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  Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 7272 journals)
    - ALLERGOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY (196 journals)
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    - MEDICAL SCIENCES (1808 journals)
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    - RHEUMATOLOGY (63 journals)
    - SPORTS MEDICINE (68 journals)
    - SURGERY (349 journals)
    - UROLOGY, NEPHROLOGY AND ANDROLOGY (131 journals)

MEDICAL SCIENCES (1808 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access  
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access  
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access  
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access  
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Fundeni Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access  
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Journal Khulna     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Research Council Bulletin     Open Access  
Basal Ganglia     Hybrid Journal  
Basic Sciences of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BC Medical Journal     Free  
Benha Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bijblijven     Hybrid Journal  
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biologics in Therapy     Open Access  
Biology of Sex Differences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The
  [SJR: 0.797]   [H-I: 45]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0192-415X - ISSN (Online) 793-6853
   Published by World Scientific Homepage  [118 journals]
  • Berberine Induces Apoptotic Cell Death via Activation of Caspase-3 and -8
           in HL-60 Human Leukemia Cells: Nuclear Localization and
           Structure–Activity Relationships
    • Authors: Shinya Okubo, Takuhiro Uto, Aya Goto, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Nishioku, Katsushi Yamada, Yukihiro Shoyama
      Pages: 1497 - 1511
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 45, Issue 07, Page 1497-1511, 2017.
      Berberine (BBR), an isoquinoline alkaloid, is a well-known bioactive compound contained in medicinal plants used in traditional and folk medicines. In this study, we investigated the subcellular localization and the apoptotic mechanisms of BBR were elucidated. First, we confirmed the incorporation of BBR into the cell visually. BBR showed antiproliferative activity and promptly localized to the nucleus from 5[math]min to 15[math]min after BBR treatment in HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells. Next, we examined the antiproliferative activity of BBR (1) and its biosynthetically related compounds (2-7) in HL-60 cells. BBR exerted strongest antiproliferative activity among 1-7 and the results of structures and activity relation suggested that a methylenedioxyl group in ring A, an [math]-alkyl group at C-9 position, and the frame of isoquinoline may be necessary for antiproliferative activity. Moreover, BBR showed the most potent antiproliferative activity in HL-60 cells among human cancer and normal cell lines tested. Next, we examined the effect of BBR on molecular events known as apoptosis induction. In HL-60 cells, BBR induced chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation, and triggered the activation of PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-8 without the activation of caspase-9. BBR-induced DNA fragmentation was abolished by pretreatment with inhibitors against caspase-3 and caspase-8, but not against caspase-9. ERK and p38 were promptly phosphorylated after 15 min of BBR treatment, and this was correlated with time of localization to the nucleus of BBR. These results demonstrated that BBR translocated into nucleus immediately after treatments and induced apoptotic cell death by activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-10-13T07:14:18Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500811
       
  • Salvianolic Acid A, a Component of Salvia miltiorrhiza, Attenuates
           Endothelial–Mesenchymal Transition of HPAECs Induced by Hypoxia
    • Authors: Tianyi Yuan, Yucai Chen, Huifang Zhang, Lianhua Fang, Guanhua Du
      Pages: 1185 - 1200
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 45, Issue 06, Page 1185-1200, 2017.
      Salvianolic acid A (SAA), a polyphenols acid, is a bioactive ingredient from a traditional Chinese medicine called Dan shen (Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bunge). According to previous studies, it was shown to have various effects such as anti-oxidative stress, antidiabetic complications and antipulmonary hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the effect of SAA on pulmonary arterial endothelial–mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) induced by hypoxia and the underlying mechanisms. Primary cultured human pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (HPAECs) were exposed to 1% O2 for 48[math]h with or without SAA treatment. SAA treatment improved the morphology of HPAECs and inhibited the cytoskeleton remodeling. A total of 3[math][math]M SAA reduced migration distances from 262.2[math][math]m to 198.4[math][math]m at 24[math]h and 344.8[math][math]m to 109.3[math][math]m at 48[math]h. It was observed that the production of ROS in cells was significantly reduced by the treatment of 3[math][math]M SAA. Meanwhile, SAA alleviated the loss of CD31 and slightly inhibited the expression of [math]-SMA. The mechanisms study shows that SAA treatment increased the phosphorylation levels of Smad1/5, but inhibited that of Smad2/3. Furthermore, SAA attenuated the phosphorylation levels of ERK and Cofilin, which were enhanced by hypoxia. Based on these results, our study indicated that SAA treatment can protect HPAECs from endoMT induced by hypoxia, which may perform via the inhibition on ROS production and further through the downstream effectors of BMPRs or TGF[math]R including Smads, ERK and ROCK/cofilin pathways.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-09-12T04:18:40Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500653
       
  • Lutein Induces Autophagy via Beclin-1 Upregulation in IEC-6 Rat Intestinal
           Epithelial Cells
    • Authors: Chi-Jen Chang, Ji-Fan Lin, Chien-Yu Hsiao, Hsun-Hao Chang, Hsin-Ju Li, Hsun-Hsien Chang, Gon-Ann Lee, Chi-Feng Hung
      Pages: 1273 - 1291
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 45, Issue 06, Page 1273-1291, 2017.
      Lutein is a carotenoid with anti-oxidant properties. Autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved catabolic cellular pathway for coping with stress conditions, is responsive to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and degrades damaged organelles. We previously demonstrated that lutein can induce anti-oxidant enzymes to relieve methotrexate-induced ROS stress. We therefore hypothesized that lutein, which activates ROS-scavenging enzymes, can also induce autophagy for cell survival. In this study, we demonstrated that lutein treatment attenuated the reduction in cell viability caused by H2O2. Lutein dose-dependently induced the processing of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II, an autophagy marker protein, and accumulation of LC3-positive puncta in rat intestinal IEC-6 cells. Furthermore, (a) direct observation of autophagosome formation through transmission electron microscopy, (b) upregulation of autophagy-related genes including ATG4A, ATG5, ATG7, ATG12, and beclin-1 (BENC1), and (c) increased BECN1/Bcl-2 ratio confirmed the induction of autophagy by lutein. The results revealed that bafilomycin-A1-induced inhibition of autophagy reduced cell viability and increased apoptosis in lutein-treated cells, indicating a protective role of lutein-induced autophagy. Lutein treatment also activated adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase (AMPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p-38, but had no effects on the induction of extracellular signal-related kinase or inhibition of mTOR; however, the inhibition of activated AMPK, JNK, or p-38 did not attenuate lutein-induced autophagy. Finally, increased BECN1 expression levels were detected in lutein-treated cells, and BECN1 knockdown abolished autophagy induction. These results suggest that lutein-induced autophagy was mediated by the upregulation of BECN1 in IEC-6 cells. We are the first to demonstrate that lutein induces autophagy. Elevated autophagy in lutein-treated IEC-6 cells may have a protective role against various stresses, and this warrants further investigation.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-09-12T04:18:30Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500707
       
  • Baicalein Preventive Treatment Confers Optimal Cardioprotection by
           PTEN/Akt/NO Activation
    • Authors: Jing Li, Wei-Tien Chang, Chang-Qing Li, Chunpei Lee, Hsien-Hao Huang, Chin-Wan Hsu, Wen-Jone Chen, Xiangdong Zhu, Chong-Zhi Wang, Terry L. Vanden Hoek, Zuo-Hui Shao
      Pages: 987 - 1001
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 45, Issue 05, Page 987-1001, 2017.
      Baicalein is a flavonoid with excellent oxidant scavenging capability. It has been reported to protect against a variety of oxidative injuries including ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). However, the optimal treatment strategy for I/R injury and the protective mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study we employed an established chick cardiomyocyte model of I/R and investigated the effects of three baicalein treatment strategies on reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) production and cell viability. The molecular signaling pathways were also explored. Compared to the I/R control (cell death 52.2[math][math][math]2.0%), baicalein preventive treatment (25[math][math]M, pretreated for 72[math]h and continued through I/R) conferred the best protection (19.5[math][math][math]3.9%, [math]), followed by I/R treatment (treated during I/R) and reperfusion treatment (treated at reperfusion only). Preventive and I/R treatments almost completely abolished ROS generation during both ischemic and reperfusion phases, and increased NO production and Akt phosphorylation. Reperfusion treatment reduced the ROS burst in the early reperfusion phase only, and had no effect on NO production and Akt activation. Further, the phosphorylation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a phosphatase negatively regulating Akt activation, was significantly increased by baicalein preventive treatment and slightly by the I/R treatment. PTEN protein expression was reduced in the same trend accordingly. Baicalein reperfusion treatment had no effects on PTEN phosphorylation and expression. Our results indicate that baicalein preventive treatment confers optimal cardioprotection against I/R injury, and this protection involves effective oxidant scavenging and the activation of PTEN/Akt/NO pathway.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-08-01T03:41:09Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500525
       
  • Erratum: "Polygonum multiflorum Decreases Airway Allergic Symptoms in a
           Murine Model of Asthma"
    • Authors: Chen-Chen Lee, Yueh-Lun Lee, Chien-N Wang, Hsing-Chuan Tsai, Chun-Lung Chiu, Leroy F. Liu, Hung-Yun Lin, Reen Wu
      Pages: 1125 - 1125
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 45, Issue 05, Page 1125-1125, 2017.

      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-08-01T03:41:16Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17920033
       
  • The Genus Patrinia: A Review of Traditional Uses, Phytochemical and
           Pharmacological Studies
    • Authors: Xirui He, Fei Luan, Zefeng Zhao, Ning Ning, Maoxing Li, Ling Jin, Yu Chang, Qiang Zhang, Ni Wu, Linhong Huang
      Pages: 637 - 666
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 45, Issue 04, Page 637-666, 2017.
      The aim of the present review is to comprehensively outline the botanical description, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Patrinia, and to discuss possible trends for the further study of medicinal plants from the genus Patrinia. The genus Patrinia plays an important role in Asian medicine for the treatment of erysipelas, conjunctival congestion with swelling and pain, peri-appendicular abscesses, lung carbuncle, dysentery, leucorrhea, and postpartum disease. More than 210 chemical constituents have been isolated and identified from Patrinia plants, especially P. scabiosaefolia Fisch., P. scabra Bunge, P. villosa Juss., P. heterophylla Bunge and P. rupestris(Pall.) Juss[math] Of these compounds, triterpenoids and saponins, iridoids, flavonoids, and lignans are the major or active constituents. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have indicated that some monomer compounds and crude extracts from the genus Patrinia possess wide pharmacological activities, including antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antiviral effects. In addition, they have been shown to have valuable and positive effects on the immune and nervous system in experimental animals. There are also some reports on the clinical uses and toxicity of these species. However, few reports have been published concerning the material identification or quality control of Patrinia species, and the clinical uses and toxic effects of these plants are relatively sparse. More attention must be given to these issues.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-06-09T01:47:44Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500379
       
  • Astragaloside IV Inhibits Membrane Ca[math] Current but Enhances
           Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca[math] Release
    • Authors: Mei-Mi Zhao, Wen-Wen Lian, Zhuo Li, Dong-Xue Shao, Si-Chong Chen, Xue-Fei Sun, Hui-Yuan Hu, Rui Feng, Feng Guo, Li-Ying Hao
      Pages: 863 - 877
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 45, Issue 04, Page 863-877, 2017.
      Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) is one of the active ingredients in Astragalus membrananceus (Huangqi), a traditional Chinese medicine. The present study investigated the effects of AS-IV on Ca[math] handling in cardiac myocytes to elucidate its possible mechanism in the treatment of cardiac disease. The results showed that AS-IV at 1 and 10[math][math]M reduced KCl-induced [Ca[math]]i increase ([math] from 1.33[math][math][math]0.04 (control, [math] 28) to 1.22[math][math][math]0.02 ([math], [math] 29) and 1.22[math][math][math]0.02 ([math] 0.01, [math]), but it enhanced Ca[math] release from SR ([math] from 1.04[math][math][math]0.01 (control, [math]) to 1.44[math][math][math]0.03 ([math], [math]) and 1.60[math][math][math]0.04 ([math] 0.01, [math]0), in H9c2 cells. Similar results were obtained in native cardiomyocytes. AS-IV at 1 and 10[math][math]M inhibited L-type Ca[math] current ([math] from [math]4.42[math][math][math]0.58 pA/pF of control to [math]2.25[math][math][math]0.12 pA/pF ([math] 0.01, [math] 5) and [math]1.78[math][math][math]0.28 pA/pF ([math] 0.01, [math] 5) respectively, when the interference of [Ca[math]]i was eliminated due to the depletion of SR Ca[math] store by thapsigargin, an inhibitor of Ca[math] ATPase. Moreover, when BAPTA, a rapid Ca[math] chelator, was used, CDI (Ca[math]-dependent inactivation) of [math] was eliminated, and the inhibitory effects of AS-IV on ICaL were significantly reduced at the same time. These results suggest that AS-IV affects Ca[math] homeostasis through two opposite pathways: inhibition of Ca[math] influx through L-type Ca[math] channel, and promotion of Ca[math] release from SR.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-06-09T01:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X1750046X
       
  • Erratum: "Dioscorea nipponica Attenuates Migration and Invasion by
           Inhibition of Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator through Involving
           PI3K/Akt and Transcriptional Inhibition of NF-[math]B and SP-1 in
           Hepatocellular Carcinoma"
    • Authors: Ming-Ju Hsieh, Chao-Bin Yeh, Hui-Ling Chiou, Ming-Chang Hsieh, Shun-Fa Yang
      Pages: 635 - 636
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 45, Issue 03, Page 635-636, 2017.

      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-05-30T02:29:52Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17920021
       
  • Erratum: "The Inhibitory Effect of Abietic Acid on Melanoma Cancer
           Metastasis and Invasiveness In Vitro and In Vivo"
    • Authors: Yih-Shou Hsieh, Shun-Fa Yang, Yi-Hsien Hsieh, Chia-Hung Hung, Shu-Chen Chu, Sheng-Han Yang, Pei-Ni Chen
      Pages: 403 - 403
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 45, Issue 02, Page 403-403, 2017.

      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T12:58:35Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X1792001X
       
  • Antrodia cinnamomea Prevents Obesity, Dyslipidemia, and the Derived Fatty
           Liver via Regulating AMPK and SREBP Signaling
    • Authors: Chiung-Huei Peng, Mon-Yuan Yang, Yi-Sun Yang, Chieh-Chou Yu, Chau-Jong Wang
      Pages: 67 - 83
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 45, Issue 01, Page 67-83, 2017.
      Antrodia cinnamomea (AC), a protogenic fungus that only grows on the heartwood of endemic Cinnamomum kanehirae Hayata in Taiwan, is used to treat a variety of illness including liver disease. However, little is known about the benefit of AC against obesity and the related hepatic disorder. Using high-fat-diet (HFD) feed mice, we aimed to investigate whether the extract of AC (ACE) could reduce excessive weight, body fat, and serum lipids and prevent the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD). C57BL/6 mice were divided into five groups fed with different diets: control, HFD, and HFD with 0.5%, 1%, or 2% of ACE, respectively. After 10 weeks the animals were sacrificed, with serum and liver collected. HFD-induced elevation of body weight gain, body fat deposition, and serum free fatty acid (FFA), triacylglycerol (TGs), total cholesterol, and ratio of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C)/HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), were significantly restored by ACE. ACE reduced aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and hepatic lipid deposits increased by HFD. ACE increased p-AMP activated protein kinase (pAMPK) but decreased Sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), fatty acid synthase (FAS), 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (AGPAT), and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMGCoA) reductase. The chemical analysis reveals ACE is full of triterpenes, the most abundant of which is Antcin K, followed by sulphurenic acid, eburicoic acid, antcin C, dehydrosulphurenic acid, antcin B, and propanoic acid. In conclusion, ACE should be used to prevent obesity and derived fatty liver. The applicability of ACE on NAFLD deserves further investigation.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T09:09:25Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500069
       
  • Curcumin Decreases Hyperphosphorylation of Tau by Down-Regulating
           Caveolin-1/GSK-3β in N2a/APP695swe Cells and APP/PS1 Double Transgenic
           Alzheimer’s Disease Mice
    • Authors: Jieyun Sun, Xiong Zhang, Chen Wang, Zhipeng Teng, Yu Li
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Caveolin-1, the marker protein of membranal caveolae, is not only involved in cholesterol regulation, but also participates in the cleavage of amyloid [math]-protein precursor (APP) and the generation of [math]-amyloid peptide. It has been reported to be tightly related with Tau. In our previous studies, curcumin has been confirmed to play a neuroprotective role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but its effects on Caveolin-1, Tau and their correlation, and the mechanism is still unknown. As such, in the present study, N2a/WT cells, N2a/APP695swe cell and six-month-old APP/PS1 double transgenic mice were enrolled. After curcumin treatment, the expression of Caveolin-1, Tau and their relationship was detected, and the potential mechanisms were explored. The results showed that in the N2a/APP695swe cells, curcumin not only decreased the number of caveolae, but also made their membrane to be thinner; and curcumin could decreased the expression of phosphorylated Tau (P-Tau(ser404)/Tau) and Caveolin-1 ([math]), but the expression of phosphorylated GSK-3[math] (P-GSK-3[math]/GSK-3[math] was increased ([math]). In APP/PS1 transgenic mice, the same results were observed. Taken together, our data suggest that curcumin may play an important role in AD via reducing Caveolin-1, inactivating GSK-3[math] and inhibiting the abnormal excessive phosphorylation of Tau, which will provide a new theory for AD treatment with curcumin.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T07:58:35Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500902
       
  • Protective Effects of Ginsenosides on 17[math]-Ethynyelstradiol-Induced
           Intrahepatic Cholestasis via Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Inflammatory
           Mechanisms in Rats
    • Authors: Yan-Jiao Xu, Zao-Qin Yu, Cheng-Liang Zhang, Xi-Ping Li, Cheng-Yang Feng, Kai Lei, Wen-Xi He, Dong Liu
      Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      The present study was designed to assess the effects and potential mechanisms of ginsenosides on 17[math]-ethynyelstradiol (EE)-induced intrahepatic cholestasis (IC). Ginsenoside at doses of 30, 100, 300[math]mg/kg body weight was intragastrically (i.g.) given to rats for 5 days to examine the effect on EE-induced IC. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bile acid (TBA) were measured. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were determined. Protein expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-[math], IL-6 and IL-1β was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Results indicated that ginsenosides remarkably prevented EE-induced increase in the serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and TBA. Moreover, the elevation of hepatic MDA content induced by EE was significantly reduced, while hepatic SOD activities were significantly increased when treated with ginsenosides. Histopathology of the liver tissue showed that pathological injuries were relieved after treatment with ginsenosides. In addition, treatment with ginsenosides could significantly downregulate the protein expression of TNF-[math], IL-6 and IL-1β compared with EE group. These findings indicate that ginsenosides exert the hepatoprotective effect on EE-induced intrahepatic cholestasis in rats, and this protection might be attributed to the attenuation of oxidative stress and inflammation.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T06:02:37Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500872
       
