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  Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 7854 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2040 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
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Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
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Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / Health Sciences Journal of Adıyaman University     Open Access  
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
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Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
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Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access  
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Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Skeletal Muscle Function Assessment     Open Access  
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
AJSP: Reviews & Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Althea Medical Journal     Open Access  
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Anatomica Medical Journal     Open Access  
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Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ankara Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası     Open Access  
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
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Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Annals of Health Research     Open Access  
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives Medical Review Journal / Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi     Open Access  
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access  
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASHA Leader     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine     Open Access  
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)

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Journal Cover
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.791
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 20  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Online) 1876-1623
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3160 journals]
  • Claspin: From replication stress and DNA damage responses to cancer
           therapy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2018Source: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural BiologyAuthor(s): Diana Azenha, Maria Celeste Lopes, Teresa C. Martins Cancer is still one of the major causes of death worldwide. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy remain the main treatment modalities in cancer. These therapies exert their effect mainly through interference with DNA replication and induction of DNA damage. It is believed that one way of improving the efficacy of cancer treatment will be to inhibit the replication stress and DNA damage responses and promote mitotic catastrophe of cancer cells. So far, the majority of the efforts have focused central players of checkpoint responses, such as ATR and CHK1, and DNA damage repair, such as PARPs. Being a key player in the replication stress response, checkpoint activation, and the DNA damage response, Claspin constitutes an attractive therapeutic target in cancer, namely for radio- and chemo-sensitization. In this review, we will go through Claspin functions in the replication stress and DNA damage responses and will discuss how Claspin can be targeted in cancer treatment, as well as the effects of Claspin inhibition.
       
  • Controlling the balance between chromosome break repair pathways
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2018Source: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural BiologyAuthor(s): Sonia Jimeno, Fernando Mejías-Navarro, Rosario Prados-Carvajal, Pablo Huertas Broken chromosomes are among the most complex and more difficult to repair DNA lesions. The loss of the continuity of the DNA molecule presents a challenge to the cells, thus the repair of DNA double strand breaks might lead to genomic alterations. Indeed, to minimize this threat to genomic integrity, different DNA repair pathways can act on a broken chromosome. The balance between them is tightly controlled, and it heavily depends on global and local cellular cues. In this chapter, we review our current understanding on the repair of DNA double strand breaks and focus in the regulation of the balance between alternative pathways. Most of this modulation takes place at the level of DNA end resection. Here, we focus mostly on the local signals that control the repair pathway choice, as the global cues have been extensively reviewed recently. We described epigenetic marks that either facilitate or inhibit DNA resection and homologous recombination, from histone marks and chromatin remodelers to non-coding RNA and RNA-related factors.
       
  • cAMP-mediated regulation of melanocyte genomic instability: A
           melanoma-preventive strategy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2018Source: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural BiologyAuthor(s): Nathaniel C. Holcomb, Robert-Marlo Bautista, Stuart G. Jarrett, Katharine M. Carter, Madeline Krentz Gober, John A. D’Orazio Malignant melanoma of the skin is the leading cause of death from skin cancer and ranks fifth in cancer incidence among all cancers in the United States. While melanoma mortality has remained steady for the past several decades, melanoma incidence has been increasing, particularly among fair-skinned individuals. According to the American Cancer Society, nearly 10,000 people in the United States will die from melanoma this year. Individuals with dark skin complexion are protected damage generated by UV-light due to the high content of UV-blocking melanin pigment in their epidermis as well as better capacity for melanocytes to cope with UV damage. There is now ample evidence that suggests that the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) is a major melanoma risk factor. Inherited loss-of-function mutations in MC1R are common in melanoma-prone persons, correlating with a less melanized skin complexion and poorer recovery from mutagenic photodamage. We and others are interested in the MC1R signaling pathway in melanocytes, its mechanisms of enhancing genomic stability and pharmacologic opportunities to reduce melanoma risk based on those insights. In this chapter, we review melanoma risk factors, the MC1R signaling pathway, and the relationship between MC1R signaling and DNA repair.
       
