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Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
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Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
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Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
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African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access  
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
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American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access  
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American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
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Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
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Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
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Annals of Fundeni Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access  
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Bangladesh Medical Journal Khulna     Open Access  
Basal Ganglia     Hybrid Journal  
Basic Sciences of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BC Medical Journal     Free  
Benha Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bijblijven     Hybrid Journal  
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biologics in Therapy     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The
  [SJR: 0.797]   [H-I: 45]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0192-415X - ISSN (Online) 793-6853
   Published by World Scientific Homepage  [118 journals]
  • Revealing the Neural Mechanisms Underlying the Beneficial Effects of Tai
           Chi: A Neuroimaging Perspective
    • Authors: Angus P. Yu, Bjorn T. Tam, Christopher W. Lai, Doris S. Yu, Jean Woo, Ka-Fai Chung, Stanley S. Hui, Justina Y. Liu, Gao X. Wei, Parco M. Siu
      Pages: 231 - 259
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 02, Page 231-259, 2018.
      Tai Chi Chuan (TCC), a traditional Chinese martial art, is well-documented to result in beneficial consequences in physical and mental health. TCC is regarded as a mind-body exercise that is comprised of physical exercise and meditation. Favorable effects of TCC on body balance, gait, bone mineral density, metabolic parameters, anxiety, depression, cognitive function, and sleep have been previously reported. However, the underlying mechanisms explaining the effects of TCC remain largely unclear. Recently, advances in neuroimaging technology have offered new investigative opportunities to reveal the effects of TCC on anatomical morphologies and neurological activities in different regions of the brain. These neuroimaging findings have provided new clues for revealing the mechanisms behind the observed effects of TCC. In this review paper, we discussed the possible effects of TCC-induced modulation of brain morphology, functional homogeneity and connectivity, regional activity and macro-scale network activity on health. Moreover, we identified possible links between the alterations in brain and beneficial effects of TCC, such as improved motor functions, pain perception, metabolic profile, cognitive functions, mental health and sleep quality. This paper aimed to stimulate further mechanistic neuroimaging studies in TCC and its effects on brain morphology, functional homogeneity and connectivity, regional activity and macro-scale network activity, which ultimately lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of TCC on human health.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-03-15T09:40:22Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500131
  • Ethnomedicine, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Smilax glabra: An
           Important Traditional Chinese Medicine
    • Authors: Shiyao Hua, Yiwei Zhang, Jiayue Liu, Lin Dong, Jun Huang, Dingbo Lin, Xueyan Fu
      Pages: 261 - 297
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 02, Page 261-297, 2018.
      Smilax glabra (SG) Roxb., a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, has been extensively used worldwide for its marked pharmacological activities for treating syphilitic poisoned sores, limb hypertonicity, morbid leucorrhea, eczema pruritus, strangury due to heat, carbuncle toxin, and many other human ailments. Approximately 200 chemical compounds have been isolated from SG Roxb., and the major components have been determined to be flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides, phenolic acids, and steroids. Among these active compounds, the effects of astilbin, which is used as a quality control marker to determine the quality of SG Roxb., have been widely investigated. Based on in vivo and in vitro studies, the primary active components of SG Roxb. possess various pharmacological activities, such as cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory effects, anti-oxidant, hepatoprotective, antiviral, antibacterial, and cardiovascular system protective activities. However, an extensive study to determine the relationship between the chemical compositions and pharmacological effects of SG Roxb. has not been conducted and is worth of our study. Improving the means of utilizing the effects of SG is crucial. The present paper reviews the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of SG Roxb. and assesses its ethnopharmacological use in order to explore its therapeutic potential for future research.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-03-15T09:40:34Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500143
  • Phytotherapeutic Activities of Sanguisorba officinalis and its Chemical
           Constituents: A Review
    • Authors: Eungyeong Jang, Kyung-Soo Inn, Young Pyo Jang, Kyung-Tae Lee, Jang-Hoon Lee
      Pages: 299 - 318
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 02, Page 299-318, 2018.
      Sanguisorba officinalis Linne (S. officinalis, Rosaceae) has been used as a medicinal plant for the treatment of burns, hematemesis, melena, intestinal infections, and dermatitis for a long time in China, Korea, and Japan. The therapeutic efficacy of this herb is intimately associated with its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antifungal, hemostatic, and anticancer activities. Its root contains triterpenoid saponins (zigyuglycoside I: C[math]H[math]O[math] and ziyuglycoside II: C[math]H[math]O8) and tannins (sanguiin H-6: C[math]H[math]O[math]). It has been recently revealed that these active constituents of S. officinalis possess antiwrinkle properties without cytotoxicity. They also have anticancer effects by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Moreover, they can inhibit proliferative tumorigenesis. The underlying mechanism involved in the pharmacological actions of these active constituents is mainly related to p38 MAPK signaling. Although various studies have reported its therapeutic activities and major chemical components, review articles that extensively organize various properties of S. officinalis and its major constituents are still scarce. Taken together, the objective of this paper is to provide overall pharmacological and phytochemical profiles of S. officinalis and its constituents (including ziyuglycoside I, ziyuglycoside II, and sanguiin H-6), and their potential roles in clinical applications for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, bleeding disorders, and cancer.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-03-15T09:40:21Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500155
  • Pharmacological Effects of Scutellarin, An Active Component of Genus
           Scutellaria and Erigeron: A Systematic Review
    • Authors: Sebastian Chledzik, Jakub Strawa, Katarzyna Matuszek, Jolanta Nazaruk
      Pages: 319 - 337
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 02, Page 319-337, 2018.