  • Carnosol-Induced ROS Inhibits Cell Viability of Human Osteosarcoma by
           Apoptosis and Autophagy
    • Authors: Yu-Cheng Lo, Yung-Chi Lin, Yi-Fu Huang, Chen-Pu Hsieh, Chia-Chieh Wu, Ing-Lin Chang, Chiu-Liang Chen, Chun-Hsiang Cheng, Hsin-Yao Chen
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Carnosol is an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory compound from rosemary. In this report, we investigated antitumor activity of carnosol against human osteosarcoma cells. We found the viability of human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells was significantly decreased in the presence of carnosol (cell viabilities: 17.2% for 20[math][math]g/ml of CS vs. 100% for control, [math]). Carnosol induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner in MG-63 cells. Furthermore, carnosol exposure increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The pre-treatment of NAC, the ROS scavenger, blocked the inhibition of cell viability in the carnosol treatment, indicating that ROS is important in the antiproliferation effect. Moreover, we demonstrated that carnosol significantly induced autophagy and co-administration of autophagy inhibitor reduced the antiproliferating effect of carnosol. This result exhibited the cytotoxic effect of autophagy induced by carnosol in MG-63 cells. Interestingly, the treatment of NAC decreased carnosol-induced autophagy. Collectively, these data indicate that carnosol suppresses the viability of human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells by upregulation of apoptosis and autophagy, which are both mediated by ROS. Thus, carnosol might serve as a potential therapeutic agent against osteosarcoma.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T06:02:37Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500951
       
  • Hispolon Suppresses LPS- or LTA-Induced iNOS/NO Production and Apoptosis
           in BV-2 Microglial Cells
    • Authors: Ming-Shun Wu, Chih-Chiang Chien, Kur-Ta Cheng, Gottumukkala V. Subbaraju, Yen-Chou Chen
      Pages: 1 - 18
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Hispolon (HIS) is an active polyphenol compound derived from Phellinus linteus (Berkeley & Curtis), and our previous study showed that HIS effectively inhibited inflammatory responses in macrophages (Yang et al., 2014); however, its effect on neuronal inflammation is still undefined. In this study, HIS concentration- and time-dependently inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-induced inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS)/NO production with increased heme oxygenase (HO)-1 proteins in BV-2 microglial cells. Accordingly, HIS protected BV-2 cells from LPS- or LTA-induced apoptosis, characterized by decreased DNA ladder formation, and caspase-3 and poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein cleavage in BV-2 cells. Similarly, the NOS inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (NAME), inhibited LPS- or LTA-induced apoptosis of BV-2 cells, but neither NAME nor HIS showed any inhibition of NO production or cell death induced by the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), indicating the involvement of NO in the inflammatory apoptosis of microglial cells. Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor (NF)-[math]B contributed to LPS- or LTA-induced iNOS/NO production and apoptosis of BV-2 cells, and that was suppressed by HIS. Additionally, HIS possesses activity to induce HO-1 protein expression via activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in BV-2 cells, and application of the HO inhibitor, tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), or knockdown of HO-1 protein by HO-1 small interfering (si)RNA significantly reversed HIS inhibition of NO production and cell death in BV-2 cells stimulated by LPS. Results of an analysis of the effects of HIS and two structurally related chemicals, i.e. dehydroxy-HIS (D-HIS) and HIS-methyl ester (HIS-ME), showed that HIS expressed the most potent inhibitory effects on iNOS/NO production, JNK activation, and apoptosis in BV-2 microglial cells activated by LPS with increased HO-1 protein expression. Overall these results suggested that HIS possesses inhibitory activity against LPS- or LTA-induced inflammatory responses including iNOS/NO production and apoptosis in BV-2 microglial cells and that the mechanisms involve upregulation of the HO-1 protein and downregulation of JNK/NF-[math]B activation. A critical role of hydroxyl at position C3 in the anti-inflammatory actions of HIS against activated BV-2 microglial cells was suggested.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T06:02:36Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500896
       
  • Pueraria lobate Inhibits RANKL-Mediated Osteoclastogenesis Via
           Downregulation of CREB/PGC1β/c-Fos/NFATc1 Signaling
    • Authors: Keun Ha Park, Dong Ryun Gu, Su Hyun Jin, Chi-Su Yoon, Wonmin Ko, Youn Chul Kim, Seoung Hoon Lee
      Pages: 1 - 20
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Puerariae radix, the dried root of Pueraria lobate Ohwi, is known to prevent bone loss in ovariectomized mice; however, the precise molecular mechanisms are not understood. In this study, we investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of action of Puerariae radix extract (PRE) on receptor activator of NF-[math]B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis. PRE dose-dependently inhibited osteoclast differentiation and formation, decreased the bone-resorbing activity of osteoclasts, and downregulated the expression of osteoclast differentiation marker genes. The expression of osteoclastogenic factors produced by PRE-treated osteoblasts such as RANKL, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) was comparable to that of untreated (control) cells. However, the formation of osteoclasts via bone marrow cell and calvaria-derived osteoblast co-cultures was suppressed by PRE treatment. Therefore, the inhibitory effects of PRE on osteoclastogenesis clearly targeted osteoclasts, but not osteoblasts. PRE treatment considerably reduced RANKL-induced mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activity, especially c-Jun N-terminal kinase, in osteoclast precursor cells. In addition, PRE markedly suppressed cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) activation and the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1β (PGC1β), which stimulate osteoclastogenesis — an effect that was not observed for puerarin and 17-β estradiol. Finally, PRE treatment significantly repressed the expression of c-Fos and the nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), which is a master transcription factor for osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Overall, these results strongly suggest that PRE is an effective inhibitor of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and may be a potent therapeutic agent for bone-related diseases such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T06:02:36Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500938
       
  • Effectiveness of Acupuncture and Electroacupuncture for Chronic Neck Pain:
           A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    • Authors: See Yoon Seo, Ki-Beom Lee, Joon-Shik Shin, Jinho Lee, Me-Riong Kim, In-Hyuk Ha, Youme Ko, Yoon Jae Lee
      Pages: 1 - 23
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this systematic review was to assess evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture and electroacupuncture in patients with chronic neck pain. We searched nine databases including Chinese, Japanese and Korean databases through 30 July 2016. The participants were adults with chronic neck pain and were treated with acupuncture or electroacupuncture. Eligible trials were those with intervention groups receiving acupuncture and electroacupuncture with or without active control, and control groups receiving other conventional treatments such as physical therapy or medication. Outcomes included pain intensity, disability, quality of life (QoL) and adverse effects. For statistical pooling, the standardized mean difference (SMD) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a fixed-effects model. Sixteen RCTs were selected. The comparison of the sole acupuncture group and the active control group did not come out with a significant difference in pain (SMD 0.24, 95% CI [math]0.27–0.75), disability (SMD 0.51, 95% CI [math]0.01–1.02), or QoL (SMD [math]0.37, 95% CI [math]1.09–0.35), showing a similar effectiveness of acupuncture with active control. When acupuncture was added into the control group, the acupuncture add-on group showed significantly higher relief of pain in studies with unclear allocation concealment (SMD [math]1.78, 95% CI [math]2.08–[math]1.48), but did not show significant relief of pain in studies with good allocation concealment (SMD [math]0.07, 95% CI [math]0.26–0.12). Significant relief of pain was observed when the sole electroacupuncture group was compared to the control group or electroacupuncture was added onto the active control group, but a lot of the results were evaluated to have low level of evidence, making it difficult to draw clear conclusions. In the result reporting adverse effects, no serious outcome of adverse event was confirmed. Acupuncture and conventional medicine for chronic neck pain have similar effectiveness on pain and disability when compared solely between the two of them. When acupuncture was added onto conventional treatment it relieved pain better, and electroacupuncture relieved pain even more. It is difficult to draw conclusion because the included studies have a high risk of bias and imprecision. Therefore better designed large-scale studies are needed in the future.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T06:02:35Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500859
       
  • Angelica sinensis Exerts Angiogenic and Anti-apoptotic Effects Against
           Cerebral Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury by Activating
           p38MAPK/HIF-1[math]/VEGF-A Signaling in Rats
    • Authors: Chin-Yi Cheng, Tin-Yun Ho, Chien-Yun Hsiang, Nou-Ying Tang, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Shung-Te Kao, Yu-Chen Lee
      Pages: 1 - 26
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      This study evaluated the effects of Angelica sinensis extract [Dang Gui (DG)] administered before 60[math]min of middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 3[math]d of reperfusion and investigated the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1[math] signaling in the cortical ischemic penumbra. DG was intraperitoneally administered at a dose of 0.25[math]g/kg (DG-0.25g), 0.5[math]g/kg (DG-0.5g), or 1[math]g/kg (DG-1g) 30[math]min before the onset of cerebral ischemia. Our study results revealed that DG-0.5g and DG-1g pretreatment effectively attenuated cerebral infarct and improved neurological deficits. DG-0.5g and DG-1g pretreatment significantly downregulated glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase-3 expression and upregulated phospho-p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK)/p38 MAPK, phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB)/CREB, cytosolic and mitochondrial phospho-Bad (p-Bad)/Bad ratios, and HIF-1[math], vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), phospho-90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p-p90RSK), and von Willebrand factor (vWF) expression in the cortical ischemic penumbra. Pretreatment with SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, dramatically abrogated the upregulating effects of DG-1g on p-p38 MAPK/p38 MAPK, p-CREB/CREB, and p-Bad/Bad ratios and HIF-1[math], VEGF-A, and vWF expression and the downregulating effects of DG-1g on GFAP, cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-3, and cerebral infarction. DG-0.5g and DG-1g pretreatment provided neuroprotective effects against astrocyte-mediated cerebral infarction by activating angiogenic and anti-apoptotic signaling. Moreover, the angiogenic and anti-apoptotic effects of DG pretreatment can be attributed to the activation of p38 MAPK/HIF-1[math]/VEGF-A/vWF signaling and p38 MAPK/HIF-1[math]/VEGF-A/p-Bad-related regulation of cytochrome c/caspase-3 signaling, respectively, in the cortical ischemic penumbra 3[math]d after reperfusion.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T06:02:35Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500914
       
  • Usefulness of Chinese Herbal Medicines as Host-Directed Therapeutics
           against Mycobacterial Infections: A Review
    • Authors: Haruaki Tomioka
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      The high incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in developing countries, the resurgence of TB in industrialized countries, and the world-wide increase in the prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex infections have prompted the quest for new antimycobacterial drugs. However, the development of such chemotherapeutics is currently making very slow progress. It therefore appears that devising improved administration protocols for clinical treatment against intractable mycobacteriosis using existing chemotherapeutics is more practical than awaiting the development of novel antimycobacterial drugs. The modulation of host immune responses using immunoadjunctive agents may increase the efficacy of antimicrobial treatment against mycobacteriosis. Particularly, the mild and long-term up-regulation of host immune reactions against mycobacterial pathogens using Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) may be beneficial for immunoadjunctive therapy. This review focuses on the current status and future prospects regarding the development of CHMs that can be useful for the clinical control of intractable mycobacterial infections.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T06:02:33Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500860
       
  • Absorption Properties of Luteolin and Apigenin in Genkwa Flos Using In
           Situ Single-Pass Intestinal Perfusion System in the Rat
    • Authors: Xin He, Zi-Jing Song, Cui-Ping Jiang, Chun-Feng Zhang
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      The flower bud of Daphne genkwa (Genkwa Flos) is a commonly used herbal medicine in Asian countries. Luteolin and apigenin are two recognized active flavonoids in Genkwa Flos. The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal absorption mechanisms of Genkwa Flos flavonoids using in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion rat model. Using HPLC, we determined its major effective flavonoids luteolin, apigenin, as well as, hydroxygenkwanin and genkwanin in biological samples. The intestinal absorption mechanisms of the total flavonoids in Genkwa Flos (TFG) were investigated using in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion rat model. Comparing the TFG absorption rate in different intestinal segments, data showed that the small intestine absorption was significantly higher than that of the colon ([math]). Compared with duodenum and ileum, the jejunum was the best small intestinal site for TFG absorption. The high TFG concentration (61.48[math][math]g/ml) yielded the highest permeability ([math]). Subsequently, three membrane protein inhibitors (verapamil, pantoprazole and probenecid) were used to explore the TFG absorption pathways. Data showed probenecid, a multidrug resistance protein (or MRP) inhibitor, effectively enhanced the TFG absorption ([math]). Furthermore, by comparing commonly used natural absorption enhancers on TFG, it was observed that camphor was the most effective. In Situ single-pass intestinal perfusion experiment shows that TFG absorption is much higher in the small intestine than in the colon, and the TFG is absorbed mainly via an active transport pathway with MRP-mediated efflux mechanism. Camphor obviously enhanced the TFG absorption, and this could be an effective TFG formulation preparation method to increase clinical effectiveness after Genkwa Flos administration. Our study elucidated the TFG absorption mechanisms, and provided new information for its formulation preparation.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T06:02:33Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X1750094X
       
  • Melaleuca alternifolia Induces Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression in Murine
           RAW264.7 Cells through Activation of the Nrf2-ARE Pathway
    • Authors: Shih-Yu Lee, Po-Yu Chen, Jung-Chun Lin, Nicholas S. Kirkby, Ching-Huei Ou, Tsu-Chung Chang
      Pages: 1 - 18
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Melaleuca alternifolia concentrate (MAC) is the refined essential oil of the Australian native plant Melaleuca alternifolia. MAC has been reported to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in both murine RAW264.7 macrophages and human monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, the mechanisms involved in this effect remain unclear. This study aims to delineate the molecular mechanisms that drive the anti-inflammatory activity of MAC and its active component, terpinen-4-ol, in macrophages. The effects of MAC on RAW264.7 cells were studied using western blotting, real-time PCR, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and NF-[math]B luciferase reporter assays. Our results showed that MAC significantly increased both the mRNA and protein levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) via p38 and JNK MAPK activation. In addition, we showed that MAC significantly increased the activation and nuclear translocation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key transcription factor regulating HO-1 induction. MAC was also associated with significant inhibition of iNOS expression, NO production, and NF-[math]B activation. HO-1 was required for these anti-inflammatory effects as tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPPIX), an HO-1 inhibitor, abolished the effects of MAC on LPS-induced iNOS, NO, and NF-[math]B activation. Our results indicate that MAC induces HO-1 expression in murine macrophages via the p38 MAPK and JNK pathways and that this induction is required for its anti-inflammatory activity.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T06:02:31Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500884
       
  • Berberine Ameliorates Diabetic Neuropathy: TRPV1 Modulation by PKC Pathway
    • Authors: Yan Zan, Cui-Xing Kuai, Zhi-Xia Qiu, Fang Huang
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, berberine has increasingly become a topic of research as a treatment for diabetes due to its repair function, which recovers damaged pancreatic β cells. However, it is the complications of diabetes that seriously affect patients’ life quality and longevity, among which diabetic neuropathy and the consequent acute pain are the most common. In this study, we established STZ-induced diabetic models to observe whether berberine, a main constitute of Coptis chinensis Franch which has shown good hypoglycemic effects, could relieve diabetes-induced pain and explored its possible mechanism in rats and mice. Behavior assays showed increasing mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia thresholds by the Von Frey test and tail flick test during the treatment of berberine. It was found that the administration of berberine (20, 60 mg/kg; 30, 90 mg/kg) suppressed the expression of PKC[math] and TRPV1 which could be activated by hyperglycemia-induced inflammatory reaction. Our results also presented its capability to reduce the over expression of TNF-[math] in diabetic rats and mice. TNF-[math] is an inflammatory cytokine, which is closely related to diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Consequently, we supposed that berberine exerts its therapeutic effects in part by suppressing the inflammatory process and blocking the PKC pathway to inhibit TRPV1 activation, which damages neurons and causes diabetic pain.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T06:02:31Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500926
       
  • Prostate Cancer Xenograft Inhibitory Activity and Pharmacokinetics of
           Decursinol, a Metabolite of Angelica gigas Pyranocoumarins, in Mouse
           Models
    • Authors: Wei Wu, Su-Ni Tang, Yong Zhang, Manohar Puppala, Timothy K. Cooper, Chengguo Xing, Cheng Jiang, Junxuan Lü
      Pages: 1 - 20
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      We have previously shown that the ethanol extract of dried Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root exerts anticancer activity against androgen receptor (AR)-negative human DU145 and PC-3 prostate cancer xenografts and primary carcinogenesis in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. The major pyranocoumarin isomers decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA), when provided at equi-molar intake to that provided by AGN extract, accounted for the inhibitory efficacy against precancerous epithelial lesions in TRAMP mice. Since we and others have shown in rodents and humans that D and DA rapidly and extensively convert to decursinol, here we tested whether decursinol might be an in vivo active compound for suppressing xenograft growth of human prostate cancer cells expressing AR. In SCID-NSG mice carrying subcutaneously inoculated human LNCaP/AR-Luc cells overexpressing the wild type AR, we compared the efficacy of 4.5[math]mg decursinol per mouse with equi-molar dose of 6[math]mg D/DA per mouse. The result showed that decursinol decreased xenograft tumor growth by 75% and the lung metastasis, whereas D/DA exerted a much less effect. Measurement of plasma decursinol concentration, at 3[math]h after the last dose of respective dosing regimen, showed higher circulating level in the decursinol-treated NSG mice than in the D/DA-treated mice. In a subsequent single-dose pharmacokinetic experiment, decursinol dosing led to 3.7-fold area under curve (AUC) of plasma decursinol over that achieved by equi-molar D/DA dosing. PK advantage notwithstanding, decursinol represents an active compound to exert in vivo prostate cancer growth and metastasis inhibitory activity in the preclinical model.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T06:02:31Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500963
       
  • Maydis Stigma Elicits Analgesia and Blocks Edema in Mice and Inhibits
           Inflammation in Macrophages
    • Authors: Yun Hee Jeong, You-Chang Oh, Won-Kyung Cho, Hye Jin Yang, Jin Yeul Ma
      Pages: 1 - 20
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Maydis Stigma (MS) is an herb traditionally used in many parts of the world. Previous studies have reported that MS plays a role in several biological activities, including antidiabetic and anticancer activities. However, the effects of a MS ethanolic extract (MSE) on the anti-inflammatory cellular mechanism remain unclear. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of MSE and its molecular mechanism both in vitro and in vivo. The effects of MSE on the production of inflammatory mediators, cytokines, and related proteins and the identification of target genes were determined using LPS-stimulated macrophages. We also determined the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of MSE by examining acetic acid-induced writhing responses and xylene-induced ear edema in mice. Our results indicated that MSE markedly decreased iNOS and COX-2 levels without causing cytotoxicity and suppressed the secretion of NO in LPS-stimulated macrophages. MSE also inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-[math], IL-6, and IL-1[math], and induced the expression of HO-1. Moreover, MSE treatment significantly reduced the LPS-stimulated activation of MAPK, NF-[math]B, and AP-1. Furthermore, MSE exerted an analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing response test and an anti-inflammatory effect on xylene-induced ear edema in ICR mice. Finally, we investigated the components of MSE using UPLC-ESI-MS and found that it contains the maysin as a marker component. Overall, these observations demonstrate that MSE has anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects both in vitro and in vivo, which may provide new scientific evidence for its use as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammation.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T07:20:59Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X1750080X
       
  • Literature Review: Herbal Medicine Treatment after Large-Scale Disasters
    • Authors: Shin Takayama, Soichiro Kaneko, Takehiro Numata, Tetsuharu Kamiya, Ryutaro Arita, Natsumi Saito, Akiko Kikuchi, Minoru Ohsawa, Yoshitaka Kohayagawa, Tadashi Ishii
      Pages: 1 - 20
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Large-scale natural disasters, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, and typhoons, occur worldwide. After the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami, our medical support operation’s experiences suggested that traditional medicine might be useful for treating the various symptoms of the survivors. However, little information is available regarding herbal medicine treatment in such situations. Considering that further disasters will occur, we performed a literature review and summarized the traditional medicine approaches for treatment after large-scale disasters. We searched PubMed and Cochrane Library for articles written in English, and Ichushi for those written in Japanese. Articles published before 31 March 2016 were included. Keywords “disaster” and “herbal medicine” were used in our search. Among studies involving herbal medicine after a disaster, we found two randomized controlled trials investigating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), three retrospective investigations of trauma or common diseases, and seven case series or case reports of dizziness, pain, and psychosomatic symptoms. In conclusion, herbal medicine has been used to treat trauma, PTSD, and other symptoms after disasters. However, few articles have been published, likely due to the difficulty in designing high quality studies in such situations. Further study will be needed to clarify the usefulness of herbal medicine after disasters.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T07:20:58Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500744
       