  • Targeting DNA repair in precision medicine
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2018Source: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural BiologyAuthor(s): Reena Beggs, Eddy S. Yang Precision medicine is an emerging treatment paradigm that aims to find the right therapy at the right time based on an individual's unique genetic background, environment, and lifestyle. One area of precision medicine that has had success is targeting DNA repair in cancer. DNA is exposed to constant stress and there are repair mechanisms in place to maintain genetic integrity. These repair mechanisms can be targeted as a treatment strategy. In this chapter, we will focus on current efforts to target DNA repair pathways as part of precision oncology-based treatments.
       
  • Functional principles and regulation of molecular chaperones
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 December 2018Source: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural BiologyAuthor(s): Vinay Dahiya, Johannes Buchner To be able to perform their biological function, a protein needs to be correctly folded into its three dimensional structure. The protein folding process is spontaneous and does not require the input of energy. However, in the crowded cellular environment where there is high risk of inter-molecular interactions that may lead to protein molecules sticking to each other, hence forming aggregates, protein folding is assisted. Cells have evolved robust machinery called molecular chaperones to deal with the protein folding problem and to maintain proteins in their functional state. Molecular chaperones promote efficient folding of newly synthesized proteins, prevent their aggregation and ensure protein homeostasis in cells. There are different classes of molecular chaperones functioning in a complex interplay. In this review, we discuss the principal characteristics of different classes of molecular chaperones, their structure-function relationships, their mode of regulation and their involvement in human disorders.
       
  • A comparative computational approach toward pharmacological chaperones
           (NN-DNJ and ambroxol) on N370S and L444P mutations causing Gaucher's
           disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 December 2018Source: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural BiologyAuthor(s): D. Thirumal Kumar, Sharada Iyer, J. Priyadharshini Christy, R. Siva, Iftikhar Aslam Tayubi, C. George Priya Doss, Hatem Zayed Gaucher's disease (GD) is the most commonly known lysosomal disorder that occurs due to mutations in the β-glucocerebrosidase (GBA) protein. Our previous findings (Thirumal Kumar, Eldous, Mahgoub, George Priya Doss, Zayed, 2018) and other reports concluded that the mutations N370S and L444P are the most significant mutations that could cause disruptions in protein stability and structure. These disruptions lead to protein misfolding and result in a diseased condition. Enzyme Replacement Therapy (ERT) and Pharmacological chaperone therapy (PCT) are currently used to treat GD caused by mutations in the GBA protein. The extreme disparity in cost between ERT and chaperone therapy, shifted the attention toward chaperone therapy. The most common chaperones in the market and trial phases to treat GD are Isofagomine, Miglustat, Eliglustat, NN-DNJ, and Ambroxol. In the era of personalized medicine, it is often necessary to understand the drug likeliness of each chaperone. In this context, the present study utilized molecular docking analysis to understand the interaction behavior of the chaperone toward the native and the two mutants N370S and L444P. The molecular dynamics simulation analyses performed on chaperones (NN-DNJ and Ambroxol) interaction showed that the chaperone NN-DNJ possesses better affinity toward the protein with N370S mutation whereas chaperone Ambroxol showed better activity against both the significant mutations (N370S and L444P). This study is expected to serve as a platform for drug repurposing.
       
  • Protein stability and degradation in health and disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2018Source: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural BiologyAuthor(s): Lene Clausen, Amanda B. Abildgaard, Sarah K. Gersing, Amelie Stein, Kresten Lindorff-Larsen, Rasmus Hartmann-Petersen The cellular proteome performs highly varied functions to sustain life. Since most of these functions require proteins to fold properly, they can be impaired by mutations that affect protein structure, leading to diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis, and Lynch syndrome. The cell has evolved an intricate protein quality control (PQC) system that includes degradation pathways and a multitude of molecular chaperones and co-chaperones, all working together to catalyze the refolding or removal of aberrant proteins. Thus, the PQC system limits the harmful consequences of dysfunctional proteins, including those arising from disease-causing mutations. This complex system is still not fully understood. In particular the structural and sequence motifs that, when exposed, trigger degradation of misfolded proteins are currently under investigation. Moreover, several attempts are being made to activate or inhibit parts of the PQC system as a treatment for diseases. Here, we briefly review the present knowledge on the PQC system and list current strategies that are employed to exploit the system in disease treatment.
       
