 T cells.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-03-15T09:40:15Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500234
  • Epimedium koreanum Ameliorates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Liver Injury by
           Activating Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2
    • Authors: Ji Yun Jung, Sang Mi Park, Hae Li Ko, Jong Rok Lee, Chung A Park, Sung Hui Byun, Sae Kwang Ku, Il Je Cho, Sang Chan Kim
      Pages: 469 - 488
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 02, Page 469-488, 2018.
      Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species is the main cause of various liver diseases. This study investigated the hepatoprotective effect of Epimedium koreanum Nakai water extract (EKE) against arachidonic acid (AA)[math][math][math]iron-mediated cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-)-mediated acute liver injury in mice. Pretreatment with EKE (30 and 100[math][math]g/mL) significantly inhibited AA[math][math][math]iron-mediated cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells by preventing changes in the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. EKE attenuated hydrogen peroxide production, glutathione depletion, and mitochondrial membrane dysfunction. EKE also increased the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), transactivated anti-oxidant response element harboring luciferase activity, and induced the expression of anti-oxidant genes. Furthermore, the cytoprotective effect of EKE against AA[math][math][math]iron was blocked in Nrf2 knockout cells. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that EKE contained icariin, icaritin, and quercetin; icaritin and quercetin were both found to protect HepG2 cells from AA[math][math][math]iron via Nrf2 activation. In a CCl4-induced mouse model of liver injury, pretreatment with EKE (300[math]mg/kg) for four consecutive days ameliorated CCl4-mediated increases in serum aspartate aminotransferase activity, histological activity index, hepatic parenchyma degeneration, and inflammatory cell infiltration. EKE also decreased the number of nitrotyrosine-, 4-hydroxynonenal-, cleaved caspase-3-, and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-positive cells in hepatic tissues. These results suggest EKE is a promising candidate for the prevention or treatment of oxidative stress-related liver diseases via Nrf2 activation.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-03-15T09:40:27Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500246
  • Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicity of Strychnos nux-vomica
           L.: A Review
    • Authors: Rixin Guo, Ting Wang, Guohong Zhou, Mengying Xu, Xiankuo Yu, Xiao Zhang, Feng Sui, Chun Li, Liying Tang, Zhuju Wang
      Pages: 1 - 23
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 01, Page 1-23, 2018.
      Strychnos nux-vomica L. belongs to the genus Strychnos of the family Loganiaceae and grows in Sri Lanka, India and Australia. The traditional medicinal component is its seed, called Nux vomica. This study provides a relevant and comprehensive review of S. nux-vomica L., including its botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology, thus providing a foundation for future studies. Up to the present day, over 84 compounds, including alkaloids, iridoid glycosides, flavonoid glycosides, triterpenoids, steroids and organic acids, among others, have been isolated and identified from S. nux-vomica. These compounds possess an array of biological activities, including effects on the nervous system, analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions, antitumor effects, inhibition of the growth of pathogenic microorganisms and regulation of immune function. Furthermore, toxicity and detoxification methods are preliminarily discussed toward the end of this review. In further research on S. nux-vomica, bioactivity-guided isolation strategies should be emphasized. Its antitumor effects should be investigated further and in vivo animal experiments should be performed alongside in vitro testing. The pharmacological activity and toxicology of strychnine [math]-oxide and brucine [math]-oxide should be studied to explore the detoxification mechanism associated with processing more deeply.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T04:07:57Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500015
  • Scutellaria baicalensis and Cancer Treatment: Recent Progress and
           Perspectives in Biomedical and Clinical Studies
    • Authors: Chien-Shan Cheng, Jie Chen, Hor-Yue Tan, Ning Wang, Zhen Chen, Yibin Feng
      Pages: 25 - 54
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 01, Page 25-54, 2018.
      Scutellaria baicalensis (Huangqin in Chinese) is a major traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herb, which has a long history of use in the treatment of a variety of symptoms correlated with cancer. In the past decade, the potential of S. baicalensis and single compounds derived from it as anticancer agents targeting various pathways has received extensive research attention. Specifically, the proliferation and metastases inhibiting properties of the single compounds in cancer have been studied; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This review summarizes the various mechanisms, pathways and molecular targets involved in the anticancer activity of S. baicalensis and its single compounds. However, the aim of this review is to provide a more thorough view of the last 10 years to link traditional use with modern research and to highlight recently discovered molecular mechanisms. Extracts and major flavonoids derived from S. baicalensis have been found to possess anticancer effects in multiple cancer cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. Further investigation is warranted to better understand the underlying mechanisms and to discover novel targets and cancer therapeutic drugs that may improve both the survival and quality of life of cancer patients.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T04:08:16Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500027
  • Histamine H1 Receptor Antagonists Facilitate Electroacupuncture Analgesia
    • Authors: Jaung-Geng Lin, Yu-Chen Lee, Cheng-Hao Tu, Iona MacDonald, Hsin-Yi Chung, Sih-Ting Luo, Shih-Ya Hung, Yi-Hung Chen
      Pages: 55 - 68
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 01, Page 55-68, 2018.