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and NF-[math]B Pathway in Salidroside
           Mediated Neuroprotection: Potential of Salidroside in Neurodegenerative
           Diseases
    • Authors: Chenggui Wang, Yiting Lou, Jianxiang Xu, Zhenhua Feng, Yu Chen, Qian Tang, Qingqing Wang, Haiming Jin, Yaosen Wu, Naifeng Tian, Yifei Zhou, Huazi Xu, Xiaolei Zhang
      Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Microglial activation leads to increased production of proinflammatory enzymes and cytokines, which is considered to play crucial role in neurodegenerative diseases, however there are only a few drugs that target microglia activation. Recent studies have indicated that the Traditional Chinese Medicine, salidroside (Sal), exerted anti-inflammatory effects. According to this evidence, our present study aims to explore the effect of the Sal (a phenylpropanoid glycoside compound which is isolated from rhodiola), on microglia activation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 cells. Our results showed that Sal could significantly inhibit the excessive production of Nitric Oxide (NO) and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Moreover, Sal treatment could suppress the mRNA and protein expressions of inflammatory enzymes, including Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) and Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The mechanisms may be related to the inhibition of the activation of Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-[math]B) and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Our study demonstrated that salidroside could inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced microglia activation via the inhibition of the NF-[math]B pathway and endoplasmic reticulum stress, which makes it a promising therapeutic agent for human neurodegenerative diseases.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-09-26T03:35:02Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500793
       
  • Combination of Cinobufacini and Doxorubicin Increases Apoptosis of
           Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells through the Fas- and Mitochondria-Mediated
           Pathways
    • Authors: Jufeng Xia, Yoshinori Inagaki, Jianjun Gao, Fanghua Qi, Peipei Song, Guohua Han, Tatsuo Sawakami, Bo Gao, Chuan Luo, Norihiro Kokudo, Kiyoshi Hasegawa, Yoshihiro Sakamoto, Wei Tang
      Pages: 1 - 20
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Cinobufacini, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used widely for cancer treatment, such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), sarcoma, and leukemia. Previous studies done by our lab indicated that cinobufacini could suppress HCC cells through mitochondria-mediated and Fas-mediated apoptotic pathways. Here, we use a combination of cinobufacini and doxorubicin to inhibit the growth of HCC cells. The combination group induced more significant apoptosis by affecting proteins and RNA of apoptosis-related elements, such as Bcl-2, Bax, Bid, and cytochrome c. Furthermore, cinobufacini, as a mixture of a number of components, had stronger apoptosis-inducing activity than particular individual components or a simple mixture of a few components. Overall, these results suggested that the combination of cinobufacini and doxorubicin may provide a new strategy for inhibiting the proliferation of HCC cells.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-09-26T03:35:02Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500835
       
  • Estrogenic Potentials of Traditional Chinese Medicine
    • Authors: Ryoiti Kiyama
      Pages: 1 - 35
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Estrogen, a steroid hormone, is associated with several human activities, including environmental, industrial, agricultural, pharmaceutical and medical fields. In this review paper, estrogenic activity associated with traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) is discussed first by focusing on the assays needed to detect estrogenic activity (animal test, cell assay, ligand-binding assay, protein assay, reporter-gene assay, transcription assay and yeast two-hybrid assay), and then, their sources, the nature of activities (estrogenic or anti-estrogenic, or other types), and pathways/functions, along with the assay used to detect the activity, which is followed by a summary of effective chemicals found in or associated with TCM. Applications of estrogens in TCM are then discussed by a comprehensive search of the literature, which include basic study/pathway analysis, cell functions, diseases/symptoms and medicine/supplements. Discrepancies and conflicting cases about estrogenicity of TCM among assays or between TCM and their effective chemicals, are focused on to enlarge estrogenic potentials of TCM by referring to omic knowledge such as transcriptome, proteome, glycome, chemome, cellome, ligandome, interactome and effectome.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-09-26T03:35:01Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500756
       
  • Salvia miltiorrhiza Lipophilic Fraction Attenuates Oxidative Stress in
           Diabetic Nephropathy Through Activation of Nuclear Factor Erythroid
           2-Related Factor 2
    • Authors: Lin An, Mei Zhou, Faiz M. M. T. Marikar, Xue-Wen Hu, Qiu-Yun Miao, Ping Li, Jun Chen
      Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common cause of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease, which can be triggered by oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the renoprotective effect of the ethyl acetate extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza (EASM) on DN and examined the underlying molecular mechanism. We observed that EASM treatment attenuated metabolic abnormalities associated with hyperglycemic conditions in the experimental DN model. In streptozotocin (STZ)-induced mice, EASM treatment reduced albuminuria, improved renal function and alleviated the pathological alterations within the glomerulus. To mimic the hyperglycemic conditions in DN patients, we used high glucose (25[math]mmol/L) media to stimulate mouse mesangial cells (MMCs), and EASM inhibited high glucose-induced reactive oxygen species. We also observed that EASM enhanced the expression of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which mediated the anti-oxidant response, and its downstream gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1) with concomitant decrease of expression of kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (keap1) both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these results suggest that EASM alleviates the progression of DN and this might be associated with activation of Nrf2.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-09-26T03:34:59Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500781
       
  • Magnolol Reduces Renal Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury via Inhibition of
           Apoptosis
    • Authors: Chia-Yu Tang, Chang-Chi Lai, Po-Hsun Huang, An-Han Yang, Shu-Chiung Chiang, Po-Chao Huang, Kuo-Wei Tseng, Cheng-Hsiung Huang
      Pages: 1 - 19
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Magnolol, a constituent of the bark of Magnolia officinalis, has been reported to decrease myocardial stunning and infarct size. In this study, we investigated whether magnolol can reduce renal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. Renal I/R, induced by a 60-min occlusion of bilateral renal arteries and a 24-h reperfusion, significantly increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels, and caused histological damage to the kidneys of rats. Apoptosis, as evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining and caspase-3 activation, was significantly increased in the kidneys. Furthermore, serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-[math] (TNF-[math]), interleukin-1[math] (IL-1[math]), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were significantly elevated, while the interleukin-10 (IL-10) level was suppressed. However, intravenous pretreatment with magnolol at doses of 0.003[math]mg/kg and 0.006[math]mg/kg 10[math]min before renal I/R significantly limited the increases of BUN, creatinine, the histological damage, and apoptosis in the kidneys. The increases in TNF-[math], IL-1[math], and IL-6, and the decrease in IL-10 were also significantly inhibited. Additionally, magnolol increased Bcl-2 and decreased Bax in the kidneys. Phosphorylation of the prosurvival kinases, including Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), was elevated, while phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic mitogen-activated protein kinases, including p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), was suppressed. In conclusion, magnolol reduces renal I/R injury. The underlying mechanisms for this effect might be related to the prevention of apoptosis, possibly via the inhibition of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, including the reduction of TNF-[math] production and the modulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic signaling elements.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-09-26T03:34:58Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X1750077X
       
  • Rubus idaeus Inhibits Migration and Invasion of Human Nasopharyngeal
           Carcinoma Cells by Suppression of MMP-2 through Modulation of the ERK1/2
           Pathway
    • Authors: Chung-Han Hsin, Cheng-Chen Huang, Pei-Ni Chen, Yih-Shou Hsieh, Shun-Fa Yang, Yu-Ting Ho, Chiao-Wen Lin
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is characterized by a high incidence of metastasis in the neck lymph nodes, resulting in a poor prognosis and posing challenges for treatment. In this study, we investigated the in vitro antimetastatic properties of Rubus idaeus extract (RIE) on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. HONE-1, NPC-39 and NPC-BM cells were subjected to RIE treatment, and effects on the migration and invasion of tumor cells were analyzed. The results showed that RIE suppressed the migration and invasion of NPC cells. Gelatin zymography assay, Western blotting and real-time PCR showed that matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2) enzyme activity, protein expression and mRNA levels were down-regulated by RIE treatment. To identify the signaling pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase proteins were examined, which showed that phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was inhibited after the treatment of RIE. In summary, our data showed that RIE inhibited the migration and invasion of NPC cells by suppressing the expression of MMP-2 by down-regulating the ERK1/2 signaling pathway, suggesting that Rubus idaeus may serve as chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive agent for NPC.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-09-26T03:34:58Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500847
       
  • Roles of Autophagy in Ischemic Heart Diseases and the Modulatory Effects
           of Chinese Herbal Medicine
    • Authors: Dawei Wang, Weiqing Yu, Yuntao Liu, Guofu Zhong, Zhen Zhao, Xia Yan, Qing Liu
      Pages: 1 - 19
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved degradation process which eliminates dysfunctional proteins and cytoplasmic components to maintain homeostasis for cell survival. Increasing evidence has demonstrated the modulatory role of autophagy in ischemic heart diseases (IHDs). Traditionally, this process has been recognized as having protective functions, such as inhibiting atherosclerosis progression and reducing cell death during the ischemic phase. However, recent studies have suggested its dual roles in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MIR) injury. Excessive autophagy may play a deleterious role in cardiac function, due to overwhelming clearance of cellular constituents and proteins. Hence modulation of autophagy to increase cardiomyocyte survival and improve cardiac function is meaningful for the treatment of IHD. Chinese herbal medicine, including extractive compounds and patented drugs, has shown its potential role in treating IHD by addressing autophagy-related mechanisms. This review summarizes the updated knowledge on the molecular basis and modulatory role of autophagy in IHD and the recent progress of Chinese herbal medicine in its treatment.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-09-26T03:34:57Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500768
       
  • Differences in Chemical Component and Anticancer Activity of Green and
           Ripe Forsythiae Fructus
    • Authors: Jiaolin Bao, Ren-Bo Ding, Yeer Liang, Fang Liu, Kai Wang, Xuejing Jia, Chao Zhang, Meiwan Chen, Peng Li, Huanxing Su, Jian-Bo Wan, Yitao Wang, Chengwei He
      Pages: 1 - 24
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Forsythiae Fructus, Lianqiao in Chinese, is one of the most fundamental herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Both green Forsythia (GF) and ripe Forsythia (RF) are referred to Forsythiae Fructus in medicinal applications. In most cases, they are used without distinction. In this study, a metabolomics approach was performed to compare componential differences of two Forsythiae Fructus aqueous extracts subtypes. Principal component analysis (PCA) score plots from the UPLC-MS data showed clear separation between the two subtypes, indicating there are significant differences in the chemical components between GF and RF. Meanwhile, the anticancer activity of them was also compared. GF exhibited much stronger antitumor activity than RF against B16-F10 murine melanoma both in vitro and in vivo. 15 chemical compounds were identified as specific markers for distinguishing GF and RF. Among these marker compounds, forsythoside I, forsythoside A, forsythoside E and pinoresinol were demonstrated to be key important active compounds that account for the different anticancer efficacies of GF and RF. Our data suggest that GF and RF should be distinctively used in clinical applications, particularly in the anticancer formulas, in which GF should be preferentially prescribed.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-09-26T03:34:54Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500823
       
  • Acupuncture plus Herbal Medicine for Alzheimer’s Disease: A Systematic
           Review and Meta-Analysis
    • Authors: Simin Zhou, Lanlan Dong, Yuan He, Hong Xiao
      Pages: 1 - 18
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with the unprecedented aging tendency in our world population and has become a significant health issue. The use of Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat AD has been increasing in recent years. The objective of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the effectiveness of combining acupuncture with herbal medicine to treat AD. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of acupuncture plus herbals versus treatment with western drugs for AD were retrieved from 11 databases. The data were extracted by two authors; dichotomous data were expressed as odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), while continuous data were calculated by mean differences (MDs) with 95% CIs. Although the combined analysis of the score of Activity of Daily Life (ADL) scale MD was [math]3.59 (95% CI [math]7.18–0.01, [math]), which indicates there was no statistically significant difference between the two treatments at reducing the ADL scale score, the pooled results of 12 trials indicated that acupuncture plus Chinese herbal medicine was better than western drugs at improving the effectiveness rate (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.40–3.56), the combined evidence of 11 articles showed that acupuncture plus Chinese herbal medicine was more effective than western drugs at improving the scores for the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scale (2.10, 95% CI 0.69–3.51, [math]) and the traditional Chinese medicine symptom (MD 5.07, 95% CI 3.90–6.25, [math]). From the current research results, acupuncture plus herbal medicine may have advantages over western drugs for treating AD. Nevertheless, well-designed RCTs with a larger sample size are required in the future.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-09-19T06:40:07Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500732
       
  • A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Acupressure for Postoperative
           Gastrointestinal Symptoms Among Abdominal Surgery Patients
    • Authors: Yunhong Liu, Winnie P. Y. Tang, Shengxiang Gong, Carmen W. H. Chan
      Pages: 1 - 19
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Postoperative ileus is a common and often life-threatening gastrointestinal complication with few management methods available for patients. Integrating acupressure into perioperative care promises to bring benefits into preventing postoperative ileus. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to evaluate the efficacy of acupressure in identifying the signs and symptoms of postoperative ileus among patients undergoing abdominal surgery. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, CINAHL, China Journal Net and Wanfang databases were searched for high-quality RCTs using keywords such as acupressure, postoperative ileus, abdominal surgery, etc. A total of six studies ([math]) were included in this review and meta-analysis. The quality of the literature was found to be uniformly moderate by the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) assessment tool. The results of meta-analyses revealed that acupressure could significantly reduce risks for postoperative nausea (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.39–0.70, [math]) and vomiting (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.39–0.75, [math]) compared with the control group, without significant heterogeneity among studies. Meta-analysis of the need for antiemetic drugs suggested that the OR was 0.39 (95% CI 0.20–0.78, [math]) with significant heterogeneity among studies. Our results suggested that acupressure might be effective in reducing the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting and the need for antiemetic drugs among patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Considering the substantial risk of bias in the articles included, future high-quality RCTs with a rigorous methodology are desirable to provide solid evidence. Furthermore, other signs and symptoms of postoperative ileus should be explored in future.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-08-23T01:29:44Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500616
       
  • Sulforaphane Reduces HMGB1-Mediated Septic Responses and Improves Survival
           Rate in Septic Mice
    • Authors: In-Chul Lee, Dae Yong Kim, Jong-Sup Bae
      Pages: 1 - 19
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Sulforaphane (SFN), a natural isothiocyanate present in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli and cabbage, is effective in preventing carcinogenesis, diabetes, and inflammatory responses. Inhibition of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and restoration of endothelial integrity is emerging as an attractive therapeutic strategy in the management of severe sepsis or septic shock. In this study, we examined the effects of SFN on HMGB1-mediated septic responses and survival rate in a mouse sepsis model. The anti-inflammatory activities of SFN were monitored based on its effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-mediated release of HMGB1. The antiseptic activities of SFN were determined by measuring permeability, leukocyte adhesion and migration, and the activation of pro-inflammatory proteins in HMGB1-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mice. SFN inhibited the release of HMGB1 and downregulated HMGB1-dependent inflammatory responses in human endothelial cells. SFN also inhibited HMGB1-mediated hyperpermeability and leukocyte migration in mice. In addition, treatment with SFN reduced CLP-induced release of HMGB1 and sepsis-related mortality and pulmonary injury in vivo. Our results indicate that SFN is a possible therapeutic agent that can be used to treat various severe vascular inflammatory diseases via the inhibition of the HMGB1 signaling pathway.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-08-23T01:29:44Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500690
       
  • Syk-Mediated Suppression of Inflammatory Responses by Cordyceps bassiana
    • Authors: Woo Seok Yang, Gyeong Sug Nam, Mi-Yeon Kim, Jae Youl Cho
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      The fruit body of artificially cultivated Cordyceps bassiana has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. Although it has been suggested that the fruit body has neutraceutic and pharmaceutic biomaterial potential, the exact anti-inflammatory molecular mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated the immunopharmacologic activity of Cordyceps bassiana under in vitro conditions and investigated its anti-inflammatory mechanism. Water extract (Cm-WE) of the fruit body of artificially cultivated Cordyceps bassiana without polysaccharide fractions reduced the expression of the proinflammatory genes cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, interleukin (IL)-12, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and promoted the expression of the anti-inflammatory gene IL-10 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, this fraction suppressed proliferation and interferon (IFN)-[math] production in splenic T lymphocytes. Cm-WE blocked the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-[math]B and activator protein (AP)-1 and their upstream inflammatory signaling cascades, including Syk, MEK, and JNK. Using kinase assays, Syk was identified as the target enzyme most strongly inhibited by Cm-WE. These results strongly suggest that Cm-WE suppresses inflammatory responses by inhibiting Syk kinase activity, with potential implications for novel neutraceutic and pharmaceutic biomaterials.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-08-23T01:29:43Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500677
       
  • Multiple Effects of Ginseng Berry Polysaccharides: Plasma Cholesterol
           Level Reduction and Enteric Neoplasm Prevention
    • Authors: Jin-Yi Wan, Wei-Hua Huang, Wei Zheng, Chan Woong Park, Su Hwan Kim, Dae Bang Seo, Kwang-Soon Shin, Jinxiang Zeng, Haiqiang Yao, Clara Sava-Segal, Chong-Zhi Wang, Chun-Su Yuan
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      The root of Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) has been used for centuries in Oriental medicine to improve general well-being and to relieve various medical conditions. It is commonly understood that ginsenosides are responsible for the pharmacological activities of ginseng. Compared to the root of ginseng, studies on the berry are considerably limited. In this study, we evaluated the effects of polysaccharides from Asian ginseng berries on plasma lipid levels, chemically-induced enteric inflammation and neoplasm, and cancer chemoprevention in different experimental models. We tested two polysaccharide preparations: regular ginseng berry polysaccharide extract (GBPE) and ginseng berry polysaccharide portion (GBPP, removed MV [math]). We first observed that both oral GBPE and oral GBPP significantly reduced plasma cholesterol and triglycerides levels in a dose-related manner in ob/ob mice, without obvious body weight changes. Then, in AOM/DSS-induced acute colitis mice, GBPE and GBPP significantly ameliorated the increased gut disease activity index and inhibited the reduction of the colon length. Further, the berry polysaccharides significantly suppressed chemically-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. This is consistent with the observation that GBPE and GBPP attenuated tumorigenesis in mice by significantly and dose-dependently reducing tumor load. Finally, in vitro HCT-116 and HT-29 human colon cancer cells were used. While these berry preparations had better antiproliferation effects on the HCT-116 than the HT-29 cells, the GBPE had significantly stronger inhibitory effects than GBPP. The observed in vitro GBPE’s effect could contribute to the actions of its small-molecule non-polysaccharide compounds due to their direct antiproliferative activities. Results obtained from the present study suggest that ginseng berry polysaccharides may have a therapeutic role in the management of high lipid levels, enteric inflammation, and colon malignancies.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-08-23T01:29:41Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500719
       
