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  Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 7249 journals)
    - ALLERGOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY (196 journals)
    - ANAESTHESIOLOGY (105 journals)
    - CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (308 journals)
    - CHIROPRACTIC, HOMEOPATHY, OSTEOPATHY (21 journals)
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    - ENDOCRINOLOGY (137 journals)
    - FORENSIC SCIENCES (34 journals)
    - GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY (162 journals)
    - GERONTOLOGY AND GERIATRICS (116 journals)
    - HEMATOLOGY (139 journals)
    - HYPNOSIS (4 journals)
    - INTERNAL MEDICINE (135 journals)
    - LABORATORY AND EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE (87 journals)
    - MEDICAL GENETICS (59 journals)
    - MEDICAL SCIENCES (1802 journals)
    - NURSES AND NURSING (292 journals)
    - OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY (175 journals)
    - ONCOLOGY (348 journals)
    - OPHTHALMOLOGY AND OPTOMETRY (121 journals)
    - ORTHOPEDICS AND TRAUMATOLOGY (145 journals)
    - OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (73 journals)
    - PATHOLOGY (96 journals)
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    - RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE (180 journals)
    - RESPIRATORY DISEASES (90 journals)
    - RHEUMATOLOGY (63 journals)
    - SPORTS MEDICINE (68 journals)
    - SURGERY (347 journals)
    - UROLOGY, NEPHROLOGY AND ANDROLOGY (132 journals)

MEDICAL SCIENCES (1802 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access  
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access  
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access  
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access  
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Fundeni Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access  
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Journal Khulna     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Research Council Bulletin     Open Access  
Basal Ganglia     Hybrid Journal  
Basic Sciences of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BC Medical Journal     Free  
Benha Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bijblijven     Hybrid Journal  
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biologics in Therapy     Open Access  
Biology of Sex Differences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
  [SJR: 0.196]   [H-I: 18]   [1 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 1137-6627
   Published by SciELO Homepage  [711 journals]
  • The challange of upholding the culture of patient safety in the health
           institutions

    •  
  • Proposing a physiological model for Emergency Department. Operating
           principles, classification of overcrowding and guidelines for redesign

    • Abstract: Resumen El funcionamiento de los servicios de urgencias hospitalarios (SUH) está determinado por la demanda, la estructura organizativa propia y la conexión con los otros niveles asistenciales. La asincronía entre estos elementos dificulta el flujo de pacientes y merma la capacidad, siendo necesario emplear un enfoque sistémico de la cadena asistencial urgente como una entidad funcional única. Con esta orientación presentamos un modelo teórico conceptual, similar al fisiológico del gasto cardíaco, en el que la precarga es la demanda, la bomba contráctil o de flujo la organización interna propia, la poscarga el hospital, la válvula pre-SUH la asistencia primaria y las urgencias extrahospitalarias, y la válvula pos-SUH los servicios de apoyo al diagnóstico y los especialistas consultores. A partir de dicha concepción se clasifican los distintos tipos de saturación del SUH, se sistematizan sus causas y las diferentes colas de espera que generan, lo cual puede ayudar al rediseño del servicio y a prevenir su saturación y colapso. The operation of Emergency Departments (ED) is determined by demand, their own organizational structures and the connection to other medical care levels. When these elements are not simultaneous, it hinders patient flow and decreases capacity, making it necessary to employ a systemic approach to the chain of emergency care as a single operational entity. With this theoretical orientation, we suggest a conceptual model similar to the physiological cardiac output, in which the preload is the demand, the contractile or flow pump is the organizational structure, the afterload is the hospital, the pre-ED valve is primary care and outpatient emergencies, and the post-ED valve is the diagnostic support services and the specialist consultants. Based on this theoretical approach we classify the different types of ED overcrowding and systematise its causes and the different waiting lists that it generates, which can help to redesign the service and avoid its saturation.
       
  • Shared decision making from the perspective of the cancer patient:
           participatory roles and evaluation of the process