  • Inflammatory response and its relation to sphingolipid metabolism
           proteins: Chaperones as potential indirect anti-inflammatory agents
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2018Source: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural BiologyAuthor(s): Z. Begum Yagci, Elif Esvap, Hatice Asuman Ozkara, Kutlu O. Ulgen, Elif Ozkirimli Lysosome is the organelle responsible for breaking down macromolecules to maintain homeostasis and to fight infection. The disruption of normal lysosomal function due to mutations in the sphingolipid metabolism proteins leads to a class of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs). Defective autophagy and activation of inflammation are observed in most LSDs. The crosstalk between these key metabolic pathways suggests that therapeutic approaches used in the treatment of LSDs may provide anti-inflammatory therapies against chronic inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we review the role of sphingolipids in the inflammatory response and build a protein-protein interaction network for proteins related with sphingolipid metabolism and inflammation to identify key interaction partners for the crosstalk between sphingolipids and inflammation. In addition, we present an overview of LSDs in relation with sphingolipids and inflammation, and review the pharmacological chaperones identified for these diseases.
       
  • Structural and functional insights on the roles of molecular chaperones in
           the mistargeting and aggregation phenotypes associated with primary
           hyperoxaluria type I
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2018Source: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural BiologyAuthor(s): José Ángel Fernández-Higuero, Isabel Betancor-Fernández, Noel Mesa-Torres, Arturo Muga, Eduardo Salido, Angel L. Pey To carry out their biological function in cells, proteins must be folded and targeted to the appropriate subcellular location. These processes are controlled by a vast collection of interacting proteins collectively known as the protein homeostasis network, in which molecular chaperones play a prominent role. Protein homeostasis can be impaired by inherited mutations leading to genetic diseases. In this chapter, we focus on a particular disease, primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1), in which disease-associated mutations exacerbate protein aggregation in the cell and mistarget the peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) protein to mitochondria, in part due to native state destabilization and enhanced interaction with Hsp60, 70 and 90 chaperone systems. After a general introduction of molecular chaperones and PH1, we review our current knowledge on the structural and energetic features of PH1-causing mutants that lead to these particular pathogenic mechanisms. From this perspective, and in the context of the key role of molecular chaperones in PH1 pathogenesis, we present and discuss current and future perspectives for pharmacological treatments for this disease.
       
  • Chaperones and retinal disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2018Source: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural BiologyAuthor(s): Maxim Sokolov, Ravi P. Yadav, Celine Brooks, Nikolai O. Artemyev Defects in protein folding and trafficking are a common cause of photoreceptor degeneration, causing blindness. Photoreceptor cells present an unusual challenge to the protein folding and transport machinery due to the high rate of protein synthesis, trafficking and the renewal of the outer segment, a primary cilium that has been modified into a specialized light-sensing compartment. Phototransduction components, such as rhodopsin and cGMP-phosphodiesterase, and multimeric ciliary transport complexes, such as the BBSome, are hotspots for mutations that disrupt proteostasis and lead to the death of photoreceptors. In this chapter, we review recent studies that advance our understanding of the chaperone and transport machinery of phototransduction proteins.
       
  • Combined Quantum Mechanics and Molecular Mechanics Studies of Enzymatic
           Reaction Mechanisms
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2018Source: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural BiologyAuthor(s): Jon Ainsley, Alessio Lodola, Adrian J. Mulholland, Christo Z. Christov, Tatyana G. Karabencheva-Christova The combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods have become a valuable tool in computational biochemistry and received versatile applications for studying the reaction mechanisms of enzymes. The approach combines the calculations of the electronic structure of the active site by QM, with modeling of the protein environment using MM force field, which allows the long-range electrostatics and steric effects on the enzyme reactivity to be accounted for. In this review, we review some key theoretical and computational aspects of the method and we also present some applications to particular enzymatic reactions such as tryptophan-7-halogenase, cyclooxygenase-1, and the epidermal growth factor receptor.
       
