Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8690 journals)
    - ALLERGOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY (220 journals)
    - ANAESTHESIOLOGY (121 journals)
    - CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (338 journals)
    - CHIROPRACTIC, HOMEOPATHY, OSTEOPATHY (21 journals)
    - COMMUNICABLE DISEASES, EPIDEMIOLOGY (236 journals)
    - DENTISTRY (294 journals)
    - DERMATOLOGY AND VENEREOLOGY (163 journals)
    - EMERGENCY AND INTENSIVE CRITICAL CARE (124 journals)
    - ENDOCRINOLOGY (151 journals)
    - FORENSIC SCIENCES (42 journals)
    - GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY (189 journals)
    - GERONTOLOGY AND GERIATRICS (138 journals)
    - HEMATOLOGY (158 journals)
    - HYPNOSIS (4 journals)
    - INTERNAL MEDICINE (178 journals)
    - LABORATORY AND EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE (99 journals)
    - MEDICAL GENETICS (58 journals)
    - MEDICAL SCIENCES (2415 journals)
    - NURSES AND NURSING (370 journals)
    - OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY (207 journals)
    - ONCOLOGY (386 journals)
    - OPHTHALMOLOGY AND OPTOMETRY (141 journals)
    - ORTHOPEDICS AND TRAUMATOLOGY (170 journals)
    - OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (83 journals)
    - PATHOLOGY (100 journals)
    - PEDIATRICS (275 journals)
    - PHYSICAL MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION (158 journals)
    - PSYCHIATRY AND NEUROLOGY (833 journals)
    - RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE (192 journals)
    - RESPIRATORY DISEASES (105 journals)
    - RHEUMATOLOGY (79 journals)
    - SPORTS MEDICINE (81 journals)
    - SURGERY (406 journals)
    - UROLOGY, NEPHROLOGY AND ANDROLOGY (155 journals)

MEDICAL SCIENCES (2415 journals)            First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Showing 1201 - 1400 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of European CME     Open Access  
Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Family and Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Forensic Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Gandaki Medical College-Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Generic Medicines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Geographical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hand Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Head & Neck Physicians and Surgeons     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health & Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Journal of Health and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Economics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior     Open Access  
Journal of Health Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science and Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of health sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences / Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Health Sciences and Surveillance System     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences Scholarship     Open Access  
Journal of Health Specialties     Open Access  
Journal of Health Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Healthcare Informatics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Helminthology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Herbs Spices & Medicinal Plants     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of HIV for Clinical and Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Hospital Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Human Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Human Rhythm     Open Access  
Journal of Human Transcriptome     Open Access  
Journal of Ideas in Health     Open Access  
Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inflammation Research     Open Access  
Journal of Injury and Violence Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Institute of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Insulin Resistance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Interactional Research in Communication Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of International Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Interventional Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Investigative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Islamabad Medical & Dental College     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Karnali Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Kathmandu Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of King Abdulaziz University : Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Laryngology and Voice     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Limb Lengthening & Reconstruction     Open Access  
Journal of Lumbini Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Materials Science : Materials in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Maternal and Child Health     Open Access  
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Cases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Colleges of PLA     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Medical Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Ethics     Partially Free   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ideas     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Investigation and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Laboratory and Diagnosis     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Law and Ethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Medical Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medicinal Botany     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208)
Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Medicine and the Person     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medicine in Scientific Research     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine in the Tropics     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine Research and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medicines Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Metabolomics & Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Movement Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Multidisciplinary Research in Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Nanotheranostics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Natural Medicines     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nature and Science of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Journal of Nepalgunj Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Neurocritical Care     Open Access  
Journal of Neurodegenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Neurorestoratology     Open Access  
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Nobel Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Obesity and Bariatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Occupational Health     Open Access  
Journal of Occupational Therapy Education     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Ocular Biology, Diseases, and Informatics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Oral Health and Craniofacial Science     Open Access  
Journal of Orofacial Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, Hearing and Balance Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ovarian Research     Open Access  
Journal of Ozone Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Journal of Paramedical Sciences & Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Journal of Parkinsonism and Restless Legs Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parkinson’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Participatory Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Patan Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Pathogens     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Patient Experience     Open Access  
Journal of Patient Safety and Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Patient-Reported Outcomes     Open Access  
Journal of Periodontal Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physiobiochemical Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physiology-Paris     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pioneering Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Pregnancy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Prevention & Intervention Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health     Open Access  
Journal of Primary Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Prosthodontic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Prosthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Receptor, Ligand and Channel Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Regenerative Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Scientific Innovation in Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Scientific Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Arthroplasty     Open Access  
Journal of Sleep Disorders : Treatment & Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of South American Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences : Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stem Cell Therapy and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stomal Therapy Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Journal of Substance Use     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Surgical Academia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Surgical and Clinical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report     Open Access  
Journal of Systemic Therapies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of The Academy of Clinical Microbiologists     Open Access  
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the American College of Certified Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American College of Clinical Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Anatomical Society of India     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Anus, Rectum and Colon     Open Access  

