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Journal Cover Anatomy Research International
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   ISSN (Print) 2090-2743 - ISSN (Online) 2090-2751
   Published by Hindawi Publishing Corporation Homepage  [402 journals]
  • Right Hepatic Artery: A Cadaver Investigation and Its Clinical

    • Abstract: The right hepatic artery is an end artery and contributes sole arterial supply to right lobe of the liver. Misinterpretation of normal anatomy and anatomical variations of the right hepatic artery contribute to the major intraoperative mishaps and complications in hepatobiliary surgery. The frequency of inadvertent or iatrogenic hepatobiliary vascular injury rises with the event of an aberrant anatomy. This descriptive study was carried out to document the normal anatomy and different variations of right hepatic artery to contribute to existing knowledge of right hepatic artery to improve surgical safety. This study conducted on 60 cadavers revealed aberrant replaced right hepatic artery in 18.3% and aberrant accessory right hepatic artery in 3.4%. Considering the course, the right hepatic artery ran outside Calot’s triangle in 5% of cases and caterpillar hump right hepatic artery was seen in 13.3% of cases. The right hepatic artery (normal and aberrant) crossed anteriorly to the common hepatic duct in 8.3% and posteriorly to it in 71.6%. It has posterior relations with the common bile duct in 16.7% while in 3.4% it did not cross the common hepatic duct or common bile duct. The knowledge of such anomalies is important since their awareness will decrease morbidity and help to keep away from a number of surgical complications.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Dec 2015 13:39:58 +000
  • Distal Insertional Footprint of the Brachialis Muscle: 3D Morphometric

    • Abstract: Objective. The purpose of this study is to describe the three-dimensional morphometry of the brachialis muscle at its distal attachment to the ulna. Methods. Fifty cadaveric elbows were dissected and the brachialis distal insertion was isolated on the ulna bone and probed with a three-dimensional digitizer, to create a three-dimensional model of the footprint. Measurements and analysis of each footprint shape were recorded and compared based on gender and size. Results. There was significant gender difference in the surface length () and projected length () of the brachialis footprint. The shapes of the footprint also differed among the specimens. Conclusion. The shape of the brachialis muscle insertion differed among all the specimens without significant variation in gender or sides. There was also a significant difference in muscle length between males and females with little difference in the width and surface area. Significance. The information obtained from this study is important for kinematic understanding and surgical procedures around the elbow joint as well as the understanding of the natural age related anatomy of the brachialis footprint morphology.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Nov 2015 14:15:31 +000
  • Anatomy of the Ophthalmic Artery: A Review concerning Its Modern Surgical
           and Clinical Applications

    • Abstract: Anatomy of ophthalmic artery has been thoroughly studied and reviewed in many anatomical and surgical textbooks and papers. Issues of interest are its intracranial and extracranial course, its branches, its importance for vision, and its interaction with various intracranial pathologies. Improvement of our understanding about pathophysiology of certain diseases like aneurysm formation, central retinal artery occlusion, and retinoblastoma and also invention of new therapeutic modalities like superselective catheterization, intra-arterial fibrinolysis, and intra-arterial chemotherapy necessitate a reappraisal of its anatomy from a clinical point of view. The aim of this review is to examine clinical anatomy of ophthalmic artery and correlate it with new diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Nov 2015 11:16:02 +000
  • Angle at the Medial Border: The Spinovertebra Angle and Its Significance

    • Abstract: Background. The evolution from quadrupedalism to bipedalism has adjusted the balance of the upper limb to extensive movement at the shoulder. The scapular angles provide the point of attachment and control to various muscles and have been associated with the different movements of the shoulder girdle and joint. This has made the morphometric and anthropometric study of scapula a subject of extensive investigation. Aim. In the present study, the angle at the medial border was measured in the South-Southern Nigerian population and an anatomical name was ascribed to the angle. Method. The study was conducted on 173 scapulae (75 right and 98 left) obtained from various Anatomy Department of South-Sothern Nigerian Universities. The angle at medial border was obtained by pinning the edge of the superior and inferior angles, the lined traced out, and the angle measured using a protractor. SPSS version 20 was used to analyse the data. t-test was used to determine mean angular difference in the sides. Result. The mean ± SD of the medial angle was observed to be 136.88 ± 7.70° (R = 138.13 ± 7.06° : L = 135.92 ± 8.05°). Statistical analysis using the Z-test for mean difference showed the medial angle was found to be higher in the right side of the scapula (mean difference of 2.214 ± 1.152°), but the observed difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The above findings have adjusted the scapula from three to four angles (lateral, superior, inferior, and medial) formed from four borders (lateral, superior, inferior, and superomedial and inferomedial). The medial angle because of its anatomical location was named “spinovertebral” angle, owing to its position at the scapulae spine, and located in medial proximity to the vertebra column. Conclusion. The medial angle (now referred to as the spinovertebral angle) of the right side of the scapula is wider than the left. The representation of the spinovertebral angle is very important, as the directional attachment of the levator scapulae may be altered if it increases or decreases greatly hence resulting in stiffness of the neck. At this point, it could be postulated that the scapular is quadrangular rather than triangular.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Oct 2015 14:00:56 +000
  • A Morphometric Study of the Foramen of Diaphragma Sellae and Delineation
           of Its Relation to Optic Neural Pathways through Computer Aided