  • Computational Methods for Efficient Sampling of Protein Landscapes and
           Disclosing Allosteric Regions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2018Source: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural BiologyAuthor(s): Canan Atilgan Methods developed toward computational exploration of protein landscapes have become standardized tools to assess biophysical experimental findings. They are also used on their own right to discover the workings of the protein as a molecular machine, potential sites of interest for protein functioning, allosteric regions in proteins, and communication pathways between different sites on a protein. With the development of reliable force fields that describe interactions in biomolecules, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have become the prime tool for this purpose. While it is now straightforward to carry out MD simulations up to microseconds with current computers readily available to researchers, many processes of biological interest occur on several of orders of magnitudes slower timescales. Thus, the latter problems are attackable through MD by a handful of researchers that have access to the most powerful computers. Alternatively, physics-based methods to interrogate the protein energy landscape are in continuous development to circumvent this problem. In addition to opening the routes for advancement to a large number of researchers that have access to modest computational resources, they have the advantage of providing an understanding of the mechanisms that govern protein dynamics. Here we discuss network-based approaches geared toward understanding protein dynamics. These include (i) construction of residue networks which view proteins as networks of nodes connected through local interactions and (ii) construction of proteins as elastic networks whose modes of motion may be manipulated to achieve allowed conformational changes. Limitations of the methods as well as opportunities for future exploitation are described.
       
  • The OECD Principles for (Q)SAR Models in the Context of Knowledge
           Discovery in Databases (KDD)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2018Source: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural BiologyAuthor(s): Gabriela Gomez-Jimenez, Karla Gonzalez-Ponce, Durbis J. Castillo-Pazos, Abraham Madariaga-Mazon, Joaquin Barroso-Flores, Fernando Cortes-Guzman, Karina Martinez-Mayorga The steps followed in the knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) process are well documented and are widely used in different areas where exploration of data is used for decision making. In turn, while different workflows for developing quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) models have been proposed, including combinatorial use of QSAR, there is now agreement on common requirements for building trustable predictive models. In this work, we analyze and confront the steps involved in KDD and QSAR and present how they comply with the OECD principles for the validation, for regulatory purposes, of QSAR models.
       
  • Computational Methods to Discover Compounds for the Treatment of Chagas
           Disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2018Source: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural BiologyAuthor(s): Eduardo M. Cortés-Ruiz, Oscar Palomino-Hernández, Karla Daniela Rodríguez-Hernández, Bertha Espinoza, José L. Medina-Franco Infectious diseases continue to be a major public health. Among these diseases, American trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease (CD) is a major cause of morbidity and death for millions of people in Latin America. The two drugs currently available for the treatment of CD have poor efficacy and major side effects. Thus, there is a pressing need to develop safe and effective drugs against this disease. Herein we review the diversity and coverage of chemical space of compounds tested as inhibitors of Trypanosoma cruzi, a parasite causing CD. We also review major molecular targets currently pursued to kill the parasite and recent computational approaches to identify inhibitors for such targets.
       
  • Computational Methods for Epigenetic Drug Discovery: A Focus on Activity
           Landscape Modeling
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2018Source: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural BiologyAuthor(s): J. Jesús Naveja, C. Iluhí Oviedo-Osornio, José L. Medina-Franco Epigenetic drug discovery is an emerging strategy against several chronic and complex diseases. The increased interest in epigenetics has boosted the development and maintenance of large information on structure–epigenetic activity relationships for several epigenetic targets. In turn, such large databases—many in the public domain—are a rich source of information to explore their structure–activity relationships (SARs). Herein, we conducted a large-scale analysis of the SAR of epigenetic targets using the concept of activity landscape modeling. A comprehensive quantitative analysis and a novel visual representation of the epigenetic activity landscape enabled the rapid identification of regions of targets with continuous and discontinuous SAR. This information led to the identification of epigenetic targets for which it is anticipated an easier or a more difficult drug-discovery program using conventional hit-to-lead approaches. The insights of this work also enabled the identification of specific structural changes associated with a large shift in biological activity. To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the largest comprehensive SAR analysis of several epigenetic targets and contributes to the better understanding of the epigenetic activity landscape.
       
