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MEDICAL SCIENCES (1857 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 201 - 400 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Biologics in Therapy     Open Access  
Biology of Sex Differences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomarker Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomarkers in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical & Life Sciences Collection     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Informatics Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Optics Express     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Photonics     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
Biomedical Research Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Biomedicine Hub     Open Access  
Biomedicines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BIRDEM Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
BJS Open     Open Access  
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Blickpunkt Medizin     Hybrid Journal  
BMC Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
BMC Medical Research Methodology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
BMC Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
BMC Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BMC Research Notes     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
BMH Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMJ     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1288)
BMJ Case Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
BMJ Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BMJ Open     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
BMJ Open Science     Open Access  
BMJ Quality Improvement Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Bodine Journal     Open Access  
Boletín del Consejo Académico de Ética en Medicina     Open Access  
Boletín del ECEMC     Open Access  
Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México     Open Access  
Bone     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Bone and Tissue Regeneration Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Reports     Open Access  
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Brachytherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Brain and Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Brain Connectivity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Brain Impairment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy     Open Access  
Breastfeeding Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
British Journal of Biomedical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
British Journal of General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
British Journal of Hospital Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Bulletin Amades     Open Access  
Bulletin de la Société de pathologie exotique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Legal Medicine     Open Access  
Bulletin of the History of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Free  
Bundesgesundheitsblatt - Gesundheitsforschung - Gesundheitsschutz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Burns     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Burns & Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cadernos de Naturologia e Terapias Complementares     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Ibero-Americanos de Direito Sanitário     Open Access  
Calcified Tissue International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Canadian Medical Association Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Medical Education Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Care Management Journals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Study and Case Report     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cell & Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cell Adhesion & Migration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Cell and Molecular Response to Stress     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cell and Tissue Transplantation and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cell Cycle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Cell Death and Differentiation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cell Death Discovery     Open Access  
Cell Health and Cytoskeleton     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cell Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CEN Case Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Central African Journal of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Ceylon Medical Journal     Open Access  
Chattagram Maa-O-Shishu Hospital Medical College Journal     Open Access  
Chimerism     Full-text available via subscription  
Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Chinese Medical Record English Edition     Hybrid Journal  
Chinese Medical Sciences Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chisholm Health Ethics Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine     Open Access  
Chronic Illness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chronic Wound Care Management and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chronobiology International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ChronoPhysiology and Therapy     Open Access  
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia e Investigación Medico Estudiantil Latinoamericana     Open Access  
Ciencias Clínicas     Open Access  
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cilia     Open Access  
Circulation : Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Cirugía Española     Full-text available via subscription  
Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine     Free   (Followers: 2)
Climacteric     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Clin-Alert     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Anatomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical and Translational Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Audit     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Autonomic Research     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical Biochemist Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clinical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Case Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Cornerstone     Full-text available via subscription  
Clinical Diabetology     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical Interventions in Aging     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Lipidology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Liver Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Medicine and Diagnostics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Medicine and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Reviews in Patient Care     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical Medicine Reviews in Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical Medicine Reviews in Vascular Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Nutrition ESPEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Clinical Phytoscience     Open Access  
Clinical Plasma Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical Reviews and Opinions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Sarcoma Research     Open Access  
Clinical Trials in Degenerative Diseases     Open Access  
Clinical Update     Full-text available via subscription  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinics     Open Access  
Clinics and Practice     Open Access  
Clinics in Chest Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Clinics in Laboratory Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
CMAJ Open     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CNS Drug Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Highlights)     Partially Free   (Followers: 17)
Cogent Medicine     Open Access  
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Colombia Forense     Open Access  
Colombia Médica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coluna/Columna     Open Access  
Combination Products in Therapy     Open Access  
Community Based Medical Journal     Open Access  
Comparative Effectiveness Research     Open Access  
Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Complementary Medicine Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Comprehensive Series in Photosciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Geoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers in Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ConScientiae Saúde     Open Access  
Contemporary Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications     Open Access  
Contemporary Drug Problems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Core Evidence     Open Access  
Correo Científico Médico     Open Access  
Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
CRANIO® : The Journal of Craniomandibular & Sleep Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Critical Ultrasound Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Bioetica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Curare     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Anatomy Research International
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2090-2743 - ISSN (Online) 2090-2751
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [281 journals]
  • Qualitative Analysis of Primary Fingerprint Pattern in Different Blood
           Group and Gender in Nepalese

    • Abstract: Dermatoglyphics, the study of epidermal ridges on palm, sole, and digits, is considered as most effective and reliable evidence of identification. The fingerprints were studied in 300 Nepalese of known blood groups of different ages and classified into primary patterns and then analyzed statistically. In both sexes, incidence of loops was highest in ABO blood group and Rh +ve blood types, followed by whorls and arches, while the incidence of whorls was highest followed by loops and arches in Rh −ve blood types. Loops were higher in all blood groups except “A –ve” and “B –ve” where whorls were predominant. The fingerprint pattern in Rh blood types of blood group “A” was statistically significant while in others it was insignificant. In middle and little finger, loops were higher whereas in ring finger whorls were higher in all blood groups. Whorls were higher in thumb and index finger except in blood group “O” where loops were predominant. This study concludes that distribution of primary pattern of fingerprint is not related to gender and blood group but is related to individual digits.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Infraorbital Foramen and Pterygopalatine Fossa Location in Dry Skulls:
           Anatomical Guidelines for Local Anesthesia