      Flavonoid compound scutellarin (Scu) is quite frequently met in the plant kingdom, particularly in the genus Scutellaria (Lamiaceae) and Erigeron (Asteraceae). The extract of the herb of Erigeron breviscapus, containing this component in high amount, has been used for many years in traditional Chinese medicine. In recent years, studies have made great progress on the usefulness of Scu for treating various diseases by testing its mechanism of action. They support the traditional use of Scu rich plant in heart and cerebral ischemia. Scu can potentially be applied in Alzheimer’s disease, Helicobacter pylori infection, vascular complications of diabetes and as an inhibitor of certain carcinomas. Various methods were designed to improve its isolation from plant material, solubility, absorption and bioavailability. On the basis of recent studies, it is suggested that Scu could be a promising candidate for new natural drug and deserves particular attention in further research and development.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-03-15T09:40:29Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500167
  • Chicoric Acid Improves Heart and Blood Responses to Hypobaric Hypoxia in
           Tibetan Yaks
    • Authors: Hua Wu, Dan Luo, Changxing Li, Hui Zhang, A Shunxian, Yuanxin Zhang, Chao Sun
      Pages: 339 - 355
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 02, Page 339-355, 2018.
      Yak is a wild bovine species living on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau that demonstrates good adaptability to the hypoxic environment. Chicoric acid, a natural phenolic compound, is known as having anti-oxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. However, its effect on hypoxia adaptability of yak is still unclear. In this study 40 yaks were selected that were of similar age, parity and weight, and divided into the control group and experimental groups 1, 2, 3, randomly. Results showed that chicoric acid significantly improved RBC, HGB, and WBC. There are significantly beneficial effects to increasing total protein contents ([math]): all treatments increased HDL-C contents, and supplementations 100[math]mg/h significantly decreased the content of TG on the 60th day ([math]). Contents of the serum related enzymes like ALP, GOP and GPT showed varying degrees of change, but no significant differences and the indexes of anti-oxidant capacity (T-AOC and GSH-Px) were significantly improved ([math]), but MDA was decreased ([math]) under the action of the chicoric acid. Hypoxia-inducible factor in serum such as HIF-2[math], EPO, ROS, Fe[math] and Tf are all significantly decreased ([math]). The myocardial mitochondrial parameters mtDNA, UCP2, PGC1-[math], NRF1 and mitochondrial complexes were altered remarkably. Some indicators of glucose metabolism presented variation trends. Taken together, chicoric acid has shown a positive effect on the adaptive ability of yak in high altitude, hypoxic environment in plateau areas. Our findings reported a new potential means to enhance immunity and inflammatory response and improve the anti-oxidant capacity.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-03-15T09:40:17Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500179
  • Antidepressant-Like Effects of Vaccinium bracteatum in Chronic Restraint
           Stress Mice: Functional Actions and Mechanism Explorations
    • Authors: Dool-Ri Oh, Yujin Kim, Eun-Jin Choi, Myung-A Jung, Kyo-Nyeo Oh, Ji-Ae Hong, Donghyuck Bae, Kwangsu Kim, Huwon Kang, Jaeyong Kim, Young Ran Kim, Seung Sik Cho, Chul-Young Choi
      Pages: 357 - 387
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 02, Page 357-387, 2018.
      The fruit of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. (VBF) is commonly known as the oriental blueberry in Korea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of water VBF extract (VBFW) in a mouse model of chronic restraint stress (CRS) and to identify the underlying mechanisms of its action. The behavioral effects of VBFW were assessed in the forced swim test (FST) and open field test (OFT). The levels of serum corticosterone (CORT), brain monoamines, in addition to the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway were evaluated. VBFW treatment significantly reduced the immobility time and increased swimming time in FST without altering the locomotor activity in unstressed mice. Furthermore, CRS mice treated with VBFW exhibited a significantly decreased immobility time in FST and serum CORT, increased locomotor activity in OFT, and enhanced brain monoamine neurotransmitters. Similarly, VBFW significantly upregulated the ERKs/Akt signaling pathway in the hippocampus and PFC. In addition, VBFW may reverse CORT-induced cell death by enhancing cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein expression through the up-regulation of ERKs/Akt signaling pathways. In addition, VBFW showed the strong antagonistic effect of the 5-HT[math] receptor by inhibiting 5-HT-induced intracellular Ca[math] and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Our study provides evidence that antidepressant-like effects of VBFW might be mediated by the regulation of monoaminergic systems and glucocorticoids, which is possibly associated with neuroprotective effects and antagonism of 5-HT[math] receptor.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-03-15T09:40:37Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500180
  • The Protective Effects of Gardenia jasminoides (Fructus Gardenia) on
           Amyloid-β-Induced Mouse Cognitive Impairment and Neurotoxicity
    • Authors: Cai-Xia Zang, Xiu-Qi Bao, Lin Li, Han-Yu Yang, Lu Wang, Yang Yu, Xiao-Liang Wang, Xin-Sheng Yao, Dan Zhang
      Pages: 389 - 405
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 02, Page 389-405, 2018.
      Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease in the world. Although the exact causes of AD have not yet been fully elucidated, cholinergic dysfunction, mitochondrial damage, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation have been recognized as influential factors. Current drugs that are designed to address only a single target are unable to mitigate or prevent the progression of this complicated disease, so new disease-modifying drugs are urgently needed. Chinese herbs with thousand years of effective usage might be a good source for potential drugs. Gardenia jasminoides J. Ellis (Fructus Gardenia) is a common traditional Chinese medicine with tranquilizing effects, which is an important component of widely-used traditional Chinese medicine for dementia. GJ-4 is crocin richments extracted from Gardenia jasminoides J. Ellis. In our study, we attempted to observe the effects of GJ-4 on learning and memory injury induced by amyloid-[math] 25-35 (A[math] injection in mice. Treatment with GJ-4 dose-dependently enhanced the memory and cognition ability of A[math]-injected mice. Preliminary mechanistic studies revealed the protective effect of GJ-4 was related to its protection of neurons and cholinergic dysfunction. The mechanistic results also indicated that GJ-4 could enhance antioxidant capacity and attenuate neuroinflammation. Our results implied that GJ-4 might be a promising drug to improve cognitive and memory impairment, with multiple targets.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-03-15T09:40:23Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500192
  • p-Coumaric Acid, a Major Active Compound of Bambusae Caulis in Taeniam,
           Suppresses Cigarette Smoke-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation
    • Authors: Woogyeong Kim, Dahae Lim, Jinju Kim
      Pages: 407 - 421
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 02, Page 407-421, 2018.
      [math]-coumaric acid ([math]-CA) is a common compound found in medicinal herbs, including Bambusae Caulis in Taeniam (BC). It has been used to treat various diseases in China and Korea. Our previous study demonstrated that BC inhibits pulmonary and intestinal inflammation. In the present study, we used cigarette smoke (CS) to induce lung inflammation in vivo, and investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of [math]-CA on CS-induced inflammatory mice model. Mice were treated with BC and [math]-CA via oral injection 2[math]h before CS exposure. The body weight and the inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were measured. The levels of relative inflammatory factors were confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The lung histological changes were examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Also, the protein level of nuclear factor-[math]B (NF-[math]B) was evaluated by Western blotting. Our results indicated that BC and [math]-CA inhibited CS-induced lung inflammation by regulating pro-inflammatory productions such as cytokines, chemokine, protease and NF-[math]B. Consequently, these data demonstrated that [math]-CA inhibited pulmonary inflammation by suppressing NF-[math]B activity, through which pro-inflammatory mediators were regulated. Therefore, [math]-CA, which was shown to be a major component of BC, can be considered as a strong therapeutic candidate for treating pulmonary inflammatory diseases.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-03-15T09:40:25Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500209
  • Eucalyptus globulus Inhibits Inflammasome-Activated Pro-Inflammatory
           Responses and Ameliorate Monosodium Urate-Induced Peritonitis in Murine
           Experimental Model
    • Authors: Young-Eun Ji, Xiao Sun, Myong-Ki Kim, Wan Yi Li, Sang Woo Lee, Sushruta Koppula, Sang-Hyeun Yu, Han-Bi Kim, Tae-Bong Kang, Kwang-Ho Lee
      Pages: 423 - 433
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 02, Page 423-433, 2018.
      Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (E. globulus, Myrtaceae) is used in Europe as a traditional folk remedy for inflammation-related disorders such as arthritis, diabetes, asthma, and gout. We investigated this study to evaluate the protective effects of E. globulus extract (EG) on inflammatory responses, and provide scientific and mechanistic evidence in in vitro and in vivo experimental models. LPS-stimulated murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were used to study the regulatory effect of EG on inflammasome activation in vitro. Monosodium urate (MSU)-induced peritonitis was used to study the effect of EG in an in vivo murine model. EG suppressed IL-[math] secretion via the regulation of apoptosis-associated speck-like proteins containing a CARD (ASC) oligomerization and caspase-1 maturation, leading to the inhibition of inflammasome activation. In the in vivo study, EG suppressed the MSU-induced peritonitis by attenuating interleukin (IL)-1[math], providing scientific support for its traditional use in the treatment of inflammation-related disorders.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-03-15T09:40:19Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500210
  • Momordica charantia Inhibits Inflammatory Responses in Murine Macrophages
           via Suppression of TAK1
    • Authors: Woo Seok Yang, Eunju Yang, Min-Jeong Kim, Deok Jeong, Deok Hyo Yoon, Gi-Ho Sung, Seungihm Lee, Byong Chul Yoo, Seung-Gu Yeo, Jae Youl Cho
      Pages: 435 - 452
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 02, Page 435-452, 2018.