      This study investigated the influence of the histamine H1 receptor antagonists, chlorpheniramine (CHL) and pyrilamine, on the analgesic effects of acupuncture in mice. Nociceptive response was evaluated by the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhe test. Electroacupuncture (EA) at bilateral ST36 reduced the manifestations of acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, whereas needle insertion without electrostimulation had no such effect. Notably, EA treatment was not associated with any analgesic effects in mice pretreated with naloxone. Low doses of CHL (0.6[math]mg/kg; p.o.) or pyrilamine (2.5[math]mg/kg; i.p.) as monotherapy did not affect acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing. However, when each agent was combined with EA, acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing was reduced by a greater extent when compared with EA alone. Interestingly, the effects of CHL on acupuncture analgesia were not completely reversed by naloxone treatment. Acetic acid induced increases of phospho-p38 expression in spinal cord, as determined by immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis. These effects were attenuated by EA at ST36 and by low doses of histamine H1 receptor antagonists, alone or in combination. Our findings show that relatively low doses of histamine H1 receptor antagonists facilitate EA analgesia via non-opioid receptors. These results suggest a useful strategy for increasing the efficacy of EA analgesia in a clinical situation.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T04:07:53Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500039
  • Increased Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide and Macrophages Are Involved in
           Astragalus membranaceus-Mediated Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in Rats
    • Authors: Chung-Chia Chen, Ling-Chuan Chang, Chun-Hsu Yao, Yuan-Man Hsu, Jia-Horng Lin, Tse-Yen Yang, Yung-Hsiang Chen, Yueh-Sheng Chen
      Pages: 69 - 86
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 01, Page 69-86, 2018.
      Astragalus membranaceus (AM) is one of 50 fundamental herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. Previous studies have shown that AM extract can be a potential nerve growth-promoting factor, being beneficial for the growth of peripheral nerve axons. We further investigated the effects of AM extract on regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve transection model. Rats were divided into three groups ([math]): normal saline (intraperitoneal) as the control, and 1.5[math]g/kg or 3.0[math]g/kg of AM extract (every other day for four weeks), respectively. We evaluated neuronal electrophysiology, neuronal connectivity, macrophage infiltration, expression levels and location of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and expression levels of both nerve growth factors (NGFs) and immunoregulatory factors. In the high-dose AM group, neuronal electrophysiological function (measured by nerve conductive velocity and its latency) was significantly improved ([math]). Expression levels of CGRP and macrophage density were also drastically enhanced ([math]). Expression levels of fibroblast growth factor (FGF), NGF, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor-[math], interleukin-1 (IL-1), and interferon (IFN)-[math] were reduced in the high-dose AM group ([math]), while FGF, NGF, PDGF, IL-1, and IFN-[math] were increased in the low-dose AM group ([math]). These results suggest that AM can modulate local inflammatory conditions, enhance nerve regeneration, and potentially increase recovery of a severe peripheral nerve injury.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T04:08:37Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500040
  • Andrographolide Inhibits Oxidized LDL-Induced Cholesterol Accumulation and
           Foam Cell Formation in Macrophages
    • Authors: Hung-Chih Lin, Chong-Kuei Lii, Hui-Chun Chen, Ai-Hsuan Lin, Ya-Chen Yang, Haw-Wen Chen
      Pages: 87 - 106
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 01, Page 87-106, 2018.
      oxLDL is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic lesions through cholesterol accumulation in macrophage foam cells. Andrographolide, the bioactive component of Andrographis paniculata, possesses several biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anticancer functions. Scavenger receptors (SRs), including class A SR (SR-A) and CD36, are responsible for the internalization of oxLDL. In contrast, receptors for reverse cholesterol transport, including ABCA1 and ABCG1, mediate the efflux of cholesterol from macrophage foam cells. Transcription factor liver X receptor [math] (LXR[math] plays a key role in lipid metabolism and inflammation as well as in the regulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression. Because of the contribution of inflammation to macrophage foam cell formation and the potent anti-inflammatory activity of andrographolide, we hypothesized that andrographolide might inhibit oxLDL-induced macrophage foam cell formation. The results showed that andrographolide reduced oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation in macrophage foam cells. Andrographolide decreased the mRNA and protein expression of CD36 by inducing the degradation of CD36 mRNA; however, andrographolide had no effect on SR-A expression. In contrast, andrographolide increased the mRNA and protein expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1, which were dependent on LXR[math]. Andrographolide enhanced LXR[math] nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity. Treatment with the LXR[math] antagonist GGPP and transfection with LXR[math] siRNA reversed the ability of andrographolide to stimulate ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein expression. In conclusion, inhibition of CD36-mediated oxLDL uptake and induction of ABCA1- and ABCG1-dependent cholesterol efflux are two working mechanisms by which andrographolide inhibits macrophage foam cell formation, which suggests that andrographolide could be a potential candidate to prevent atherosclerosis.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T04:08:06Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500052
  • Red Pepper Seed Inhibits Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Cells during the Early
           Phase of Adipogenesis via the Activation of AMPK
    • Authors: Hwa-Jin Kim, Mi-Kyoung You, Ziyun Wang, Hyeon-A Kim
      Pages: 107 - 118
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 01, Page 107-118, 2018.