  First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Pathogens
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.034
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-3057 - ISSN (Online) 2090-3065
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Antibody-Mediated Therapy against HIV/AIDS: Where Are We Standing Now'

    • Abstract: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases are on the rise globally. To date, there is still no effective measure to eradicate the causative agent, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is being used in HIV/AIDS management, but it results in long-term medication and has major drawbacks such as multiple side effects, high cost, and increasing the generation rate of escape mutants. In addition, HAART does not control HIV-related complications, and hence more medications and further management are required. With this, other alternatives are urgently needed. In the past, small-molecule inhibitors have shown potent antiviral effects, and some of them are now being evaluated in clinical trials. The challenges in developing these small molecules for clinical use include the off-target effect, poor stability, and low bioavailability. On the other hand, antibody-mediated therapy has emerged as an important therapeutic modality for anti-HIV therapeutics development. Many antiviral antibodies, namely, broad neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against multiple strains of HIV, have shown promising effects in vitro and in animal studies; further studies are ongoing in clinical trials to evaluate their uses in clinical applications. This short review aims to discuss the current development of therapeutic antibodies against HIV and the challenges in adopting them for clinical use.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Differential Regulation of Escherichia coli fim Genes following Binding to
           Mannose Receptors

    • Abstract: Regulation of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) fimB and fimE genes was examined following type 1 pili binding to mannose-coated Sepharose beads. Within 25 min after mannose attachment, fimE expression dropped eightfold, whereas fimB transcription increased about two- to fourfold. Because both fim genes encode site-specific recombinases that affect the position of the fimS element containing the fimA promoter, the positioning of fimS was also examined. The fimS element changed to slightly more Phase-OFF in bacteria mixed with plain beads, whereas UPEC cells interacting with mannose-coated beads had significantly less Phase-OFF orientation of fimS under pH 7 conditions. On the other hand, Phase-OFF oriented fimS increased fourfold when UPEC cells were mixed with plain beads in a pH 5.5 environment. Positioning of fimS was also affected by fimH mutations, demonstrating that the FimH ligand binding to its receptor facilitates the changes. Moreover, enzyme immunoassays showed that UPEC cells had greater type 1 pili expression when mixed with mannose-coated beads versus plain beads. These results indicate that, after type 1 pilus binding to tethered mannose receptors, the physiology of the E. coli cells changes to maintain the expression of type 1 pili even when awash in an acidic environment.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Using Invasive and Noninvasive Approaches