    • Abstract: Purpose. The aim of the study was to locate the infraorbital foramen (IOF) in relation to the infraorbital margin (IOM) for proper injections of local anesthetics in skull specimens. Another aim was to determine the depth of needle penetration into pterygopalatine fossa through the greater palatine canal (GPC). Materials and Methods. 102 skull halves were used to measure the distances between (1) IOF and IOM and (2) IOF and alveolar ridge of maxilla at second premolar. Needles were inserted and bent at a 45° angle, passing through the GPC at the level of hard palate. The depth of the tip of needle emerging out of GPC into pterygopalatine fossa was measured. Results. The mean distance between IOF and IOM was  mm on the right side and  mm on the left. The mean distance between IOF and alveolar bone process of the maxilla at second premolar was  mm on the right side and  mm on the left. The mean depth of penetration of the needle into the pterygopalatine fossa was similar on both sides. Conclusions. Proper identification of IOF and pterygopalatine fossa is of great significance during local anesthesia injections, due to their close proximity to vital anatomic structures.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Dec 2017 07:17:44 +000
  • Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning

    • Abstract: A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different visuospatial ability. Sixty-three participants engaged in a one-hour session including a study phase and posttest. One group studied 3D models of the anatomy of the deep neck in full stereoptic virtual reality; one group studied those structures in virtual reality without stereoptic depth. The control group experienced an unrelated virtual reality environment. A post hoc questionnaire explored cognitive load and problem solving strategies of the participants. We found no effect of condition on learning. Visuospatial ability however did impact correct answers at and . No evidence was found for an impact of cognitive load on performance. Possibly, participants were able to solve the posttest items based on visuospatial information contained in the test items themselves. Additionally, the virtual anatomy may have been complex enough to discourage memory based strategies. It is important to control the amount of visuospatial information present in test items.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 09:03:50 +000
  • Clinical Assessment of the Congenital Absence of Palmaris Longus and
           Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Muscles in Young Saudi Population

    • Abstract: Introduction. Congenital Palmaris Longus (PL) absence was found in 15%–20.25% of population globally. This condition and Flexor Digitorum Superficialis (FDS) tendon absence in little finger are not known in Saudi Arabia. We studied prevalence of PL and FDS agenesis in Saudi Arabian population. Methods. A random cross-sectional study was carried out after an ethical approval in the Riyadh universities. Schaeffer’s test was used to examine PL absence. The Modified test was used to examine FDS absence. Data was analyzed using Microsoft Excel and the SPSS Software version 22. Results. The volunteers, 331, males 164 (49.5%) and females 167 (50.5%), mean age of 23 (SD ± 5.3), showed right hand dominance in 294 (88.8%) and bilateral absence of PL and FDS in 15.1% and 14.8%, respectively. The hand dominance showed no significant relation between PL and FDS absence, value = 0.788, 0.835, respectively. Generally, we found a weak correlation between absence of the PL and FDS, value ≥ 0.595. Conclusion. The bilateral absence of PL and FDS was found as 15.1% and 14.8%, respectively. Variation of the FDS tendon absence was an independent entity for the PL absence. The dominance of hands was not related to the tested variables found in PL and FDS agenesis.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Apr 2017 07:32:52 +000
  • Surface Area of Patellar Facets: Inferential Statistics in the Iraqi

    • Abstract: Background. The patella is the largest sesamoid bone in the body; its three-dimensional complexity necessitates biomechanical perfection. Numerous pathologies occur at the patellofemoral unit which may end in degenerative changes. This study aims to test the presence of statistical correlation between the surface areas of patellar facets and other patellar morphometric parameters. Materials and Methods. Forty dry human patellae were studied. The morphometry of each patella was measured using a digital Vernier Caliper, electronic balance, and image analyses software known as ImageJ. The patellar facetal surface area was correlated with patellar weight, height, width, and thickness. Results. Inferential statistics proved the existence of linear correlation of total facetal surface area and patellar weight, height, width, and thickness. The correlation was strongest for surface area versus patellar weight. The lateral facetal area was found persistently larger than the medial facetal area, the value was found to be
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Comment on “Variability in the Branching Pattern of the Internal Iliac
           Artery in Indian Population and Its Clinical Importance”

    • PubDate: Mon, 26 Dec 2016 14:56:33 +000
  • Morphometric Analysis of the Infraorbital Foramen: The Clinical Relevance