  • Puerarin Improves Vascular Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular
           Remodeling in Salt-Sensitive Hypertension
    • Authors: Chunxiang Tan, Aimei Wang, Chan Liu, Yao Li, Yuepin Shi, Ming-Sheng Zhou
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Puerarin is an isoflavonoid isolated from the Chinese herb, Kudzu roots (also known as Gegen), which has been widely used for the treatment of hypertensive diseases and diabetic mellitus in traditional Chinese medicine. Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rat is a genetic model of salt-sensitive hypertension with cardiovascular injury and vascular insulin resistance. Here, we investigated whether puerarin improved vascular insulin resistance and attenuated cardiac and aortic remodeling in salt-sensitive hypertension. DS rats were given a normal (NS) or high salt diet (HS) for five weeks. An additional group of DS rats was pretreated with puerarin and NS for 10 days, then switched to HS plus puerarin for five weeks. HS for five weeks increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and aortic hypertrophy with increased the expression of phosphor-ERK1/2 in the aorta and heart; puerarin attenuated cardiac and aortic hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis and phosphor-ERK1/2 with a mild reduction in SBP. Hypertensive rats also manifested impairment of acetylcholine- and insulin-mediated vasorelaxation and insulin-mediated Akt and eNOS phosphorylation associated with the activation of NF[math]B/TNF[math]/JNK pathway. Puerarin improved acetylcholine- and insulin-mediated vasorelaxation and insulin-stimulated Akt/NO signaling with the inhibition of the NF[math]B inflammatory pathway. Our results demonstrated that in salt-sensitive hypertension, puerarin improved vascular insulin action with cardiovascular beneficial effects. Our results found that the underlying mechanisms may involve its inhibition of NF[math]B/JNK and ERK1/2 pathway. These results suggest that puerarin could be used as a new antihypertensive agent to expand our armamentarium for the prevention and treatment of end-organ damage in individuals with hypertension and metabolic diseases.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-08-23T01:29:40Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500641
       
  • Anti-Inflammatory and Immunostimulatory Activities of Astragalosides
    • Authors: Yan Qi, Feng Gao, Lifei Hou, Chunping Wan
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) Bge(Huang-Qi) is a well-known herbal medicine with tonic property and has been widely used to treat cancer and other immune disorders in China and Southeast Asia for thousands of years. Accumulating evidence suggests that Huang-Qi possesses both immune-boosting and anti-inflammatory/immune-regulatory effects clinically, leaving the mechanism elusive. Recently, we discovered that Astragaloside (ASI), a major active component of Huang-Qi, is able to increase CD45 phosphatase activity. In this paper, we reviewed the recent progress of ASIs in immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory activities, including the induction of T-cell activation, regulation of effector/regulatory T-cell balance, enhancement of CD45 phosphatase activity, inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine and, NF-[math]B pathway. Finally, we hypothesized that inducing interferon-[math] (IFN-[math]) activity by activating CD45 protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) may be involved in the protective role of ASI in two contrary immune-associated diseases. These pharmacological properties highlight the traditional uses of Astragalus and provide a new direction for subsequent research and the clinical application of this traditional herbal.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-08-23T01:29:39Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X1750063X
       
  • Rhodiola crenulata Attenuates High Glucose Induced Endothelial Dysfunction
           in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
    • Authors: Li-Yen Huang, I-Chuan Yen, Wei-Cheng Tsai, Blerina Ahmetaj-Shala, Tsu-Chung Chang, Chien-Sung Tsai, Shih-Yu Lee
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Rhodiola crenulata root extract (RCE), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism via the AMPK pathway in high glucose (HG) conditions. However, the effect of RCE on HG-induced endothelial dysfunction remains unclear. The present study was designed to examine the effects and mechanisms of RCE against hyperglycemic insult in endothelial cells. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were pretreated with or without RCE and then exposed to 33[math]mM HG medium. The cell viability, nitrite production, oxidative stress markers, and vasoactive factors, as well as the mechanisms underlying RCE action, were then investigated. We found that RCE significantly improved cell death, nitric oxide (NO) defects, and oxidative stress in HG conditions. In addition, RCE significantly decreased the HG-induced vasoactive markers, including endothelin-1 (ET-1), fibronectin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). However, the RCE-restored AMPK-Akt-eNOS-NO axis and cell viability were abolished by the presence of an AMPK inhibitor. These findings suggested that the protective effects of RCE were associated with the AMPK-Akt-eNOS-NO signaling pathway. In conclusion, we showed that RCE protected endothelial cells from hyperglycemic insult and demonstrated its potential for use as a treatment for endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-08-23T01:29:39Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500665
       
  • Heat-Processed Scutellariae Radix Protects Hepatic Inflammation Through
           the Amelioration of Oxidative Stress in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mice
    • Authors: Chan Hum Park, Mi-Rae Shin, Byung Kwan An, Hyun Woo Joh, Jang Cheon Lee, Seong-Soo Roh, Takako Yokozawa
      Pages: 1 - 20
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      The present study evaluated the effects of heat-processed Scutellariae Radix (Scutellaria baicalensis) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury in mice. Scutellariae Radix heat-processed at 160[math]C or 180[math]C was orally administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight for three days before the intraperitoneal injection of LPS, and the effects were compared with those of vehicle-treated LPS administered to control mice. The administration of Scutellariae Radix decreased the elevated serum monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitrite/nitrate, peroxynitrite, and hepatic functional parameters, and reduced the increased ROS in the liver. The augmented expressions of hepatic oxidative stress and inflammation-related proteins, phospho-p38, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase, phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase, nuclear factor-[math] B p65, activator protein-1, cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, MCP-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, tumor necrosis factor-[math], and IL-6, were downregulated by the heat-processed Scutellariae Radix. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the increased hepatocellular damage in the liver of LPS-treated mice improved with the administration of heat-processed Scutellariae Radix. Overall, the ameliorative effects of Scutellariae Radix were superior to those when heat-processed at 180[math]C. Our results indicate that heat-processed Scutellariae Radix acts as an anti-inflammatory agent by ameliorating oxidative stress in the liver of mice with LPS-induced liver injury.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-08-23T01:29:39Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500689
       
  • Ginseng on Nuclear Hormone Receptors
    • Authors: Joonwoo Park, Phuong T. C. Bui, Heewon Song, Si-Kwan Kim, Dong-Kwon Rhee, Eun-Young Kim, Mee-Ra Rhyu, Myeong Soo Lee, Young Joo Lee
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      The first record of ginseng use dates back over two millennia, and ginseng is now popular in more than 35 countries. Ginsenosides are the pharmacological constituents responsible for the beneficial effects of ginseng. There is increasing evidence that ginseng and its bioactive ingredients are involved in the regulation of nuclear receptors, molecules that act in response to the specific binding of hormones, which link to a diverse array of signaling pathways, such as the ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways. Knowledge of the mechanism of how ginseng mediates these complexes is essential for the development of multi-target phytomedicine as possible therapy for different diseases. Here, we discuss the literature on the effects of ginseng and its constituents on estrogen, glucocorticoid, peroxisome proliferator-activated, and androgen nuclear hormone receptors, as well as how ginseng and its constituents exert their biological function in the treatment of cancer, obesity, and cardiovascular and neurological disorders. The accumulated results definitely show that the nuclear receptors are cellular targets of ginsenosides, but more rigorous data are required to establish and provide a scientific basis to confirm the suggested efficacy of ginseng or products with ginsenosides.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-08-23T01:29:37Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500628
       
  • Arctii Fructus Inhibits Colorectal Cancer Cell Proliferation and MMPs
           Mediated Invasion via AMPK
    • Authors: Yo-Han Han, Ji-Ye Kee, Dae-Seung Kim, Jeong-Geon Mun, Seong-Hwan Park, Yong Ju Kim, Jae-Young Um, Seung-Heon Hong
      Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Although Arctii Fructus (AF) has been shown to have various pharmacological effects, there have been no studies concerning the inhibitory effects of AF on the metastatic properties of colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to investigate whether AF could suppress CRC progression by inhibiting cell growth, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration, and the invasion ability of CRC cells. AF decreased proliferation of CRC cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Regarding metastatic properties, AF inhibited EMT by increasing the expression of the epithelial marker, E-cadherin, and decreasing the expression of the mesenchymal marker, N-cadherin, in CT26 cells. Moreover, AF decreased the migration and invasion of CT26 cells by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 activity. We confirmed that the decreased invasion ability and MMP-9 activity by AF treatment involved AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. Collectively, this study demonstrates that AF inhibits the proliferation and metastatic properties of CRC cells.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-08-23T01:29:37Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500720
       
  • The Mixture of Anemarrhena Asphodeloides and Coptis Chinensis Attenuates
           High-Fat Diet-Induced Colitis in Mice
    • Authors: Su-Min Lim, Hyun-Sik Choi, Dong-Hyun Kim
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Anemarrhena asphodeloides (AA, family Liliaceae) inhibits macrophage activation by inhibiting IRAK1 phosphorylation and helper T (Th)17 differentiation. Coptis chinensis (CC, family Ranunculaceae), which inhibits macrophage activation by inhibiting the binding of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on toll-like receptor 4 and inducing regulatory T (Treg) cell differentiation. The mixture of AA and CC (AC-mix) synergistically attenuates 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid or dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting NF-[math]B activation and regulating Th17/Treg balance. In the present study, we examined the effect of AC-mix on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced colitis in mice, which induced NF-[math]B activation and disturbed Th17/Treg balance. Long-term feeding of HFD in mice caused colitis, including increased macroscopic score and myeloperoxidase activity. Oral administration of AC-mix (20[math]mg/kg) suppressed HFD-induced myeloperoxidase activity by 68% ([math]). Furthermore, treatment with the AC-mix (20[math]mg/kg) inhibited HFD-induced activation of NF-[math]B and expression of cyclooxygenase-2, inducible NO synthase, interleukin (IL)-17, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha but increased HFD- suppressed expression of IL-10. AC-mix suppressed HFD-induced differentiation into Th17 cells by 46% ([math]) and increased HFD-induced differentiation into regulatory T cells 2.2-fold ([math]). AC-mix also suppressed the HFD-induced Proteobacteria/Bacteroidetes ratio on the gut microbiota by 48% ([math]). These findings suggest that AC-mix can ameliorate HFD-induced colitis by regulating innate and adaptive immunities and correcting the disturbance of gut microbiota.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T04:08:27Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500550
       
  • Gypenosides Ameliorate Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Fibrosis by
           Inhibiting the Differentiation of Hepatic Progenitor Cells Into
           Myofibroblasts
    • Authors: Jiamei Chen, Xuewei Li, Yonghong Hu, Wei Liu, Qun Zhou, Hua Zhang, Yongping Mu, Ping Liu
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Gypenosides (GPs), the predominant components of Gynostemma pentaphyllum, exert antifibrotic effects; however, the mechanisms underlying their ability to ameliorate liver fibrosis are unclear. Liver fibrosis was induced in C57BL/6 mice via subcutaneous injection of 10% carbon tetrachloride (CCl[math] three times a week for two weeks. Then, CCl4 was administered in conjunction with intragastric GPs for another three weeks. For in vitro analyses, WB-F344, hepatatic progenitor cells (HPCs) were treated with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) with or without GPs for 48[math]h. The results showed that alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activity, deposition of collagen, hydroxyproline content, and expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin ([math]-SMA) and collagen type I (Col I) were significantly decreased after treatment with GPs ([math], [math], [math], [math]). In the 5M CCl4 group, the expression of HPC markers, Sox9 and cytokeratin 19 (CK19), was significantly increased compared with the normal or GPs-treated group ([math], [math]). Immunostaining showed that the number of Sox9 and [math]-SMA double-positive cells was higher in the 5M CCl4 group than in the normal group, but the addition of GPs caused this cell number to decrease. In WB-F344 cells, the expression of [math]-SMA and Col I was significantly increased after treatment with TGF-[math], whereas in the GPs treatment group, expression was markedly decreased ([math]). The levels of TGF-[math] and TGF-βR1 were markedly reduced after GPs treatment both in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, GPs ameliorated CCl4-induced liver fibrosis via the inhibition of TGF-β signaling, consequently inhibiting the differentiation of HPCs into myofibroblasts.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T04:08:27Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500574
       
  • Efficacy and Mechanisms of Chinese Medicine on the Modulation of
           Myocardial Autophagy in Cardiovascular Disease
    • Authors: Yue-Ying Li, Yong-Hua Zhao
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Autophagy refers to the process in which the cellular lysosome degrades the cell’s own damaged organelles and related macromolecule substances. It plays important roles in the homeostasis of organs, cell survival, and stable development. Previous studies indicate that the process of cardiopathology is closely associated with autophagy and some of Chinese medicines (active compounds and formulae) are found to have beneficial effects on injured cardiomyocytes via the modulation of autophagy. This review highlights the efficacy of the action of Chinese medicine on the regulation of myocardial autophagy and summarizes the related molecular and signal mechanisms. Our study discovers that some active compounds and formulae of Chinese medicines react on the specific targets of autophagy in related signal pathways to exert protective effects in the processes of ischemia and reperfusion, as well as, in other cardiopathological models. Parts of these compounds even have the characteristics of multiple targets in autophagic signal pathways and dual-directional regulated actions on autophagy, suggesting that Chinese medicines, which possess the ability to modulate autophagy, might improve effective cardio protection in the treatment of cardiovascular disease.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T04:08:26Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500495
       
  • Geraniin Promotes Recovery of Hematopoietic Cells After Radiation Injury
    • Authors: So Jin Bing, Jinhee Cho, Areum Kim, Kalahe Hewage Iresha Nadeeka Madushani Herath, Ginnae Ahn, Nam Ho Lee, Jae Woo Park, Youngheun Jee
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Cells of the hematopoietic system are uniquely radiosensitive due to their rapid proliferation. Consequently, immune suppression readily and undesirably results from irradiation. Our previous studies demonstrated that geraniin isolated from Nymphaea tetragona var. angusta (water lily) had a protective effect on the splenocytes and intestinal tract of irradiated mice. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of geraniin, an ellagitannin isolated from the water lily, in decreasing gamma ray irradiation-induced destruction of the hematopoietic system in mice. Geraniin treatment improved the survival time of bone marrow cells and maintained bone marrow integrity and also up-regulated the expression of stem cell receptors and the extent of cell mitosis. Geraniin also enhanced the proliferation and differentiation of immune cells that had been suppressed by irradiation. These results suggest geraniin is a promising agent for reconstituting hematopoietic cells after exposure to irradiation.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T04:08:25Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500537
       
  • Electro-Acupuncture is Beneficial for Knee Osteoarthritis: The Evidence
           from Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
    • Authors: Na Chen, Jing Wang, Attilio Mucelli, Xu Zhang, Changqing Wang
      Pages: 1 - 21
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a common chronic degenerative disease of the elderly. Electro-acupuncture (EA) is considered as a beneficial treatment for KOA, but the conclusion is controversial. This systematic review compiled the evidence from 11 randomized controlled trials to objectively assess the effectiveness and safety of EA for KOA. Eight databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, Clinic trials, Foreign Medical Literature Retrial Service (FMRS), Science Direct, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), and Wanfang Data were extensively searched up to 5 July 2016. The outcomes included the evaluation of effectiveness, pain and physical function. Risk of bias was evaluated according to the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Eleven RCTs with 695 participants were included. Meta-analysis indicated that EA was more effective than pharmacological treatment (RR [math] 1.14; 95% CI [math] 1.01,1.28; [math]) and manual acupuncture (RR [math] 1.12; 95% CI [math] 1.02,1.22; [math]). Also, EA had a more significant effect in reducing the pain intensity (SMD [math]; 95% CI [math]; [math]) and improving the physical function in the perspective of WOMAC (MD [math]; 95% CI [math], 5.56; [math]) and LKSS (pharmacological treatment: MD [math]; 95% CI [math], 6.64; [math]). Furthermore, these studies implied that EA should be performed for at least 4 weeks. Conclusively, the results indicate that EA is a great opportunity to remarkably alleviate the pain and improve the physical function of KOA patients with a low risk of adverse reaction. Therefore, more high quality RCTs with rigorous methods of design, measurement and evaluation are needed to confirm the long-term effects of EA for KOA.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T04:08:24Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500513
       
  • Tongxinluo Inhibits Renal Fibrosis in Diabetic Nephropathy: Involvement of
           the Suppression of Intercellular Transfer of TGF-[math]1-Containing
           Exosomes from GECs to GMCs
    • Authors: Xiao-Ming Wu, Yan-Bin Gao, Li-Ping Xu, Da-Wei Zou, Zhi-Yao Zhu, Xiao-Lei Wang, Wei-Jie Yao, Liang-Tao Luo, Yu Tong, Nian-Xiu Tian, Zhe-Ji Han, Wan-Yu Dang
      Pages: 1 - 18
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) activation is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Our previous study revealed that high glucose (HG)-treated glomerular endothelial cells (GECs) produce an increased number of TGF-β1-containing exosomes to activate GMCs through the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway. We also identified that Tongxinluo (TXL), a traditional Chinese medicine, has beneficial effects on the treatment of DN in DN patients and type 2 diabetic mice. However, it remained elusive whether TXL could ameliorate renal structure and function through suppression of intercellular transfer of TGF-β1-containing exosomes from GECs to GMCs. In this study, we demonstrate that TXL can inhibit the secretion of TGF-β1-containing exosomes from HG-treated GECs. Furthermore, exosomes produced by HG induced-GECs treated with TXL cannot trigger GMC activation, proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) overproduction both in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that TXL can prevent the transfer of TGF-β1 from GECs to GMCs via exosomes, which may be one of the mechanisms of TXL in the treatment of DN.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T04:08:22Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500586
       
  • Epimedin C Promotes Vascularization During BMP2-Induced Osteogenesis and
           Tumor-Associated Angiogenesis
    • Authors: Yan-Mei Shui, Gui-Yuan Lv, Le-Tian Shan, Chun-Lei Fan, Nan Tian, Li Zhang, Tong-Chuan He, Jian-Li Gao
      Pages: 1 - 19
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Epimedin C is one of the chemical markers and major flavonoids in Herba Epimedii (Yinyanghuo), which is traditionally used to treat bone diseases and gonadal dysfunction in China. Our previous study indicated that epimedin C could induce endothelial-like, but not osteogenic differentiation of C3H/10T1/2 cells in vitro. As vasculogenesis plays a pivotal role in bone formation, this study used the bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) induced ectopic bone formation model and mice 4T1 breast cancer cells co-implanted with luciferase labeled C3H/10T1/2 cells (4T1 [math] C3H/10T1/2-Luc) model to examine the in vivo effects of Epimedin C on vasculogenesis. As a result, Epimedin C significantly increased the bone weight and blood perfusion of mice in the BMP2 induced ectopic osteogenesis model, and the bone in Epimedin C [math] BMP2 group was more mature than that in BMP2 group. In addition, the tumor weight, blood perfusion and tumor-associated angiogenesis were also significantly increased in the Epimedin C treated 4T1 tumor bearing mice. The mRNA levels of endothelial markers, such as the platelet endothelial adhesive factor-1(CD31), the endothelial cell specific molecule-1(ESM-1), and the vascular von Willebrand factor (vWF) in mouse 4T1 mammary tumor tissue, were commonly found to occur alongside the luciferase (labeled in C3H/10T1/2 cells) expression and significantly increased after Epimedin C treatment. Taken together, Epimedin C can effectively promote vascularization both in the BMP2-depended bone formation model and in the 4T1 mammary tumor-bearing model by inducing an endothelial-like differentiation of C3H/10T1/2 in BALB/c nude mice.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T04:08:22Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500598
       