    • Abstract: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) as gram-negative and spiral microorganism is responsible for colonization in the gastric microniche for more than 50% of world population. Recent studies have shown a critical role of H. pylori in the development of peptic ulcers, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and gastric cancer. Over the past decade, there has been a sharp interest to use noninvasive tests in diagnosis of the H. pylori infection. During the years after discovery by Marshall and Warren, it has been frequently declared that the rapid urease test (RUT) is one of the cheapest and rapid diagnostic approaches used in detecting the infection. Although the specificity and sensitivity are durable for this test, clinical experiences had shown that the ideal results are only achieved only if we take biopsies from both corpus and antrum at the same time. Given the diagnosis of the H. pylori in clinical samples, gastroenterologists are facing a long list of various molecular and nonmolecular tests. We need more in-depth researches and investigations to correctly generalize rapid and accurate molecular tests determining both bacterial identity and antibiotic resistance profile.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Risk of Shiga Toxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infection from Raw and
           Fermented Milk in Sokoto Metropolis, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an enteric foodborne pathogen associated with life threatening disease conditions. The enterobacteria are frequently found in cattle gastrointestinal tract with high potential of contaminating animal products such as meat, milk, and cheese. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in milk products sold within Sokoto metropolis. Two hundred and sixty (260) samples (comprising 160 raw and 100 fermented milk samples) were collected from different sources within the study area. Bacteriological isolation and biochemical characterization yielded Escherichia coli with a detection rate of 9.23% (24/260). Molecular identification of the recovered isolates by PCR amplification of the Stx1 gene revealed Escherichia coli O157:H7 with a positive rate of 20.83% (5/24). The overall prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 was 1.92% (5/260) and the positive proportions for raw and fermented milk samples were 1.86% (3/160) and 2.0% (2/100), respectively. Fisher’s Exact test showed a nonsignificant association between the isolates and the different milk types (; ; [95% CI: 0.154–5.704]). The results revealed presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in raw and fermented milk sold within Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria. The findings indicate possible feacal contamination of the milk products, with serious public health consequences. This necessitates the need to screen other milk products produced in the area such as butter and cheese. Health authorities in the State need to enlighten dairy farmers on the zoonotic potential of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and the role of cattle in the spread of the pathogen.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • QSAR Modeling and Molecular Docking Analysis of Some Active Compounds
           against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Receptor (Mtb CYP121)

    • Abstract: A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study was performed to develop a model that relates the structures of 50 compounds to their activities against M. tuberculosis. The compounds were optimized by employing density functional theory (DFT) with B3LYP/6-. The Genetic Function Algorithm (GFA) was used to select the descriptors and to generate the correlation model that relates the structural features of the compounds to their biological activities. The optimum model has squared correlation coefficient () of 0.9202, adjusted squared correlation coefficient () of 0.91012, and leave-one-out (LOO) cross-validation coefficient () value of 0.8954. The external validation test used for confirming the predictive power of the built model has pred value of 0.8842. These parameters confirm the stability and robustness of the model. Docking analysis showed the best compound with high docking affinity of −14.6 kcal/mol which formed hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bond with amino acid residues of M. tuberculosis cytochromes (Mtb CYP121). QSAR and molecular docking studies provide valuable approach for pharmaceutical and medicinal chemists to design and synthesize new anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis compounds.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Detection of Yersinia enterocolitica in Retail Chicken Meat, Mashhad, Iran