      Obesity is the main risk factor for metabolic syndromes and there has been an upsurge in demand for effective therapeutic strategies. This study investigated the effect of red pepper seed water extract (RPS) on the process of differentiation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. RPS treatment significantly suppressed cellular lipid accumulation and reduced the expression of adipocytes-associated proteins, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-[math] (PPAR-[math]), CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins [math] (C/EBP [math]), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), as well as fatty acid synthase (FAS), and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4). The inhibitory effect of RPS on differentiation was mainly through the modulation of the C/EBP [math] and C/EBP [math] expression at the early phase of differentiation. Moreover, at the early phase of differentiation, RPS markedly increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Such enhancing effect of RPS was abolished in the presence of compound C. Our results suggest that activation of AMPK at early stage of adipogenesis is involved in the anti-adipogenesis effect of RPS.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T04:08:32Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500064
  • Chrysanthemum indicum Inhibits Adipogenesis and Activates the AMPK Pathway
           in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Mice
    • Authors: Sarmila Nepali, Ji-Yun Cha, Hyeon-Hui Ki, Hoon-Yeon Lee, Young-Ho Kim, Dae-Ki Kim, Bong-Joon Song, Young-Mi Lee
      Pages: 119 - 136
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 01, Page 119-136, 2018.
      Chrysanthemum indicum (CI) is widely distributed in China and many parts of the tropical world, and has been reported to have antibacterial, antiviral, anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory effects, but no information is available on its effects on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. This was undertaken to investigate the mechanism responsible for the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of CI (CIEA) on adipogenesis, in vitro and in vivo models of obesity. In the in vitro study, differentiating 3T3-L1 cells were treated with media to initiate differentiation (MDI) in the presence or absence of CIEA with different concentrations, and in the in vivo study, C57BL/6 mice were fed with HFD and administered CIEA daily for six weeks. Garcinia cambogia (GC) was used as the positive control, and was administered in the same manner as CIEA. Results showed CIEA reduced HFD-induced body weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), and liver weight. In addition, CIEA significantly decreased serum lipid profiles, including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) and increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) levels. Furthermore, CIEA also reduced leptin levels and increased adiponectin levels in serum, and significantly decreased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [math] (PPAR[math]) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EPBs) levels, but increased PPAR[math] level and the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in eWATs and in the liver tissues of HFD fed obese mice. Taken together, these results indicate CIEA might be beneficial for preventing obesity.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T04:08:02Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500076
  • Structural–Activity Relationship of Ginsenosides from Steamed Ginseng in
           the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction
    • Authors: Ang Ying, Qing-Tao Yu, Li Guo, Wen-Song Zhang, Jin-Feng Liu, Yun Li, Hong Song, Ping Li, Lian-Wen Qi, Ya-Zhong Ge, E-Hu Liu, Qun Liu
      Pages: 137 - 155
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 01, Page 137-155, 2018.
      Ginseng has been reported to have diverse pharmacological effects. One of the therapeutic claims for ginseng is to enhance sexual function. Ginsenosides are considered as the major active constituents. A steaming process can alter the ginsenoside profile of ginseng products. The structure–function relationship of ginsenosides in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) has not been investigated yet. In this work, 15 different processed ginsengs are produced by steaming, and 13 major ginsensosides are quantified by liquid chromatography with UV detection, including Rg1, Re, Rf, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rf, Rk3, Rh4, 20S-Rg3, 20R-Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5. Their anti-ED activities are screened using hydrocortisone-induced mice model (Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome in Chinese Medicine) and primary corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells (CCSMCs). A processed ginseng with steaming treatment at 120[math]C for 4[math]h and five times possesses abundant ginsenosides Rk1, Rk3, Rh4 and Rg5 transformed via deglycosylation and dehydroxylation, and produces optimal activity against ED. The number of sugar molecules, structure of hydroxyl groups and stereoselectivity in ginsenosides affect their anti-ED activity. Among the 13 ginsenosides, Rk1, Rk3, Rh4 and Rg5 are the most efficient in decreasing intracellular calcium levels by inhibiting phosphodiesterase 5A (PDE5A) to reduce the degradation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in CCSMCs. Rg5 also restrain hypoxia inducible factor-1[math] (HIF-1[math] expression in hypoxia state, and increase endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression in isolated rat cavernous tissue. These observations suggest a role for steamed ginseng containing two pairs of geometric isomers (i.e., Rk1/Rg5 and Rk3/Rh4) in the treatment of ED.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T04:08:21Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500088
  • Protective Effect of Safflower Seed on Cisplatin-Induced Renal Damage in
           Mice via Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis-Mediated Pathways
    • Authors: Chan Hum Park, Ah Young Lee, Ji Hyun Kim, Su Hui Seong, Gwi Yeong Jang, Eun Ju Cho, Jae Sue Choi, Jungkee Kwon, Young Ock Kim, Sang Won Lee, Takako Yokozawa, Yu Su Shin
      Pages: 157 - 174
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 01, Page 157-174, 2018.