      Momordica charantia known as bitter melon is a representative medicinal plant reported to exhibit numerous pharmacological activities such as antibacterial, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antitumor, and hypoglycemic actions. Although this plant has high ethnopharmacological value for treating inflammatory diseases, the molecular mechanisms by which it inhibits the inflammatory response are not fully understood. In this study, we aim to identify the anti-inflammatory mechanism of this plant. To this end, we studied the effects of its methanol extract (Mc-ME) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Specifically, we evaluated nitric oxide (NO) production, mRNA expression of inflammatory genes, luciferase reporter gene activity, and putative molecular targets. Mc-ME blocked NO production in a dose-dependent manner in RAW264.7 cells; importantly, no cytotoxicity was observed. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 were decreased by Mc-ME treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Luciferase assays and nuclear lysate immunoblotting analyses strongly indicated that Mc-ME decreases the levels of p65 [a nuclear factor (NF)-[math]B subunit] and c-Fos [an activator protein (AP)-1 subunit]. Whole lysate immunoblotting assays, luciferase assays, and overexpression experiments suggested that transforming growth factor [math]-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is targeted by Mc-ME, thereby suppressing NF-[math]B and AP-1 activity via downregulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and AKT. These results strongly suggest that Mc-ME exerts its anti-inflammatory activity by reducing the action of TAK1, which also affects the activation of NF-[math]B and AP-1.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-03-15T09:40:30Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500222
  • Ethyl Acetate Fraction from Dendropanax morbifera Leaves Increases T Cell
           Growth by Upregulating NF-AT-Mediated IL-2 Secretion
    • Authors: Jung Up Park, Bok Yun Kang, Young Ran Kim
      Pages: 453 - 467
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 02, Page 453-467, 2018.
      Dendropanax morbifera Leveille (Araliaceae) is an endemic species that grows in Southwestern Korea and has been used as a folk medicine. Several studies reported that D. morbifera leaves have diverse therapeutic potentials. We found that the water extract of D. morbifera leaves increased the growth of EL-4 T cells. The water extract was divided into five fractions: [math]-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, [math]-butanol, and water layers. The ethyl acetate (W-EA) fraction showed a more significant effect than the other fractions on the growth of EL-4 T cells, splenocytes, and isolated murine CD4[math] T cells. We evaluated the W-EA fraction for its immunomodulatory effects focusing on T cell functions. First, we tested the effect of the W-EA fraction on the regulation of interleukin-2 (IL-2), a potent T cell growth factor. The W-EA fraction significantly increased IL-2 secretion in EL-4 T cells activated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin (Io). In addition, the W-EA fraction increased interferon-gamma (IFN-[math] production in isolated murine splenocytes activated with Concanavalin A (ConA). Next, we examined the effect of the W-EA fraction on the regulation of transcriptional factors related to IL-2 production in T cells. The W-EA fraction significantly increased PMA/Io-induced promoter activity of a nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT) in EL-4 T cells, but did not show any significant effects on the promoters of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-[math]B). These results indicate that the W-EA fraction from water extract of D. morbifera leaves enhances IL-2 production at the transcriptional levels via the up-regulation of NF-AT in PMA/Io-activated EL-4 T cells.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-03-15T09:40:15Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500234
  • Epimedium koreanum Ameliorates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Liver Injury by
           Activating Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2
    • Authors: Ji Yun Jung, Sang Mi Park, Hae Li Ko, Jong Rok Lee, Chung A Park, Sung Hui Byun, Sae Kwang Ku, Il Je Cho, Sang Chan Kim
      Pages: 469 - 488
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 02, Page 469-488, 2018.
      Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species is the main cause of various liver diseases. This study investigated the hepatoprotective effect of Epimedium koreanum Nakai water extract (EKE) against arachidonic acid (AA)[math][math][math]iron-mediated cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-)-mediated acute liver injury in mice. Pretreatment with EKE (30 and 100[math][math]g/mL) significantly inhibited AA[math][math][math]iron-mediated cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells by preventing changes in the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. EKE attenuated hydrogen peroxide production, glutathione depletion, and mitochondrial membrane dysfunction. EKE also increased the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), transactivated anti-oxidant response element harboring luciferase activity, and induced the expression of anti-oxidant genes. Furthermore, the cytoprotective effect of EKE against AA[math][math][math]iron was blocked in Nrf2 knockout cells. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that EKE contained icariin, icaritin, and quercetin; icaritin and quercetin were both found to protect HepG2 cells from AA[math][math][math]iron via Nrf2 activation. In a CCl4-induced mouse model of liver injury, pretreatment with EKE (300[math]mg/kg) for four consecutive days ameliorated CCl4-mediated increases in serum aspartate aminotransferase activity, histological activity index, hepatic parenchyma degeneration, and inflammatory cell infiltration. EKE also decreased the number of nitrotyrosine-, 4-hydroxynonenal-, cleaved caspase-3-, and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-positive cells in hepatic tissues. These results suggest EKE is a promising candidate for the prevention or treatment of oxidative stress-related liver diseases via Nrf2 activation.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-03-15T09:40:27Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500246
  • Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicity of Strychnos nux-vomica
           L.: A Review
    • Authors: Rixin Guo, Ting Wang, Guohong Zhou, Mengying Xu, Xiankuo Yu, Xiao Zhang, Feng Sui, Chun Li, Liying Tang, Zhuju Wang
      Pages: 1 - 23
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 01, Page 1-23, 2018.