    • Abstract: Resumen Fundamento. En España no existe un claro conocimiento sobre el grado en que la Toma de Decisiones Compartidas (TDC) es llevada a la práctica habitual en oncología. Nuestro trabajo analiza el rol preferido y el rol percibido de los pacientes oncológicos y mide el proceso de TDC desde su perspectiva. Material y métodos. Estudio descriptivo transversal mediante cuestionario autoadministrado a pacientes con distintos tipos de cáncer. Para evaluar el rol preferido y percibido por el paciente utilizamos The Control Preference Scales (CPS) y para medir la TDC se utilizó The nine-item Shared Decision Making Questionnaire (SDM-Q-9). Resultados. De los 132 pacientes encuestados, solo 118 proporcionaron datos analizables. No se encontraron evidencias de que el sexo, edad, nivel educativo o tipo de tumor afectaran al rol preferido o al percibido. Solo el 59,3% estaba de acuerdo con el rol ejercido. Todos los que preferían un rol pasivo lo alcanzaban (21,2%), mientras que de los que deseaban uno compartido (78,8%), solo el 48,39% lo lograba y el 51,61% restante desempeñaba uno pasivo. Ninguno prefirió ni ejerció un rol activo. El conjunto de pacientes valoró el proceso de TDC con una puntuación de 41,07±5,94, en una escala de 0 a 100, alcanzando los pacientes urológicos una puntuación máxima de 61,39 ± 13,24. Conclusiones. Nuestro estudio no encuentra evidencias de que, desde el punto de vista del paciente oncológico, el modelo de TDC esté implementado en la práctica. Background. In Spain there is no clear knowledge about the degree to which Shared Decision Making (SDM) is carried out in the normal practice of oncology. Our article analyses the preferred role and the perceived role of oncological patients and measures the SDM process from their perspective. Material and methods. Descriptive transversal study using a self-conducted questionnaire with patients with different types of cancer. To evaluate the role preferred and perceived by the patient we used The Control Preference Scales (CPS) and to measure SDM we used The nine-item Shared Decision Making Questionnaire (SDM-Q-9). Results. Out of the 132 patients surveyed, only 118 provided analysable data. No evidence was found that sex, age, educational level or type of tumour affected the preferred role or the perceived role. Only 59.3% was in agreement with the role exercised. All of those who preferred a passive role achieved this (21.2%), while out of those who wanted a shared role (78.8%), this was achieved by only 48.39% while the remaining 51.61% played a passive role. None preferred or played an active role. The set of patients evaluated the SDM process with a score of 41.07±5.94, on a scale of 0 to 100, with the highest score of 61.39 ± 13.24 reached by urological patients. Conclusions. Our study found no evidence that, from the point of view of the oncological patient, the SDM model is being implemented in practice.
       
  • Patients with vulnerable coronary plaques have higher serum
           metalloproteinase-1 levels

    • Abstract: Resumen Fundamento. Las placas ateroscleróticas que producen la mayoría de los síndromes coronarios agudos al romperse son los fibroateromas de cápsula fina, denominados placas vulnerables. Éstas pueden ser detectadas únicamente con técnicas invasivas de imagen intracoronaria. Es preciso encontrar un biomarcador no invasivo que permita identificar a los pacientes con estas placas sin necesidad de cateterismo cardiaco. La metaloproteinasa-1 es una enzima involucrada en el metabolismo de la matriz extracelular que ha sido relacionada con la ruptura de las placas ateroscleróticas. Se desconocen sus niveles séricos en pacientes con placas vulnerables. Material y métodos. Se incluyeron pacientes sometidos a cateterismo cardiaco por enfermedad coronaria estable. Se estudiaron las arterias coronarias con tomografía de coherencia óptica para detectar placas vulnerables. Se extrajeron muestras de sangre periférica y del seno coronario para analizar la concentración de metaloproteinasa-1. Resultados. Se incluyeron 51 pacientes. Trece tenían al menos un fibroateroma de cápsula fina. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en las características clínicas, perfil lipídico ni proteína C reactiva entre los pacientes con y sin placas vulnerables. Los pacientes con placas vulnerables presentaron concentraciones significativamente mayores de metaloproteinasa-1, tanto en sangre periférica (7330±5541 vs 2894±1783 pg/ml, p=0,025) como en seno coronario (6012±3854 vs 2707±1252 pg/ml, p=0,047). Conclusiones. Los pacientes con placas vulnerables presentaron niveles séricos significativamente mayores de metaloproteinasa-1. Se requieren estudios con seguimiento clínico para evaluar el valor pronóstico de la metaloproteinasa-1 sérica. Background. Most acute coronary syndromes are caused by the fracture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. These plaques are thin cap fibroatheromas, which can only be detected with invasive coronary imaging techniques. It is necessary to find a non-invasive biomarker of these vulnerable plaques in order to identify patients at risk without a coronary angiography. Metalloproteinase-1 is an enzyme involved in extracellular matrix metabolism which has been correlated with the rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Its serum levels in patients with vulnerable plaques remain unknown. Methods. Patients with suspected stable coronary artery disease undergoing coronary angiography in our hospital were included. The coronary arteries were studied with optical coherence tomography to detect vulnerable plaques. Blood samples were taken from a peripheral vein and from the coronary sinus, to assess metalloproteinase-1 levels. Results. Fifty-one patients were included, 13 of whom had at least one vulnerable plaque. There were not significant differences in clinical characteristics, lipid profile or C reactive protein levels, between patients with or without vulnerable plaques. Patients with vulnerable plaques had significant higher metalloproteinase-1 levels both in peripheral (7330±5541 vs 2894±1783 pg/ml, p=0.025) and coronary sinus serum (6012±3854 vs 2707±1252 pg/ml, p=0.047). Conclusions. Patients with vulnerable plaques had significantly higher metalloproteinase-1 serum levels. Further studies with clinical follow up are needed to assess the prognostic value of serum metalloproteinase-1.
       