      Cisplatin, a platinum chelate with potent antitumor activity against cancers of the testis, ovary, urinary bladder, prostate, and head and neck, has adverse effects on the kidney, bone marrow, and digestive organs, and its use is particularly limited by nephropathy as a side effect. In the present study, safflower seed extract was administered to a mouse model of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure to investigate its activity. Cisplatin (20[math]mg/kg body weight) was administered by intraperitoneal injection to mice that had received oral safflower seed extract (100 or 200[math]mg/kg body weight per day) for the preceding 2 days. Three days after the cisplatin injection, serum and renal biochemical factors; oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis-related protein expression; and histological findings were evaluated. Cisplatin-treated control mice showed body-weight, food intake and water intake loss, and increased kidney weight, whereas the administration of safflower seed extract attenuated these effects ([math], [math]). Moreover, safflower seed extract significantly decreased the renal functional parameters urea nitrogen and creatinine in the serum ([math] and [math], respectively). Safflower seed extract also significantly reduced the enhanced levels of reactive oxygen species in the kidney observed following cisplatin treatment, with significance. The expression of proteins related to the anti-oxidant defense system in the kidney was down-regulated following cisplatin treatment, but safflower seed extract significantly up-regulated the expression of the anti-oxidant enzyme catalase. Furthermore, safflower seed extract reduced the overexpression of phosphor (p)-p38, nuclear factor-kappa B p65, cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, ATR, p-p53, Bax, and caspase 3 proteins, and mice treated with safflower seed extract exhibited less renal histological damage. These results provide important evidence that safflower seed extract exerts a pleiotropic effect on several oxidative stress- and apoptosis-related parameters and has a renoprotective effect in cisplatin-treated mice.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T04:08:27Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X1850009X
  • Rhodiola crenulata Attenuates γ-Ray Induced Cellular Injury via
           Modulation of Oxidative Stress in Human Skin Cells
    • Authors: Kuen-Tze Lin, Tsu-Chung Chang, Feng-Yi Lai, Chun-Shu Lin, Hsing-Lung Chao, Shih-Yu Lee
      Pages: 175 - 190
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 01, Page 175-190, 2018.
      Skin injury is a major complication during radiation therapy and is associated with oxidative damage to skin cells. An effective and safe radioprotectant to prevent this skin damage is still unavailable. The Rhodiola crenulata root extract (RCE) has been reported to be a free radical scavenger and a potent anti-oxidant in both in vitro and in vivo models. In the current study, we investigated the effects of RCE on ionizing radiation-induced skin injury and its underlying mechanisms. HaCaT cells — a non-cancerous skin cell line together with HepG2, Caco2, A549, and OECM cancer cell lines — were pre-treated with RCE for 24[math]h followed by exposure to 15 Gy using Caesium-137 as a γ-ray source. The cell viability was measured. In HaCaT cells, oxidative stress markers, cellular apoptosis pathways, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression were studied. We found that RCE significantly protected HaCaT cells, but not cancer cells from the loss of viability induced by exposure to ionizing radiation. RCE attenuated radiation-induced oxidative stress markers, cell apoptosis, MMP levels, and expression of cytokine genes. RCE also limited the induction of p53 and p21 by radiation exposure. These findings indicate that RCE may selectively protect the skin cells from ionizing radiation without altering its ability to kill cancer cells. Therefore, we suggest that RCE or its derivatives could serve as a novel radioprotective therapy.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T04:08:11Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500106
  • Vitex rotundifolia Fruit Suppresses the Proliferation of Human Colorectal
           Cancer Cells through Down-regulation of Cyclin D1 and CDK4 via
           Proteasomal-Dependent Degradation and Transcriptional Inhibition
    • Authors: Hun Min Song, Gwang Hun Park, Su Bin Park, Hyun-Seok Kim, Ho-Jun Son, Yurry Um, Jin Boo Jeong
      Pages: 191 - 207
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 01, Page 191-207, 2018.
      Viticis Fructus (VF) as the dried fruit from Vitex rotundifolia L. used as a traditional medicine for treating inflammation, headache, migraine, chronic bronchitis, eye pain, and gastrointestinal infections has been reported to have antiproliferative effects against various cancer cells, including breast, lung and colorectal cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms by which VF mediates the inhibitory effect of the proliferation of cancer cells have not been elucidated in detail. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of VF on the down-regulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4 level associated with cancer cell proliferation. VF suppressed the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cell lines such as HCT116 and SW480. VF induced decrease in cyclin D1 and CDK4 in both protein and mRNA levels. However, the protein levels of cyclin D1 and CDK4 were decreased by VF at an earlier time than the change of mRNA levels; rather it suppressed the expression of cyclin D1 and CDK4 via the proteasomal degradation. In cyclin D1 and CDK4 degradation, we found that Thr286 phosphorylation of cyclin D1 plays a pivotal role in VF-mediated cyclin D1 degradation. Subsequent experiments with several kinase inhibitors suggest that VF-mediated degradation of cyclin D1 may be dependent on GSK3[math] and VF-mediated degradation of CDK4 is dependent on ERK1/2, p38 and GSK3[math]. In the transcriptional regulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4, we found that VF inhibited Wnt activation associated with cyclin D1 transcriptional regulation through TCF4 down-regulation. In addition, VF treatment down-regulated c-myc expression associated CDK4 transcriptional regulation. Our results suggest that VF has potential to be a candidate for the development of chemoprevention or therapeutic agents for human colorectal cancer.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T04:07:46Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500118
  • Deguelin Impairs Cell Adhesion, Migration and Invasion of Human Lung
           Cancer Cells through the NF-[math]B Signaling Pathways
    • Authors: Yung-Ting Hsiao, Ming-Jen Fan, An-Cheng Huang, Jin-Cherng Lien, Jen-Jyh Lin, Jaw-Chyun Chen, Te-Chun Hsia, Rick Sai-Chuen Wu, Jing-Gung Chung
      Pages: 209 - 229
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 01, Page 209-229, 2018.