      Strychnos nux-vomica L. belongs to the genus Strychnos of the family Loganiaceae and grows in Sri Lanka, India and Australia. The traditional medicinal component is its seed, called Nux vomica. This study provides a relevant and comprehensive review of S. nux-vomica L., including its botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology, thus providing a foundation for future studies. Up to the present day, over 84 compounds, including alkaloids, iridoid glycosides, flavonoid glycosides, triterpenoids, steroids and organic acids, among others, have been isolated and identified from S. nux-vomica. These compounds possess an array of biological activities, including effects on the nervous system, analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions, antitumor effects, inhibition of the growth of pathogenic microorganisms and regulation of immune function. Furthermore, toxicity and detoxification methods are preliminarily discussed toward the end of this review. In further research on S. nux-vomica, bioactivity-guided isolation strategies should be emphasized. Its antitumor effects should be investigated further and in vivo animal experiments should be performed alongside in vitro testing. The pharmacological activity and toxicology of strychnine [math]-oxide and brucine [math]-oxide should be studied to explore the detoxification mechanism associated with processing more deeply.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T04:07:57Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500015
  • Scutellaria baicalensis and Cancer Treatment: Recent Progress and
           Perspectives in Biomedical and Clinical Studies
    • Authors: Chien-Shan Cheng, Jie Chen, Hor-Yue Tan, Ning Wang, Zhen Chen, Yibin Feng
      Pages: 25 - 54
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 01, Page 25-54, 2018.
      Scutellaria baicalensis (Huangqin in Chinese) is a major traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herb, which has a long history of use in the treatment of a variety of symptoms correlated with cancer. In the past decade, the potential of S. baicalensis and single compounds derived from it as anticancer agents targeting various pathways has received extensive research attention. Specifically, the proliferation and metastases inhibiting properties of the single compounds in cancer have been studied; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This review summarizes the various mechanisms, pathways and molecular targets involved in the anticancer activity of S. baicalensis and its single compounds. However, the aim of this review is to provide a more thorough view of the last 10 years to link traditional use with modern research and to highlight recently discovered molecular mechanisms. Extracts and major flavonoids derived from S. baicalensis have been found to possess anticancer effects in multiple cancer cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. Further investigation is warranted to better understand the underlying mechanisms and to discover novel targets and cancer therapeutic drugs that may improve both the survival and quality of life of cancer patients.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T04:08:16Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500027
  • Histamine H1 Receptor Antagonists Facilitate Electroacupuncture Analgesia
    • Authors: Jaung-Geng Lin, Yu-Chen Lee, Cheng-Hao Tu, Iona MacDonald, Hsin-Yi Chung, Sih-Ting Luo, Shih-Ya Hung, Yi-Hung Chen
      Pages: 55 - 68
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 01, Page 55-68, 2018.
      This study investigated the influence of the histamine H1 receptor antagonists, chlorpheniramine (CHL) and pyrilamine, on the analgesic effects of acupuncture in mice. Nociceptive response was evaluated by the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhe test. Electroacupuncture (EA) at bilateral ST36 reduced the manifestations of acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, whereas needle insertion without electrostimulation had no such effect. Notably, EA treatment was not associated with any analgesic effects in mice pretreated with naloxone. Low doses of CHL (0.6[math]mg/kg; p.o.) or pyrilamine (2.5[math]mg/kg; i.p.) as monotherapy did not affect acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing. However, when each agent was combined with EA, acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing was reduced by a greater extent when compared with EA alone. Interestingly, the effects of CHL on acupuncture analgesia were not completely reversed by naloxone treatment. Acetic acid induced increases of phospho-p38 expression in spinal cord, as determined by immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis. These effects were attenuated by EA at ST36 and by low doses of histamine H1 receptor antagonists, alone or in combination. Our findings show that relatively low doses of histamine H1 receptor antagonists facilitate EA analgesia via non-opioid receptors. These results suggest a useful strategy for increasing the efficacy of EA analgesia in a clinical situation.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T04:07:53Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500039
  • Increased Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide and Macrophages Are Involved in
           Astragalus membranaceus-Mediated Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in Rats
    • Authors: Chung-Chia Chen, Ling-Chuan Chang, Chun-Hsu Yao, Yuan-Man Hsu, Jia-Horng Lin, Tse-Yen Yang, Yung-Hsiang Chen, Yueh-Sheng Chen
      Pages: 69 - 86
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 01, Page 69-86, 2018.