    • Abstract: The diaphragma sellae (DS) is a fold of dura that forms a partial roof over the pituitary gland. The foramen of the diaphragma sellae (FDS) is thereby a pathway for suprasellar extension of pituitary tumors. The purpose of this study was to describe the anatomical dimensions of the DS and FDS and to understand the relationship of FDS with the overlying optic chiasma. The study was conducted in 100 autopsy cases. Measurements were taken using vernier calipers. Photographs, taken before and after removal of optic pathway, were superimposed using image processing software. The results showed that the mean A-P dimension of DS was 1.17 ± 0.48 cm; the lateral dimension of DS was 1.58 ± 0.60 cm. The mean A-P dimension of FDS was 0.66 ± 0.42 cm; the lateral dimension of FDS was 0.82 cm ± 0.54 cm. The shapes of FDS were irregular (40%), transversely oval (29%), circular (13%), sagittally oval (11%), or trapezoid with posterior dimension more than the anterior one (6%) or anterior dimension more than the posterior one (1%). The margins of FDS were either well defined (31%) or ill defined (69%). The positional relation of FDS to optic chiasma was also found out.
      PubDate: Sun, 13 Sep 2015 13:03:35 +000
  • Dimensions and Anatomical Variants of the Foramen Transversarium of
           Typical Cervical Vertebrae

    • Abstract: The study was conducted on random sample of seventy-one dried, typical cervical vertebrae (C3–C6). The data on the age, sex, and built was not available. Using vernier calipers with 0.01 mm accuracy, the anteroposterior and transverse diameters of transverse foramina and their distance from the medial margin of the uncinate process were measured bilaterally. The mean diameter of the right/left transverse foramen varied from 2.54 mm to 7.79 mm (mean = 5.55 ± 0.87 mm) and from 2.65 mm to 7.35 mm (mean = 5.48 ± 0.77 mm), respectively. The transverse foramen was less than 3.5 mm in three vertebrae on the right and two on the left. The osteocytes observed in 21.3% of specimens and the narrow transverse foramen may place patients at risk for vertebrobasilar insufficiency or thrombus formation. The mean distance of the transverse foramen from the medial margin of uncinate process is an important landmark to avoid vertebral artery laceration and was 5.0 ± 0.87 mm (range: 3.5–7.9 mm) on the right and 5.0 ± 1.0 mm (range: 3.2–7.7 mm) on the left side. No statistically significant difference was observed between the right and left sides. The accessory transverse foramina seen in 24% of vertebrae suggest duplications or fenestrations in the vertebral artery.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Sep 2015 11:59:52 +000
  • Anatomical Study of Chiari Network and the Remnant of Left Venous Valve in
           the Interior of Right Atrium

    • Abstract: Chiari network occurs due to incomplete resorption of right valve of sinus venosus. It is often noticed as fenestrated membranous structure or reticular network like structure in the valve of inferior vena cava and coronary sinus. The remnant of left venous valve is observed as trabeculae over the fossa ovalis. The incidence of Chiari network and the remnant of left venous valve were studied in 80 cadaveric hearts utilized for teaching the undergraduates. The right atrium was opened anterior to sulcus terminalis and the interior was examined for the presence of these embryological remnants. The incidence of Chiari network and left venous valve in the present study is 3.75% and 7.5%, respectively. Chiari network was observed as a fenestrated membranous structure in 2 specimens and a reticular network in 1 specimen, with variable extension to coronary sinus opening and right atrial wall. The remnant of left venous valve was observed as multiple fine strands in 3 specimens and trabecular structure in 3 specimens. These structures may create diagnostic confusion, difficulty in interventional procedures, and complications like thromboembolic events. Hence, the knowledge about the incidence, morphology, and clinical manifestations of these rare embryological remnants is mandatory.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Sep 2015 13:40:44 +000
  • Inner Synovial Membrane Footprint of the Anterior Elbow Capsule: An
           Arthroscopic Boundary