      Deguelin, a rotenoid, is isolated from a natural plant species, and has biological activities including antitumor function. In the present study, we investigated the effect of deguelin on the cell adhesion, migration and invasion of NCI-H292 human lung cancer cells in vitro. Cell viability was analyzed by using flow cytometer. Cell adhesion was determined by using the cell-matrix adhesion assay. Wound healing assay was used to examine cell migration. Cell migration and invasion were investigated using a Boyden chamber assay. The protein expression was measured by Western blotting and confocal laser microscopy. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used to measure NF-[math]B p65 binding to DNA.We selected the concentrations of deguelin at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5[math][math]M and we found that those concentrations of deguelin did not induce significant cytotoxic effects on NCI-H292 cells. Thus, we selected those concentrations of deguelin for metastasis assay. We found that deguelin inhibited cell adhesion, migration and invasion in dose-dependent manners that was assayed by wound healing and transwell methods, respectively. Deguelin decreased the expression of MMP-2/-9, SOS 1, Rho A, p-AKT (Thr308), p-ERK1/2, p-p38, p-JNK, NF-[math]B (p65) and uPA in NCI-H292 cells. Deguelin suppressed the expression of PI3K, SOS 1, NF-[math]B (p65), but did not significantly affect PKC and Ras in the nuclei of NCI-H292 cells that were confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. We suggest that deguelin may be used as a novel anticancer metastasis of lung cancer in the future.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T04:07:49Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X1850012X
  • Downregulation of Cancer Stemness by Novel Diterpenoid Ovatodiolide
           Inhibits Hepatic Cancer Stem Cell-Like Traits by Repressing
           Wnt/[math]-Catenin Signaling
    • Authors: Mingche Liu, Oluwaseun Adebayo Bamodu, Kuang-Tai Kuo, Wei-Hwa Lee, Yen-Kuang Lin, Alexander T.H. Wu, Hsiao M, Yew-Min Tzeng, Chi-Tai Yeh, Jo-Ting Tsai
      Pages: 1 - 20
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      The hierarchical tumor propagation or cancer stem cells (CSCs) model of carcinogenesis postulates that like physiologic adult stem cell (ASC), the CSCs positioned at the apex of any tumor population form the crux of tumor evolution with a constitutive regenerative capacity and differentiation potential. The propagation and recurrence of the characteristically heterogeneous and therapy-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), adds to accumulating evidence to support this CSCs model. Based on the multi-etiologic basis of HCC formation which among others, focuses on the disruption of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, this study evaluated the role of cembrane-type phytochemical, Ovatodiolide, in the modulation of the Wnt/[math]-catenin pathway, and its subsequent effect on liver CSCs’ activities. Our fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and quantitative RT-PCR analyses of side population (SP) indicated that CD133+ cells were [math]-catenin-overexpressing, more aggressive, and resistant to the conventional anticancer agents, Cisplatin and Doxorubicin, when compared to [math]-catenin-downregulated group. We demonstrated that marked upregulation of [math]-catenin and its downstream targets effectively enhanced hepatosphere formation, with an associated induction of CD133, OCT4 and Sox2 expression and also caused an significant enhancement of HCC proliferation. However, treatment with Ovatodiolide induced downregulation of [math]-catenin and its downstream effector genes, abolished hepatosphere formation and reversed the [math]-catenin-associated enhancement of HCC growth. In summary, we demonstrated for the first time that Ovatodiolide suppressed the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, and inhibited the generation of liver CSCs; Thus, projecting Ovatodiolide as a putatively effective therapeutic agent for anti-HCC target therapy.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-05-24T07:23:53Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500477
  • Hesperidin Suppresses Renin-Angiotensin System Mediated NOX2
           Over-Expression and Sympathoexcitation in 2K-1C Hypertensive Rats
    • Authors: Chutamas Wunpathe, Prapassorn Potue, Putcharawipa Maneesai, Sarawoot Bunbupha, Parichat Prachaney, Upa Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol Kukongviriyapan, Poungrat Pakdeechote
      Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Hesperidin, a flavonoid derived from citrus fruits, possesses several beneficial effects including anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hesperidin on the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) cascade that mediated oxidative stress and sympathoexcitation in two-kidney, one-clipped (2K-1C) hypertensive rats. 2K-1C hypertension was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Hypertensive rats were treated with hesperidin at 20[math]mg/kg or 40[math]mg/kg or losartan at 10[math]mg/kg beginning at three weeks after surgery and then continued for four weeks ([math]/group). Hesperidin reduced blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner in hypertensive rats compared to untreated rats ([math]). Increased plasma angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity and angiotensin II levels, as well as, upregulated AT1 receptor protein expression in aortic tissues were attenuated in hypertensive rats treated with hesperidin. Hesperidin suppressed oxidative stress markers and NADPH oxidase over-expression, and restored plasma nitric oxide metabolites in 2K-1C rats. This was associated with improvement of the vascular response to acetylcholine in isolated mesenteric vascular beds and aortic rings from 2K-1C rats treated with hesperidin ([math]). Enhancement of nerve-mediated vasoconstriction related to high plasma noradrenaline in the 2K-1C group was alleviated by hesperidin treatment ([math]). Furthermore, losartan exhibited antihypertensive effects by suppressing the RAS cascade and oxidative stress and improved vascular dysfunction observed in 2K-1C rats ([math]). Based on these results, it can be presumed that hesperidin is an antihypertensive agent. Its antihypertensive action might be associated with reducing RAS cascade-induced NOX2 over-expression and sympathoexcitation in 2K-1C hypertensive rats.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-05-14T03:14:12Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500398
