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  Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 7268 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (1810 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access  
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access  
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access  
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Fundeni Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access  
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Journal Khulna     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Research Council Bulletin     Open Access  
Basal Ganglia     Hybrid Journal  
Basic Sciences of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BC Medical Journal     Free  
Benha Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bijblijven     Hybrid Journal  
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biologics in Therapy     Open Access  
Biology of Sex Differences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomarker Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Anatomical Sciences Education
  [SJR: 0.633]   [H-I: 24]   [1 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1935-9772 - ISSN (Online) 1935-9780
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1579 journals]
  • Teaching neuroanatomy using computer-aided learning: What makes for
           successful outcomes?
    • Authors: Elena Svirko; Jane Mellanby
      Abstract: Computer-aided learning (CAL) is an integral part of many medical courses. The neuroscience course at Oxford University for medical students includes CAL course of neuroanatomy. CAL is particularly suited to this since neuroanatomy requires much detailed three-dimensional visualization, which can be presented on screen. The CAL course was evaluated using the concept of approach to learning. The aims of university teaching are congruent with the deep approach—seeking meaning and relating new information to previous knowledge—rather than to the surface approach of concentrating on rote learning of detail. Seven cohorts of medical students (N = 869) filled in approach to learning scale and a questionnaire investigating their engagement with the CAL course. The students' scores on CAL-course-based neuroanatomy assessment and later university examinations were obtained. Although the students reported less use of the deep approach for the neuroanatomy CAL course than for the rest of their neuroanatomy course (mean = 24.99 vs. 31.49, P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T12:05:19.669375-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1694
       
  • A personal connection: Promoting positive attitudes towards teaching and
           learning
    • Authors: Heidi L. Lujan; Stephen E. DiCarlo
      Abstract: Students' attitudes towards teaching and learning must be addressed with the same seriousness and effort as we address content. Establishing a personal connection and addressing our students' basic psychological needs will produce positive attitudes towards teaching and learning and develop life-long learners. It will also promote constructive student-teacher relationships that have a profound influence on our students' approach towards school. To begin this process, consider the major tenets of the Self-Determination Theory. The Self-Determination Theory of human motivation focuses on our students' innate psychological needs and the degree to which an individual's behavior is self-motivated and self-determined. Faculty can satisfy the innate psychological needs by addressing our students' desire for relatedness, competence and autonomy. Relatedness refers to our students' need to feel connected to others, to be a member of a group, to have a sense of communion and to develop close relationships with others. Competence is believing our students can succeed, challenging them to do so and imparting that belief in them. Autonomy involves considering the perspectives of the student and providing relevant information and opportunities for student choice and initiating and regulating their own behaviors. Establishing a personal connection and addressing our students' basic psychological needs will improve our teaching, inspire and engage our students and promote positive attitudes towards teaching and learning while reducing competition and increasing compassion. These are important goals because unless students are inspired and motivated and have positive attitudes towards teaching and learning our efforts will fail to meet their full potential. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T12:05:16.959109-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1697
       
  • The effectiveness of virtual and augmented reality in health sciences and
           medical anatomy
    • Authors: Christian Moro; Zane Štromberga, Athanasios Raikos, Allan Stirling
      Abstract: Although cadavers constitute the gold standard for teaching anatomy to medical and health science students, there are substantial financial, ethical, and supervisory constraints on their use. In addition, although anatomy remains one of the fundamental areas of medical education, universities have decreased the hours allocated to teaching gross anatomy in favor of applied clinical work. The release of virtual (VR) and augmented reality (AR) devices allows learning to occur through hands-on immersive experiences. The aim of this research was to assess whether learning structural anatomy utilizing VR or AR is as effective as tablet-based (TB) applications, and whether these modes allowed enhanced student learning, engagement and performance. Participants (n = 59) were randomly allocated to one of the three learning modes: VR, AR, or TB and completed a lesson on skull anatomy, after which they completed an anatomical knowledge assessment. Student perceptions of each learning mode and any adverse effects experienced were recorded. No significant differences were found between mean assessment scores in VR, AR, or TB. During the lessons however, VR participants were more likely to exhibit adverse effects such as headaches (25% in VR P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T10:00:30.197247-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1696
       
  • A psychometric evaluation of the anatomy learning experiences
           questionnaire and correlations with learning outcomes
    • Authors: Derek L. Choi-Lundberg; Anne-Marie M. Williams, Craig Zimitat
      Abstract: The Anatomy Learning Experiences Questionnaire (ALEQ) was designed by Smith and Mathias to explore students' perceptions and experiences of learning anatomy. In this study, the psychometric properties of a slightly altered 34-item ALEQ (ALEQ-34) were evaluated, and correlations with learning outcomes investigated, by surveying first- and second-year undergraduate medical students; 181 usable responses were obtained (75% response rate). Psychometric analysis demonstrated overall good reliability (Cronbach's alpha of 0.85). Exploratory factor analysis yielded a 27-item, three-factor solution (ALEQ-27, Cronbach's alpha of 0.86), described as: (Factor 1) (Reversed) challenges in learning anatomy, (Factor 2) Applications and importance of anatomy, and (Factor 3) Learning in the dissection laboratory. Second-year students had somewhat greater challenges and less positive attitudes in learning anatomy than first-year students. Females reported slightly greater challenges and less confidence in learning anatomy than males. Total scores on summative gross anatomy examination questions correlated with ALEQ-27, Pearson's r = 0.222 and 0.271, in years 1 and 2, respectively, and with Factor 1, r = 0.479 and 0.317 (all statistically significant). Factor 1 also had similar correlations across different question types (multiple choice; short answer or essay; cadaveric; and anatomical models, bones, or radiological images). In a retrospective analysis, Factor 1 predicted poor end-of-semester anatomy examination results in year 1 with a sensitivity of 88% and positive predictive value of 33%. Further development of ALEQ-27 may enable deeper understanding of students' learning of anatomy, and its ten-item Factor 1 may be a useful screening tool to identify at-risk students. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T10:00:26.545427-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1693
       