  • Chapter Eight - Protein and Peptides for Elderly Health
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology, Volume 112Author(s): Nan Shang, Chalamaiah Meram, Nandika Bandara, Jianping Wu The world is aging rapidly; thus, the management of elderly health at an advanced age poses a new research challenge. The elderly is vulnerable to not only malnutrition but also hypofunction of all organs and a variety of chronic diseases such as sarcopenia, osteoporosis, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and mental problems. As the major macronutrient, food protein plays an important role in elderly health and well-being. In this chapter, the function of protein and peptide in elderly health as well as their effects on preventing aging-related disease is reviewed.
       
  • Chapter Seven - In Silico Tools and Databases for Designing Peptide-Based
           Vaccine and Drugs
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology, Volume 112Author(s): Salman Sadullah Usmani, Rajesh Kumar, Sherry Bhalla, Vinod Kumar, Gajendra P.S. Raghava The prolonged conventional approaches of drug screening and vaccine designing prerequisite patience, vigorous effort, outrageous cost as well as additional manpower. Screening and experimentally validating thousands of molecules for a specific therapeutic property never proved to be an easy task. Similarly, traditional way of vaccination includes administration of either whole or attenuated pathogen, which raises toxicity and safety issues. Emergence of sequencing and recombinant DNA technology led to the epitope-based advanced vaccination concept, i.e., small peptides (epitope) can stimulate specific immune response. Advent of bioinformatics proved to be an adjunct in vaccine and drug designing. Genomic study of pathogens aid to identify and analyze the protective epitope. A number of in silico tools have been developed to design immunotherapy as well as peptide-based drugs in the last two decades. These tools proved to be a catalyst in drug and vaccine designing. This review solicits therapeutic peptide databases as well as in silico tools developed for designing peptide-based vaccine and drugs.
       
  • Chapter Six - Smart Cell-Penetrating Peptide-Based Techniques for
           Intracellular Delivery of Therapeutic Macromolecules
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology, Volume 112Author(s): Yang He, Feng Li, Yongzhuo Huang Many therapeutic macromolecules must enter cells to take their action. However, their treatment outcomes are often hampered by their poor transportation into target cells. Therefore, efficient intracellular delivery of these macromolecules is critical for improving their therapeutic efficacy. Cell-penetrating peptide (CPP)-based approaches are one of the most efficient methods for intracellular delivery of macromolecular therapeutics. Nevertheless, poor specificity is a significant concern for systemic administrated CPP-based delivery systems. This chapter will review recent advances in CPP-mediated macromolecule delivery with a focus on various smart strategies which not only enhance the intracellular delivery but also improve the targeting specificity.
       
  • Chapter Five - Chimeric Small Antibody Fragments as Strategy to Deliver
           Therapeutic Payloads
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology, Volume 112Author(s): Sandra Aguiar, Joana Dias, Ana M. Manuel, Roberto Russo, Pedro M.P. Gois, Frederico A. da Silva, Joao Goncalves Antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs) represent an innovative class of biopharmaceuticals, which aim at achieving a site-specific delivery of cytotoxic agents to the target cell. The use of ADCs represents a promising strategy to overcome the disadvantages of conventional pharmacotherapy of cancer or neurological diseases, based on cytotoxic or immunomodulatory agents. ADCs consist of monoclonal antibodies attached to biologically active drugs by means of cleavable chemical linkers. Advances in technologies for the coupling of antibodies to cytotoxic drugs promise to deliver greater control of drug pharmacokinetic properties and to significantly improve pharmacodelivery applications, minimizing exposure of healthy tissue.The clinical success of brentuximab vedotin and trastuzumab emtansine has led to an extensive expansion of the clinical ADC pipeline. Although the concept of an ADC seems simple, designing a successful ADC is complex and requires careful selection of the receptor antigen, antibody, linker, and payload. In this review, we explore insights in the antibody and antigen requirements needed for optimal payload delivery and support the development of novel and improved ADCs for the treatment of cancer and neurological diseases.
       