  • Hominis placenta Suppresses Acute Lung Inflammation by Activating Nrf2
    • Authors: Tae Ho Kim, Jun-Yong Choi, Kyun Ha Kim, Min Jung Kwun, Chang-Woo Han, Ran Won, Jung Ju Lee, Jong-In Kim, Myungsoo Joo
      Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Hominis placenta (HP), a dried human placenta, has been known to target liver, lung, or kidney meridians, improving the functions associated with these meridians in traditional Chinese or Asian medicine (TCM). Since recent studies implicate an HP extract in suppressing inflammation, we investigated whether an aqueous HP extract can ameliorate inflammation that occurred in the lungs. When administered with a single intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS), C57BL/6 mice developed an acute neutrophilic lung inflammation along with an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes. However, this was diminished by the administration HP extract via an intraperitoneal route 2 h after LPS treatment. Western blot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that while suppressing the activity of a proinflammatory factor NF-[math]B marginally, the HP extract strongly activated an anti-inflammatory factor Nrf2, with concomitant expression of Nrf2-dependent genes. Mechanistically, the HP extract suppressed the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of Nrf2, functioning similarly to a 26S proteasome inhibitor, MG132. Collectively, these results suggest that the HP extract suppresses inflammation in mouse lungs, which is in part related to the HP extract perturbing the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of Nrf2 and thus increasing the function of Nrf2.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-05-14T03:14:12Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500428
  • Hirsutella sinensis Inhibits Lewis Lung Cancer via Tumor Microenvironment
           Effector T Cells in Mice
    • Authors: Huiying Fu, Lu Jin, Xia Shao, Yuanyuan Li, Fangming Chen, Zhiqiang Shou, Xiaofang Tang, Bing Ji, Qiyang Shou
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Hirsutella sinensis fungus (HSF) is an artificial substitute of the well-known medicine Cordyceps sinensis with similar beneficial effects in humans. We previously found that HSF can regulate immune function and inhibit tumor growth; however, the mechanisms involved in these effects were still unclear. Accordingly, in this study, we investigated the effects of HSF on immune cell subsets in the tumor microenvironment in mice. The results showed that HSF inhibited Lewis lung cancer growth, alleviated abnormalities in routine blood tests, and enhanced tumor-infiltrating T cells, particularly the proportion of effector CD8[math] T cells. In addition, HSF also ameliorated the immune-suppressive microenvironment and decreased the proportions of regulatory T cell and myeloid-derived suppressor cell populations. To confirm the effects of HSF on promotion of effector CD8[math] T-cell production, we further evaluated changes in postoperative metastasis following treatment with HSF. Indeed, orthotopic lung metastasis was significantly suppressed, and survival times were increased in HSF-treated mice. Taken together, our findings suggested that HSF inhibited Lewis lung cancer by enhancing the population of effective CD8[math] T cells.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-05-14T03:14:12Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500489
  • 1,[math]2,[math]3,[math]4,[math]6-Penta-O-Galloyl-β-D-Glucose from Galla
           rhois Ameliorates Renal Tubular Injury and Microvascular Inflammation in
           Acute Kidney Injury Rats
    • Authors: Ji Hun Park, Min Chol Kho, Hyun Cheol Oh, Youn Chul Kim, Jung Joo Yoon, Yun Jung Lee, Dae Gill Kang, Ho Sub Lee
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), an important cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), causes increased renal tubular injury and microvascular inflammation. 1,[math]2,[math]3,[math]4,[math]6-penta-O-galloyl-[math]-D-glucose (PGG) from Galla rhois has anticancer, anti-oxidation and angiogenesis effects. We examined protective effects of PGG on IRI-induced acute AKI. Clamping both renal arteries for 45[math]min induced isechemia and then reperfusion. Treatment with PGG (10[math]mg/kg/day and 50[math]mg/kg/day for four days) significantly ameliorated urine volume, urine osmolality, creatinine clearance (Ccr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). In addition, PGG increased aquaporine 1/2/3, Na[math]-K[math]-ATPase and urea transporter (UT-B) and decreased ICAM-1, MCP-1, and HMGB-1 expression. In this histopathologic study, PGG improved glomerular and tubular damage. Immunohistochemistry results showed that PGG increased aquaporine 1/2, and Na[math]-K[math] ATPase and decreased ICAM-1 expression. These findings suggest that PGG ameliorates tubular injury including tubular dysfunction and microvascular inflammation in IRI-induced AKI rats.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-05-14T03:14:11Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500416
  • The Immunoregulatory Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine on Psoriasis
           via its Action on Interleukin: Advances and Considerations