    • Abstract: Introduction. The purpose of this study is to describe the inner synovial membrane (SM) of the anterior elbow capsule, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Materials and Methods. Twenty-two cadaveric human elbows were dissected and the distal humerus and SM attachments were digitized using a digitizer. The transepicondylar line (TEL) was used as the primary descriptor of various landmarks. The distance between the medial epicondyle and medial SM edge, SM apex overlying the coronoid fossa, the central SM nadir, and the apex of the SM insertion overlying the radial fossa and distance from the lateral epicondyle to lateral SM edge along the TEL were measured and further analyzed. Gender and side-to-side statistical comparisons were calculated. Results. The mean age of the subjects was 80.4 years, with six male and five female cadavers. The SM had a distinctive double arched attachment overlying the radial and coronoid fossae. No gender-based or side-to-side quantitative differences were noted. In 18 out of 22 specimens (81.8%), an infolding extension of the SM was observed overlying the medial aspect of the trochlea. The SM did not coincide with the outer fibrous attachment in any specimen. Conclusion. The humeral footprint of the synovial membrane of the anterior elbow capsule is more complex and not as capacious as commonly understood from the current literature. The synovial membrane nadir between the two anterior fossae may help to explain and hence preempt technical difficulties, a reduction in working arthroscopic volume in inflammatory and posttraumatic pathologies. This knowledge should allow the surgeon to approach this aspect of the anterior elbow compartment space with the confidence that detachment of this synovial attachment, to create working space, does not equate to breaching the capsule. Alternatively, stripping the synovial attachment from the anterior humerus does not constitute an anterior capsular release.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Aug 2015 10:27:51 +000
  • Study of Posterior Cerebral Artery in Human Cadaveric Brain

    • Abstract: Objective. Basilar artery (BA) terminates in right and left posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs). Each PCA supplies respective occipital lobe of the cerebrum. The present study is designed to know the morphology, morphometry, branching pattern, and symmetry of PCA. Methods. The study included 340 PCAs dissected from 170 human cadaveric brains. Results. Morphological variations of P1 segment included, aplasia (2.35%), hypoplasia (5.29%), duplication (2.35%), fenestration (1.17%), and common trunk shared with SCA (1.76%). Morphological variations of origin of P2 segment included direct origin of it from BA (1.17%) and ICA (2.35%). Unusually, two P2 segments, each arising separately from BA and ICA, were observed in 1.17%. Unilateral two P2 segments from CW were found in 0.58%. Morphological variations of course of P2 were duplication (0.58%), fenestration (0.58%), and aneurysm (1.76%). Unilateral P2 either adult or fetal was seen in 4.71%. The group II branching pattern was found to be most common. Asymmetry of P2 was 40%. Morphometry of P2 revealed mean length of 52 mm and mean diameter of 2.7 mm. Conclusion. The present study provides the complete anatomical description of PCA regarding morphology, morphometry, symmetry, and its branching pattern. Awareness of these variations is likely to be useful in cerebrovascular procedures.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Aug 2015 11:27:06 +000
  • Retromolar Canal Associated with Age, Side, Sex, Bifid Mandibular Canal,
           and Accessory Mental Foramen in Panoramic Radiographs of Brazilians

    • Abstract: Background. The retromolar canal (RMC) is an anatomical variation that can cause complications in dental procedures. Method. The RMC was evaluated according to age, sex, and presence of accessory mandibular canal and accessory mental foramen, on both sides in 500 panoramic radiographs, belonging to individuals at the age of 7 to 20 years. The associations of interest were studied through Fisher’s Exact Test and Pearson’s Chi-Square Test, and the correlation was studied through Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient (r). The significance level used was 5%. Results. The RMC was observed in 44 radiographs (8.8%), and out of those 24 were females. There was no statistically significant association between the RMC and age (; Fisher’s Exact Test), sex (; Pearson’s Chi-Square Test), amount of mandibular canals and mental foramina, on both sides (; Pearson’s Chi-Square Test). There was a significant association between RMC and side, the higher frequency of the canal being on the right side (; Fisher’s Exact Test). Conclusions. Despite the low occurrence of the RMC, its identification and the verification of its dimensions and path are relevant, mainly in cases when anesthetic and surgical procedures can present failures or difficulties.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Aug 2015 16:13:57 +000
  • Variations in the Root Form and Root Canal Morphology of Permanent
           Mandibular First Molars in a Sri Lankan Population