  • Evolution of patient safety culture in a medium-stay hospital: monitoring
           indicators

    • Abstract: Resumen Fundamento. La seguridad del paciente es un reto para la asistencia sanitaria. El objetivo de este estudio es identificar las dimensiones con mayor impacto sobre la cultura de seguridad en un hospital de media-larga estancia, monitorizar su evolución y comprobar la sensibilidad de los indicadores de seguimiento. Material y métodos. Se realizaron 2 estudios transversales (2013-2015), utilizando la versión española del cuestionario “Hospital Survey on Patient Safety” (AHRQ). Variable resultado: alto grado de seguridad percibida (puntuación ≥ al percentil 75). Variables predIctoras: características socio-demográficas y percepciones de las dimensiones evaluadas. La asociación entre variables se cuantificó mediante OddsRatio. Resultados. El grado de seguridad percibida fue similar en ambos estudios: (7,81-7,48; N2013=66; N2015=92). Los aspectos mejor evaluados fueron: “Acciones de los supervisores” y “Trabajo en equipo en la unidad”; los peor evaluados fueron: “Dotación de personal”, “Apoyo de la dirección” y “Trabajo en equipo entre unidades”. Las variables socio-demográficas presentaron escasa significación, mientras que una percepción positiva de algunas dimensiones consideradas, sí que se asociaba a un alto grado de seguridad percibida. Los aspectos más fuertemente asociados fueron: “Acciones de los supervisores”, “Franqueza en la comunicación” y “Problemas en los cambios de turno”. En el estudio comparativo de los resultados, los indicadores basados en las dimensiones individuales detectaron mejor los cambios que el grado de seguridad percibida. Conclusiones. La evaluación periódica de la cultura de seguridad permite conocer el estado y la evolución de las percepciones de los profesionales. La elección de indicadores apropiados optimiza la información obtenida a través de estas encuestas. Background. Patient safety is a challenge for health care. The aim of this study is to identify the dimensions with the greatest impact on patient safety culture of healthcare staff in a medium-stay hospital; to assess its evolution over time and to check the sensitivity of monitoring indicators. Methods. Two cross-sectional studies (2013 to 2015) were conducted. The safety culture assessment tool used was the Spanish version of the “Hospital Survey on Patient Safety” (AHRQ). Outcome variable is high perception of safety (score ≥ 75th percentile). Independent variables: socio-demographic characteristics and perceptions of the evaluated dimensions. The association between variables was quantified by Odds Ratio. Results. The mean of perceived safety was similar in both studies: (7.81 and 7.48, N2013= 66; N2015=92). The best aspects evaluated were: “Supervisor actions” and “Teamwork within unit”; the worst evaluated were: “Staffing”, “Management support” and “Teamwork across units”. Socio-demographic variables had little significance, while a positive perception in some of the considered dimensions was associated with high perceived safety. The most strongly associated aspects were: “Supervisor actions”, “Communication openness” and “Problems in transitions”. In the comparative study, indicators based on individual dimensions detected changes better than the assessment of the degree of perceived safety. Conclusion. The regular assessment of Patient Safety Culture makes it possible to know the status and evolution of professionals’ perceptions. The choice of appropriate indicators optimises the information obtained through these surveys.
       
  • Effectiveness of second-generation direct-acting antivirals in chronic
           hepatitis C

    • Abstract: Resumen Fundamento. Los antivirales de acción directa de segunda generación (AAD) han demostrado porcentajes elevados de respuesta viral sostenida (RVS) en el tratamiento de la hepatitis C crónica en ensayos clínicos. Este estudio tiene como objetivo estimar la efectividad de los AAD en el tratamiento de esta enfermedad. Material y métodos. Se estudiaron pacientes monoinfectados por el virus de la hepatitis C (VHC) y coinfectados por VHC y virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) que iniciaron tratamientos libres de interferón con AAD durante 2015. La RVS se definió como una carga viral indetectable a las 12 semanas de finalizar el tratamiento, y fue el indicador principal de efectividad. Resultados. Se incluyeron 293 pacientes, 52 (17,7%) coinfectados por VIH. Los genotipos VHC más prevalentes fueron el 1b en monoinfectados (41,5%) y 1a en coinfectados (40,4%). La proporción de cirróticos fue superior en la población coinfectada (69,2% vs 41,1%; p<0,0001), en su mayoría Child-Pugh A. La cifra global de RVS fue del 96,9% (284/293) en un análisis por intención de tratar (IC 95%: 94,9-98,9), siendo 4 los pacientes con fracaso virológico. Tanto pacientes naïve como pretratados tuvieron RVS superior al 95%, y en la mayoría de subgrupos establecidos según la presencia o no de cirrosis, la coinfección VIH y el genotipo, la efectividad se situó próxima o por encima del 90%. Conclusiones. Los AAD presentan una efectividad elevada, igual o superior a la descrita en los ensayos clínicos, e incluso en subpoblaciones difíciles de tratar. Background. Second-generation direct-acting antivirals (DAA) have shown high sustained virologic response (SVR) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in clinical trials. The objective of this study is to estimate DAA effectiveness in treatment of this disease. Methods. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) monoinfected patients and HCV-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfected patients who started interferon-free DAA based regimens during 2015 were included. The primary effectiveness outcome was SVR, defined as an undetectable viral load 12 weeks after the end of treatment. Results. A total of 293 patients were enrolled, and 52 (17.7%) were HIV coinfected. HCV 1b genotype was the most prevalent in monoinfected patients (41.5%) and 1a in HIV coinfected patients (40.4%). The proportion of cirrhosis was higher among HIV coinfected patients (69.2% vs 41.1%; p<0.0001), mostly Child-Pugh A. SVR was achieved by 96.9% of patients (284/293), in an intention-to-treat analysis (CI 95%: 94.9-98.9), in which just 4 people had virologic failure. Both naïve and pretreated patients had SVR higher than 95%, and in most of subgroups, according to the presence of cirrhosis, HIV coinfection and HVC genotype, effectiveness rates were near or above 90%. Conclusions. DAA are highly effective, with similar or higher rates of SVR than that found in clinical trials, and even among difficult to treat populations.
       