    • Authors: Minfeng Wu, Yu Deng, Su Li, Yu Chen, Dongjie Guo, Xingxiu Jin, Qi Xu, Bin Li, Fulun Li
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory cutaneous disease characterized by clinical manifestations of erythema and white scales. The pathogenesis of psoriasis is not yet clear. Despite a combination of hormonal therapy and physiotherapy used in Western medicine, the condition often relapses after withdrawal of drugs. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has therapeutic features and may be a clinically effective formula by regulating unbalanced immune systems, such as by targeting interleukins. In this paper, we review recent research about how Chinese medicine immunoregulates psoriasis via interleukins, and systematically summarizes the related mechanisms. There are three common pathways leading to psoriasis: (1) Th17 cells secrete IL-17, which is stimulated by IL-23; (2) Th1 cells secrete IL-21, TNF-[math] and IFN-[math], with the help of Th17 cells; (3) Th22 cells secrete IL-22 under the stimulation of Th17 cells. Clinical and experiment data indicate that TCM could modify psoriasis by antagonizing or regulating interleukin and IL-23/IL-17 axis to inhibit the main pathways.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-05-08T09:07:16Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500386
  • Inhibitory Effects of Amentoflavone and Orobol on Daclatasvir-Induced
           Resistance-Associated Variants of Hepatitis C Virus
    • Authors: Wei-Ping Lee, Keng-Li Lan, Shi-Xian Liao, Yi-Hsiang Huang, Ming-Chih Hou, Keng-Hsin Lan
      Pages: 1 - 18
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is recognized as a major causative agent of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite rapid progress in the development of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) against HCV infection in recent years, cost-effective antiviral drugs with more affordable prices still need to be developed. In this study, we screened a library of natural compounds to identify natural HCV inhibitors. The library of the pure compounds extracted from Chinese herbs deposited in the chemical bank of National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine (NRICM), Taiwan was screened in the cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc) system. We identified the flavone or flavan-based compounds amentoflavone, 7,4[math]-dihydroxyflavanone, and orobol with the inhibition of viral entry, replication, and translation of the HCV life cycle. Amentoflavone and orobol also showed inhibitory effects on resistant-associated variants to the NS5A inhibitor daclatasvir. The results of this study have the potential to benefit patients who are intolerant to the adverse effect of pegylated interferon or who harbor resistant strains refractory to treatment by current direct-acting antiviral agents.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-05-08T09:07:16Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500441
  • Pachymic Acid Sensitizes Gastric Cancer Cells to Radiation Therapy by
           Upregulating Bax through Hypoxia
    • Authors: Chunwei Lu, Dingfang Cai, Jun Ma
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      We have previously shown that pachymic acid (PA) inhibited tumorigenesis of gastric cancer (GC) cells. However, the exact mechanism underlying the radiation response of GC was still elusive. To evaluate the effects of PA treatment on radiation response of GC cell lines both in vitro and in vivo, a colony formation assay and xenograft mouse model were employed. Changes in Bax and HIF1[math] expressions were assessed in GC cells following PA treatment. Luciferase reporter and chromatin immune-precipitation assays were carried out to investigate the regulation of Bax through HIF1[math]. Stable HIF1[math] knockdown was introduced into GC cells to further study the mechanism underlying PA-enhanced response to radiation both in vitro and in vivo. PA greatly enhanced the sensitivity of GC cells to radiation in vitro and in vivo, upregulated Bax expression and inhibited hypoxia. Bax expression was under hypoxia inhibition, and PA increased Bax expression through repressing HIF1[math]. Stable HIF1[math] overexpression in GC cells abolished the sensitizing effect of PA on GC cells to radiation both in vitro and in vivo. PA functions as a radiation sensitizing compound in GC. PA treatment induces the expression of pro-apoptotic factor Bax by inhibiting hypoxia/HIF1[math], supporting the therapeutic potential of PA in radiation therapy against GC.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-05-08T09:07:15Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500465
  • Baicalein Ameliorates Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Caused by
           Monocrotaline through Downregulation of ET-1 and ETAR in Pneumonectomized
    • Authors: Wen-Lin Hsu, Yu-Chieh Lin, Jing-Ren Jeng, Heng-Yuan Chang, Tz-Chong Chou
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Baicalein (BE) extracted from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is able to alleviate various cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. However, the effects of BE on pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remain unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine whether BE ameliorates pneumonectomy and monocrotaline-induced PAH in rats and further investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Administration of BE greatly attenuated the development of PAH as evidenced by an improvement of its characteristic features, including elevation of right ventricular systolic pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Moreover, the increased protein expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and ETA receptor (ETAR), superoxide overproduction, and activation of Akt/ERK1/2/GSK3[math]/[math]-catenin pathway that occurred in the lungs of PAH rats were markedly reversed by BE treatment. Compared with the untreated PAH rats, higher expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), but lower levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and vWF were observed in BE-treated PAH rats. Collectively, treatment with BE remarkably attenuates the pathogenesis of PAH, and the protection of BE may be associated with suppressing Akt/Erk1/2/GSK3[math]/[math]-catenin/ET-1/ETAR signaling and preventing endothelial dysfunction. These results suggest that BE is a potential agent for treatment of PAH.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-05-08T09:07:14Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500404