  • Chapter Four - Transglutaminase and Sialyltransferase Enzymatic Approaches
           for Polymer Conjugation to Proteins
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology, Volume 112Author(s): Katia Maso, Antonella Grigoletto, Gianfranco Pasut Proteins hold a central role in medicine and biology, also confirmed by the several therapeutic applications based on biologic drugs. Such therapies are of great relevance thanks to high potency and safety of proteins. Nevertheless, many proteins as therapeutics might present issues like fast kidney clearance, rapid enzymatic degradation, or immunogenicity. Such defects implicate frequent administrations or administrations at high doses of the therapeutics, thus yielding or exacerbating potential side effects. A successful technology for improving the clinical profiles of proteins is the conjugation of polymers to the protein surface. The design of a protein–polymer conjugate presents critical aspects that determine the efficacy and safety of the final product. The control over stoichiometry and conjugation site is a strict criterion on which researchers have been intensively focused during the years, in order to obtain homogeneous and batch-to-batch reproducible products. An innovative site-specific conjugation strategy relies on the use of enzymes as tools to mediate polymer conjugation. Enzymatic approaches are attractive because they allow site-selective polymer conjugation at specific protein amino acids. In these reactions, the polymer is a substrate analog that replaces the native substrate. Furthermore, enzymes can count other advantages such as high yields of conversion and physiological conditions of reaction. This chapter provides a meaningful description of protein–polymer conjugation through transglutaminase-mediated and sialyltransferase-mediated enzymatic strategies, reporting the mechanism of action and some relevant examples.
       
  • Chapter Three - Dynamical Behavior of Somatostatin-14 and Its Cyclic
           Analogues as Analyzed in Bulk and on Plasmonic Silver Nanoparticles
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology, Volume 112Author(s): Belén Hernández, Yves-Marie Coïc, Eduardo López-Tobar, Santiago Sanchez-Cortes, Bruno Baron, Fernando Pflüger, Sergei G. Kruglik, Régis Cohen, Mahmoud Ghomi Primarily known as the inhibitor of growth hormone release, the role of somatostatin in many other inhibiting activities upon binding to its five G-protein-coupled receptors has been elucidated. Because of the short half-life of somatostatin, a number of synthetic analogues were elaborated for this peptide hormone. Herein, after recalling the main somatostatin therapeutic interests, we present the dynamical behavior of somatostatin-14 and its two currently used synthetic cyclic analogues, octreotide and pasireotide. Physical techniques, such as fluorescence, UV–visible absorption, circular dichroism, Raman spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, were jointly used in order to get information on the solution structural features, as well as on the anchoring sites of the three peptides on silver colloids. While somatostatin-14 adopts a rather unordered chain within the submillimolar concentration range, its cyclic analogues were revealed to be ordered, i.e., stabilized either in a type-II′ β-turn (octreotide) or in a face-to-face γ-turn/type-I β-turn (pasireotide) structure. Nevertheless, a progressive structuring trend was observed in somatostatin-14 upon increasing concentration to the millimolar range. Because of their cationic character, the three peptides have revealed their capability to bind onto negatively charged silver nanoparticles. The high affinity of the peptides toward metallic particles seems to be extremely promising for the elaboration of somatostatin-based functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles that can be used in diagnosis, drug delivery, and therapy.
       