  • Relation between preoperative prognostic Onodera’s Index and postsurgery
           complications in the R0 gastric carcinoma resection

    • Abstract: Resumen Fundamento. En publicaciones asiáticas se postula que un Índice de Onodera (IO) bajo puede asociarse con una mayor frecuencia de complicaciones post-resección radical del cáncer gástrico, careciendo de resultados en áreas occidentales. En el presente trabajo se analiza la relación entre un IO pre-operatorio bajo con la frecuencia y la gravedad de las complicaciones post-cirugía R0 en el cáncer gástrico. Pacientes y métodos. Se revisaron 124 tumores gástricos con resección R0. Considerando patológicamente bajo un IO <45, estudiamos la frecuencia de complicaciones entre los grupos con IO menor y ≥45. En el análisis multivariante incluimos como variables de ajuste la edad mayor de 68 años, puntuación ASA, hemoglobina pre-operatoria menor de 12 g/dL, estadio pTNM, administración o no de tratamiento neoadyuvante y tipo de gastrectomía realizada. Determinamos la relación entre IO <45 y la frecuencia y gravedad de las complicaciones, según la clasificación de Clavien-Dindo modificada. Resultados. Se registraron complicaciones leves en un 11,3%; graves 9,7% y exitus 2,4%. Los pacientes con IO <45 presentaron mayor frecuencia de complicaciones: 37,7% versus 12,7% [ odds ratio (OR) = 4,17; IC 95% = (1,71-10,20); p = 0,001], confirmada en el análisis multivariante: [OR = 4,17; IC 95% = (1,54-11,30); p = 0,005]. Los pacientes con IO <45 tuvieron más complicaciones graves-exitus: 20,8% versus 5,6% [OR = 4,39; IC 95% = (1,31-14,68); p = 0,011]. Conclusiones. También en un país occidental, los pacientes con IO pre-operatorio bajo (<45) muestran un mayor riesgo independiente de presentar complicaciones tras la resección R0 del carcinoma gástrico. Adicionalmente, las complicaciones registradas en los casos con IO <45, muestran una significativa mayor gravedad. Background. It has been postulated in the Asian literature that a low prognostic nutritional index (OI) could be associated with a higher rate of complications following radical gastric cancer surgery, but there is a lack of data concerning western countries. The aim is to analyze the relationship between a low preoperative OI and the frequency and severity of surgical complications in R0 gastric cancer resection. Patients and methods. In the present article, 124 cases of gastric cancer with R0 resection were reviewed. An OI <45 was considered pathologically low. The complication rate was compared between both groups: OI <45 vs OI ≥45. A multivariate analysis was performed adjusting for: age > 68 years, ASA score, preoperative hemoglobin level <12 g/dL, pTNM stage, administration of neoadyuvant therapy and type of gastrectomy. The relationship between a PNI<45 and the severity of complications graded according to the Clavien-Dindo classification was determined. Results. We registered mild complications in 11.3% of cases, severe complications in 9.7% and a mortality rate of 2.4%. Patients with a OI <45 showed a higher complication rate: 37.7% versus 12.7% [odds ratio (OR) = 4.17; CI95% = (1.71 - 10.20 p = 0.001)], confirmed by multivariate analysis: [OR = 4.17; CI95% = (1.54 - 11.30); p = 0.005]. Patients with OI <45 had more severe complication-exitus: 20.8% versus 5.6% [OR = 4.39; CI95% = (1.31 - 14.68); p = 0.011]. Conclusions. We confirmed that patients with a low preoperative OI show a higher independent risk of complications after a R0 gastric cancer resection in a western country as well. Complications, in these cases with OI <45, registered a significantly higher severity grade.
       