    • Abstract: The present study was conducted to ascertain the shape, size, presence of accessory foramina, direction, and the precise position of the infraorbital foramen (IOF) in relation to the inferior orbital margin (IOM), anterior nasal spine (ANS), nasion (Na), maxillary teeth, and supraorbital foramen/notch (SOF/N) in adult skulls in a Sri Lankan population. Fifty-four skulls (42 males and 12 females) were analyzed. The IOF was oval in shape (38.6% and 36.3% on the right and left side, resp.) in a majority of skulls. The direction of the IOF was mostly medially downward (48.6%). Accessory foramina were found in 7.4% of the skulls. The infraorbital foramina were located at a mean distance of 6.52 ± 2.03 mm and 7.30 ± 1.57 mm, vertically below the IOM on the right and left side, respectively; 33.81 ± 2.68 mm and 34.23 ± 2.56 mm from the ANS on the right and left side, respectively; and 42.37 ± 3.52 mm and 42.52 ± 3.28 mm from the Na on the right and left side, respectively. In relation to the upper teeth the majority of IOF (37.5% and 55.9% on the right and left side, resp.) were located in the same vertical axis as the tip of the buccal cusp of the maxillary second premolar tooth.
      PubDate: Sun, 25 Dec 2016 13:39:21 +000
  • Surface Projection of Interosseous Foramen of the Leg: Cadaver Study

    • Abstract: Purpose. This study was conducted to identify the surface projection of the interosseous foramen and associated structures of the proximal leg using the average clinician’s thumb width as a quick measurement to assist in differential diagnosis and treatment. Methods. Twelve cadavers (5 males and 7 females, age range = 51–91 years, and mean age = 76.9) were dissected for analysis. Location and size of interosseous foramen, location of anterior tibial artery, location of deep fibular nerve, and corresponding arterial branches were measured and converted into thumb widths. Results. Mean thumb width measured among the cadavers was  mm. The interosseous foramen measured was approximately 1 thumb width vertically ( mm) and 1/2 thumb width horizontally ( mm) and was located approximately 1 thumb width distally to the tibial tuberosity ( mm) and 2 thumb widths ( mm) lateral to the tibial ridge. The anterior tibial artery and deep fibular nerve converged approximately 4 thumb widths ( mm) inferior to the tibial tuberosity and 2 thumb widths ( mm) lateral to the tibial ridge. Conclusion. Clinicians may identify anatomical structures of the proximal leg with palpation using the thumb width for measurement.
      PubDate: Sun, 13 Nov 2016 06:48:57 +000
  • Cystic Artery: Morphological Study and Surgical Significance

    • Abstract: The cystic artery is the key structure sought to be clipped or ligated during laparoscopic or conventional cholecystectomy. The possible complications like hemorrhage or hepatobiliary injury are always centered on the search, dissection, and clipping or ligation of the cystic artery, many a time because of possibility of variations in its course and relations to the biliary ducts. This descriptive study was carried out to document the normal anatomy and different variations of the cystic artery to contribute to improve surgical safety. This study conducted on 82 cadavers revealed cystic artery with mean length of 16.9 mm (ranged between 2 mm and 55 mm) and mean diameter of 1.6 mm (range between 1 mm and 5 mm). The origin of cystic artery from celiac right hepatic artery was found in 79.3% and in the remaining 20.7% it was replaced. Single cystic artery was present in 72% and double cystic artery in 28%. Considering the site of origin of the cystic artery with reference to Calot’s triangle, it was observed within the triangle in 62.2% and outside it in 37.8%. All the cystic arteries passed through Calot’s triangle except for 3.6%. The cystic artery crossed the common hepatic duct anteriorly in 26.8% and posteriorly in 6.1%. It crossed common bile duct anteriorly in 1.2% and posteriorly in 3.7%. The knowledge of such variations and its awareness will decrease morbidity and help to keep away from a number of surgical complications during cholecystectomy.
      PubDate: Sun, 16 Oct 2016 13:36:32 +000
  • New Possible Surgical Approaches for the Submammary Adipofascial Flap
           Based on Its Arterial Supply

    • Abstract: Introduction. Submammary adipofascial flap (SMAF) is a valuable option for replacement of the inferior portion of the breast. It is particularly useful for reconstruction of partial mastectomy defects. It is also used to cover breast implants. Most surgeons base this flap cranially on the submammary skin crease, reflecting it back onto the breast. The blood vessels supplying this flap are not well defined, and the harvest of the flap may be compromised due to its uncertain vascularity. The aim of the work was to identify perforator vessels supplying SMAF and define their origin, site, diameter, and length. Materials and Methods. The flap was designed and dissected on both sides in 10 female cadavers. SMAF outline was 10 cm in length and 7 cm in width. The flap was raised carefully from below upwards to identify the perforator vessels supplying it from all directions. These vessels were counted and the following measurements were taken using Vernier caliper: diameter, total length, length inside the flap, and distance below the submammary skin crease. Conclusions. The perforators at the lateral part of the flap took origin from the lateral thoracic, thoracodorsal, and intercostal vessels. They were significantly larger, longer, and of multiple origins than those on the medial part of the flap and this suggests that laterally based flaps will have better blood supply, better viability, and more promising prognosis. Both approaches, medially based and laterally based SMAF, carry a better prognosis and lesser chance for future fat necrosis than the classical cranially based flap.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Sep 2016 12:35:25 +000
  • Incidence of Clavicular Rhomboid Fossa in Northeastern Thais: An
           Anthropological Study