    • Abstract: Poultry meat is one of the most important sources of infection of Yersinia spp. for humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of Yersinia enterocolitica in chicken meat by using culture method on selective medium and confirmation by PCR assay. Also, biochemical methods were used for biotyping. A total of 100 chicken thigh meat samples were collected randomly from retail outlets in Mashhad, Iran. Samples were enriched in Peptone-Sorbitol-Bile (PSB) broth and then cultured on Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin (CIN) agar containing antibiotics supplement. The DNA was extracted from suspected colonies of Yersinia spp. and then PCR test using specific primers for 16S rRNA gene of Yersinia enterocolitica was performed. In this study, 30% of chicken meat was contaminated with Yersinia spp. by culture method and 25% of chicken meat was contaminated with Yersinia enterocolitica. Biotyping of isolated colonies showed that all of the isolates belonged to biotype 1A. Culture and detection of Yersinia spp. from food samples traditionally take 4 days. Due to high accuracy and speed of PCR assay, it is a good alternative method for microbiological techniques. In conclusion, poultry meat can act as a source of Y. enterocolitica and could be considered as a public health hazard.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Prevalence of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis and Associated Factors in
           Ethiopia: A Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Background. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has continued to be a challenge for tuberculosis (TB) control globally. Ethiopia is one of the countries with high MDR-TB burden. Objective. The main purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of MDR-TB and associated factors in Ethiopia. Methods. A systematic review of the literatures on prevalence of MDR-TB and associated factors was conducted in the country. Results. In our electronic search, 546 citations were depicted. Among the total 546 citations described, a total of 22 articles met eligibility criteria and were included in the review article. According to our review, the prevalence of MDR-TB ranged from 0 to 46.3%. The average mean rate of MDR-TB in Ethiopia was found to be %. The overall prevalence of MDR-TB in all TB cases was estimated to be 1.4%. From a total of 3849 patients studied, 527 had MDR-TB. Previous exposure to antituberculosis treatment was the most commonly identified risk factor of MDR-TB in Ethiopia. Conclusion. Despite relative decline in incidence of MDR-TB, the distribution and prevalence of MDR-TB continued to be a serious challenge for TB control in Ethiopia. Previous exposure to antituberculosis treatment was also the most common risk factor for MDR-TB. Therefore, strong TB and MDR-TB treatment along with tight introduction of follow-up strategies should be applied for better TB control.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Stress-Adaptive Responses Associated with High-Level Carbapenem Resistance
           in KPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae

    • Abstract: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) organisms have emerged to become a major global public health threat among antimicrobial resistant bacterial human pathogens. Little is known about how CREs emerge. One characteristic phenotype of CREs is heteroresistance, which is clinically associated with treatment failure in patients given a carbapenem. Through in vitro whole-transcriptome analysis we tracked gene expression over time in two different strains (BR7, BR21) of heteroresistant KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, first exposed to a bactericidal concentration of imipenem followed by growth in drug-free medium. In both strains, the immediate response was dominated by a shift in expression of genes involved in glycolysis toward those involved in catabolic pathways. This response was followed by global dampening of transcriptional changes involving protein translation, folding and transport, and decreased expression of genes encoding critical junctures of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. The emerged high-level carbapenem-resistant BR21 subpopulation had a prophage (IS1) disrupting ompK36 associated with irreversible OmpK36 porin loss. On the other hand, OmpK36 loss in BR7 was reversible. The acquisition of high-level carbapenem resistance by the two heteroresistant strains was associated with distinct and shared stepwise transcriptional programs. Carbapenem heteroresistance may emerge from the most adaptive subpopulation among a population of cells undergoing a complex set of stress-adaptive responses.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Nonphotodynamic Roles of Methylene Blue: Display of Distinct
           Antimycobacterial and Anticandidal Mode of Actions

    • Abstract: Significance of methylene blue (MB) in photodynamic therapy against microbes is well established. Previously, we have reported the antifungal potential of MB against Candida albicans. The present study attempts to identify additional antimicrobial effect of MB against another prevalent human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). We explored that MB is efficiently inhibiting the growth of Mycobacterium at 15.62 μg/ml albeit in bacteriostatic manner similar to its fungistatic nature. We uncovered additional cell surface phenotypes (colony morphology and cell sedimentation rate) which were impaired only in Mycobacterium. Mechanistic insights revealed that MB causes energy dependent membrane perturbation in both C. albicans and Mycobacterium. We also confirmed that MB leads to enhanced reactive oxygen species generation in both organisms that could be reversed upon antioxidant supplementation; however, DNA damage could only be observed in Mycobacterium. We provided evidence that although biofilm formation was disrupted in both organisms, cell adherence to human epithelial cells was inhibited only in Mycobacterium. Lastly, RT-PCR results showed good correlation with the biochemical assay. Together, apart from the well-established role of MB in photodynamic therapy, this study provides insights into the distinct antimicrobial mode of actions in two significant human pathogens, Candida and Mycobacterium, which can be extrapolated to improve our understanding of finding novel therapeutic options.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Jan 2018 09:36:31 +000
       