  • Chapter Two - Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies Delivery for the
           Glioblastoma Treatment
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology, Volume 112Author(s): Flávia Sousa, Rui P. Moura, Elias Moreira, Cláudia Martins, Bruno Sarmento Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and challenging primary malignant brain tumor, being the median overall survival between 10 and 14 months due to its invasive characteristics. GBM treatment is mainly based on the maximal surgical resection and radiotherapy associated to chemotherapy. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been used in chemotherapy protocols for GBM treatment in order to improve immunotherapy and antiangiogenic processes. High specificity and affinity of mAbs for biological targets make them highly used for brain tumor therapy. Specifically, antiangiogenic mAbs have been wisely indicated in chemotherapy protocols because GBM is the most vascularized tumors in humans with high expression of cytokines. However, mAb-based therapy is not that effective due to the aggressive spread of the tumor associated to the difficulty in the access of mAb into the brain (due to the blood–brain barrier). For that reason, nanobiotechnology has played an important role in the treatment of several tumors, mainly in the tumors of difficult access, such as GBM. In this chapter will be discussed strategies related with nanobiotechnology applied to the mAb delivery and how these therapeutics can improve the GBM treatment and life quality of the patient.
       
  • Chapter Ten - The Structure/Function Relationship in Antimicrobial
           Peptides: What Can we Obtain From Structural Data'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology, Volume 112Author(s): Marlon H. Cardoso, Karen G.N. Oshiro, Samilla B. Rezende, Elizabete S. Cândido, Octávio L. Franco Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been widely isolated from most organisms in nature. This class of antimicrobials may undergo changes in their sequence for improved physicochemical properties, including charge, hydrophobicity, and hydrophobic moment. It is known that such properties may be directly associated with AMPs’ structural arrangements and, consequently, could interfere in their modes of action against microorganisms. In this scenario, biophysical methodologies, such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and cryo-electron microscopy, allied to in silico approaches, including molecular modeling, docking, and dynamics nowadays represent an enormous first step for the structural elucidation of AMPs, leading to further structure–function annotation. In this context, this chapter will focus on the main atomic-level experimental and computational tools used for the structural elucidation of AMPs that have assisted in the investigation of their functions.
       
  • Chapter Eleven - Linear Analogues of the Lipopeptide Battacin With Potent
           In Vitro Activity Against S. aureus
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology, Volume 112Author(s): Hugh D. Glossop, Esperanza Pearl, Gayan H. De Zoysa, Vijayalekshmi Sarojini Eight linear analogues of the lipopeptide battacin were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. Of this library, the enantiomeric lipopeptide analogue 9.4 exhibited nanomolar inhibitory activity (MIC = 200 nmol) against S. aureus. Furthermore, this lipopeptide was resilient toward degradation conditions when exposed to rat serum proteases for up to 8 h.
       
  • Chapter Nine - Peptide Derivatives of Erythropoietin in the Treatment of
           Neuroinflammation and Neurodegeneration
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology, Volume 112Author(s): Ilkcan Ercan, Kemal Ugur Tufekci, Ezgi Karaca, Sermin Genc, Kursad Genc During the past 35 years, recombinant DNA technology has allowed the production of a wide range of hematopoietic and neurotrophic growth factors including erythropoietin (EPO). These have emerged as promising protein drugs in various human diseases. Accumulated evidences have recently demonstrated the neuroprotective effect of EPO in preclinical models of acute and chronic degenerative disorders. Nevertheless, tissue protective effect of EPO could not be translated to the clinical trials because of common lethal thromboembolic events, erythropoiesis and hypertension. Although chemically modified nonerythropoietic analogs of EPO bypass these side effects, high expense, development of antidrug antibodies, and promotion of tumorigenicity are still concern especially in long-term use. As an alternative, nonerythropoietic EPO mimetic peptides can be used as candidate drugs with their high potency and selectivity, easy production, low cost, and immunogenicity properties. Recent experimental studies suggest that these peptides prevent ischemic brain injury and neuroinflammation. The results of clinical trial in patients with neuropathic pain are also promising. Herein, we summarize these studies and review advanced experimental and in silico methods in peptide drug discovery.
       
 
 
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