    • Abstract: The rhomboid fossa of clavicle is used to determine the age and sex in anthropology and forensic sciences. The variant types of rhomboid fossa on inferior surface have been reported in many races except in Thais. This study therefore was aimed at classifying the types of the rhomboid fossa in Northeastern Thais. The identified 476 Northeastern Thais dried clavicles (270 males and 206 females) were observed and recorded for the types of rhomboid fossa. The results showed that Thai-rhomboid fossa could be classified into 4 types: Type 1: smooth; Type 2: flat; Type 3: elevated; and Type 4: depressed, respectively. The incidences of rhomboid fossa were as follows: Type 1: 0.21%; Type 2: 19.75%; Type 3: 76.26%; and Type 4: 3.78%, respectively. Additionally, it was found that the percentage of Type 4 (11.84%) was much greater than that of female (1.94%) compared to other types. This incidence of rhomboid fossa types especially Type 4 may be a basic knowledge to be used in sex identification. The high incidence of rhomboid fossa in both sexes of Northeastern Thai clavicles was Type 3 (elevated type).
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Aug 2016 14:48:50 +000
  • A Cadaveric Investigation of the Dorsal Scapular Nerve

    • Abstract: Compression of the dorsal scapular nerve (DSN) is associated with pain in the upper extremity and back. Even though entrapment of the DSN within the middle scalene muscle is typically the primary cause of pain, it is still easily missed during diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to document the DSN’s anatomy and measure the oblique course it takes with regard to the middle scalene muscle. From 20 embalmed adult cadavers, 23 DSNs were documented regarding the nerve’s spinal root origin, anatomical route, and muscular innervations. A transverse plane through the laryngeal prominence was established to measure the distance of the DSN from this plane as it enters, crosses, and exits the middle scalene muscle. Approximately 70% of the DSNs originated from C5, with 74% piercing the middle scalene muscle. About 48% of the DSNs supplied the levator scapulae muscle only and 52% innervated both the levator scapulae and rhomboid muscles. The average distances from a transverse plane at the laryngeal prominence where the DSN entered, crossed, and exited the middle scalene muscle were 1.50 cm, 1.79 cm, and 2.08 cm, respectively. Our goal is to help improve clinicians’ ability to locate the site of DSN entrapment so that appropriate management can be implemented.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Aug 2016 12:20:17 +000
  • Anatomy of Teaching Anatomy: Do Prosected Cross Sections Improve Students
           Understanding of Spatial and Radiological Anatomy'

    • Abstract: Introduction. Cadaveric dissections and prosections have traditionally been part of undergraduate medical teaching. Materials and Methods. Hundred and fifty-nine first-year students in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, were invited to participate in the above study. Students were randomly allocated to two age and gender matched groups. Both groups were exposed to identical series of lectures regarding anatomy of the abdomen and conventional cadaveric prosections of the abdomen. The test group (, 48.4%) was also exposed to cadaveric cross-sectional slices of the abdomen to which the control group (, 51.6%) was blinded. At the end of the teaching session both groups were assessed by using their performance in a timed multiple choice question paper as well as ability to identify structures in abdominal CT films. Results. Scores for spatial and radiological anatomy were significantly higher among the test group when compared with the control group (, CI 95%). Majority of the students in both control and test groups agreed that cadaveric cross section may be useful for them to understand spatial and radiological anatomy. Conclusion. Introduction of cadaveric cross-sectional prosections may help students to understand spatial and radiological anatomy better.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Aug 2016 12:02:53 +000
  • Morphology and Functional Anatomy of the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve with
           Extralaryngeal Terminal Bifurcation

    • Abstract: Anatomical variations of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), such as an extralaryngeal terminal bifurcation (ETB), threaten the safety of thyroid surgery. Besides the morphology of the nerve branches, intraoperative evaluation of their functional anatomy may be useful to preserve motor activity. We exposed 67 RLNs in 36 patients. The main trunk, bifurcation point, and terminal branches of bifid nerves were macroscopically determined and exposed during thyroid surgery. The functional anatomy of the nerve branches was evaluated by intraoperative nerve monitoring (IONM). Forty-six RLNs with an ETB were intraoperatively exposed. The bifurcation point was located along the prearterial, arterial, and postarterial segments in 11%, 39%, and 50% of bifid RLNs, respectively. Motor activity was determined in all anterior branches. The functional anatomy of terminal branches detected motor activity in 4 (8.7%) posterior branches of 46 bifid RLNs. The motor activity in posterior branches created a wave amplitude at 25–69% of that in the corresponding anterior branches. The functional anatomy of bifid RLNs demonstrated that anterior branches always contained motor fibres while posterior branches seldom contained motor fibres. The motor activity of the posterior branch was weaker than that of the anterior branch. IONM may help to differentiate between motor and sensory functions of nerve branches. The morphology and functional anatomy of all nerve branches must be preserved to ensure a safer surgery.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jul 2016 16:59:16 +000
  • Bilateral Chondroepitrochlearis Muscle: Case Report, Phylogenetic
           Analysis, and Clinical Significance