    • Abstract: The present study was conducted to determine the number of roots and morphology of the root canal system of permanent mandibular first molars (M1) in a Sri Lankan population. Sample of 529 M1 teeth was used. The number of roots was examined and the lengths of the mesial and distal roots were measured to the nearest 0.01 mm. Vacuum injection protocol was used to inject China ink into the root canal system, making it transparent. Root canal morphology was recorded using Vertucci’s classification. Presence of furcation canals, position of lateral canals, intercanal communications, level of bifurcation, and convergence of the root canal system were recorded. M1 showed three roots in 4.1% of the sample. Commonest root canal morphology of the mesial root was type IV and the distal root was type I. The level of bifurcation of the root canals was commonly observed in the cervical one-third of the root while convergence was observed in the apical one-third in both roots. Prevalence of three rooted mandibular first molars is less than 5%. Mesial root showed the most variable canal morphology. Prevalence of furcation canals was 1.5% while that of middle mesial canals was 0.2%.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Aug 2015 09:46:49 +000
  • The Prevalence and Classification of the Cystoduodenal Ligament

    • Abstract: Variant patterns of peritoneal folds could be formed due to the complex nature of the embryology of the peritoneum and the gastrointestinal tract. When uncommon peritoneal folds are formed, they could influence aberrant formation of surrounding gastrointestinal structures and create spaces that may harbour peritoneal fluids in cases of infection or malignant tumor. One of such variant peritoneal folds is the cystoduodenal ligament which is a doubled peritoneal membrane attaching the gallbladder to the duodenum. Yet no study was found that had reported the frequency of occurrence of the cystoduodenal ligament. The current study determined the prevalence of the cystoduodenal ligament in forty adult cadavers. The ligament was reported in 35% of cases. The ligament was further classified as types I and II. Type I cystoduodenal ligament was attached partially to the gallbladder (neck and proximal part of body) while type II was attached to the entire extent of the gallbladder. Type I occurrence was found in 44% and type II was found in 56% of the occasions of cystoduodenal ligament formation. It is concluded that the cystoduodenal ligament could be commonly found, it possesses important vascular structures, and it could affect the shape of the gallbladder. Surgeons, radiologists, and anatomists should be kept abreast of these findings.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Aug 2015 06:49:26 +000
  • Binary Logistic Regression Analysis of Foramen Magnum Dimensions for Sex

    • Abstract: Purpose. The structural integrity of foramen magnum is usually preserved in fire accidents and explosions due to its resistant nature and secluded anatomical position and this study attempts to determine its sexing potential. Methods. The sagittal and transverse diameters and area of foramen magnum of seventy-two skulls (41 male and 31 female) from south Indian population were measured. The analysis was done using Student’s t-test, linear correlation, histogram, Q-Q plot, and Binary Logistic Regression (BLR) to obtain a model for sex determination. The predicted probabilities of BLR were analysed using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. Result. BLR analysis and ROC curve revealed that the predictability of the dimensions in sexing the crania was 69.6% for sagittal diameter, 66.4% for transverse diameter, and 70.3% for area of foramen. Conclusion. The sexual dimorphism of foramen magnum dimensions is established. However, due to considerable overlapping of male and female values, it is unwise to singularly rely on the foramen measurements. However, considering the high sex predictability percentage of its dimensions in the present study and the studies preceding it, the foramen measurements can be used to supplement other sexing evidence available so as to precisely ascertain the sex of the skeleton.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Aug 2015 08:47:09 +000
  • Use of Digital Panoramic Radiographs in the Study of Styloid Process

    • Abstract: This work aimed to evaluate the occurrence of suggestive images of styloid process elongation in panoramic radiographs, noting their frequency according to sex, age, and location, as well as measure and classify the types and patterns of calcification of elongated styloid processes. 2,500 panoramic radiographs were evaluated in a Radiology Clinic in Recife, PE, Brazil, performed between 2008 and 2010, with the age ranging from 25 to 80 years old. 560 of the radiographs analyzed fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of this total, 216 (38.57%) presented suggestive images of the styloid process elongation, 45 (20.8%) belonging to male and 171 (79.2%) to female, and 84.7% were bilateral. After all measurements, mean values of 35.5 mm (left side) and 37.6 mm (right side) were obtained and these differences were statistically significant (). The most common type of stretching found was elongated (type I) with 73.1%, and the pattern of calcification was partially calcified (62.5%). It was found that the elongation of the styloid process is an anatomical variation, which must be taken into account by dentists, and because panoramic radiography is a technique of easy approach and low cost and routine, it can be used to aid in the diagnosis of elongated styloid process.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Jul 2015 12:20:10 +000
  • Anatomical Study of the Ulnar Nerve Variations at High Humeral Level and
           Their Possible Clinical and Diagnostic Implications