  • Antimicrobial Susceptibility among Colistin, Sulbactam, and Fosfomycin and
           a Synergism Study of Colistin in Combination with Sulbactam or Fosfomycin
           

    • Abstract: This in vitro study aimed to determine the activity of colistin plus sulbactam and colistin plus fosfomycin against carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB). Fifteen clinical isolates were obtained from patients admitted to Phyathai II International Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, from August 2014 to April 2015. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of colistin, sulbactam, and fosfomycin were evaluated using the E-test or broth microdilution and the synergistic activity of the antibacterial combinations (colistin plus sulbactam or fosfomycin) was determined using the chequerboard method. Clonal relationships were explored using repetitive element palindromic- (REP-) PCR. The CRAB isolates were categorized by REP-PCR in 8 groups [A-H]. All CRAB isolates were universally susceptible to colistin but only 20.0% were susceptible to sulbactam. The MIC ranges for colistin, sulbactam, and fosfomycin were 0.75–2 mg/L, 2–96 mg/L, and 64–256 mg/L, respectively. A chequerboard assay revealed that the rates of synergistic and additive effect rates of colistin plus sulbactam and colistin plus fosfomycin were 53.3% and 73.3% of isolates, respectively. No antagonistic effect in any colistin-based combination was observed. However, almost CRAB strains in clone A showed the synergy or additive effects of colistin-sulbactam combination, whereas the other clone (B-H) mostly showed indifferent effects. In conclusion, colistin plus sulbactam and colistin plus fosfomycin against CRAB seem to be interesting option but the efficacy in clinical use has to be evaluated.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Jan 2018 10:01:36 +000
       
  • First Report of blaCTX-M-28 in Enterobacteriaceae Isolates in the United
           Arab Emirates

    • Abstract: Background. The CTX-M family of extended-spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) enzymes is comprised of over 60 gene variants with the predominance of in many regions. In this report, we present the first description of in the United Arab Emirates. Methods. Forty-five non-duplicate ESBL producing isolates identified in a secondary care facility in the United Arab Emirates from June to July 2016 were studied. Gene sequencing was performed and DNA sequences were annotated using the BLAST program to identify the gene subtypes. Results. The majority of the ESBL positive isolates were E. coli (; 86.6%) followed by K. pneumoniae () and K. oxytoca (). All isolates harboured and genes, 18 had , and 2 were positive. Thirty-seven isolates (82.2%) were positive for . Other genes identified include (; isolates #1 and 26) and one each for ,, and . No was identified. The predominant subtype was () followed by one of each of ,, and . The subtypes were and . Conclusion. The findings indicate the first description of in a setting where was previously predominant.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Jan 2018 06:25:38 +000
       
  • Molecular Detection of Brucella spp. from Milk of Seronegative Cows from
           Some Selected Area in Bangladesh

    • Abstract: Brucellosis is endemic in Bangladesh both in humans and in animals. A number of reasons complicate the diagnosis, as bovine brucellosis can be diagnosed by various serological tests. But the tests have a limitation; when the organism remains intracellular, the disease goes into chronic stage and the antibody titres may decline. The present study was conducted for isolation and detection of Brucella spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from seronegative cows. A total of 360 dairy cows from three geographical regions were screened serologically by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) where 24 samples were serologically positive and the rest of the samples were serologically negative. Among the 24 seropositive individuals, 11 were culture positive and 6 were culture positive from serologically negative dairy cows. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle was 6.6% and in disease condition a higher prevalence was recorded in abortion (28.07%) followed by infertility (13.33%). To confirm the Brucella spp. in seronegative dairy cattle, the isolates were extracted and PCR was conducted, which produced 905 bp amplicon size of 6 Brucella spp. from milk sample. So, for the detection or eradication of brucellosis, a bacteriological test and a PCR technique should be performed with the serological test of milk.
      PubDate: Sun, 14 Jan 2018 07:33:52 +000
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 34.200.236.68
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-