    • Abstract: Anomalous muscular variants of pectoralis major have been reported on several occasions in the medical literature. Among them, chondroepitrochlearis is one of the rarest. Therefore, this study aims to provide a comprehensive description of its anatomy and subsequent clinical significance, along with its phylogenetic importance in pectoral muscle evolution with regard to primate posture. The authors suggest a more appropriate name to better reflect its proximal attachment to the costochondral junction and distal attachment to the epicondyle of humerus, as “chondroepicondylaris”; in addition, we suggest a new theory of phylogenetic significance to explain the twisting of pectoralis major tendon in primates that may have occurred with their adoption to bipedalism and arboreal lifestyle. Finally, the clinical significance of this aberrant muscle is elaborated as a cause of potential neurovascular entrapment and as a possible hurdle during axillary surgeries (i.e., mastectomy).
      PubDate: Sun, 08 May 2016 11:09:21 +000
  • Repeated Exposure to Dissection Does Not Influence Students’ Attitudes
           towards Human Body Donation for Anatomy Teaching

    • Abstract: The use of unclaimed bodies for anatomical dissection has been the main method of instruction at our institution. There is however a shortage of cadavers for dissection given the increase in the number of medical schools as well as in the number of students enrolling in these schools. This shortage could be mitigated by having voluntary human body donation programs. This study aimed at assessing the attitudes of medical students and surgical residents towards body donation for anatomy learning. We conducted an online survey involving 72 first-year medical students and 41 surgical residents at University of Nairobi who had completed one year of anatomy dissection. For the medical students, this was their first dissection experience while it was the second exposure for the surgery trainees. Most of the surgical trainees (70.7%) and medical students (68.1%) were opposed to self-body donation. This was mainly due to cultural (37%) and religious (20%) barriers. Surprisingly, of those not willing to donate themselves, 67.9% (82.8% surgical trainees, 59.2% medical students) would recommend the practice to other people. Exposure to repeated dissection does not change the perceptions towards body donation. It is noteworthy that culture and religion rank high as clear barriers amongst this “highly informed” group of potential donors.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Apr 2016 07:16:34 +000
  • Limited Trabecular Bone Density Heterogeneity in the Human Skeleton

    • Abstract: There is evidence for variation in trabecular bone density and volume within an individual skeleton, albeit in a few anatomical sites, which is partly dependent on mechanical loading. However, little is known regarding the basic variation in trabecular bone density throughout the skeleton in healthy human adults. This is because research on bone density has been confined to a few skeletal elements, which can be readily measured using available imaging technology particularly in clinical settings. This study comprehensively investigates the distribution of trabecular bone density within the human skeleton in nine skeletal sites (femur, proximal and distal tibia, third metatarsal, humerus, ulna, radius, third metacarpal, and axis) in a sample of individuals (11 males and 9 females). pQCT results showed that the proximal ulna (mean = 231.3 mg/cm3) and axis vertebra (mean = 234.3 mg/cm3) displayed significantly greater () trabecular bone density than other elements, whereas there was no significant variation among the rest of the elements (). The homogeneity of the majority of elements suggests that these sites are potentially responsive to site-specific genetic factors. Secondly, the lack of correlation between elements () suggests that density measurements of one anatomical region are not necessarily accurate measures of other anatomical regions.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Apr 2016 08:54:15 +000
  • Anatomical Considerations on Surgical Anatomy of the Carotid Bifurcation

    • Abstract: Surgical anatomy of carotid bifurcation is of unique importance for numerous medical specialties. Despite extensive research, many aspects such as precise height of carotid bifurcation, micrometric values of carotid arteries and their branches as their diameter, length, and degree of tortuosity, and variations of proximal external carotid artery branches are undetermined. Furthermore carotid bifurcation is involved in many pathologic processes, atheromatous disease being the commonest. Carotid atheromatous disease is a major predisposing factor for disabling and possibly fatal strokes with geometry of carotid bifurcation playing an important role in its natural history. Consequently detailed knowledge of various anatomic parameters is of paramount importance not only for understanding of the disease but also for design of surgical treatment, especially selection between carotid endarterectomy and carotid stenting. Carotid bifurcation paragangliomas constitute unique tumors with diagnostic accuracy, treatment design, and success of operative intervention dependent on precise knowledge of anatomy. Considering those, it becomes clear that selection and application of proper surgical therapy should consider anatomical details. Further research might ameliorate available treatment options or even lead to innovative ones.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Mar 2016 12:40:17 +000
  • Right Hepatic Artery: A Cadaver Investigation and Its Clinical