  • Circuit life span of continuous renal replacement therapy in critically
           ill patients with or without conventional anticoagulation: an
           observational prospective study

    • Abstract: Resumen Fundamento. El objetivo del presente estudio es describir la eficacia, seguridad y viabilidad, en pacientes críticos con técnica de depuración extrarrenal continua (TDEC) y diferente riesgo de hemorragia, de un sistema de anticoagulación convencional con perfusión continua de heparina no fraccionada (HNF) frente a no anticoagular usando lavados son suero fisiológico. Material y métodos. Se trata de un estudio observacional prospectivo realizado en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) desde octubre de 2013 hasta abril de 2016. Se incluyeron 61 pacientes que presentaron insuficiencia renal aguda (IRA) con requerimientos de TDEC y un total de 122 circuitos. Tanto los pacientes como los circuitos fueron divididos para su análisis en dos grupos: anticoagulados (AC) y no anticoagulados (No AC). La variable principal fue la supervivencia de los circuitos. Además se recogieron diferentes parámetros analíticos al comienzo del tratamiento y en el momento de coagulación del circuito. Resultados. La distribución de pacientes anticoagulados y no anticoagulados fue similar. No se han encontrado diferencias significativas en la supervivencia de los circuitos entre ambos grupos (30,5 horas AC vs 34,9 horas No AC). Los pacientes con mayor morbilidad (trombopenia severa, coagulopatía, etc.) pertenecían al grupo que no recibió anticoagulación, sino lavados con suero fisiológico. Conclusiones. En pacientes críticos con alto riesgo de sangrado las TDEC son viables sin anticoagulación más el empleo de lavados periódicos con suero fisiológico se comporta como una medida viable, segura y eficaz obteniendo una supervivencia de los circuitos similar a la de pacientes anticoagulados con HNF, evitando los riesgos y costes asociados a la anticoagulación. Background. The aim of this study was to describe the efficacy, security and viability of an anticoagulation system with continuous infusion of unfractionated heparin (UFH) versus one without any type of anticoagulant using 0.9% physiological saline washings, in critically ill patients with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and different risks of bleeding. Methods. From October 2013 to April 2015 we conducted an observational prospective study in the intensive care unit (ICU). Sixty-one patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) and requiring CRRT were included, with 122 filters. Patients and filters were divided in two groups: anticoagulated (AC) and not anticoagulated (No AC). The main outcome measure was filter life span. Different analytical parameters were also collected at the beginning of treatment and at the moment of circuit coagulation Results. The number of patients was similar in both groups. We did not find statistically significant differences between the two groups in filter life span (30.5 hours AC vs 34.9 hours No AC). Patients with increased morbidity (severe thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, etc.) were included in the group that did not received anticoagulation but saline flushes. Conclusions. CRRT without anticoagulation with saline flushes is a viable, safe and effective strategy in critically ill patients with high risk of bleeding. This approach achieves a circuit life span similar to that observed in anticoagulated patients with UFH; avoiding the risks and costs associated with anticoagulation.
       
  • Ionizing radiation received by patients with osteosarcoma during
           intra-arterial chemotherapy treatment

    • Abstract: Resumen Fundamento. Los pacientes afectos de osteosarcoma reciben tratamiento con quimioterapia administrada por vía intraarterial (QTia)3 directamente al tumor y son expuestos a radiación ionizante durante el mismo. Los pacientes pediátricos son especialmente vulnerables a esta exposición. Material y métodos. Se registró la cantidad de radiación ionizante recibida por 16 pacientes pediátricos afectos de osteosarcoma durante la administración de QTia en la Clínica Universidad de Navarra. Resultados. La mediana de radiación total recibida fue de 33,4 Gy·cm2 (IQR 43,33 Gy·cm2) y la mediana de número de pruebas por paciente de 10 (IQR: 6,5). Conclusión. El estudio resalta la importancia de cuantificar la radiación recibida por un grupo de niños y adolescentes afectos de osteosarcoma durante el tratamiento con QTia ya que no conviene olvidar los potenciales efectos adversos a largo plazo de esta exposición. Actualmente, no existen estudios previos que aporten datos acerca de la cantidad de radiación ionizante recibida a través de este procedimiento. Background. Osteosarcoma paediatric patients are usually treated with intra-arterial chemotherapy (QTia) which is administered directly to the tumour. This procedure exposes patients to ionizing radiation. Paediatric patients are especially sensitive to this exposure. Methods. The total amount of ionizing radiation received from QTia administration was quantified in a group of 16 osteosarcoma paediatric patients from the Clínica Universidad de Navarra. Results. The median of the total radiation received per patient was 33.4 Gy·cm2 (IQR: 43.33 Gy·cm2), and the median number of procedures performed per subject was 10 (IQR: 6.5). Conclusions. The study highlights the importance of quantifying the radiation received by a group of children and adolescents affected by osteosarcoma during treatment with QTia. Long-term side effects of this radiation should be considered in paediatric patients. Currently, there are no previous studies that provide data of the amount of ionizing radiation received through this procedure.
       