    • Abstract: Background. Descriptive evaluation of nerve variations plays a pivotal role in the usefulness of clinical or surgical practice, as an anatomical variation often sets a risk of nerve palsy syndrome. Ulnar nerve (UN) is one amongst the major nerves involved in neuropathy. In the present anatomical study, variations related to ulnar nerve have been identified and its potential clinical implications discussed. Materials and Method. We examined 50 upper limb dissected specimens for possible ulnar nerve variations. Careful observation for any aberrant formation and/or communication in relation to UN has been carried out. Results. Four out of 50 limbs (8%) presented with variations related to ulnar nerve. Amongst them, in two cases abnormal communication with neighboring nerve was identified and variation in the formation of UN was noted in remaining two limbs. Conclusion. An unusual relation of UN with its neighboring nerves, thus muscles, and its aberrant formation might jeopardize the normal sensori-motor behavior. Knowledge about anatomical variations of the UN is therefore important for the clinicians in understanding the severity of ulnar nerve neuropathy related complications.
      PubDate: Sun, 12 Jul 2015 09:38:45 +000
  • Pes Anserinus Structural Framework and Constituting Tendons Are Grossly
           Aberrant in Nigerian Population

    • Abstract: We evaluated the morphological framework of the pes anserinus in both knees of ten Nigerian cadavers and we observed high degree of variability in its morphology and location. The pes anserinus inserted specifically on the superior half of the media border of the tibia, as far inferiorly as 124.44 mm to the tibial tuberosity (prolonged insertion). The insertion was also joined to the part of tibia close to the tibia tuberosity (90%) and to the fascia cruris (10%). The initial insertion point of the pes anserinus was always found at the level of the tibia tuberosity. We found out that accessory bands of sartorius, gracilis, or semitendinosus were part of the pes anserinus in 95% of all occasions studied whereas the combined occurrence of monotendinosus sartorius, gracilis, and semitendinosus tendons was found in only 5% of all occasions. The pes anserinus did not conform to the layered pattern and the tendons of sartorius, gracilis, or semitendinosus were short. The inferior prolongation of the pes anserinus connotes extended surface area of attachment to support the mechanical pull from the hamstring muscles. This information will be useful in precise location and grafting of the pes anserinus.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Jul 2015 12:12:19 +000
  • Artery to Cystic Duct: A Consistent Branch of Cystic Artery Seen in
           Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    • Abstract: Uncontrolled arterial bleeding during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a serious problem and may increase the risk of bile duct damage. Therefore, accurate identification of the anatomy of the cystic artery is very important. Cystic artery is notoriously known to have a highly variable branching pattern. We reviewed the anatomy of the cystic artery and its branch to cystic duct as seen through the video laparoscope. A single artery to cystic duct with the classical “H-configuration” was demonstrated in 161 (91.47%) patients. This branch may cause troublesome bleeding during laparoscopic dissection in the hepatobiliary triangle. Careful identification of artery to cystic duct is helpful in the proper dissection of Calot’s triangle as it reduces the chances of hemorrhage and thus may also be helpful in prevention of extrahepatic biliary radical injuries.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Jul 2015 11:04:29 +000
  • Pyramidal Lobe of the Thyroid Gland: Surgical Anatomy in Patients
           Undergoing Total Thyroidectomy

    • Abstract: Background. Anatomic variations, the presence of the pyramidal lobe (PL), may impact completeness of thyroidectomy and effect of surgical treatment. Method. This study included 166 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy. The anterior cervical region between the thyroid isthmus and the hyoid bone was dissected during thyroid surgery. The incidence, size, and anatomical features of the PL were established in these patients. Results. The incidence of PL was 65.7%. No gender difference was found for PL incidence. The base of the PL was located at the isthmus in 52.3%, the left lobe in 29.4%, and the right lobe in 18.3% of patients. The mean length of the PL was 22.7 (range, 5–59) mm. The PL was longer than 30 mm in 23% of patients. One-third of the patients with short PL were men whereas women accounted for 80% of patients with long PL. Conclusions. The high incidence indicates that the PL is a common part of the thyroid. The PL generally originates from the isthmus near midline and is of variable length, extending from the isthmus up to the hyoid bone. Considering that the PL is a common structure, the prelaryngeal region should be dissected to achieve the completeness of thyroidectomy.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Jul 2015 11:08:42 +000
  • Histology and Morphology of the Brain Subarachnoid Trabeculae