    • Abstract: The right hepatic artery is an end artery and contributes sole arterial supply to right lobe of the liver. Misinterpretation of normal anatomy and anatomical variations of the right hepatic artery contribute to the major intraoperative mishaps and complications in hepatobiliary surgery. The frequency of inadvertent or iatrogenic hepatobiliary vascular injury rises with the event of an aberrant anatomy. This descriptive study was carried out to document the normal anatomy and different variations of right hepatic artery to contribute to existing knowledge of right hepatic artery to improve surgical safety. This study conducted on 60 cadavers revealed aberrant replaced right hepatic artery in 18.3% and aberrant accessory right hepatic artery in 3.4%. Considering the course, the right hepatic artery ran outside Calot’s triangle in 5% of cases and caterpillar hump right hepatic artery was seen in 13.3% of cases. The right hepatic artery (normal and aberrant) crossed anteriorly to the common hepatic duct in 8.3% and posteriorly to it in 71.6%. It has posterior relations with the common bile duct in 16.7% while in 3.4% it did not cross the common hepatic duct or common bile duct. The knowledge of such anomalies is important since their awareness will decrease morbidity and help to keep away from a number of surgical complications.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Dec 2015 13:39:58 +000
  • Distal Insertional Footprint of the Brachialis Muscle: 3D Morphometric

    • Abstract: Objective. The purpose of this study is to describe the three-dimensional morphometry of the brachialis muscle at its distal attachment to the ulna. Methods. Fifty cadaveric elbows were dissected and the brachialis distal insertion was isolated on the ulna bone and probed with a three-dimensional digitizer, to create a three-dimensional model of the footprint. Measurements and analysis of each footprint shape were recorded and compared based on gender and size. Results. There was significant gender difference in the surface length () and projected length () of the brachialis footprint. The shapes of the footprint also differed among the specimens. Conclusion. The shape of the brachialis muscle insertion differed among all the specimens without significant variation in gender or sides. There was also a significant difference in muscle length between males and females with little difference in the width and surface area. Significance. The information obtained from this study is important for kinematic understanding and surgical procedures around the elbow joint as well as the understanding of the natural age related anatomy of the brachialis footprint morphology.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Nov 2015 14:15:31 +000
  • Anatomy of the Ophthalmic Artery: A Review concerning Its Modern Surgical
           and Clinical Applications

    • Abstract: Anatomy of ophthalmic artery has been thoroughly studied and reviewed in many anatomical and surgical textbooks and papers. Issues of interest are its intracranial and extracranial course, its branches, its importance for vision, and its interaction with various intracranial pathologies. Improvement of our understanding about pathophysiology of certain diseases like aneurysm formation, central retinal artery occlusion, and retinoblastoma and also invention of new therapeutic modalities like superselective catheterization, intra-arterial fibrinolysis, and intra-arterial chemotherapy necessitate a reappraisal of its anatomy from a clinical point of view. The aim of this review is to examine clinical anatomy of ophthalmic artery and correlate it with new diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Nov 2015 11:16:02 +000
  • Angle at the Medial Border: The Spinovertebra Angle and Its Significance

    • Abstract: Background. The evolution from quadrupedalism to bipedalism has adjusted the balance of the upper limb to extensive movement at the shoulder. The scapular angles provide the point of attachment and control to various muscles and have been associated with the different movements of the shoulder girdle and joint. This has made the morphometric and anthropometric study of scapula a subject of extensive investigation. Aim. In the present study, the angle at the medial border was measured in the South-Southern Nigerian population and an anatomical name was ascribed to the angle. Method. The study was conducted on 173 scapulae (75 right and 98 left) obtained from various Anatomy Department of South-Sothern Nigerian Universities. The angle at medial border was obtained by pinning the edge of the superior and inferior angles, the lined traced out, and the angle measured using a protractor. SPSS version 20 was used to analyse the data. t-test was used to determine mean angular difference in the sides. Result. The mean ± SD of the medial angle was observed to be 136.88 ± 7.70° (R = 138.13 ± 7.06° : L = 135.92 ± 8.05°). Statistical analysis using the Z-test for mean difference showed the medial angle was found to be higher in the right side of the scapula (mean difference of 2.214 ± 1.152°), but the observed difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The above findings have adjusted the scapula from three to four angles (lateral, superior, inferior, and medial) formed from four borders (lateral, superior, inferior, and superomedial and inferomedial). The medial angle because of its anatomical location was named “spinovertebral” angle, owing to its position at the scapulae spine, and located in medial proximity to the vertebra column. Conclusion. The medial angle (now referred to as the spinovertebral angle) of the right side of the scapula is wider than the left. The representation of the spinovertebral angle is very important, as the directional attachment of the levator scapulae may be altered if it increases or decreases greatly hence resulting in stiffness of the neck. At this point, it could be postulated that the scapular is quadrangular rather than triangular.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Oct 2015 14:00:56 +000
  • A Morphometric Study of the Foramen of Diaphragma Sellae and Delineation
           of Its Relation to Optic Neural Pathways through Computer Aided