  • Characterising people who demanded the rapid HIV test in Andalusia between
           2013 and 2014

    • Abstract: Resumen Fundamento. El objetivo del estudio fue caracterizar a las personas que demandaron la prueba rápida VIH en Andalucía. Métodos. Estudio trasversal realizado por las entidades sociales colaboradoras del Programa de diagnóstico precoz del VIH en Andalucía. Los participantes fueron personas que demandaron la prueba en fluido oral y que contestaron una encuesta previa a la misma entre septiembre de 2013 y agosto de 2014. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo y de regresión logística para determinar los factores de riesgo asociados a un resultado reactivo. Se analizaron variables relacionadas con: entidad que realizó la prueba, características sociodemográficas, exposición de riesgo, antecedentes de realización de la prueba VIH, antecedentes de infecciones de transmisión sexual (variables predictivas) y resultado de la prueba (variable dependiente). Resultados. Las personas caracterizadas fueron 1.844 (48%), en su mayoría hombres (70%) que practicaron sexo con otros hombres (HSH) en los últimos 12 meses (59%). El 53% se había realizado la prueba anteriormente y acudieron tras una exposición de riesgo, principalmente de sexo desprotegido oral (75%), vaginal (50%) y/o anal (38%). El 23% fueron extranjeros. Los factores asociados a un resultado reactivo fueron: entidades especializadas en VIH, sexo masculino, HSH, realización de sexo desprotegido (anal, con persona VIH+ y/o con trabajador/a del sexo) y tener antecedente de prueba (p<0,05). La significación estadística del sexo masculino y de las prácticas desprotegidas se mantuvo en el estudio multivariante. Conclusiones. Se ha logrado caracterizar a un elevado número de personas (alrededor del 50%), lo que favorecerá la adecuación de la recogida de información y la mejora del Programa. Background. The aim of the study was to describe people who demanded the HIV screening test in Andalusia (Spain). Design. Cross-sectional study carried out by social organisation collaborating with the Program for early diagnosis of HIV in Andalusia. Participants underwent an oral HIV test and answered a survey beforehand, from September 2013 to August 2014. The study included a descriptive analysis of data and a logistic regression in order to determine the risk factors associated with a reactive test result. We analysed variables related to: social organisation, sociodemographic characteristics, risk exposure that caused the test, previous test history, history of sexually transmitted infections (predictive variables) and test result (dependent variable). Results. It was possible to characterise 1,844 people (48%). They were mostly men (70%) who had sex with men (MSM) in the last 12 months (59%). The 53% had a previous HIV test and came to social organisations after an exposure to risk, especially unprotected oral sex (75%), vaginal (50%) and/or anal (38%). Twenty-three percent was foreigners. A positive result was associated to: HIV work area, male sex, MSM, unprotected sex (anal, with HIV+ person or with sex worker) and test antecedent (p<0.05). These unprotected practices and male sex were also significant in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions. This approach of the study made it possible to characterise a great number of people (around 50%). These results will guide improvements in the Program’s data collection and future community interventions.
       
  • Scales for predicting outcome after severe trauma

    • Abstract: Resumen En este artículo se ha hecho una revisión sobre el desarrollo de las escalas más utilizadas en los pacientes con traumatismo grave desde hace 40 años. Es sabido que, las escalas anatómicas son eficaces, tanto para medir la gravedad de las lesiones, como para predecir resultados. Las escalas fisiológicas miden el componente dinámico tras el trauma, con gran influencia en el pronóstico de los traumatizados. Los índices metabólicos, tanto lactato como el déficit de bases, son reflejo de un estado de hipoperfusión tisular, y por tanto de shock. Las escalas combinadas sirven para la predicción y comparación evaluativa de los resultados. La incorporación de factores que influyen en el pronóstico de los traumatizados ha conllevado al desarrollo de nuevas escalas. Sin embargo, hay carencia de estudios de validación externa para su uso generalizado. Hasta que estos estudios se lleven a cabo, estas escalas deben usarse con precaución. In this article we review the development of the most-used scales for severe trauma patients over the past 40 years. It is well known that anatomical scales are effective for measuring the severity of injuries and for predicting results. Physiological scales measure the dynamic component after trauma, with a great influence on the prognosis of injured patients. Metabolic scales, both lactate and base deficit, are reflections of tissue hypoperfusion states and therefore shock. The combined scales are used for prediction and comparative assessment of results. The inclusion of factors that influence the prognosis of trauma patients has led to the development of new scales. However, they lack external validation studies for their widespread use. Until these validation studies are conducted caution should be taken with the use of existing scales.
       
  • Factors predicting failure in empirical antibiotic treatment

    • Abstract: Resumen Las infecciones constituyen uno de las principales causas de morbimortalidad en la población. La elección del tratamiento empírico es una de las decisiones más habituales para cualquier médico responsable de su atención. Además, esta primera decisión puede tener consecuencias en cuanto al pronóstico del paciente o provocar un incremento de los costes asociados al proceso. Esta revisión intenta resumir cuáles son los aspectos que pueden provocar el fracaso al tratamiento antibiótico considerando aspectos microbiológicos, farmacológicos, del perfil del paciente y del control del foco infeccioso. Además, se establecen una serie de recomendaciones para minimizar este riesgo, desde el punto de vista de la precisión diagnóstica del foco y de la etiología, la estratificación adecuada de la gravedad del paciente, el conocimiento de los aspectos farmacocinéticos y farmacodinámicos de los antibióticos y el control, quirúrgico o mediante radiología intervencionista, del foco infeccioso. Infections are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the population. The choice of empirical treatment is one of the most common decisions facing the physician. This first decision has consequences in the prognosis of the patient and the costs associated with the process. This review attempts to summarize the aspects that can lead to failure of antibiotic treatment by considering microbiological and pharmacological aspects, patient profile and infectious focus control. In addition, a series of recommendations are established to minimize this risk, from the point of view of diagnostic accuracy, adequate severity stratification of the patient, knowledge of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of antibiotics and control of the infectious focus.
       