      Astragalus membranaceus (AM) is one of 50 fundamental herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. Previous studies have shown that AM extract can be a potential nerve growth-promoting factor, being beneficial for the growth of peripheral nerve axons. We further investigated the effects of AM extract on regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve transection model. Rats were divided into three groups ([math]): normal saline (intraperitoneal) as the control, and 1.5[math]g/kg or 3.0[math]g/kg of AM extract (every other day for four weeks), respectively. We evaluated neuronal electrophysiology, neuronal connectivity, macrophage infiltration, expression levels and location of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and expression levels of both nerve growth factors (NGFs) and immunoregulatory factors. In the high-dose AM group, neuronal electrophysiological function (measured by nerve conductive velocity and its latency) was significantly improved ([math]). Expression levels of CGRP and macrophage density were also drastically enhanced ([math]). Expression levels of fibroblast growth factor (FGF), NGF, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor-[math], interleukin-1 (IL-1), and interferon (IFN)-[math] were reduced in the high-dose AM group ([math]), while FGF, NGF, PDGF, IL-1, and IFN-[math] were increased in the low-dose AM group ([math]). These results suggest that AM can modulate local inflammatory conditions, enhance nerve regeneration, and potentially increase recovery of a severe peripheral nerve injury.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T04:08:37Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500040
  • Andrographolide Inhibits Oxidized LDL-Induced Cholesterol Accumulation and
           Foam Cell Formation in Macrophages
    • Authors: Hung-Chih Lin, Chong-Kuei Lii, Hui-Chun Chen, Ai-Hsuan Lin, Ya-Chen Yang, Haw-Wen Chen
      Pages: 87 - 106
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 01, Page 87-106, 2018.
      oxLDL is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic lesions through cholesterol accumulation in macrophage foam cells. Andrographolide, the bioactive component of Andrographis paniculata, possesses several biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anticancer functions. Scavenger receptors (SRs), including class A SR (SR-A) and CD36, are responsible for the internalization of oxLDL. In contrast, receptors for reverse cholesterol transport, including ABCA1 and ABCG1, mediate the efflux of cholesterol from macrophage foam cells. Transcription factor liver X receptor [math] (LXR[math] plays a key role in lipid metabolism and inflammation as well as in the regulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression. Because of the contribution of inflammation to macrophage foam cell formation and the potent anti-inflammatory activity of andrographolide, we hypothesized that andrographolide might inhibit oxLDL-induced macrophage foam cell formation. The results showed that andrographolide reduced oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation in macrophage foam cells. Andrographolide decreased the mRNA and protein expression of CD36 by inducing the degradation of CD36 mRNA; however, andrographolide had no effect on SR-A expression. In contrast, andrographolide increased the mRNA and protein expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1, which were dependent on LXR[math]. Andrographolide enhanced LXR[math] nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity. Treatment with the LXR[math] antagonist GGPP and transfection with LXR[math] siRNA reversed the ability of andrographolide to stimulate ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein expression. In conclusion, inhibition of CD36-mediated oxLDL uptake and induction of ABCA1- and ABCG1-dependent cholesterol efflux are two working mechanisms by which andrographolide inhibits macrophage foam cell formation, which suggests that andrographolide could be a potential candidate to prevent atherosclerosis.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T04:08:06Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500052
  • Red Pepper Seed Inhibits Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Cells during the Early
           Phase of Adipogenesis via the Activation of AMPK
    • Authors: Hwa-Jin Kim, Mi-Kyoung You, Ziyun Wang, Hyeon-A Kim
      Pages: 107 - 118
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 01, Page 107-118, 2018.
      Obesity is the main risk factor for metabolic syndromes and there has been an upsurge in demand for effective therapeutic strategies. This study investigated the effect of red pepper seed water extract (RPS) on the process of differentiation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. RPS treatment significantly suppressed cellular lipid accumulation and reduced the expression of adipocytes-associated proteins, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-[math] (PPAR-[math]), CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins [math] (C/EBP [math]), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), as well as fatty acid synthase (FAS), and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4). The inhibitory effect of RPS on differentiation was mainly through the modulation of the C/EBP [math] and C/EBP [math] expression at the early phase of differentiation. Moreover, at the early phase of differentiation, RPS markedly increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Such enhancing effect of RPS was abolished in the presence of compound C. Our results suggest that activation of AMPK at early stage of adipogenesis is involved in the anti-adipogenesis effect of RPS.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T04:08:32Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500064
  • Chrysanthemum indicum Inhibits Adipogenesis and Activates the AMPK Pathway
           in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Mice
    • Authors: Sarmila Nepali, Ji-Yun Cha, Hyeon-Hui Ki, Hoon-Yeon Lee, Young-Ho Kim, Dae-Ki Kim, Bong-Joon Song, Young-Mi Lee
      Pages: 119 - 136
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 01, Page 119-136, 2018.
      Chrysanthemum indicum (CI) is widely distributed in China and many parts of the tropical world, and has been reported to have antibacterial, antiviral, anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory effects, but no information is available on its effects on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. This was undertaken to investigate the mechanism responsible for the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of CI (CIEA) on adipogenesis, in vitro and in vivo models of obesity. In the in vitro study, differentiating 3T3-L1 cells were treated with media to initiate differentiation (MDI) in the presence or absence of CIEA with different concentrations, and in the in vivo study, C57BL/6 mice were fed with HFD and administered CIEA daily for six weeks. Garcinia cambogia (GC) was used as the positive control, and was administered in the same manner as CIEA. Results showed CIEA reduced HFD-induced body weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), and liver weight. In addition, CIEA significantly decreased serum lipid profiles, including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) and increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) levels. Furthermore, CIEA also reduced leptin levels and increased adiponectin levels in serum, and significantly decreased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [math] (PPAR[math]) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EPBs) levels, but increased PPAR[math] level and the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in eWATs and in the liver tissues of HFD fed obese mice. Taken together, these results indicate CIEA might be beneficial for preventing obesity.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T04:08:02Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500076
  • Structural–Activity Relationship of Ginsenosides from Steamed Ginseng in
           the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction
    • Authors: Ang Ying, Qing-Tao Yu, Li Guo, Wen-Song Zhang, Jin-Feng Liu, Yun Li, Hong Song, Ping Li, Lian-Wen Qi, Ya-Zhong Ge, E-Hu Liu, Qun Liu
      Pages: 137 - 155
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 01, Page 137-155, 2018.