    • Abstract: The interface between the brain and the skull consists of three fibrous tissue layers, dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater, known as the meninges, and strands of collagen tissues connecting the arachnoid to the pia mater, known as trabeculae. The space between the arachnoid and the pia mater is filled with cerebrospinal fluid which stabilizes the shape and position of the brain during head movements or impacts. The histology and architecture of the subarachnoid space trabeculae in the brain are not well established in the literature. The only recognized fact about the trabeculae is that they are made of collagen fibers surrounded by fibroblast cells and they have pillar- and veil-like structures. In this work the histology and the architecture of the brain trabeculae were studied, via a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments using cadaveric and animal tissue. In the cadaveric study fluorescence and bright field microscopy were employed while scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used for the animal studies. The results of this study reveal that the trabeculae are collagen based type I, and their architecture is in the form of tree-shaped rods, pillars, and plates and, in some regions, they have a complex network morphology.
      PubDate: Sun, 24 May 2015 14:07:52 +000
  • Immunohistological Analysis of the Jun Family and the Signal Transducers
           and Activators of Transcription in Thymus

    • Abstract: The Jun family and the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) are involved in proliferation and apoptosis. Moreover, c-Jun and STAT3 cooperate to regulate apoptosis. Therefore, we used double immunostaining to investigate the immunotopographical distribution of phospho-c-Jun (p-c-Jun), JunB, JunD, p-STAT3, p-STAT5, and p-STAT6 in human thymus. JunD was frequently expressed by thymocytes with higher expression in medullary compared to cortical thymocytes. p-c-Jun was frequently expressed by cortical and medullary thymic epithelial cells (TEC) and Hassall bodies (HB). p-STAT3 was frequently expressed by TEC with higher expression in cortical compared to medullary TEC and HB. p-c-Jun, JunB, p-STAT3, p-STAT5, and p-STAT6 were rarely expressed by thymocytes. JunB and JunD were expressed by rare cortical TEC with higher expression in medullary TEC. p-STAT5 and p-STAT6 were expressed by rare cortical and medullary TEC. Double immunostaining revealed p-c-Jun and JunD expression in rare CD11c positive dendritic cells. Our findings suggest a notable implication of JunD in the physiology of thymocytes and p-c-Jun and p-STAT3 in the physiology of TEC. The diversity of the immunotopographical distribution and the expression levels of p-c-Jun, JunB, JunD, p-STAT3, p-STAT5, and p-STAT6 indicates that they are differentially involved in the differentiation of TEC, thymocytes, and dendritic cells.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Mar 2015 10:04:25 +000
  • The Quality Assessment of Stored Red Blood Cells Probed Using Atomic-Force

    • Abstract: At the moment the suitability of stored red blood cells (sRBC) for transfusion is checked by routine methods such as haemoglobin estimation and the level of haemolysis. These methods cannot characterize directly the quality of the membranes of sRBC. The aim of this work is to assess the quality of sRBC based on such criteria as the membrane’s stiffness and the size and the form of sRBC. Materials and Methods. We have investigated 5 series of dry cytosmears of the sRBC which had been kept in blood bank in a period from 1 to 35 days. After AFM imaging, in every specimen, 5 RBC were chosen at random; the diameter, the height, and the stiffness were measured on each of them. Results. The present study shows high increase of the mean values of YM and height of RBC after 35 days of storage and decrease of the mean values of their diameter. Conclusion. Statistically significant high increase of the mean values of YM indicates the decrease of the elasticity of the cells in the course of storing of the RBC. This parameter along with the morphological characteristics can be used as criterion for assessment of applicability of the sRBC for blood transfusion.
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Dec 2014 11:43:08 +000
  • Variability in the Branching Pattern of the Internal Iliac Artery in
           Indian Population and Its Clinical Importance

    • Abstract: Internal iliac artery (IIA) is one of the terminal branches of the common iliac artery and is the prime artery of pelvis. The artery has many parietal and visceral branches and hence the variations are frequently noted. The larger branches, namely, the inferior gluteal artery, the superior gluteal artery, and the internal pudendal artery, show sufficient regularity in their patterns of origin to allow typing. The variability of the IIA and its branching pattern were studied by dissecting sixty-eight male pelvic halves (34 right and 34 left) and forty-eight female pelvic halves (24 right and 24 left sides). In significant number of specimens, IIA terminated without dividing into 2 trunks as against the usual description. There was also considerable interchange of branches between the 2 terminal divisions. The patterns of branching noted were grouped as per Adachi’s classification. The incidence was noted to be as follows: type Ia in 60.6%, type Ib in 2.6%, type IIa in 15.8%, and type III in 21%. The other types were not observed in this study. Conclusion. Interventions in the pelvic region must take into account the variability of the IIA and its branches that can modify the expected relations and may lead to undesired hemorrhagic or embolic accidents.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Dec 2014 00:10:07 +000
  • Comparison of Two Methods for the Measurement of Medial and Lateral
           Metapodial Bones in Karagouniko Sheep (Ovis aries, L. 1758) and Hellenic
           Goat (Capra hircus, L. 1758)