  • Eclipta Prostrata Improves DSS-Induced Colitis Through Regulation of
           Inflammatory Response in Intestinal Epithelial Cells
    • Authors: Dae-Seung Kim, Sung-Hee Kim, Ji-Ye Kee, Yo-Han Han, JinBong Park, Jeong-Geon Mun, Moon-Jung Joo, Yong-Deok Jeon, Su-Jin Kim, Sang-Hyun Park, Sung-Joo Park, Jae-Young Um, Seung-Heon Hong
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Eclipta prostrata (EP) and its compounds are known to have several pharmacological effects including anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we demonstrated that EP improves the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis symptoms such as body weight loss, colon length shortening and disease activity index. In DSS-induced colitis tissue, EP controls the protein expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and hypoxia inducible factor-1[math] (HIF-1[math]). In addition, the release of prostaglandin E2 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A were significantly reduced by EP administration. EP also inhibited COX-2 and HIF-1[math] expressions in the tumor necrosis factor-[math] stimulated HT-29 cells. These inhibitory effects of EP occurred by reducing the phosphorylation of I[math]B and the translocation of the nuclear factor-[math]B (NF-[math]B). Additionally, we found through HPLC analysis that wedelolactone, which is an inhibitor of NF-[math]B transcription, was contained in water extract of EP. These results indicate that EP can improve colitis symptoms through the modulation of immune function in intestinal epithelial cells and suggests that EP has the potential therapeutic effect to intestinal inflammation.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T04:08:21Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500562
       
  • Cinnamomum cassia Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice Through
           the Increase of Muscle Energy
    • Authors: Mi Young Song, Seok Yong Kang, Anna Kang, Ji Hye Hwang, Yong-Ki Park, Hyo Won Jung
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      The cortex of Cinnamomum cassia Presl (Cinnamomi Cortex: CC) has commonly been used for weight control in traditional medicines, but without a scientific basis. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the anti-obesity effect of CC extract in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mouse model and in C2C12 mouse skeletal muscle cells. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet or a HFD for 16 consecutive weeks, and orally administered CC extract (100 or 300[math]mg/kg) or metformin (250[math]mg/kg; positive control) daily for 16 weeks. CC extract administration significantly decreased body weights, food intakes, and serum levels of glucose, insulin, total cholesterol and ALT levels, prevented oral glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, inhibited the protein expressions of MyHC and PGC1[math] and the phosphorylation of AMPK, suppressed lipid accumulation in liver, decreased adipocyte size and increased muscle mass in obese mice. For this in vitro study, C2C12 myoblasts were differentiated into the myotubes for five days, and then treated with CC extract (0.1 or 0.2[math]mg/ml) for 24[math]hrs. CC extract significantly increased ATP levels by increasing the mRNA expressions of mitochondrial biogenesis-related factors, such as, PGC1[math], NRF-1, and Tfam, and the phosphorylations of AMPK and ACC. Our results suggest CC extract controls weight gain in obese mice by inhibiting lipid accumulation and increasing energy expenditure, and that its action mechanism involves the up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle cells.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T04:08:20Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500549
       
  • Myrcene, An Aromatic Volatile Compound, Ameliorates Human Skin Extrinsic
           Aging via Regulation of MMPs Production
    • Authors: Eunson Hwang, Hien T. T. Ngo, Bom Park, Seul-A Seo, Jung-Eun Yang, Tae-Hoo Yi
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Myrcene is an aromatic volatile compound that is commercially well-known as a flavor ingredient in the food industry and a fragrance in the soap and detergent industry. Given the worldwide interest in natural antiphotoaging products, we investigated the protective effects of myrcene in UVB-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). NHDFs were subjected to 144[math]mJ/cm2of UVB irradiation. The expression of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), MMP-3, interleukin-6 (IL-6), transforming growth factor (TGF-[math]1) and type I procollagen were examined. We showed that myrcene decreased the production of ROS, MMP-1, MMP-3, and IL-6, and increased TGF-[math]1 and type I procollagen secretions. Furthermore, myrcene treatment (0.1–10[math][math]M) dramatically reduced the activation of MAPK-related signaling molecules such as p-ERK, p-p38, and p-JNK and AP-1 including p-c-Jun and p-c-Fos. Our data indicate that myrcene has a potential protective effect on UVB-induced human skin photoaging. Therefore, myrcene might have applications in the skincare industry.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T04:08:20Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500604
       
  • A Review on Annona squamosa L.: Phytochemicals and Biological Activities
    • Authors: Chengyao Ma, Yayun Chen, Jianwei Chen, Xiang Li, Yong Chen
      Pages: 1 - 32
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae) is a fruit tree with a long history of traditional uses. A. squamosa is an evergreen plant mainly located in tropical and subtropical regions. Srikayas, the fruits of A. squamosa, are extensively used to prepare candies, ice creams and beverages. A wide range of ethno-medicinal uses has been related to different portions of A. squamosa, such as tonic, apophlegmatisant, cool medicine, abortient and heart sedative. Numerous research projects on A. squamosa have found that it has anticancer, anti-oxidant, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, antiparasitic, antimalarial, insecticidal, microbicidel and molluscicidal activities. Phytochemistry investigations on A. squamosa have considered annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs), diterpenes (DITs), alkaloids (ALKs) and cyclopeptides (CPs) as the main constituents. Until 2016, 33 DITs, 19 ALKs, 88 ACGs and 13 CPs from this species were reported. On the basis of the multiple researches on A. squamosa, this review strives to integrate available information on its phytochemicals, folklore uses and bioactivities, hoping to promote a better understanding of its medicinal values.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T04:08:18Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500501
       
  • Acupuncture Ameliorates Postoperative Ileus via IL-6–miR-19a–KIT Axis
           to Protect Interstitial Cells of Cajal
    • Authors: Jingjing Deng, Shu Yang, Qing Yuan, Yuzhong Chen, Dandan Li, Haimei Sun, Xinghua Tan, Fuchun Zhang, Deshan Zhou
      Pages: 1 - 19
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Acupuncture is a therapy effective in treating postoperative ileus (POI); its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in inflammation and injury to the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs), both of which are considered to be contributors to POI. C-kit, encoding KIT, a specific marker of ICCs, is predicted to be targeted by miR-19a, an inflammation-related miRNA. Therefore, we investigated a possible link between inflammation, miR-19a, and ICCs in POI, as well as the mechanism by which these factors are affected by acupuncture. The effects of acupuncture on POI were assessed in patients after colorectal resection and in colocolic anastomosis mice. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that KIT[math]/ano1[math] ICCs dramatically decreased around the colonic incision in mice, which was negatively correlated with the pronounced increase in macrophage. However, this decrease was not due to apoptosis. IL-6R was expressed in ICCs, and IL-6 level was significantly increased, as measured by ELISA, in accompaniment with high miR-19a expression. The increase in IL-6 and miR-19a levels was negatively correlated with the decrease in KIT[math]/ano1[math] ICCs. A luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR-19a directly targeted C-kit, indicating that miR-19a caused ICC damage. Interestingly, acupuncture inhibited macrophage activation, IL-6 release, and miR-19a upregulation, while promoting KIT and ano1 restoration in ICCs. High serum miR-19a level in patients after colorectal resection was also reduced by acupuncture. Conclusively, the IL-6 released by macrophages during gastrointestinal surgery upregulated miR-19a, which downregulated KIT in ICCs and finally resulted in POI. Acupuncture can interfere with the “IL-6–miR-19a–KIT” axis, suggesting that it may be a therapeutic mechanism that works against POI.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T09:30:25Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500392
       
  • Astragalus Polysaccharides Attenuate Monocrotaline-Induced Pulmonary
           Arterial Hypertension in Rats
    • Authors: Lin-Bo Yuan, Chun-Yan Hua, Sheng Gao, Ya-Ling Yin, Mao Dai, Han-Yan Meng, Piao-Piao Li, Zhong-Xin Yang, Qing-Hua Hu
      Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities including anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation functions in a number of diseases. However, their function in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is still unknown. Rats received APS (200[math]mg/kg once two days) for 2 weeks after being injected with monocrotaline (MCT; 60[math]mg/kg). The pulmonary hemodynamic index, right ventricular hypertrophy, and lung morphological features of the rat models were examined, as well as the NO/eNOS ratio of wet lung and dry lung weight and MPO. A qRT-PCR and p-I[math]B was used to assess IL-1[math], IL-6 and TNF-[math] and WB was used to detect the total I[math]B. Based on these measurements, it was found that APS reversed the MCT-induced increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) (from 32.731[math]mmHg to 26.707[math]mmHg), decreased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) (from 289.021[math]mmHg[math][math] min/L to 246.351[math]mmHg[math][math][math]min/L), and reduced right ventricular hypertrophy (from 289.021[math]mmHg[math][math][math]min/L to 246.351 mmHg[math][math][math]min/L) ([math]0.05). In terms of pulmonary artery remodeling, the WT% and WA% decreased with the addition of APS. In addition, it was found that APS promoted the synthesis of eNOS and the secretion of NO, promoting vasodilation and APS decreased the MCT-induced elevation of MPO, IL-1[math], IL-6 and TNF-[math], reducing inflammation. Furthermore, APS was able to inhibit the activation of pho-I[math]B[math]. In couclusion, APS ameliorates MCT-induced pulmonary artery hypertension by inhibiting pulmonary arterial remodeling partially via eNOS/NO and NF-[math]B signaling pathways.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-05-19T06:28:10Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500410
       
  • Baicalein Attenuates Lung Injury Induced by Myocardial Ischemia and
           Reperfusion
    • Authors: Chang-Chi Lai, Po-Hsun Huang, An-Han Yang, Shu-Chiung Chiang, Chia-Yu Tang, Kuo-Wei Tseng, Cheng-Hsiung Huang
      Pages: 1 - 21
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Baicalein is an active component of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, which has traditionally been used to treat cardiovascular diseases in China. In this study, we investigated if treatment with baicalein can attenuate the lung injury induced by myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Myocardial I/R, induced by a 40-min occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery and a 3-h reperfusion, significantly increased histological damage and the wet-to-dry weight ratio of lungs in rats. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive nuclei and caspase-3 activation was significantly increased in the lungs. Serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid levels of tumor necrosis factor-[math] (TNF-[math]), interleukin-1[math] (IL-1[math]), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were significantly elevated, as were TNF-[math] levels in the lung. Intravenous administration with baicalein at doses of 3, 10, and 30[math]mg/kg for ten minutes before myocardial I/R significantly reduced histological damage, the wet-to-dry weight ratio, and apoptosis in the lung. Baicalein also significantly inhibited the increase in levels of TNF-[math], IL-1[math], and IL-6. Moreover, baicalein increased Bcl-2 and decreased p53, Bax, and cytochrome [math] in lungs. Phosphorylation of the prosurvival kinases, including Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), was increased, while the phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic mitogen-activated protein kinases, including p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), was decreased. In conclusion, treatment with baicalein attenuates the lung injury induced by myocardial I/R. The mechanisms might be related to the limiting of apoptosis, possibly via the inhibition of both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis, including the inhibition of TNF-[math] production and modulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic signaling elements.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-05-19T06:28:10Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500422
       
  • Evodiamine Prevents Glioma Growth, Induces Glioblastoma Cell Apoptosis and
           Cell Cycle Arrest through JNK Activation
    • Authors: Wen-Shin Wu, Chih-Chiang Chien, Kao-Hui Liu, Yen-Chou Chen, Wen-Ta Chiu
      Pages: 1 - 21
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Evodiamine (EVO) is an active medicinal compound derived from the traditional herbal medicine Evodia rutaecarpa. It has been reported that evodiamine has several beneficial biological properties, including anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities of EVO against the growth of glioblastoma cells remain undefined. EVO induced significant decreases in the viability of U87 and C6 glioma cells, but not of primary astrocytes, according with the occurrence of apoptotic characteristics including DNA ladders, caspase-3 and poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein cleavage, and hypodiploid cells. The disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was detected, and it was found that the peptidyl caspase-9 inhibitor, Z-LEHD-FMK, significantly prevented glioma cells from EVO-induced apoptosis. Increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) protein phosphorylation by EVO was observed, and the addition of JNK inhibitors, SP600125 and JNKI inhibited the EVO-induced apoptosis was inhibited. Additionally, EVO treatment induced G2/M arrest with increased polymerized tubulin protein expression in U87 and C6 cells. Elevated expressions of the cyclin B1, p53, and phosphorylated (p)-p53 proteins were detected in EVO-treated glioma cells, and these were inhibited by JNK inhibitors. An in vivo study showed that EVO significantly reduced the growth of gliomas elicited by the subcutaneous injection of U87 cells with increases in cyclin B1, p53, and p-p53 protein expressions in tumors. An analysis of eight EVO-related chemicals showed that alkyl groups at position 14 in EVO are important for its anti-glioma effects which involve both apoptosis and G2/M arrest. Evidence is provided that supports EVO induction of apoptosis and G2/M arrest via the activation of JNK-mediated gene expression and disruption of MMP in glioblastoma cells. EVO was shown to penetrate the blood–brain barrier; EVO is therefore predicted to be a promising compound for the chemotherapy of glioblastomas and deserves further investigations.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T08:10:46Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500471
       
  • Effects of Viola mandshurica on Atherosclerosis and Hepatic Steatosis in
           ApoE[math] via the AMPK Pathway
    • Authors: Sun Haeng Park, Yoon-Young Sung, Kyoung jin Nho, Dong Sun Kim, Ho Kyoung Kim
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Atherosclerosis was previously thought to be a disease that primarily involves lipid accumulation in the arterial wall. In this report, we investigated the effect of Viola mandshurica W. Becker (V. mandshurica) water extract on atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE[math]) mice. The administration of V. mandshurica to high-fat diet-fed mice reduced body weight, liver weight, and serum levels of lipids (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides), glucose, alanine transaminase, and aspartate transaminase. Histopathologic analyses of the aorta and liver revealed that V. mandshurica attenuated atherosclerotic lesions and reduced lipid accumulation, inflammatory responses and fatty acid synthesis. V. mandshurica also increased phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), thereby reducing acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in liver tissue and inhibiting sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c). V. mandshurica reduced protein expression levels of adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin) as well as ACC, fatty acid synthase, and SREBP-1c. In addition, quantitative analysis of V. mandshurica by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed the presence of esculetin and scopoletin. Esculetin and scopoletin reduced adhesion molecules in human aortic smooth muscle cells. Our results indicate that the anti-atherosclerotic effects of V. mandshurica may be associated with activation of the AMPK pathway. Therefore, AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of SREBP-1c by V. mandshurica may be an effective therapeutic strategy for combatting atherosclerosis and hepatic steatosis.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T08:10:45Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500409
       
  • The Effects of Gymnema sylvestre in High-Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic
           Disorders
    • Authors: Hyeon-Jeong Kim, Sanghwa Kim, Ah Young Lee, Yoonjeong Jang, Orkhonselenge Davaadamdin, Seong-Ho Hong, Jun Sung Kim, Myung-Haing Cho
      Pages: 1 - 20
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      This study used an integrated approach to investigate the effects of Gymnema sylvestre (GS) extract as a functional dietary supplement with a high-fat diet. This approach examined insulin resistance, the dysfunction of adipose tissue, and liver steatosis. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal chow or high-fat diet (HFD) for the acute and chronic study, in addition to GS in different doses (100, 250 and 500[math]mg/kg body weight). Their body composition changes, serum lipid and glucose parameters, adipose and liver tissue histology, and gene expression were measured. It was found that GS significantly suppressed the increase of body weight, serum levels of lipid, insulin and leptin, and adipose tissue, and liver inflammation. GS also demonstrated hypoglycemic effects due to the amylase inhibition activity. Our results support the existence of a relationship between the HFD induced insulin resistance, adipose dysfunction and liver steatosis. In conclusion, GS works as a functional dietary supplement with preventative effects against metabolic disorder.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T08:10:45Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500434
       
  • Aloe Metabolites Prevent LPS-Induced Sepsis and Inflammatory Response by
           Inhibiting Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation
    • Authors: Chia-Yang Li, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Yung-Li Hung, Meng-Syuan Yang, Chung-Ping Yu, Shiuan-Pey Lin, Yu-Chi Hou, Shih-Hua Fang
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Aloe, a polyphenolic anthranoid-containing Aloe vera leaves, is a Chinese medicine and a popular dietary supplement worldwide. In in vivo situations, polyphenolic anthranoids are extensively broken down into glucuronides and sulfate metabolites by the gut and the liver. The anti-inflammatory potential of aloe metabolites has not been examined. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of aloe metabolites from in vitro (lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 macrophages) and ex vivo (LPS-activated peritoneal macrophages) to in vivo (LPS-induced septic mice). The production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-[math] and IL-12) and NO was determined by ELISA and Griess reagents, respectively. The expression levels of iNOS and MAPKs were analyzed by Western blot. Our results showed that aloe metabolites inhibited the expression of iNOS, decreased the production of TNF-[math], IL-12, and NO, and suppressed the phosphorylation of MAPKs by LPS-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. In addition, aloe metabolites reduced the production of NO, TNF-[math] and IL-12 by murine peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, aloe administration significantly reduced the NO level and exhibited protective effects against sepsis-related death in LPS-induced septic mice. These results suggest that aloe metabolites exerted anti-inflammatory effects in vivo, and that these effects were associated with the inhibition of inflammatory mediators. Therefore, aloe could be considered an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of sepsis.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-05-11T08:37:51Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500458
       
  • Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Activities of the Genus Swertia
           (Gentianaceae): A Review
    • Authors: Jie Li, Yan-Li Zhao, Heng-Yu Huang, Yuan-Zhong Wang
      Pages: 1 - 70
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Swertia plants have been considered to be medicinal plants useful for the treatment of various ailments for thousands of years, especially in Asian countries. This is due to the broad variety of chemical compounds that provide multiple ligands for bonding to different endogenous biomacromolecules for patients. Chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Swertia plants are summarized in this paper. Approximately 419 metabolites and 40 bioactive compounds have been reported from 30 Swertia species, including xanthones, flavonoids, seco-iridiods, iridiods, triterpenoids, alkaloids, volatiles, and other secondary metabolites. The bioactivities of Swertia plants include anticarcinogenic, hepatoprotective, anti-oxidant, hypoglycemic, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-diabetic, gut, and airways modulatory, metabolizing isozymes inhibitory, neuroprotective, HIV-I reverse transcriptases inhibitory, anticholinergic, and CNS-depressant activities, etc. In addition, biosynthetic pathways of xanthones, and seco-iridiods, two most important secondary metabolites for Swertia, are elucidated. The xanthones biosynthetic pathway is a mixed biosynthetic pathway involved the shikimate and the malonate routes, and the seco-iridoid pathway starts with geraniol derived from IPP which is produced either via the MEP or the MVA pathway. This review will offer a reference for future researches on the protection of natural resources, the investigation of therapeutic basis, new drug development, and so forth. Metabolic pathways of some crucial active compounds were also discussed in this review.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-05-11T08:37:49Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500380
       
  • Cinnamyl Alcohol, the Bioactive Component of Chestnut Flower Absolute,
           Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells by Downregulating
           Adipogenic Transcription Factors
    • Authors: Dae Il Hwang, Kyung-Jong Won, Do-Yoon Kim, Bokyung Kim, Hwan Myung Lee
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      The extract of chestnut (Castanea crenata var. dulcis) flower (CCDF) has antioxidant and antimelanogenic properties, but its anti-obesity properties have not been previously examined. In this study, we tested the effect of CCDF absolute on adipocyte differentiation by using 3T3-L1 cells and determining the bioactive component of CCDF absolute in 3T3-L1 cell differentiation. CCDF absolute (0.1–100[math][math]g/mL) did not change 3T3-L1 cell viability. At 50[math][math]g/mL and 100[math][math]g/mL, the absolute significantly reduced the accumulation of lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 cells that were induced by culture in medium containing 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine/dexamethasone/insulin (MDI). GC/MS analysis showed that CCDF absolute contains 10 compounds. Among these compounds, cinnamyl alcohol (3-phenyl-2-propene-1-ol) dose-dependently inhibited the increased accumulation of lipid droplets in MDI-contained medium-cultured 3T3-L1 cells at a concentration range of 0.1[math][math]g/mL to 10[math][math]g/mL that did not cause cytotoxicity in 3T3-L1 cells. The inhibitory effect was significant at 5[math][math]g/mL ([math] of response in MDI alone-treated state, [math]) and 10[math][math]g/mL ([math] of response in MDI alone-treated state, [math]). Moreover, the enhanced expression of obesity-related proteins (PPAR[math], C/EBP[math], SREBP-1c, and FAS) in MDI medium-cultivated 3T3-L1 cells was significantly attenuated by the addition of cinnamyl alcohol at 5[math][math]g/mL and 10[math][math]g/mL. These findings demonstrate that cinnamyl alcohol suppresses 3T3-L1 cell differentiation by inhibiting anti-adipogenesis-related proteins, and it may be a main bioactive component of CCDF absolute, exerting antidifferentiation action in 3T3-L1 cells. Therefore, cinnamyl alcohol, as well as CCDF absolute, may be potential candidates for the prevention or treatment of obesity.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-05-11T08:37:49Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500446
       