      Ginseng has been reported to have diverse pharmacological effects. One of the therapeutic claims for ginseng is to enhance sexual function. Ginsenosides are considered as the major active constituents. A steaming process can alter the ginsenoside profile of ginseng products. The structure–function relationship of ginsenosides in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) has not been investigated yet. In this work, 15 different processed ginsengs are produced by steaming, and 13 major ginsensosides are quantified by liquid chromatography with UV detection, including Rg1, Re, Rf, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rf, Rk3, Rh4, 20S-Rg3, 20R-Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5. Their anti-ED activities are screened using hydrocortisone-induced mice model (Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome in Chinese Medicine) and primary corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells (CCSMCs). A processed ginseng with steaming treatment at 120[math]C for 4[math]h and five times possesses abundant ginsenosides Rk1, Rk3, Rh4 and Rg5 transformed via deglycosylation and dehydroxylation, and produces optimal activity against ED. The number of sugar molecules, structure of hydroxyl groups and stereoselectivity in ginsenosides affect their anti-ED activity. Among the 13 ginsenosides, Rk1, Rk3, Rh4 and Rg5 are the most efficient in decreasing intracellular calcium levels by inhibiting phosphodiesterase 5A (PDE5A) to reduce the degradation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in CCSMCs. Rg5 also restrain hypoxia inducible factor-1[math] (HIF-1[math] expression in hypoxia state, and increase endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression in isolated rat cavernous tissue. These observations suggest a role for steamed ginseng containing two pairs of geometric isomers (i.e., Rk1/Rg5 and Rk3/Rh4) in the treatment of ED.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T04:08:21Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500088
  • Protective Effect of Safflower Seed on Cisplatin-Induced Renal Damage in
           Mice via Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis-Mediated Pathways
    • Authors: Chan Hum Park, Ah Young Lee, Ji Hyun Kim, Su Hui Seong, Gwi Yeong Jang, Eun Ju Cho, Jae Sue Choi, Jungkee Kwon, Young Ock Kim, Sang Won Lee, Takako Yokozawa, Yu Su Shin
      Pages: 157 - 174
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 01, Page 157-174, 2018.
      Cisplatin, a platinum chelate with potent antitumor activity against cancers of the testis, ovary, urinary bladder, prostate, and head and neck, has adverse effects on the kidney, bone marrow, and digestive organs, and its use is particularly limited by nephropathy as a side effect. In the present study, safflower seed extract was administered to a mouse model of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure to investigate its activity. Cisplatin (20[math]mg/kg body weight) was administered by intraperitoneal injection to mice that had received oral safflower seed extract (100 or 200[math]mg/kg body weight per day) for the preceding 2 days. Three days after the cisplatin injection, serum and renal biochemical factors; oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis-related protein expression; and histological findings were evaluated. Cisplatin-treated control mice showed body-weight, food intake and water intake loss, and increased kidney weight, whereas the administration of safflower seed extract attenuated these effects ([math], [math]). Moreover, safflower seed extract significantly decreased the renal functional parameters urea nitrogen and creatinine in the serum ([math] and [math], respectively). Safflower seed extract also significantly reduced the enhanced levels of reactive oxygen species in the kidney observed following cisplatin treatment, with significance. The expression of proteins related to the anti-oxidant defense system in the kidney was down-regulated following cisplatin treatment, but safflower seed extract significantly up-regulated the expression of the anti-oxidant enzyme catalase. Furthermore, safflower seed extract reduced the overexpression of phosphor (p)-p38, nuclear factor-kappa B p65, cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, ATR, p-p53, Bax, and caspase 3 proteins, and mice treated with safflower seed extract exhibited less renal histological damage. These results provide important evidence that safflower seed extract exerts a pleiotropic effect on several oxidative stress- and apoptosis-related parameters and has a renoprotective effect in cisplatin-treated mice.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T04:08:27Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X1850009X
  • Rhodiola crenulata Attenuates γ-Ray Induced Cellular Injury via
           Modulation of Oxidative Stress in Human Skin Cells
    • Authors: Kuen-Tze Lin, Tsu-Chung Chang, Feng-Yi Lai, Chun-Shu Lin, Hsing-Lung Chao, Shih-Yu Lee
      Pages: 175 - 190
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 01, Page 175-190, 2018.