  • Origin of newborn screening programs and their beginnings in Spain

    • Abstract: Resumen Los primeros programas de cribado neonatal de errores congénitos del metabolismo y otras enfermedades endocrinas comenzaron a finales de los años cincuenta y, una década más tarde, se introdujeron en España. Desde entonces han evolucionado mucho, pero de forma muy heterogénea, tanto a nivel internacional como autonómico. Los continuos avances científicos y tecnológicos, fundamentalmente desde el año 2000, han hecho que estas desigualdades se acentúen, haciendo de este tema un inagotable asunto de revisión, debate y discusión hasta nuestros días. Esta revisión pretende recoger, de manera resumida, los orígenes de los programas de cribado neonatal y sus inicios en España, como un primer paso para el análisis de su desarrollo, evolución y situación actual, en unos años en el que se están implementando cambios en muchas comunidades españolas tras la publicación, en noviembre de 2014, de una orden estatal por la cual se regulan y tratan de homogeneizar. The first newborn screening programs to detect congenital errors of the metabolism and other endocrinal diseases started in the late 1950s and, one decade later, were introduced in Spain. Since then they have evolved considerably, but in a very heterogeneous way, at both the international level and the regional level. The continuous scientific and technological advances, basically since the year 2000, have accentuated these inequalities, making this question into an inexhaustible subject of review, debate and argument up until the present. This review aims to gather, in summarized fashion, the origins of the newborn screening programs and their beginnings in Spain as a first step in analyzing their development, evolution and current situation. This year updating is expected to take place in all the Spanish autonomous regions following publication in November 2014 of a state order that regulates and attempts to homogenize these programs.
       
  • Gastric volvulus, an infrequent cause of acute abdominal pain

    • Abstract: Resumen El vólvulo gástrico (VG) se caracteriza por la rotación anormal de una porción del estómago alrededor de un eje -horizontal o vertical- que puede ocasionar obstrucción, compromiso vascular e incluso estrangulación, pudiendo evolucionar a necrosis e incluso perforación. Se puede clasificar de acuerdo a su etiología, en primario o secundario, de acuerdo a su anatomía en órgano-axial o mesentérico-axial y de acuerdo a su presentación en crónico o agudo. Ambos tipos de vólvulos requieren de tratamiento, sin embargo, a pesar de que el tratamiento clásico ha sido la cirugía abierta, no existe un tratamiento estándar, ni consenso sobre la alternativa de elección en la actualidad. Las técnicas de mínima invasión, bien sean endoscópicas o laparoscópicas, deben ser consideradas en los pacientes de edad avanzada y alto riesgo quirúrgico en quienes se busca disminuir la morbilidad y mortalidad perioperatoria. Gastric volvulus (GV) is characterized by the abnormal rotation of a portion of the stomach around a horizontal or vertical axis that can cause obstruction, vascular disorder and even strangulation, and may evolve into necrosis or even perforation. It can be classified according to its aetiology into primary or secondary GV, according to its anatomy into axial organ or into axial mesenteric GV, and according to its presentation into chronic or acute GV. Both types of volvulus require treatment; however, in spite of the classic treatment being open surgery, there is no standard treatment, nor is there consensus on the alternative of choice at present. Minimally invasion techniques, whether endoscopic or laparoscopic, should be considered in patients of advanced age or high surgical risk, where what is sought is a reduction in perioperative morbidity and mortality.
       
  • Perforations following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
           (ERCP)

    • Abstract: Resumen La colangiografía endoscópica retrógrada (CPRE) asociada a esfinterotomía es un procedimiento útil ampliamente utilizado en casos de coledocolitiasis y obstrucción de la vía biliar. A pesar de tratarse de una prueba segura, existe el riesgo de complicaciones tales como la pancreatitis, la hemorragia o la perforación. La perforación duodenal post CPRE es un hecho poco común pero de graves consecuencias de no ser tratado precozmente. El mecanismo de lesión, el lugar y extensión de la perforación así como la clínica y los hallazgos radiográficos guiarán el manejo del paciente, que debe ser individualizado y en constante reevaluación. Su mortalidad se relaciona de manera estrecha con el retraso diagnóstico y terapéutico. En aquellos en los que se decida una actitud conservadora, se mantendrá una vigilancia estrecha ante la posibilidad de empeoramiento clínico y cambio en su manejo. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) associated with sphincterotomy is a useful procedure that is widely used in cases of choledocholithiasis and bile duct obstruction. In spite of being a safe test, there is a risk of complications like pancreatitis, haemorrhaging or perforation. Post-ERCP duodenal perforation is a rare event but has serious consequences if it is not treated early. The lesion mechanism, the place and extension of the perforation, as well as the clinical picture and radiographic findings will guide patient management, which must be individualised and constantly reevaluated. Its mortality is closely related to diagnostic and therapeutic delay. In those cases where a conservative attitude is adopted, close vigilance will be maintained facing the possibility of a worsening of the clinical picture and a change in its management.
       