    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to compare the metapodial lengths of sheep and goats measured with a caliper with those measured using a 2-dimensional digital method. Complementarily, the lengths of medial and lateral metapodials in these species were compared. The limbs of 30 ewes and 30 goats were used. After preparation, the lateral and medial length of the metacarpals and metatarsals were measured twice with a caliper. Afterwards, each bone was scanned and the same lengths were digitally measured twice using commercial software. Data analysis revealed strong linear relationship between the two methods but the absolute relative deviation of the measurements with the caliper was significantly higher than those with the 2-dimensional method (). All lengths measured with the caliper were significantly higher compared to those measured with the 2-dimensional method (). In goats, the lateral length of both metacarpals and metatarsals was significantly higher than medial length (); in sheep the lateral length was significantly higher compared to the medial one only in metatarsal bones (). In conclusion, the 2-dimensional method is more accurate for the measurement of the metapodials’ length than the caliper and there is asymmetry between the medial and lateral metapodials in these species.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +000
  • Photoelastic and Finite Element Analyses of Occlusal Loads in Mandibular

    • Abstract: This study proposed to evaluate the mandibular biomechanics in the posterior dentition based on experimental and computational analyses. The analyses were performed on a model of human mandible, which was modeled by epoxy resin for photoelastic analysis and by computer-aided design for finite element analysis. To standardize the evaluation, specific areas were determined at the lateral surface of mandibular body. The photoelastic analysis was configured through a vertical load on the first upper molar and fixed support at the ramus of mandible. The same configuration was used in the computer simulation. Force magnitudes of 50, 100, 150, and 200 N were applied to evaluate the bone stress. The stress results presented similar distribution in both analyses, with the more intense stress being at retromolar area and oblique line and alveolar process at molar level. This study presented the similarity of results in the experimental and computational analyses and, thus, showed the high importance of morphology biomechanical characterization at posterior dentition.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Oct 2014 11:46:15 +000
  • Analysis of Occlusal Vertical Dimension and Mandibular Basal Bone Height
           in a Nigerian Population

    • Abstract: Background. The actual basal bone height of the reconstructed mandible is relevant to achieve normal occlusal vertical dimension for the prosthesis fabricated. The purpose of the study was to determine the mean and baseline values of the occlusal vertical dimension and height of the mandibular basal bone in a Nigerian population. Method. Each participant was asked to bring the upper and lower teeth into contact, while the distance between the nasal sill and dimple on the lower lip was measured (OVD). The skin at lower border of the mandible was marked and the distance between this point and the landmark on the lower lip was measured, MBH. Result. 200 subjects were evaluated. Age range was 16–30 years, mean (SD), 21.6 (3.1) years. Males had mean ± (SD) of 42.10 (5.34) mm for OVD and females 39.72 (5.25) mm; acceptable baseline range of OVD for any population will be 34–48 mm (3.4–4.8) cm. All the males had a mean (SD), 30.54 (6.13) mm for MBH, and all the females 29.63 (5.23) mm. Acceptable baseline range of MBH for any population will be 24–37 mm (2.4–3.7) cm. Conclusion. To reconstruct the mandible and still maintain the OVD, heights of bone grafts must not be less than 2 cm or greater than 4 cm.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +000
  • Occurrence of the Retromolar Foramen in Dry Mandibles of South-Eastern
           Part of India: A Morphological Study with Review of the Literature

    • Abstract: The retromolar foramen (RMF) is a rare anatomical structure situated in the retromolar fossa behind the third molar tooth. When it is present, the foramen is connected with the mandibular canal and is believed to transmit neurovascular structures that provide accessory source to the mandibular molars and the buccal area. Reports from the literature show that the presence of RMF could pose a challenge in complete blockage of the inferior alveolar nerve during mandibular surgeries. We report the incidence of retromolar foramen from ninety-four dry mandibles of south-eastern part of Karnataka State, India. The foramen was observed in 11 mandibles out of 94 included in the study (11.7%). In three mandibles, the foramen was present bilaterally (3.2%) and in three it was on the left side (3.2%) and in five it was on the right side (5.3%). For the first time, we also measured the dimensions of the retromolar area and distance of the foramen from third molar tooth to understand its risks during the surgical extraction of the lower third molar tooth. A thorough review of the literature has also been done to compare the present findings with the studies reported from the various populations.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Sep 2014 08:13:42 +000
  • Variation in Anatomical Position of Vermiform Appendix among Iranian
           Population: An Old Issue Which Has Not Lost Its Importance