      Skin injury is a major complication during radiation therapy and is associated with oxidative damage to skin cells. An effective and safe radioprotectant to prevent this skin damage is still unavailable. The Rhodiola crenulata root extract (RCE) has been reported to be a free radical scavenger and a potent anti-oxidant in both in vitro and in vivo models. In the current study, we investigated the effects of RCE on ionizing radiation-induced skin injury and its underlying mechanisms. HaCaT cells — a non-cancerous skin cell line together with HepG2, Caco2, A549, and OECM cancer cell lines — were pre-treated with RCE for 24[math]h followed by exposure to 15 Gy using Caesium-137 as a γ-ray source. The cell viability was measured. In HaCaT cells, oxidative stress markers, cellular apoptosis pathways, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression were studied. We found that RCE significantly protected HaCaT cells, but not cancer cells from the loss of viability induced by exposure to ionizing radiation. RCE attenuated radiation-induced oxidative stress markers, cell apoptosis, MMP levels, and expression of cytokine genes. RCE also limited the induction of p53 and p21 by radiation exposure. These findings indicate that RCE may selectively protect the skin cells from ionizing radiation without altering its ability to kill cancer cells. Therefore, we suggest that RCE or its derivatives could serve as a novel radioprotective therapy.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T04:08:11Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500106
  • Vitex rotundifolia Fruit Suppresses the Proliferation of Human Colorectal
           Cancer Cells through Down-regulation of Cyclin D1 and CDK4 via
           Proteasomal-Dependent Degradation and Transcriptional Inhibition
    • Authors: Hun Min Song, Gwang Hun Park, Su Bin Park, Hyun-Seok Kim, Ho-Jun Son, Yurry Um, Jin Boo Jeong
      Pages: 191 - 207
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 01, Page 191-207, 2018.
      Viticis Fructus (VF) as the dried fruit from Vitex rotundifolia L. used as a traditional medicine for treating inflammation, headache, migraine, chronic bronchitis, eye pain, and gastrointestinal infections has been reported to have antiproliferative effects against various cancer cells, including breast, lung and colorectal cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms by which VF mediates the inhibitory effect of the proliferation of cancer cells have not been elucidated in detail. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of VF on the down-regulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4 level associated with cancer cell proliferation. VF suppressed the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cell lines such as HCT116 and SW480. VF induced decrease in cyclin D1 and CDK4 in both protein and mRNA levels. However, the protein levels of cyclin D1 and CDK4 were decreased by VF at an earlier time than the change of mRNA levels; rather it suppressed the expression of cyclin D1 and CDK4 via the proteasomal degradation. In cyclin D1 and CDK4 degradation, we found that Thr286 phosphorylation of cyclin D1 plays a pivotal role in VF-mediated cyclin D1 degradation. Subsequent experiments with several kinase inhibitors suggest that VF-mediated degradation of cyclin D1 may be dependent on GSK3[math] and VF-mediated degradation of CDK4 is dependent on ERK1/2, p38 and GSK3[math]. In the transcriptional regulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4, we found that VF inhibited Wnt activation associated with cyclin D1 transcriptional regulation through TCF4 down-regulation. In addition, VF treatment down-regulated c-myc expression associated CDK4 transcriptional regulation. Our results suggest that VF has potential to be a candidate for the development of chemoprevention or therapeutic agents for human colorectal cancer.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T04:07:46Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X18500118
  • Deguelin Impairs Cell Adhesion, Migration and Invasion of Human Lung
           Cancer Cells through the NF-[math]B Signaling Pathways
    • Authors: Yung-Ting Hsiao, Ming-Jen Fan, An-Cheng Huang, Jin-Cherng Lien, Jen-Jyh Lin, Jaw-Chyun Chen, Te-Chun Hsia, Rick Sai-Chuen Wu, Jing-Gung Chung
      Pages: 209 - 229
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 01, Page 209-229, 2018.
      Deguelin, a rotenoid, is isolated from a natural plant species, and has biological activities including antitumor function. In the present study, we investigated the effect of deguelin on the cell adhesion, migration and invasion of NCI-H292 human lung cancer cells in vitro. Cell viability was analyzed by using flow cytometer. Cell adhesion was determined by using the cell-matrix adhesion assay. Wound healing assay was used to examine cell migration. Cell migration and invasion were investigated using a Boyden chamber assay. The protein expression was measured by Western blotting and confocal laser microscopy. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used to measure NF-[math]B p65 binding to DNA.We selected the concentrations of deguelin at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5[math][math]M and we found that those concentrations of deguelin did not induce significant cytotoxic effects on NCI-H292 cells. Thus, we selected those concentrations of deguelin for metastasis assay. We found that deguelin inhibited cell adhesion, migration and invasion in dose-dependent manners that was assayed by wound healing and transwell methods, respectively. Deguelin decreased the expression of MMP-2/-9, SOS 1, Rho A, p-AKT (Thr308), p-ERK1/2, p-p38, p-JNK, NF-[math]B (p65) and uPA in NCI-H292 cells. Deguelin suppressed the expression of PI3K, SOS 1, NF-[math]B (p65), but did not significantly affect PKC and Ras in the nuclei of NCI-H292 cells that were confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. We suggest that deguelin may be used as a novel anticancer metastasis of lung cancer in the future.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T04:07:49Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X1850012X
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