  • Hypoglycemia: is it underdiagnosed in the emergency department'

    • Abstract: Resumen La colangiografía endoscópica retrógrada (CPRE) asociada a esfinterotomía es un procedimiento útil ampliamente utilizado en casos de coledocolitiasis y obstrucción de la vía biliar. A pesar de tratarse de una prueba segura, existe el riesgo de complicaciones tales como la pancreatitis, la hemorragia o la perforación. La perforación duodenal post CPRE es un hecho poco común pero de graves consecuencias de no ser tratado precozmente. El mecanismo de lesión, el lugar y extensión de la perforación así como la clínica y los hallazgos radiográficos guiarán el manejo del paciente, que debe ser individualizado y en constante reevaluación. Su mortalidad se relaciona de manera estrecha con el retraso diagnóstico y terapéutico. En aquellos en los que se decida una actitud conservadora, se mantendrá una vigilancia estrecha ante la posibilidad de empeoramiento clínico y cambio en su manejo. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) associated with sphincterotomy is a useful procedure that is widely used in cases of choledocholithiasis and bile duct obstruction. In spite of being a safe test, there is a risk of complications like pancreatitis, haemorrhaging or perforation. Post-ERCP duodenal perforation is a rare event but has serious consequences if it is not treated early. The lesion mechanism, the place and extension of the perforation, as well as the clinical picture and radiographic findings will guide patient management, which must be individualised and constantly reevaluated. Its mortality is closely related to diagnostic and therapeutic delay. In those cases where a conservative attitude is adopted, close vigilance will be maintained facing the possibility of a worsening of the clinical picture and a change in its management.
       
  • Improvement in clinical care of asthma in Spain: a necessary process with
           everyone’s implication

    • Abstract: Resumen La colangiografía endoscópica retrógrada (CPRE) asociada a esfinterotomía es un procedimiento útil ampliamente utilizado en casos de coledocolitiasis y obstrucción de la vía biliar. A pesar de tratarse de una prueba segura, existe el riesgo de complicaciones tales como la pancreatitis, la hemorragia o la perforación. La perforación duodenal post CPRE es un hecho poco común pero de graves consecuencias de no ser tratado precozmente. El mecanismo de lesión, el lugar y extensión de la perforación así como la clínica y los hallazgos radiográficos guiarán el manejo del paciente, que debe ser individualizado y en constante reevaluación. Su mortalidad se relaciona de manera estrecha con el retraso diagnóstico y terapéutico. En aquellos en los que se decida una actitud conservadora, se mantendrá una vigilancia estrecha ante la posibilidad de empeoramiento clínico y cambio en su manejo. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) associated with sphincterotomy is a useful procedure that is widely used in cases of choledocholithiasis and bile duct obstruction. In spite of being a safe test, there is a risk of complications like pancreatitis, haemorrhaging or perforation. Post-ERCP duodenal perforation is a rare event but has serious consequences if it is not treated early. The lesion mechanism, the place and extension of the perforation, as well as the clinical picture and radiographic findings will guide patient management, which must be individualised and constantly reevaluated. Its mortality is closely related to diagnostic and therapeutic delay. In those cases where a conservative attitude is adopted, close vigilance will be maintained facing the possibility of a worsening of the clinical picture and a change in its management.
       
  • Opportunity to assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet in patients with
           cardiac failure in hospital emergency services

    • Abstract: Resumen La colangiografía endoscópica retrógrada (CPRE) asociada a esfinterotomía es un procedimiento útil ampliamente utilizado en casos de coledocolitiasis y obstrucción de la vía biliar. A pesar de tratarse de una prueba segura, existe el riesgo de complicaciones tales como la pancreatitis, la hemorragia o la perforación. La perforación duodenal post CPRE es un hecho poco común pero de graves consecuencias de no ser tratado precozmente. El mecanismo de lesión, el lugar y extensión de la perforación así como la clínica y los hallazgos radiográficos guiarán el manejo del paciente, que debe ser individualizado y en constante reevaluación. Su mortalidad se relaciona de manera estrecha con el retraso diagnóstico y terapéutico. En aquellos en los que se decida una actitud conservadora, se mantendrá una vigilancia estrecha ante la posibilidad de empeoramiento clínico y cambio en su manejo. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) associated with sphincterotomy is a useful procedure that is widely used in cases of choledocholithiasis and bile duct obstruction. In spite of being a safe test, there is a risk of complications like pancreatitis, haemorrhaging or perforation. Post-ERCP duodenal perforation is a rare event but has serious consequences if it is not treated early. The lesion mechanism, the place and extension of the perforation, as well as the clinical picture and radiographic findings will guide patient management, which must be individualised and constantly reevaluated. Its mortality is closely related to diagnostic and therapeutic delay. In those cases where a conservative attitude is adopted, close vigilance will be maintained facing the possibility of a worsening of the clinical picture and a change in its management.
       
 
 
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