  • Vitex rotundifolia Fruit Extract Induces Apoptosis Through the
           Downregulation of ATF3-Mediated Bcl-2 Expression in Human Colorectal
           Cancer Cells
    • Authors: Hun Min Song, Gwang Hun Park, Jin Suk Koo, Hyung Jin Jeong, Jin Boo Jeong
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Fruit from Vitex rotundifolia L. (VF) has been reported to initiate apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells through the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Since various regulatory factors are involved in the apoptotic pathway, further study of the potential mechanisms of VF associated with the induction of apoptosis may be important despite the fact that the molecular target of VF for apoptosis has already been elucidated. In this study, we showed a new potential mechanism for the relationship between VF-mediated ATF3 expression and apoptosis to better understand the apoptotic mechanism of VF in human colorectal cancer cells. VF reduced the cell viability and induced apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. VF treatment increased both the protein and mRNA level of ATF3 and upregulated ATF3 promoter activity. The cis-element responsible for ATF3 transcriptional activation by VF was CREB which is located between [math]147 to [math]85 of ATF3 promoter. Inhibitions of ERK1/2, p38, JNK and GSK3[math] blocked VF-mediated ATF3 expression. ATF3 knockdown by ATF3 siRNA attenuated the cleavage of PARP by VF, while ATF3 overexpression increased VF-mediated cleaved PARP. ATF3 knockdown also attenuated VF-mediated cell viability and cell death. In addition, VF downregulated Bcl-2 expression at both protein and mRNA level. ATF3 knockdown by ATF3 siRNA blocked VF-mediated downregulation of Bcl-2. In conclusion, VF may activate ATF3 expression through transcriptional regulation and subsequently suppress Bcl-2 expression as an anti-apoptotic protein, which may result in the induction of apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-05-04T03:41:59Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500483
       
  • The Protective Effect of Aucubin from Eucommia ulmoides Against Status
           Epilepticus by Inducing Autophagy and Inhibiting Necroptosis
    • Authors: Jin Wang, Ying Li, Wei-Hua Huang, Xiang-Chang Zeng, Xiao-Hui Li, Jian Li, Jun Zhou, Jian Xiao, Bo Xiao, Dong-Sheng Ouyang, Kai Hu
      Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      : Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. is a famous traditional Chinese medicine which exhibits anti-oxidative stress ability and neuro-protective effects. Aucubin is the predominant component of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Our present study is intended to investigate aucubin’s potential protective effects on neurons against epilepsy in the hippocampus by establishing the lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus (SE) rat model in vivo. Aucubin (at a low dose and a high dose of 5[math]mg/kg and 10[math]mg/kg, respectively) was administered through gavage for two weeks before lithium-pilocarpine injection. Rats were sacrificed at 4, 24 and 72[math]h after SE induction. Pretreatment with both low-dose and high-dose aucubin significantly reduced the number of death neurons ([math]) and increased the number of surviving neurons ([math]) in DG, Hilus, CA1 and CA3 hippocampal regions post SE. Meanwhile, it significantly inhibited necroptosis proteins (MLKL and RIP-1) ([math] or [math]) and enhanced autophagy protein (Beclin-1 and LC3BII/LC3BI) prevalence in the hippocampus ([math] or [math]). In conclusion, aucubin appeared to ameliorate damages in lithium-pilocarpine induced SE in hippocampus, reduce the number of apoptotic neurons, and increased the number of survival neurons by inducing autophagy and inhibiting necroptosis. These original findings might provide an important basis for the further investigation of the therapeutic role of aucubin in treatment or prevention of epilepsy-related neuronal damages.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T09:31:05Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500331
       
  • Proteomic Analysis and Functional Studies of Baicalin on Proteins
           Associated with Skin Cancer
    • Authors: Dan Li, Bingjiang Lin, Nabiha Yusuf, Erin M. Burns, Xiuqin Yu, Dan Luo, Wei Min
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Abundant evidence supports the key role of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in skin cancer development. The human skin, especially the epidermal layer, is the main defense against UV radiation. Baicalin is a major bioactive component of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, a plant which has been found to exhibit antitumor activity. The anticarcinogenic mechanism of baicalin is not completely understood. We have reported that baicalin inhibited UVB-induced photo-damage and apoptosis in HaCaT cells (human skin keratinocytes). The aim of the present study is to investigate the cellular gene targets responsible for baicalin’s antitumor activity by performing two-dimensional electrophoresis liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (2-DE LC-MS/MS) with HaCaT cells following UVB and baicalin exposure. Two-DE for protein separation was performed, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and database searches. Nucleophosmin (NPM)-specific siRNA was designed and synthesized, and the small interfering RNA was transfected into skin squamous cancer A431 cells to knockdown the NPM expression. Proliferation and cell cycle status were assessed by CCK8 and flow cytometric analyses, respectively. We have identified 38 protein spots that are differentially expressed in HaCaT cells exposed to baicalin and/or UVB irradiation These proteins are involved in detoxification, proliferation, metabolism, cytoskeleton and motility. In particular, we found several proteins that have been linked to tumor progression and resistance, such as NPM. Baicalin treatment reduced the cellular proliferation rate and induced arrest during the S-phase of the cell cycle in A431 cells. NPM1 silencing significantly enhanced the effect of baicalin. Our data indicated that baicalin results in the significant inhibition of tumor growth in the A431 cell line, which may be associated with the regulation of the NPM gene expression.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T06:19:09Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500355
       
  • Paris polyphylla Suppresses Proliferation and Vasculogenic Mimicry of
           Human Osteosarcoma Cells and Inhibits Tumor Growth In Vivo
    • Authors: Nan Yao, Ke Ren, Yimin Wang, Qiaomei Jin, Xiao Lu, Yan Lu, Cuihua Jiang, Dongjian Zhang, Jun Lu, Chen Wang, Jiege Huo, Yong Chen, Jian Zhang
      Pages: 1 - 24
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Paris polyphylla, a traditional antipyretic-detoxicate chinese medicinal herb, has been applied extensively in cancer treatments for nearly 2000 years. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the potential anti-osteosarcoma effects of Paris polyphylla ethanol extract (PPEE) and to investigate its underlying mechanisms. The antiproliferation activity of PPEE was tested on 143B, MG-63, U-2 OS and hFOB1.19 cells using MTT assay. The pro-apoptotic and cell cycle arrest effects of PPEE were confirmed by Hoechst 33342 staining and flow cytometry. The antimigratory, anti-invasive and antivasculogenic mimicry (VM) effects of PPEE were investigated by wound healing, Transwell and 3D culture assays. Mouse xenograft model was used to examine its anti-osteosarcoma efficacy in vivo. Hematologic profiles and hepatorenal functions were evaluated to assess the toxicity of PPEE. PPEE evidently suppressed cell proliferation of 143B, MG-63 and U-2 OS with IC50 values of 10–60[math][math]g/mL, but showed little cytotoxicity against normal osteoblastic cell. PPEE promoted apoptosis in 143B cell via caspase activation, increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and PARP cleavage. It also induced G2/M phase arrest associated with elevated phosphorylation of CDK1, Cdc25C, Chk2 and down-regulation of cyclin B1, CDK1, Cdc25C expression. Additionally, PPEE inhibited 143B cell migration, invasion and VM formation at noncytotoxic concentrations through decreasing the expression of FAK, Mig-7, MMP2 and MMP9. Finally, daily oral administration of PPEE for four weeks exhibits potent antitumor and anti-VM activity in 143B xenograft model with low toxicity. Taken together, these findings demonstrated PPEE possesses anti-osteosarcoma and anti-VM activity in vitro and in vivo, and therefore is a potential candidate for osteosarcoma treatment.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T06:19:08Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500343
       
  • Sulfated Galactans from Red Seaweed Gracilaria fisheri Target EGFR and
           Inhibit Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Proliferation
    • Authors: Thannicha Sae-Lao, Rutaiwan Tohtong, David O. Bates, Kanokpan Wongprasert
      Pages: 1 - 19
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is increasing in incidence worldwide and is resistant to chemotherapeutic agents, making treatment of CCA a major challenge. Previous studies reported that natural sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) disrupted growth factor receptor activation in cancer cells. The present study, therefore, aimed at investigating the antiproliferation effect of sulfated galactans (SG) isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri (G. fisheri) on CCA cell lines. Direct binding activity of SG to CCA cells, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were determined. The effect of SG on proliferation of CCA cells was investigated. Cell cycle analyses and expression of signaling molecules associated with proliferation were also determined. The results demonstrated that SG bound directly to EGFR. SG inhibited proliferation of various CCA cell lines by inhibiting EGFR and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) phosphorylation, and inhibited EGF-induced increased cell proliferation. Cell cycle analyses showed that SG induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, down-regulated cell cycle genes and proteins (cyclin-D, cyclin-E, cdk-4, cdk-2), and up-regulated the tumor suppressor protein P53 and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor P21. Taken together, these data demonstrate that SG from G. fisheri inhibited proliferation of CCA cells, and its mechanism of inhibition is mediated, to some extent, by inhibitory effects on EGFR activation and EGFR/ERK signaling pathway. SG presents a potential EGFR targeted molecule, which may be further clinically developed in a combination therapy for CCA treatment.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T06:19:08Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500367
       
  • Src/Syk-Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Actions of Triterpenoidal Saponins from
           Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis) Seeds
    • Authors: Jae Sik Yu, Jun Ho Kim, Seulah Lee, Kiwon Jung, Ki Hyun Kim, Jae Youl Cho
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng (family Cucurbitaceae), also known as gac, or red melon, is an edible Southeast Asian fruit valued for its nutritional and medicinal properties. Specifically, Momordicae Semen, the seeds of the gac fruit, is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat boils, rheumatic pain, muscle spasm, hemorrhoids, and hemangiomas. In this study, a chemical investigation into a gac seed ethanol (EtOH) extract resulted in the identification of three triterpenoidal saponins (1–3), which were investigated for their anti-inflammatory effects. Among the saponins, momordica saponin I (compound 3) reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO) in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells without inducing cytotoxicity. The mRNA levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 were decreased by momordica saponin I. Additionally, the translocation of p65 and p50 (subunits of the transcription factor NF-κB) into the nucleus was remarkably inhibited. Furthermore, the phosphorylation levels of inflammatory signaling proteins (IκBα, Src, and Syk) known to be upstream regulatory molecules of p65 were decreased under momordica saponin I-treated conditions. The molecular targets of momordica saponin I were confirmed in overexpression experiments and through immunoblot analyses with Src and Syk. This study provides evidence that momordica saponin I could be beneficial in treating inflammatory diseases, and should be considered a bioactive immunomodulatory agent with anti-inflammatory properties.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-04-03T06:35:46Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500288
       
  • Two-Armed Activation of Bone Mineral Deposition by the Flavones Baicalin
           and Baicalein, Encapsulated in Polyphosphate Microparticles
    • Authors: Xiao-Hong Wang, Yue-Wei Guo, Emad Tolba, Maria Kokkinopoulou, Matthias Wiens, Heinz C. Schröder, Werner E.G. Müller
      Pages: 1 - 23
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, we investigated the effect of the two flavonoids, baicalin (baicalein 7-O-β-d-glucuronic acid) and its aglycone, baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone), after encapsulation into amorphous calcium polyphosphate (Ca-polyP) microparticles on mineralization of primary human osteoblasts (phOSB). Both flavonoids, which come from root extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, and are nontoxic in cells up to a concentration of 3[math]μg/ml. The morphogenetically active, energy-rich Ca-polyP particles with a stoichiometric P:Ca ratio of 1:2 are degraded by cellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) to ortho-phosphate used for bone hydroxyapatite formation. Here we show that the flavone-loaded Ca-polyP microparticles are readily taken up by phOSB, resulting in the accumulation of polyP around the nuclei and the formation of intracellular vesicles containing the ALP. In addition, we demonstrate that baicalin/baicalein causes a rise of the intracellular calcium [Ca[math]]i a level which markedly is augmented after encapsulation into Ca-polyP, through activation of the phospholipase C. Moreover, both flavones, either alone or associated with Ca-polyP microparticles, upregulate the expression of the osteoblast calcium efflux channel, the plasma membrane Ca[math]-ATPase (PMCA), while the expression of ALP, which promotes bone mineralization, is induced by Ca-polyP and by the flavones only if present in the Ca-polyP-microparticle-associated form. As a result, the extent of bone mineralization is markedly enhanced. Based on the two-armed activating function, new applications of baicalin/baicalein as a component of nutriceuticals for osteoporosis prevention or bone implants can be envisaged.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-04-03T06:35:46Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X1750032X
       
  • Uncovering the Molecular Mechanism of Anti-Allergic Activity of Silkworm
           Pupa-Grown Cordyceps militaris Fruit Body
    • Authors: Ting-Feng Wu, Yu-Yi Chan, Wan-Yin Shi, Meng-Ting Jhong
      Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Cordyceps militaris has been widely used as an herbal drug and tonic food in East Asia and has also been recently studied in the West because of its various pharmacological activities such as antitumoral, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-allergic activity of ethanol extract prepared from silkworm pupa-cultivated Cordyceps militaris fruit bodies in activated mast cells. Our results showed that ethanol extract treatment significantly inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase (a degranulation marker) and mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-[math] as well as interleukin-4 in RBL-2H3 cells. The cells were sensitized with 2,4-dinitrophenol specific IgE and then stimulated with human serum albumin conjugated with 2,4-dinitrophenol. Oral administration of 300[math]mg/kg ethanol extract significantly ameliorated IgE-induced allergic reaction in mice with passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Western immunoblotting results demonstrated that ethanol extract incubation significantly inhibited Syk/PI3K/MEKK4/JNK/c-jun biochemical cascade in activated RBL-2H3 cells, which activated the expression of various allergic cytokines. In addition, it suppressed Erk activation and PLC[math] evocation, which would respectively evoke the synthesis of lipid mediators and Ca[math] mobilization to induce degranulation in stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. A compound, identified as β-sitostenone, was shown to inhibit β–hexosaminidase secretion from activated mast cells. Our study demonstrated that ethanol extract contained the ingredients, which could inhibit immediate degranulation and de novo synthesis of allergic lipid mediators and cytokines in activated mast cells.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-04-03T06:35:45Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500306
       
  • Mechanisms of Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of Mammary
           Gland Hyperplasia
    • Authors: Xiaoliang Li, Ping Xin, Changfu Wang, Zhibin Wang, Qiuhong Wang, Haixue Kuang
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Mammary gland hyperplasia (MGH) occurs with high frequency among middle-aged women and is closely related to breast cancer. The treatment of this disease has become a research hotspot. Many patients with MGH are worried about the potential side effects of the synthetic drugs they are on. Thus, they seek alternative therapy, such as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In recent years, along with the Chinese herbs and its active ingredients, TCM compounds have been widely accepted and implemented in the treatment of MGH, whose mechanism hitherto is not completely clear. In this paper, we elaborate the mechanism of TCM in the treatment of MGH from the perspectives of sexual hormone levels, the expression of ER and PR, hemorheology, free radical activity and lipid peroxidation, VEGF and BFGF, cell proliferation activities, anti-apoptosis gene BcL-2, promoting apoptosis gene Bax, ERK, and tumor suppressor gene. In conclusion, TCM appears to be promising for MGH treatment. This paper will provide an overview of the mechanism of TCM in the treatment of MGH. In the near term, a better understanding of TCM will be achieved through comprehensive studies of its molecular mechanism.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T04:00:31Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500276
       
  • Chinese Herbal Medicine for the Optimal Management of Polycystic Ovary
           Syndrome
    • Authors: Madeleine Ong, Jie Peng, Xingliang Jin, Xianqin Qu
      Pages: 1 - 18
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex heterogeneous disorder characterized by androgen excess and ovulatory dysfunction; it is now known to be closely linked to metabolic syndrome. Recent research suggests that insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PCOS which may lead to the excessive production of androgens by ovarian theca cells. Currently there is no single drug that can treat both the reproductive and metabolic complications of the disorder. Existing pharmaceutical agents such as hormonal therapies have been associated with side effects and are not appropriate for PCOS women with infertility. Additionally, insulin sensitizing agents useful for treating the metabolic abnormalities in PCOS have limited efficacy for treating reproductive aspects of the disorder. Chinese herbal medicines have a long history of treating gynaecological problems and infertility and therefore may be a novel approach to the treatment of PCOS. Current research demonstrates that the compounds isolated from herbs have shown beneficial effects for PCOS and when combined in an herbal formula can target both reproductive and metabolic defects simultaneously. Therefore, further investigation into Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of PCOS is warranted.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T04:00:28Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500252
       
  • Protective Effect of Cymbopogon citratus Essential Oil in Experimental
           Model of Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury
    • Authors: Nancy Sayuri Uchida, Saulo Euclides Silva-Filho, Rafael Pazinatto Aguiar, Luiz Alexandre Marques Wiirzler, Gabriel Fernando Esteves Cardia, Heitor Augusto Otaviano Cavalcante, Francielli Maria de Souza Silva-Comar, Tânia Cristina Alexandrino Becker, Expedito Leite Silva, Ciomar Aparecida Bersani-Amado, Roberto Kenji Nakamura Cuman
      Pages: 1 - 18
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of Cymbopogon citratus or lemongrass essential oil (LGO), it was used in an animal model of acute liver injury induced by acetaminophen (APAP). Swiss mice were pretreated with LGO (125, 250 and 500[math]mg/kg) and SLM (standard drug, 200[math]mg/kg) for a duration of seven days, followed by the induction of hepatotoxicity of APAP (single dose, 250[math]mg/kg). The liver function markers alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase were determined to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of the LGO. The livers were used to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, nitric oxide (NO) production and histological analysis. The effect of LGO on leukocyte migration was evaluated in vitro. Anti-oxidant activity was performed by assessing the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in vitro. LGO pretreatment decreased significantly the levels of ALT, AST and ALP compared with APAP group. MPO activity and NO production were decreased. The histopathological analysis showed an improved of hepatic lesions in mice after LGO pretreatment. LGO inhibited neutrophil migration and exhibited anti-oxidant activity. Our results suggest that LGO has protective activity against liver toxicity induced by paracetamol.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T04:00:26Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500318
       
  • Anticancer Properties and Pharmaceutical Applications of Plumbagin: A
           Review
    • Authors: Yuling Liu, Yuee Cai, Chengwei He, Meiwan Chen, Hui Li
      Pages: 1 - 19
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      It has been shown that plumbagin, a bioactive naphthoquinone isolated from three major plant families viz. Plumbaginaceae, Ebenceae and Droseraceae, definitively exhibits anticancer potential in diverse cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Plumbagin shows antineoplastic effects via multi-channel molecular mechanisms, including the induction of apoptosis and autophagy, the disruption of the cell cycle, the inhibition of invasion and metastasis, and anti-angiogenesis. Plumbagin inhibits the growth of cancer cells mainly through the modulation of the signals of PI3K/Akt/mTOR, AMPK, Ras, and so on. The pharmaceutical applications of plumbagin combined with nanocarriers to achieve better therapeutic efficiency are discussed in this review Among them, liposomes, nanoparticles, microspheres, micelles, and nisosomes are used in cancer treatment. The anticancer study of plumbagin in vivo is also summarized in this review. On the whole, we aim to review the research progress of plumbagin both in pharmacological and pharmaceutical filed, which may provide some reference for further research of plumbagin.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T04:00:25Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500264
       