    • Abstract: The diaphragma sellae (DS) is a fold of dura that forms a partial roof over the pituitary gland. The foramen of the diaphragma sellae (FDS) is thereby a pathway for suprasellar extension of pituitary tumors. The purpose of this study was to describe the anatomical dimensions of the DS and FDS and to understand the relationship of FDS with the overlying optic chiasma. The study was conducted in 100 autopsy cases. Measurements were taken using vernier calipers. Photographs, taken before and after removal of optic pathway, were superimposed using image processing software. The results showed that the mean A-P dimension of DS was 1.17 ± 0.48 cm; the lateral dimension of DS was 1.58 ± 0.60 cm. The mean A-P dimension of FDS was 0.66 ± 0.42 cm; the lateral dimension of FDS was 0.82 cm ± 0.54 cm. The shapes of FDS were irregular (40%), transversely oval (29%), circular (13%), sagittally oval (11%), or trapezoid with posterior dimension more than the anterior one (6%) or anterior dimension more than the posterior one (1%). The margins of FDS were either well defined (31%) or ill defined (69%). The positional relation of FDS to optic chiasma was also found out.
      PubDate: Sun, 13 Sep 2015 13:03:35 +000
  • Dimensions and Anatomical Variants of the Foramen Transversarium of
           Typical Cervical Vertebrae

    • Abstract: The study was conducted on random sample of seventy-one dried, typical cervical vertebrae (C3–C6). The data on the age, sex, and built was not available. Using vernier calipers with 0.01 mm accuracy, the anteroposterior and transverse diameters of transverse foramina and their distance from the medial margin of the uncinate process were measured bilaterally. The mean diameter of the right/left transverse foramen varied from 2.54 mm to 7.79 mm (mean = 5.55 ± 0.87 mm) and from 2.65 mm to 7.35 mm (mean = 5.48 ± 0.77 mm), respectively. The transverse foramen was less than 3.5 mm in three vertebrae on the right and two on the left. The osteocytes observed in 21.3% of specimens and the narrow transverse foramen may place patients at risk for vertebrobasilar insufficiency or thrombus formation. The mean distance of the transverse foramen from the medial margin of uncinate process is an important landmark to avoid vertebral artery laceration and was 5.0 ± 0.87 mm (range: 3.5–7.9 mm) on the right and 5.0 ± 1.0 mm (range: 3.2–7.7 mm) on the left side. No statistically significant difference was observed between the right and left sides. The accessory transverse foramina seen in 24% of vertebrae suggest duplications or fenestrations in the vertebral artery.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Sep 2015 11:59:52 +000
  • Anatomical Study of Chiari Network and the Remnant of Left Venous Valve in
           the Interior of Right Atrium

    • Abstract: Chiari network occurs due to incomplete resorption of right valve of sinus venosus. It is often noticed as fenestrated membranous structure or reticular network like structure in the valve of inferior vena cava and coronary sinus. The remnant of left venous valve is observed as trabeculae over the fossa ovalis. The incidence of Chiari network and the remnant of left venous valve were studied in 80 cadaveric hearts utilized for teaching the undergraduates. The right atrium was opened anterior to sulcus terminalis and the interior was examined for the presence of these embryological remnants. The incidence of Chiari network and left venous valve in the present study is 3.75% and 7.5%, respectively. Chiari network was observed as a fenestrated membranous structure in 2 specimens and a reticular network in 1 specimen, with variable extension to coronary sinus opening and right atrial wall. The remnant of left venous valve was observed as multiple fine strands in 3 specimens and trabecular structure in 3 specimens. These structures may create diagnostic confusion, difficulty in interventional procedures, and complications like thromboembolic events. Hence, the knowledge about the incidence, morphology, and clinical manifestations of these rare embryological remnants is mandatory.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Sep 2015 13:40:44 +000
  • Inner Synovial Membrane Footprint of the Anterior Elbow Capsule: An
           Arthroscopic Boundary

    • Abstract: Introduction. The purpose of this study is to describe the inner synovial membrane (SM) of the anterior elbow capsule, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Materials and Methods. Twenty-two cadaveric human elbows were dissected and the distal humerus and SM attachments were digitized using a digitizer. The transepicondylar line (TEL) was used as the primary descriptor of various landmarks. The distance between the medial epicondyle and medial SM edge, SM apex overlying the coronoid fossa, the central SM nadir, and the apex of the SM insertion overlying the radial fossa and distance from the lateral epicondyle to lateral SM edge along the TEL were measured and further analyzed. Gender and side-to-side statistical comparisons were calculated. Results. The mean age of the subjects was 80.4 years, with six male and five female cadavers. The SM had a distinctive double arched attachment overlying the radial and coronoid fossae. No gender-based or side-to-side quantitative differences were noted. In 18 out of 22 specimens (81.8%), an infolding extension of the SM was observed overlying the medial aspect of the trochlea. The SM did not coincide with the outer fibrous attachment in any specimen. Conclusion. The humeral footprint of the synovial membrane of the anterior elbow capsule is more complex and not as capacious as commonly understood from the current literature. The synovial membrane nadir between the two anterior fossae may help to explain and hence preempt technical difficulties, a reduction in working arthroscopic volume in inflammatory and posttraumatic pathologies. This knowledge should allow the surgeon to approach this aspect of the anterior elbow compartment space with the confidence that detachment of this synovial attachment, to create working space, does not equate to breaching the capsule. Alternatively, stripping the synovial attachment from the anterior humerus does not constitute an anterior capsular release.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Aug 2015 10:27:51 +000
  • Study of Posterior Cerebral Artery in Human Cadaveric Brain