    • Abstract: Vermiform appendix has diverse anatomical positions, lengths, and conditions of mesoappendix. Knowing the exact anatomical position of vermiform appendix is important in view of surgeons for on-time diagnosis and management of acute appendicitis. The aim of present study is determination of these characteristics of vermiform appendix among Iranian population. The present study was conducted on 200 bodies, selected from the dead bodies that had been referred to local bureau of legal medicine, Zenjan province, Iran, for medicolegal autopsy since 21 Mar 2010 to 21 Mar 2011. According to the results, the anatomical positions of the appendix were pelvic, subcecal, retroileal, retrocecal, ectopic, and preileal in 55.8%, 19%, 12.5%, 7%, 4.2%, and 1.5% of the bodies, respectively. The mean length of vermiform appendix was 91.2 mm and 80.3 mm in men and women, respectively. Mesoappendix was complete in 79.5% of the bodies. No association was found between sex and anatomical position of vermiform appendix. Anterior anatomical position was the most common position for vermiform appendix. It is inconsistent with most related reports from western countries. It might be possible that some factors, such as race, geographical changes, and dietary habits, play roles in determining the position of vermiform appendix.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Sep 2014 07:28:47 +000
  • A Comparative Study of Palatal Rugae Patterns among Igbo and Ikwerre
           Ethnic Groups of Nigeria: A University of Port Harcourt Study

    • Abstract: Background. Palatal rugae pattern of an individual is species specific and is said to be as unique as finger print. Aims and Objectives. The aim of this study was to identify and compare the rugae pattern of Igbo and Ikwerre populations in Nigeria for human identification purposes. Materials and Methods. The present study was conducted from random sampling of University of Port Harcourt students. A total number of 140 subjects (70 Igbos and 70 Ikwerres) of age bracket of 18–30 were used. Results. The different shapes of rugae were obviously observed with varying degrees of predominance among the two tribes. The most predominant patterns are wavy and curvy followed by straight. The Igbos were predominantly wavy while the Ikwerres were predominantly of curve and straight patterns. The Igbo males and females had more wavy pattern with percentage values of 51.6% and 59.9% which is significantly higher in proportion () as compared to the Ikwerre males and females with percentage values of 35.6% and 40.6%. On the other hand, Ikwerre males and females proved to be curve dominant with percentage values of 45.2% and 34.4% and this showed significant difference in proportion () as compared to the Igbo males and females with percentage curve values of 27.9% and 26.1%. Conclusion. The result obtained from this study is clear evidence of ethnic differences in relation to sex; hence the incidence of predominance is population dependent.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +000
  • Microanatomical Study of Embryonic Gonadal Development in Japanese Quail
           (Coturnix japonica)

    • Abstract: Gonadal development of quail embryos was examined histologically using histological and histochemical methods. In the present study, quail embryos were studied at various stages of incubation period based on phases of gonadogenesis. Germ cell migration was observed on day 3-4 but gonadal differentiation and gonadal function were observed on day 6–8 and day 11–14, respectively. During germ cell migration, quail primordial germ cells (qPGCs) were successfully detected in both left and right genital ridges as well as the dorsal mesentery by lectin histochemistry. Unexpectedly, qPGCs-like cells were found next to the neural tube by Mallory-AZAN stain. During gonadal differentiation, embryonic sex can be distinguished histologically since day 8 of incubation. Embryonic testis exhibited a thin cortex, whereas embryonic ovary exhibited a thick cortex. Testicular cord formation was found in the medulla of embryonic testes while the lacunae and fat-laden cells were found in the medulla of embryonic ovary during gonadal function. This is the first report on a comparison of phases of gonadogenesis and histochemical study of quail embryonic gonads in both sexes.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 Sep 2014 08:57:22 +000
  • Anterior Mandibular Lingual Foramina: An In Vivo Investigation

    • Abstract: In descriptions of surgical procedures in mandible, often there is no mention of an anatomical variance, the genial spinal foramina, where nerves and vessels go through. Aim of this study is to investigate frequency, shape, and dimensions of these foramina. 56 computed tomography dentascans were analyzed with an implant planning software. The considered parameters were frequency, number, position, diameters, and length of canals; the collected data were inserted in a spreadsheet and statistically analyzed; therefore, they were compared with those found in the literature. The measurements agree with the ones found in earlier studies, except for the length of the inferior spinal canals, which resulted lesser than that found in the literature. The frequency of the inferior spinal foramina, the data related to the inferior spinal foramina diameter (cross scan), and the measurements related to the superior spinal foramina diameter (axial scan) resulted to be major compared to those reported in literature. These obtained results are clinically interesting because an implant planning software has been employed, daily used by operators, and that permits in vivo investigations. Furthermore, due to the possibility of hemorrhagic accidents in this mandibular region, these data are particularly interesting for all of the operators who make interventions in this area.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Aug 2014 10:41:26 +000
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