  • Prunella vulgaris Attenuates Diabetic Renal Injury by Suppressing
           Glomerular Fibrosis and Inflammation
    • Authors: Seung Namgung, Jung Joo Yoon, Chi-Su Yoon, Byung Hyuk Han, Eun Sik Choi, Hyuncheol Oh, Youn-Chul Kim, Yun Jung Lee, Dae Gill Kang, Ho Sub Lee
      Pages: 1 - 21
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Diabetic nephropathy is both the most common complication and the leading cause of mortality associated with diabetes. Prunella vulgaris, a well-known traditional medicinal plant, is used for the cure of abscess, scrofula, hypertension and urinary diseases. This study confirmed whether an aqueous extract of Prunella vulgaris (APV) suppresses renal inflammation and fibrosis. In human mesangial cell (HMC), pretreatment of APV attenuated 25[math]mM HG-induced suppressed TGF-β and Smad-2/4 expression; it increased the expressioin level of Smad-7. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and collagen IV, fibrosis biomarkers, were significantly decreased by APV. APV suppressed inflammatory factors such as intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). APV inhibited activation and translocation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) in HG-stimulated HMCs. Moreover, APV significantly improved HG-induced ROS in a dose-dependent manner. In diabetic rat models, APV significantly decreased blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and ameliorated plasma creatinine (PCr). APV reduced the PAS positivity staining intensity and basement membrane thickening in glomeruli of diabetic rats. Fibrosis related proteins such as collagen IV and TGF-β1 were also inhibited by APV. These results suggest that APV has a significant protective effect against diabetic renal dysfunction including inflammation and fibrosis through disruption of the TGF-β/Smad signaling. Therefore, APV may be useful in potential therapies that target glomerulonephritis and glomerulosclerosis, which lead to diabetic nephropathy.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T04:00:24Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X1750029X
       
  • Traditional Uses, Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities of
           Plants from the Genus Sanguisorba L.
    • Authors: Zefeng Zhao, Xirui He, Qiang Zhang, Xiaoyang Wei, Linhong Huang, Jia Cheng Fang, Xiaoxiao Wang, Meimei Zhao, Yajun Bai, Xiaohui Zheng
      Pages: 1 - 26
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Plants from the genus Sanguisorba have been treated as medicinal ingredients for over 2000 years. This paper reviews advances in the botanical, phytochemical and pharmacological studies of the genus. To date, more than 120 chemical constituents have been isolated and identified from these plants, especially from S. officinalis and S. minor. Among these compounds, triterpenoids, phenols and flavonoids are the primary biologically active constituents. Triterpenoids can be used as quality control markers to determine the quality of medicinal materials and their preparations. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that plants from the genus Sanguisorba exhibit a wide range of pharmacological properties, including hemostatic, antibacterial, antitumor, neuroprotective and hypoglycemic activities. In Chinese medical practice, many drugs (e.g., tablets and powders) that contain S. officinalis roots have been used to treat leukopenia, hemorrhaging and burns. However, there is still a multitude of Sanguisorba species that have garnered little or no attention. Indeed, there are few reports concerning the clinical use and toxic effects of these plants. Further attention should be focused on the study of these species in order to gather information on their respective toxicology data, any relevant quality-control measures, and the clinical value of the crude extracts, active compounds, and bioactive metabolites from Genus Sanguisorba.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-03-02T09:37:21Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500136
       
  • Flos Farfarae Inhibits Enterovirus 71-Induced Cell Injury by Preventing
           Viral Replication and Structural Protein Expression
    • Authors: Ya Wen Chiang, Chia Feng Yeh, Ming Hong Yen, Chi Yu Lu, Lien Chai Chiang, Den En Shieh, Jung San Chang
      Pages: 1 - 19
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can cause airway symptoms, brainstem encephalitis, neurogenic shock, and neurogenic pulmonary edema with high morbidity and mortality. There is no proven therapeutic modality. Flos Farfarae is the dried flower bud of Tussilago farfara L. that has been used to manage airway illnesses for thousands of years. It has neuro-protective activity and has been used to manage neuro-inflammatory diseases. However, it is unknown whether Flos Farfarae has activity against EV71-induced neuropathy. The current study used both human foreskin fibroblast (CCFS-1/KMC) and human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cell lines to test the hypothesis that a hot water extract of Flos Farfarae could effectively inhibit EV71 infection. The authenticity of Flos Farfarae was confirmed by HPLC-UV fingerprint. Through plaque reduction assays and flow cytometry, Flos Farfarae was found to inhibit EV71 infection ([math]). Inhibition of viral replication and protein expression were further confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and western blot, respectively. The estimated IC[math]s were 106.3[math][math]g/mL in CCFS-1/KMC, and 15.0[math][math]g/mL in RD cells. Therefore, Flos Farfarae could be beneficial to inhibit EV71 infection by preventing viral replication and structural protein expression.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T03:52:18Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500197
       
  • Lycium chinense Improves Post-Menopausal Obesity Via Regulation of PPAR-γ
           and Estrogen Receptor-α/β Expressions
    • Authors: Mi Hye Kim, Eun-Jung Kim, You Yeon Choi, Jongki Hong, Woong Mo Yang
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      The fruit of Lycium chinense Miller (Solanaceae) is used as a functional food and a medicinal herb for treating many specific health concerns. Weight gain induced by estrogen deficiency is a problem for post-menopausal women around the globe. The present study investigates the effects of aqueous extract of L. chinense (LC) on post-menopausal obesity. Female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized and fed on high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks to induce post-menopausal obesity. LC extract (1[math]mg/kg and 10[math]mg/kg) was orally administrated for 6 weeks with continuous HFD feeding. Ovarian adipose tissues and uterus were weighed. Serum triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and fasting glucose levels were analyzed. The expressions of adipocyte-specific factors and estrogen receptors (ERs) were investigated. Additionally, lipid accumulation was confirmed in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Increased body weight due to post-menopausal obesity was ameliorated about 14.7% and 17.76% by treatment of 1[math]mg/kg and 10[math]mg/kg LC, respectively. LC treatment reduced both of serum lipid and fasting blood glucose levels. Adipocyte hypertrophy and fatty liver were ameliorated in LC-treated groups. In LC-treated adipocyte cells, lipid accumulation was significantly inhibited. The expression of perilipin in adipose tissues was decreased by LC. In addition, expression of PPAR-[math] protein was down-regulated in adipose tissues and differentiated adipocytes, while GLUT4 expression was increased in adipose tissues by LC treatment. Moreover, LC treatment up-regulated the expressions of ER-[math]/[math] accompanied with increased uterine weight. These results showed the ameliorative effects of LC on overweight after menopause. Post-menopausal obesity may be improved by LC treatment.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T03:52:17Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500173
       
  • Flavonoids and Tannins from Smilax china L. Rhizome Induce Apoptosis Via
           Mitochondrial Pathway and MDM2-p53 Signaling in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma
           Cells
    • Authors: San Fu, Yanfang Yang, Dan Liu, Yan Luo, Xiaochuan Ye, Yanwen Liu, Xin Chen, Song Wang, Hezhen Wu, Yuhang Wang, Qiwei Hu, Pengtao You
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      In vitro evidence indicates that Smilax china L. rhizome (SCR) can inhibit cell proliferation. Therefore, in the present study, we analyzed the effects in vitro of SCR extracts on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Our results showed that A549 cell growth was inhibited in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment with SCR extracts. Total flavonoids and total tannins from SCR induced A549 apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, as shown by our flow cytometry analysis, which was consistent with the alterations in nuclear morphology we observed. In addition, the total apoptotic rate induced by total tannins was higher than the rate induced by total flavonoids at the same dose. Cleaved-caspase-3 protein levels in A549 cells after treatment with total flavonoids or total tannins were increased in a dose-dependent manner, followed by the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9, finally triggering to PARP cleavage. Furthermore, total flavonoids and total tannins increased the expression of Bax, decreased the expression of Bcl-2, and promoted cytochrome [math] release. Moreover, MDM2 and p-MDM2 proteins were decreased, while p53 and p-p53 proteins were increased, both in a dose-dependent manner, after A549 treatment with total flavonoids and total tannins. Finally, cleaved-caspase-3 protein levels in the total flavonoids or total tannins-treated H1299 (p53 null) and p53-knockdown A549 cells, were increased. Our results indicated that total flavonoids and total tannins from SCR exerted a remarkable effect in reducing A549 growth through their action on mitochondrial pathway and disruption of MDM2-p53 balance. Hence, our findings demonstrated a potential application of total flavonoids and total tannins from SCR in the treatment of human lung adenocarcinoma.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T03:52:17Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500239
       
  • Glycyrrhizae Radix Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation by Inhibiting
           c-Fos-Dependent NFATc1 Expression
    • Authors: Tae Won Rho, Seo Young Lee, Sang-Yong Han, Ji Hoon Kim, Kyung-Hee Lee, Dong-Seon Kim, Han Bok Kwak, Yun-Kyung Kim
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Osteoporosis results from imbalance between new bone formation and bone resorption leading to bone loss and is especially troublesome for postmenopausal women who suffer from estrogen deficiency. The ability of new therapeutic agents to treat this bone disease with minimal side effects has been extensively reported on and is continuously being sought out by researchers in this field. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate a natural herb that was already being used as a new treatment for osteoporosis. Here we found that water extract of Glycyrrhizae radix (GR) inhibits receptor activator of nuclear factor-[math]B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner without causing cytotoxicity. The mRNA expression of c-Fos, nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), and osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) was considerably inhibited by GR treatment. GR inhibited RANKL-mediated c-Fos and NFATc1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. GR inhibited the degradation of I-[math]B in RANKL-stimulated BMMs. However, GR-mediated inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and osteoclast-specific gene expression, including NFATc1, was reversed by ectopic expression of c-Fos. Also, GR significantly inhibited osteoclast formation in mouse calvariae in the presence of IL-1 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Taken together, these results suggest that GR inhibited osteoclast differentiation, raising the possibility that GR may serve as a useful drug for osteoporosis.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T03:52:16Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500185
       
  • Aloe-Emodin Enhances Tamoxifen Cytotoxicity by Suppressing Ras/ERK and
           PI3K/mTOR in Breast Cancer Cells
    • Authors: Hsin-Shun Tseng, Yu-Fen Wang, Yew-Min Tzeng, Dar-Ren Chen, Ya-Fan Liao, Hui-Yu Chiu, Wen-Tsong Hsieh
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Aloe-emodin (AE) is derived from Aloe vera and rhubarb (Rheum palmatum) and exhibits anticancer activities via multiple regulatory mechanisms in various cancers. AE can also enhance the anticancer efficacy of cisplatin, doxorubicin, docetaxel, and 5-fluorouracil; however, its effects remain poorly characterized. MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, BT-474, and HCC-1954 breast cancer cell lines were treated with the indicated conditions of AE, and cell viability assays were performed. The expression levels of signaling proteins were determined by western blot analysis, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell cycle distributions, and rates of apoptosis as estimated by flow cytometry. In comparison with other cells, MCF-7 cells were more sensitive to AE treatment; AE enhanced the cytotoxicity of 9[math][math]g/ml tamoxifen by reducing EGFR, ER[math], Ras, ERK, c-Myc, and mTOR protein expression and blocking PI3K and mTOR activation. Finally, although co-treatment of AE with tamoxifen increased intracellular ROS, there were no effects on cell cycle progression. Besides facilitating tamoxifen-induced cell death, AE also enhanced the antiproliferative activity of tamoxifen by blocking Ras/ERK and PI3K/mTOR pathways in breast cancer cells, thus demonstrating the chemosensitizing potential of AE.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T03:52:16Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500215
       
  • Acupuncture and Traditional Herbal Medicine Therapy Prevent Deliriumin
           Patients with Cardiovascular Disease in Intensive Care Units
    • Authors: Jun Matsumoto-Miyazaki, Hiroaki Ushikoshi, Shusaku Miyata, Nagisa Miyazaki, Takahide Nawa, Hideshi Okada, Shinsuke Ojio, Shinji Ogura, Shinya Minatoguchi
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to determine the effect of combination therapy consisting of acupuncture and traditional herbal medicine (Kampo medicine) for reducing the incidence rate of delirium in patients with cardiovascular (CV) disease in ICUs. Twenty-nine patients who had been urgently admitted to the ICU in the control period were treated with conventional intensive care. Thirty patients in the treatment period received conventional therapy plus a combination therapy consisting of acupuncture and herbal medicine. Acupuncture treatment was performed once a day, and the herbal formula was administered orally three times a day during the first week of the ICU stay. The standard acupuncture points were GV20, Ex-HN3, HT7, LI4, Liv3, and KI3, and the main herbal preparation was Kamikihito. The incident rates of delirium, assessed using the confusion assessment method for ICU, in the treatment and control period were compared. The incidence rate of delirium was significantly lower in the treatment group than in the control group (6.6% vs. 37.9%, [math]). Moreover, sedative drugs and non-pharmacological approaches against aggressive behavior of patients who were delirious were used less in the treatment group than in the control group. No serious adverse events were observed in the treatment group. Combination therapy consisting of acupuncture and herbal medicine was found to be effective in lowering the incidence of delirium in patients with CV disease in ICUs. Further studies with a large sample size and parallel randomized controlled design would be required to establish the effects of this therapy.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T03:52:12Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500161
       
  • Stephania Tetrandra and Ginseng-Containing Chinese Herbal Formulation
           NSENL Reverses Cisplatin Resistance in Lung Cancer Xenografts
    • Authors: Ling Jin, Meng Xu, Xue-Hua Luo, Xiao-Feng Zhu
      Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Chinese Herbal Formulation, supplement energy and nourish lung (SENL), effectively enhances chemotherapeutic efficacy in lung cancer treatment and reverses multi-drug resistance (MDR) in lung cancer cells in vitro. The present study is designed to assess the effect of a New SENL (NSENL, modification of SENL) formulation on resistance to chemotherapy of cisplatin (DDP)-resistant human lung cancer cell line (A549/DDP) xenografts in nude mice. We assessed six constituents in NSENL by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). BALB/c nude mice harboring A549/DDP cell xenografts were established to assess the antitumor effect of NSENL and its impact on the expression of MDR related genes. The six constituents in NSENL, including ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Rb1, ginsenoside Rg3, astragaloside IV, ophiopogonin D and tetrandrine were quantitated simultaneously by HPLC. The combination of NSENL with DDP significantly inhibited tumor growth at a rate of up to 66.8% ([math]). In addition, NSENL as monotherapy or combined with DDP downregulated multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) at both the mRNA and protein levels ([math]), reduced glutathione S-transferase π (GST-π) protein expression and tumor microvascular density as well as decreased phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) ([math]). These findings demonstrated that NSENL can reverse MDR in A549/DDP cells in vivo, an effect possibly associated with downregulation of MDR-associated genes as well as inhibition of bFGF/FGFR and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T03:52:12Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500240
       
  • Saikosaponin A Induces Apoptosis through Mitochondria-Dependent Pathway in
           Hepatic Stellate Cells
    • Authors: Chang-Han Chen, Ming-Feng Chen, S. Joseph Huang, Chun-Yen Huang, Hao-Kuang Wang, Wen-Chuan Hsieh, Chih-Hao Huang, Li-Feng Liu, Li-Yen Shiu
      Pages: 1 - 18
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Saikosaponin a (SSa) is one of the main active components of Bupleurum falcatum. It is commonly used to treat liver injury and fibrosis in traditional Chinese medicine. Our previous study showed that SSa induces apoptosis and inhibits the proliferation of rat hepatic stellate cell (HSC) line HSC-T6. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism of SSa-mediated apoptosis. Rat HSC cell line HSC-T6 and human HSC cell line LX-2 were used in this study. SSa triggered cell death mainly by apoptosis, as indicated by the typical morphological changes, sub-G1 phase of cell cycle increase, and activation of the caspase-9/caspase-3 cascade. In addition, SSa-induced apoptosis was partially inhibited by the caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK, suggesting an involvement of caspase-3 dependent and independent pathways. Moreover, SSa upregulated pro-apoptotic proteins [BAK, Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD), and p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA)] and downregulated anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2). In the mitochondria, SSa triggered the translocation of BAX and BAK from the cytosol to the outer membrane, resulting in a reduction of mitochondrial functions and membrane potential and subsequent release of apoptotic factors. Therefore, this study demonstrates that SSa induces apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial-dependent pathway in HSCs.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T03:52:11Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500227
       
  • Acupuncture and Lifestyle Modification Treatment for Obesity: A
           Meta-Analysis
    • Authors: Sijia Fang, Miao Wang, Yiyuan Zheng, Shigao Zhou, Guang Ji
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Obesity is an epidemic health hazard associated with many medical conditions. Lifestyle interventions are foundational to the successful management of obesity. However, the body’s adaptive biological responses counteract patients’ desire to restrict food and energy intake, leading to weight regain. As a complementary and alternative medical approach, acupuncture therapy is widely used for weight control. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of acupuncture treatment alone and in combination with lifestyle modification. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and Chinese Biomedical Literature Databases for relevant publications available as of 24 October 2015 without language restriction. Eligible studies consisted of randomized controlled trials for acupuncture with comparative controls. A total of 23 studies were included with 1808 individuals. We performed meta-analyses of weighted mean differences based on a random effect model. Acupuncture exhibited a mean difference of body mass index reduction of 1.742[math]kg/m2 (95% confidence interval [math]) and 1.904[math]kg/m2 (95% confidence interval [math]) when compared with untreated or placebo control groups and when lifestyle interventions including basic therapy of both treatment and control groups. Adverse events reported were mild, and no patients withdrew because of adverse effects. Overall, our results indicate that acupuncture is an effective treatment for obesity both alone and together with lifestyle modification.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T03:52:10Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X1750015X
       
  • Antitumor and Immunomodulatory Effect of Gastrodia elata on Colon Cancer
           In Vitro and In Vivo
    • Authors: Na-Hyung Kim, Ming Jie Xin, Ji-Yoon Cha, Soo-Jeong Ji, Se-Uk Kwon, Ho-Kyun Jee, Mi-Ran Park, Yong-Soo Park, Chong-Tai Kim, Dae-Ki Kim, Young-Mi Lee
      Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Gastrodia elata Blume (GE) is a well-known kind of herb that has been used in traditional medicine for thousands of years. The extrusion of raw materials from it could improve flavor and enhance bioavailability in food and drug development. The purpose of this study is to investigate antitumor and immune boosting effects of extruded GE in human colon carcinoma cells, splenocytes, and mice-bearing CT26 colon carcinoma cell. Treatment with 100[math][math]g/mL of extruded GE decreased cell viability and induced the expression of Caspase-3 and Bax in HT29 cells ([math]). When we performed DAPI staining, apoptotic bodies with condensed chromatin and fragmented nuclei, known as indicative of apoptotic morphology, increased 24[math]h after treatment with 100[math][math]g/mL of extruded GE. Treatments with extruded GE significantly promoted splenocyte proliferation and IL-2 or IFN-[math] secretion, compared with that of control cells ([math]). The administration of extruded GE of 200 mg/kg/day decreased tumor growth and Ki-67 or [math]-catenin expression in mice ([math]). Additionally, we investigated the contents of compounds in extruded GE extracts using ultra performance liquid chromatography. The contents of p-hydroxylbenzyl alcohol and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde in extruded GE were 2.97[math]mg/g and 0.04[math]mg/g, respectively. It was supposed that antitumor and immunomodulatory effects of extruded GE might exert by the p-hydroxylbenzyl alcohol and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde of many compositions analyzed from extruded GE. These results suggest that extruded GE have the potential to be developed into a natural pharmaceutical and functional food as a cancer chemopreventive agent.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T03:52:10Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500203
       