    • Abstract: Objective. Basilar artery (BA) terminates in right and left posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs). Each PCA supplies respective occipital lobe of the cerebrum. The present study is designed to know the morphology, morphometry, branching pattern, and symmetry of PCA. Methods. The study included 340 PCAs dissected from 170 human cadaveric brains. Results. Morphological variations of P1 segment included, aplasia (2.35%), hypoplasia (5.29%), duplication (2.35%), fenestration (1.17%), and common trunk shared with SCA (1.76%). Morphological variations of origin of P2 segment included direct origin of it from BA (1.17%) and ICA (2.35%). Unusually, two P2 segments, each arising separately from BA and ICA, were observed in 1.17%. Unilateral two P2 segments from CW were found in 0.58%. Morphological variations of course of P2 were duplication (0.58%), fenestration (0.58%), and aneurysm (1.76%). Unilateral P2 either adult or fetal was seen in 4.71%. The group II branching pattern was found to be most common. Asymmetry of P2 was 40%. Morphometry of P2 revealed mean length of 52 mm and mean diameter of 2.7 mm. Conclusion. The present study provides the complete anatomical description of PCA regarding morphology, morphometry, symmetry, and its branching pattern. Awareness of these variations is likely to be useful in cerebrovascular procedures.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Aug 2015 11:27:06 +000
  • Retromolar Canal Associated with Age, Side, Sex, Bifid Mandibular Canal,
           and Accessory Mental Foramen in Panoramic Radiographs of Brazilians

    • Abstract: Background. The retromolar canal (RMC) is an anatomical variation that can cause complications in dental procedures. Method. The RMC was evaluated according to age, sex, and presence of accessory mandibular canal and accessory mental foramen, on both sides in 500 panoramic radiographs, belonging to individuals at the age of 7 to 20 years. The associations of interest were studied through Fisher’s Exact Test and Pearson’s Chi-Square Test, and the correlation was studied through Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient (r). The significance level used was 5%. Results. The RMC was observed in 44 radiographs (8.8%), and out of those 24 were females. There was no statistically significant association between the RMC and age (; Fisher’s Exact Test), sex (; Pearson’s Chi-Square Test), amount of mandibular canals and mental foramina, on both sides (; Pearson’s Chi-Square Test). There was a significant association between RMC and side, the higher frequency of the canal being on the right side (; Fisher’s Exact Test). Conclusions. Despite the low occurrence of the RMC, its identification and the verification of its dimensions and path are relevant, mainly in cases when anesthetic and surgical procedures can present failures or difficulties.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Aug 2015 16:13:57 +000
  • Variations in the Root Form and Root Canal Morphology of Permanent
           Mandibular First Molars in a Sri Lankan Population

    • Abstract: The present study was conducted to determine the number of roots and morphology of the root canal system of permanent mandibular first molars (M1) in a Sri Lankan population. Sample of 529 M1 teeth was used. The number of roots was examined and the lengths of the mesial and distal roots were measured to the nearest 0.01 mm. Vacuum injection protocol was used to inject China ink into the root canal system, making it transparent. Root canal morphology was recorded using Vertucci’s classification. Presence of furcation canals, position of lateral canals, intercanal communications, level of bifurcation, and convergence of the root canal system were recorded. M1 showed three roots in 4.1% of the sample. Commonest root canal morphology of the mesial root was type IV and the distal root was type I. The level of bifurcation of the root canals was commonly observed in the cervical one-third of the root while convergence was observed in the apical one-third in both roots. Prevalence of three rooted mandibular first molars is less than 5%. Mesial root showed the most variable canal morphology. Prevalence of furcation canals was 1.5% while that of middle mesial canals was 0.2%.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Aug 2015 09:46:49 +000
  • The Prevalence and Classification of the Cystoduodenal Ligament

    • Abstract: Variant patterns of peritoneal folds could be formed due to the complex nature of the embryology of the peritoneum and the gastrointestinal tract. When uncommon peritoneal folds are formed, they could influence aberrant formation of surrounding gastrointestinal structures and create spaces that may harbour peritoneal fluids in cases of infection or malignant tumor. One of such variant peritoneal folds is the cystoduodenal ligament which is a doubled peritoneal membrane attaching the gallbladder to the duodenum. Yet no study was found that had reported the frequency of occurrence of the cystoduodenal ligament. The current study determined the prevalence of the cystoduodenal ligament in forty adult cadavers. The ligament was reported in 35% of cases. The ligament was further classified as types I and II. Type I cystoduodenal ligament was attached partially to the gallbladder (neck and proximal part of body) while type II was attached to the entire extent of the gallbladder. Type I occurrence was found in 44% and type II was found in 56% of the occasions of cystoduodenal ligament formation. It is concluded that the cystoduodenal ligament could be commonly found, it possesses important vascular structures, and it could affect the shape of the gallbladder. Surgeons, radiologists, and anatomists should be kept abreast of these findings.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Aug 2015 06:49:26 +000
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