  • Hepatoprotective Effect of Wedelolactone against Concanavalin A-Induced
           Liver Injury in Mice
    • Authors: Qingqiong Luo, Jieying Ding, Liping Zhu, Fuxiang Chen, Lili Xu
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Eclipta prostrata L. is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used in the treatment of liver diseases. However, its biological mechanisms remain elusive. The current study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of wedelolactone, a major coumarin ingredient of Eclipta prostrata L., on immune-mediated liver injury. Using the well-established animal model of Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis (CIH), we found that pretreatment of mice with wedelolactone markedly reduced both the serum levels of transaminases and the severity of liver damage. We further investigated the mechanisms of the protective effect of wedelolactone. In mice treated with wedelolactone prior to the induction of CIH, increases of serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[math], interferon (IFN)-[math], and interleukin (IL)-6 were dramatically attenuated. Additionally, expressions of the interferon-inducible chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 gene CXCL10 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 gene ICAM1 were lower in livers of the treated mice. Moreover, wedelolactone-treated CIH mice exhibited reduced leukocyte infiltration and T-cell activation in liver. Furthermore, wedelolactone suppressed the activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-[math]B), a critical transcriptional factor of the above-mentioned inflammatory cytokines by limiting the phosphorylation of I kappa B alpha (I[math]B[math] and p65. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the inhibitory potential of wedelolactone in immune-mediated liver injury in vivo, and show that this protection is associated with modulation of the NF-[math]B signaling pathway.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-05-08T09:07:14Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X1850043X
  • Excavating Anticonvulsant Compounds from Prescriptions of Traditional
           Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of Epilepsy
    • Authors: Zefeng Zhao, Xirui He, Cuixia Ma, Shaoping Wu, Ye Cuan, Ying Sun, Yajun Bai, Linhong Huang, Xufei Chen, Tian Gao, Xiaohui Zheng
      Pages: 1 - 31
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history and been widely used in prevention and treatment of epilepsy in China. This paper is intended to review the advances in the active anticonvulsant compounds isolated from herbs in the prescription of TCM in the treatment of epilepsy. These compounds were introduced with the details including classification, CAS number specific structure and druggability data. Meanwhile, much of the research in these compounds in the last two decades has shown that they exhibited favorable pharmacological properties in treatment of epilepsy both in in vivo and in vitro models. In addition, in this present review, the evaluation of the effects of the anticonvulsant classical TCM prescriptions is discussed. According to these rewarding pharmacological effects and chemical substances, the prescription of TCM herbs could be an effective therapeutic strategy for epilepsy patients, and also could be a promising source for the development of new drugs.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-05-08T09:07:10Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500374
  • Restoring Effects of Natural Anti-Oxidant Quercetin on Cellular Senescent
           Human Dermal Fibroblasts
    • Authors: Eun-Ju Sohn, Jung Min Kim, Se-Hui Kang, Joseph Kwon, Hyun Joo An, Jung-Suk Sung, Kyung A Cho, Ik-Soon Jang, Jong-Soon Choi
      Pages: 1 - 21
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      The oxidative damage initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a major contributor to the functional decline and disability that characterizes aging. The anti-oxidant flavonoid, quercetin, is a plant polyphenol that may be beneficial for retarding the aging process. We examined the restoring properties of quercetin on human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Quercetin directly reduced either intracellular or extracellular ROS levels in aged HDFs. To find the aging-related target genes by quercetin, microarray analysis was performed and two up-regulated genes LPL and KCNE2 were identified. Silencing LPL increased the expression levels of senescence proteins such as p16INK4A and p53 and silencing KCNE2 reversed gene expressions of EGR1 and p-ERK in quercetin-treated aged HDFs. Silencing of LPL and KCNE2 decreased the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase. Also, the mitochondrial dysfunction in aged HDFs was ameliorated by quercetin treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that quercetin has restoring effect on the cellular senescence by down-regulation of senescence activities and up-regulation of the gene expressions of anti-oxidant enzymes in aged HDFs.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-05-08T09:07:10Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500453
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