  • The Use of Chinese Herbal Medicine in the Treatment of Chronic Obstructive
           Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
    • Authors: Yen-Nung Liao, Wen-Long Hu, Hsuan-Ju Chen, Yu-Chiang Hung
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      In Oriental countries, combinations of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) are often utilized as therapeutic agents for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The effects of CHPs on COPD have been previously reported. This study aimed to analyze the frequency of prescription and usage of CHPs in patients with COPD in Taiwan. In this nationwide population-based cross-sectional study, 19,142 patients from a random sample of one million individuals in the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 (LHID 2000) of the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) were enrolled from 2000 to 2011. The multiple logistic regression method was used to evaluate the adjusted odds ratios for the utilization of CHPs. For patients with COPD, there was an average of 6.31 CHPs in a single prescription. The most frequently prescribed CHP for COPD was Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang (XQLT) (2.6%), and the most commonly used combination of two formula CHPs was XQLT with Ma-Xing-Gan-Shi-Tang (MXGST) (1.28%). The most commonly used single CHP for COPD was Bulbus Fritillariae (3.65%), and the most commonly used combination of two single CHPs was Bulbus Fritillariae with Puerariae Lobatae (1.09%). These results provide information regarding personalized therapies and may promote further clinical experiments and pharmacologic research on the use of CHPs for the management of COPD. Furthermore, we found that TCM usage was more prevalent among men, younger, manual workers, residents of Northern Taiwan, and patients with chronic bronchitis and asthma. This information on the distribution of TCM usage around the country is valuable to public health policymakers and clinicians.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T03:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500148
       
  • Punicalagin Pretreatment Attenuates Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury
           via Activation of AMPK
    • Authors: Mingge Ding, Yin Wang, Di Sun, Zhenghua Liu, Jie Wang, Xing Li, Cong Huo, Xin Jia, Wei Chen, Feng Fu, Xiaoming Wang
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Punicalagin (PUN), a major bioactive component in pomegranate juice, has been proven to exert neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) insult via anti-oxidant properties. This study aims to investigate whether PUN provides cardioprotection against myocardial I/R (MI/R) injury and the underlying mechanisms. PUN (30[math]mg/kg/d) or vehicle was intragastrically administered to Sprague-Dawley rats for one week before the operation. MI/R was induced by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30[math]min and subsequent reperfusion for 3[math]h. PUN pretreatment conferred cardioprotective effects against MI/R injury by improving cardiac function, limiting infarct size, reducing serum creatine kinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase activities, and suppressing cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Moreover, PUN pretreatment inhibited I/R-induced myocardial oxidative stress as evidenced by decreased generation of superoxide content and malonaldialdehyde formation and increased antioxidant capability. Furthermore, PUN pretreatment increased adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation in I/R hearts. AMPK inhibitor compound c inhibited PUN-enhanced AMPK phosphorylation, and blunted PUN-mediated anti-oxidative effects and cardioprotection. These results indicate for the first time that PUN pretreatment protect against I/R-induced oxidative stress and myocardial injury via activation of AMPK.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-01-13T09:27:56Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500057
       
  • Huang Qi Decoction Prevents BDL-Induced Liver Fibrosis Through Inhibition
           of Notch Signaling Activation
    • Authors: Xiao Zhang, Ying Xu, Jia-Mei Chen, Cheng Liu, Guang-Li Du, Hua Zhang, Gao-Feng Chen, Shi-Li Jiang, Cheng-Hai Liu, Yong-Ping Mu, Ping Liu
      Pages: 1 - 20
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Notch signaling has been demonstrated to be involved in ductular reactions and fibrosis. Previous studies have shown that Huang Qi Decoction (HQD) can prevent the progression of cholestatic liver fibrosis (CLF). However, whether HQD affects the Notch signaling pathway is unclear. In this study, CLF was established by common bile duct ligation (BDL) in rats. At the end of the first week, the rats were randomly divided into a model group (i.e., BDL), an HQD group, and a sorafenib positive control group (SORA) and were treated for 3 weeks. Bile duct proliferation and liver fibrosis were determined by tissue staining. Activation of the Notch signaling pathway was evaluated by analyzing expressions of Notch-1, -2, -3, and -4, Jagged (JAG) 1, and Delta like (DLL)-1, -3, and -4. The results showed that HQD significantly reduced the deposition of collagen and the Hyp content of liver tissue and inhibited the activation of HSCs compared with the BDL group. In addition, HQD significantly decreased the protein and mRNA expressions of TGF-[math]1 and [math]-SMA. In contrast, HQD significantly enhanced expression of the Smad 7 protein. HQD also reduced biliary epithelial cell proliferation, and reduced the mRNA levels of CK7, CK8, CK18, SRY-related high mobility group-box gene (SOX) 9, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and the positive areas of CK19 and OV6. In addition, the mRNA and protein expressions of Notch-3, -4, JAG1, and DLL-1, -3 were significantly reduced in the HQD compared to the BDL group. These results demonstrated that HQD may prevent biliary liver fibrosis through inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway, and it may be a potential treatment for cholestatic liver disease.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-01-13T09:27:56Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500070
       
  • Baicalein Induces Beclin 1- and Extracellular Signal-Regulated
           Kinase-Dependent Autophagy in Ovarian Cancer Cells
    • Authors: Ya-Fang Wang, Yu-Lian Xu, Zheng-Hai Tang, Ting Li, Le-Le Zhang, Xiuping Chen, Jia-Hong Lu, Chung-Hang Leung, Dik-Lung Ma, Wen-An Qiang, Yi-Tao Wang, Jin-Jian Lu
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Baicalein (BA), one of the major compounds isolated from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Gerogi, exhibits various pharmacological effects, such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. In this study, we found that BA reduced cell viability and increased apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. Treatment of cells with BA enhanced microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II (LC3-II) expression, acidic vesicular organelle and GFP-LC3 fluorescence dot accumulation. Combined treatment with chloroquine and BA apparently reduced cell viability and increased the cleavage of poly (ADPribose) polymerase (PARP) in both HEY and A2780 ovarian cancer cell lines, indicating that BA induces a protective autophagy in these cells. Knockdown of Beclin 1 by siRNA remarkably decreased BA-induced LC3-II lipidation. In addition, we found an increase in the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, Thr202/Thr204) and AKT (Ser473) after BA treatment, and inhibition of ERK activation by the pharmacological inhibitor U0126 or ERK siRNA blocked BA-induced autophagy. Taken together, these results suggest that BA induces Beclin 1- and ERK-dependent autophagy in ovarian cancer cells.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-01-13T09:27:56Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500094
       
  • ERK Signaling Pathway Plays a Key Role in Baicalin Protection Against
           Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury
    • Authors: Chia-Chih Liao, Yuan-Ji Day, Hung-Chen Lee, Jiin-Tarng Liou, An-Hsun Chou, Fu-Chao Liu
      Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes hepatocytes necrosis and acute liver failure. Baicalin (BA), a major flavonoid of Scutellariae radix, has potent hepatoprotective properties in traditional medicine. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of BA on a APAP-induced liver injury in a mouse model. The mice received an intraperitoneal hepatotoxic dose of APAP (300[math]mg/kg) and after 30[math]min, were treated with BA at concentrations of 0, 15, 30, or 60[math]mg/kg. After 16[math]h of treatment, the mice were sacrificed for further analysis. APAP administration significantly elevated the serum alanine transferase (ALT) enzyme levels and hepatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity when compared with control animals. Baicalin treatment significantly attenuated the elevation of liver ALT levels, as well as hepatic MPO activity in a dose- dependent manner (15–60[math]mg/kg) in APAP-treated mice. The strongest beneficial effects of BA were seen at a dose of 30[math]mg/kg. BA treatment at 30[math]mg/kg after APAP overdose reduced elevated hepatic cytokine (TNF-[math] and IL-6) levels, and macrophage recruitment around the area of hepatotoxicity in immunohistochemical staining. Significantly, BA treatment can also decrease hepatic phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) expression, which is induced by APAP overdose. Our data suggests that baicalin treatment can effectively attenuate APAP-induced liver injury by down-regulating the ERK signaling pathway and its downstream effectors of inflammatory responses. These results support that baicalin is a potential hepatoprotective agent.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-01-13T09:27:55Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500082
       
  • Schisandra chinensis and Its Main Constituent Schizandrin Attenuate
           Allergic Reactions by Down-Regulating Caspase-1 in Ovalbumin-Sensitized
           Mice
    • Authors: Na-Ra Han, Phil-Dong Moon, Na-Rae Kim, Hee-Yun Kim, Hyun-Ja Jeong, Hyung-Min Kim
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Schisandra chinensis (SC) and its main constituent, schizandrin (SCH) exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities. Allergic and inflammatory reactions are aggravated via caspase-1 signaling pathway. However, the regulatory effects of SC and SCH on caspase-1 activation have not been clarified yet. In this study, we aimed to clarify the anti-allergic effects of SC and SCH using an ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice and anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies-stimulated splenocytes. SC or SCH significantly inhibited the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E, IgG1, or interleukin (IL)-4 in serum of OVA-sensitized mice. SC or SCH significantly inhibited the levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[math], and IL-1[math] in spleen of the OVA-sensitized mice. SC or SCH significantly suppressed the expression of caspase-1 and receptor-interacting protein (RIP)-2 in spleen of the OVA-sensitized mice. In activated splenocytes, SC or SCH significantly decreased the expression of caspase-1 and RIP-2 as well as the production of IL-6 and TNF-[math]. We suggest that SC and SCH exert an anti-allergic effect by down-regulating caspase-1 signaling.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-01-13T09:27:55Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500112
       
  • Fruiting Bodies of Antrodia cinnamomea and its Active Triterpenoid, Antcin
           K, Ameliorates N-Nitrosodiethylamine-Induced Hepatic Inflammation,
           Fibrosis and Carcinogenesis in Rats
    • Authors: An-Jan Tien, Chen-Yen Chien, Yueh-Hsi Chen, Lung-Chin Lin, Chiang-Ting Chien
      Pages: 1 - 26
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Antrodia cinnamomea (A. cinnamomea), a popular medicinal mushroom in Taiwan, is widely used to prevent or treat liver diseases. Systematic studies on the anti-inflammatory effect of A. cinnamomea and its molecular mechanisms have not yet been fully investigated. HPLC fingerprint analysis identified seven ergostane-type triterpenoids from A. cinnamomea water extract (ACW), including high amounts of Antcin K (AC), Antcin C, Antcin H, Dehydrosulphurenic acid, Antcin B, Antcin A and Dehydroeburicoic acid. Here, we explored the effects and mechanisms of ACW and the highest content AC on N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) induced liver inflammation, fibrosis and carcinogenesis in rats. In the in vitro study, we measured how ACW and AC dose-dependently scavenged O[math], H2O2 and HOCl by a chemiluminescence analyzer. In the in vivo experiment, oral intake ACW and AC significantly inhibited DEN-enhanced hepatocellular inflammation, fibrosis and carcinoma by pathologic observation, the elevated bile and liver reactive oxygen species (ROS) amounts, plasma [math]-glutamyl transpeptidase, and oxidative stress including 3-nitrotyrosine, 4-hydroxynonenal and Kuppfer cell infiltration (ED-1 stains) in the inflammatory livers. DEN enhanced nuclear factor-[math]B (NF-[math]B) translocation, whereas ACW and AC suppressed DEN-enhanced NF-[math]B translocation through the inhibition of its upstream signaling of p85/phosphoinositide-3-kinase, mitogen activated protein kinase and CYP2E1 expression. In conclusion, DEN can induce hepatocellular inflammation, fibrosis and carcinoma by increasing NF-[math]B translocation to the nucleus, and oxidative injury. ACW and its active component, Antcin K, counteract DEN-induced hepatic injury and inflammation by the protective and therapeutic mechanisms of a direct scavenging ROS activity and an upregulation of anti-oxidant defense mechanisms.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-01-13T09:27:55Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500124
       
  • Scutellaria baicalensis Ameliorates Acute Lung Injury by Suppressing
           Inflammation In Vitro and In Vivo
    • Authors: Jian-Jung Chen, Chung-Chun Huang, Heng-Yuan Chang, Pei-Ying Li, Yu-Chia Liang, Jeng-Shyan Deng, Shyh-Shyun Huang, Guan-Jhong Huang
      Pages: 1 - 21
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Scutellaria baicalensis has been widely used as both a dietary ingredient and traditional herbal medicine in Taiwan to treat inflammation, cancer, and bacterial and viral infections of the respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract. This paper aims to investigate the in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of S. baicalensis. In HPLC analysis, the fingerprint chromatogram of the water extract of S. baicalensis (WSB) was established. The anti-inflammatory effects of WSB were inverstigated using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage (RAW264.7) in vitro and LPS-induced lung injury in vivo. WSB attenuated the production of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-[math], interleukin-[math] (IL-1[math], and IL-6 in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment with WSB markedly reduced the LPS-induced histological alterations in lung tissues. Furthermore, WSB significantly reduced the number of total cells and the protein concentration levels in the BALF. WSB blocked protein expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), phosphorylation of I[math]B-[math] protein and MAPKs in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and LPS-induce lung injury was also blocked. This study suggests that WSB possesses anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo, and the results suggested that WSB may be a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-01-13T09:27:53Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500100
       
  • Immediate Effects of Acupuncture Treatment on Intra- and Inter-Limb
           Contributions to Body Support During Gait in Patients with Bilateral
           Medial Knee Osteoarthritis
    • Authors: Yen-Hung Liu, I-Pin Wei, Ting-Ming Wang, Tung-Wu Lu, Jaung-Geng Lin
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Knee osteoarthritis (OA) often leads to altered balance control, joint motion and loading patterns during gait. Acupuncture has been proven to be effective in pain relief but its effects on inter-joint load-sharing for body balance have not been reported. The current study bridged the gap by quantifying the immediate effects of acupuncture on the inter-joint and inter-limb load-sharing in patients with knee OA during level walking in terms of the total support moment (Ms) and the contribution of individual joints to the total support moment. Gait analysis was performed on fifteen healthy controls and on fifteen patients with mild to moderate bilateral medial knee OA. After acupuncture treatment the patients with bilateral knee OA walked with significantly increased speed ([math]), and were able to resist greater and closer-to-normal knee flexion moments ([math]). They also changed the inter-joint sharing of the support moments with increased knee ([math]) contributions, but reduced hip contributions ([math]) to the sagittal Ms during single-limb support. They showed an asymmetric inter-limb load-sharing similar to the normal controls, with increased sharing of the time integral of both the sagittal and frontal whole body support moment by the leading limb during double-limb support ([math]). The altered intra- and inter-limb contributions to the demand of supporting the body during gait suggests that acupuncture treatment led to immediate changes in the control strategy toward a normal pattern. However, the effects of these changes on the progression of the disease in the long term would require further investigation.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T03:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500033
       
  • Electro-Acupuncture Modulates L1 Adhesion Molecule Expression After Mouse
           Spinal Cord Injury
    • Authors: Zhe Wei, Yan Wang, Weijiang Zhao, Melitta Schachner
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Spinal cord injury is a devastating neurological disease in desperate need of a cure. We have previously shown that overexpression of the adhesion molecule L1 contributes to locomotor recovery after injury and were therefore interested in how electro-acupuncture would influence the expression of this molecule. Here, we investigated the effects of electro-acupuncture at “Jiaji” points (EX-B2), newly established by us, in young adult mice to determine whether improved recovery via electro-acupuncture could be due to enhanced L1 expression. Locomotor function, as evaluated by the Basso Mouse Scale score and by catwalk gait parameters, was improved by electro-acupuncture at different time points after injury in parallel with enhanced levels of L1 expression. Interestingly, the levels of the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were also increased, but only in the early phase after injury, being reduced at later stages during recovery. Acupuncture alone showed less pronounced changes in expression of these molecules. We propose that electro-acupuncture improves regeneration in part by promoting the L1 expression and beneficial activation of stem cells, and by differentially modulating the expression of GFAP by promoting regeneration-conductive astrocytic responses at initial stages and reducing regeneration-adversive activation in the secondary stages. Expression of the stem cell marker nestin was upregulated by electro-acupuncture in the acute stage. The combined observations show for the first time in mice the beneficial functions of electro-acupuncture at Jiaji points in the spinal cord injury mouse model and provide novel insights into some molecular mechanisms underlying electro-acupuncture in spinal cord injury.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T03:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500045
       
  • Ginseng on Cancer: Potential Role in Modulating Inflammation-Mediated
           Angiogenesis
    • Authors: Daisy Dai, Chun-Feng Zhang, Stephanie Williams, Chun-Su Yuan, Chong-Zhi Wang
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Angiogenesis is a regulated process integral to many physiological and pathological situations, including carcinogenesis and tumor growth. The majority of the angiogenic processes are related to inflammation. The interplay is not only important in the case of pathogen entry but also influential in chronic inflammatory diseases, tumor growth and tissue regeneration. Modulating the interaction between inflammation and angiogenesis could be an important target for cancer treatment and wound healing alike. Ginseng has a wide range of pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory and angiogenesis-modulating activities. This paper presents the recent research progresses on the inhibition of angiogenesis by ginseng and its active constituents, with a particular focus on processes mediated by inflammation. The modulatory role of ginseng compounds in inflammation-mediated angiogenesis involving hypoxia and microRNAs are also discussed. With the potential to modulate the angiogenesis at the transcriptional, translational and protein signaling level via various different mechanisms, ginseng could prove to be effective in cancer therapeutics.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T03:15:45Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X17500021
       
  • Traditional Chinese Medicine and Constitutional Medicine in China, Japan
           and Korea: A Comparative Study
    • Authors: Wenjun Yu, Mingyue Ma, Xuemei Chen, Jiayu Min, Lingru Li, Yanfei Zheng, Yingshuai Li, Ji Wang, Qi Wang
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Japanese–Chinese medicine, and Korean Sasang constitutional medicine have common origins. However, the constitutional medicines of China, Japan, and Korea differ because of the influence of geographical culture, social environment, national practices, and other factors. This paper aimed to compare the constitutional medicines of China, Japan, and Korea in terms of theoretical origin, constitutional classification, constitution and pathogenesis, clinical applications and basic studies that were conducted. The constitutional theories of the three countries are all derived from the Canon of Internal Medicine or Treatise on Febrile and Miscellaneous Diseases of Ancient China. However, the three countries have different constitutional classifications and criteria. Medical sciences in the three countries focus on the clinical applications of constitutional theory. They all agree that different pathogenic laws that guide the treatment of diseases govern different constitutions; thus, patients with different constitutions are treated differently. The three countries also differ in terms of drug formulations and medication. Japanese medicine is prescribed only based on constitution. Korean medicine is based on treatment, in which drugs cannot be mixed. TCM synthesize the treatment model of constitution differentiation, disease differentiation and syndrome differentiation with the treatment thought of treating disease according to three categories of etiologic factors, which reflect the constitution as the characteristic of individual precision treatment. In conclusion, constitutional medicines of China, Japan, and Korea have the same theoretical origin, but differ in constitutional classification, clinical application of constitutional theory on the treatment of diseases, drug formulations and medication.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T03:15:44Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X1750001X
       
 
 
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