  • Social media and student engagement in anatomy education
    • Authors: Thomas L. Lewis
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T09:55:27.072368-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1692
       
  • “Applying anatomy to something i care about”: Authentic inquiry
           learning and student experiences of an inquiry project
    • Authors: Lauren M. Anstey
      Abstract: Despite advances to move anatomy education away from its didactic history, there is a continued need for students to contextualize their studies to make learning more meaningful. This article investigates authentic learning in the context of an inquiry-based approach to learning human gross anatomy. Utilizing a case-study design with three groups of students (n = 18) and their facilitators (n = 3), methods of classroom observations, interviews, and artifact collection were utilized to investigate students' experiences of learning through an inquiry project. Qualitative data analysis through open and selective coding produced common meaningful themes of group and student experiences. Overall results demonstrate how the project served as a unique learning experience where learners engaged in the opportunity to make sense of anatomy in context of their interests and wider interdisciplinary considerations through collaborative, group-based investigation. Results were further considered in context of theoretical frameworks of inquiry-based and authentic learning. Results from this study demonstrate how students can engage anatomical understandings to inquire and apply disciplinary considerations to their personal lives and the world around them. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T09:30:28.261261-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1690
       
  • Time limits in testing: An analysis of eye movements and visual attention
           in spatial problem solving
    • Authors: Victoria A. Roach; Graham M. Fraser, James H. Kryklywy, Derek G.V. Mitchell, Timothy D. Wilson
      Abstract: Individuals with an aptitude for interpreting spatial information (high mental rotation ability: HMRA) typically master anatomy with more ease, and more quickly, than those with low mental rotation ability (LMRA). This article explores how visual attention differs with time limits on spatial reasoning tests. Participants were assorted to two groups based on their mental rotation ability scores and their eye movements were collected during these tests. Analysis of salience during testing revealed similarities between MRA groups in untimed conditions but significant differences between the groups in the timed one. Question-by-question analyses demonstrate that HMRA individuals were more consistent across the two timing conditions (κ = 0.25), than the LMRA (κ = 0.013). It is clear that the groups respond to time limits differently and their apprehension of images during spatial problem solving differs significantly. Without time restrictions, salience analysis suggests LMRA individuals attended to similar aspects of the images as HMRA and their test scores rose concomitantly. Under timed conditions however, LMRA diverge from HMRA attention patterns, adopting inflexible approaches to visual search and attaining lower test scores. With this in mind, anatomical educators may wish to revisit some evaluations and teaching approaches in their own practice. Although examinations need to evaluate understanding of anatomical relationships, the addition of time limits may induce an unforeseen interaction of spatial reasoning and anatomical knowledge. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T09:11:19.956971-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1695
       
  • Development of a didactical training concept for peer tutors in gross
           anatomy
    • Authors: Simone Alvarez; Christoph Nikendei, Jobst-Hendrik Schultz
      Abstract: Even though peer tutors are often used in gross anatomy courses, research in the field is rather a subject of the last two decades. This is especially true about the didactical challenges these types of peer tutors experience during their tutorials and about how they are prepared for the task. The aim of the presented study was to learn about the training needs of the tutors, and to subsequently design, implement, and evaluate a didactical training concept. A qualitative design was chosen to examine how tutors can best be prepared for tutorials of gross anatomy. To do so, focus group interviews were conducted. The data were analyzed and grouped into various concepts, using semi-structured interview questions as guidance. It was found that peer tutors are in need of training in the following aspects: Dealing with students who are experiencing difficulties during or as a result of dissection, dealing with group dynamics, that is, at the dissection table, keeping students motivated, time management, and staying confident as a tutor. In order to be regarded as useful and relevant in the eyes of tutors, a preparatory training course should include all these aspects in addition to general didactical training elements. Training needs of peer tutors of gross anatomy go beyond the content of standardized didactical curricula; therefore, tutors should be prepared with a curriculum that is specifically geared toward the many challenges associated with teaching gross anatomy to first year medical students which are already so well documented in the research literature. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T08:50:36.281023-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1691
       
  • Using body donor demographics to assist the implementation of donation
           programs in Brazil
    • Authors: Andrea Oxley da Rocha; Deivis de Campos, Marco Aurélio Farina, Gabriel Sartori Pacini, Marina Cornelli Girotto, Arlete Hilbig
      Abstract: The use of human material in anatomy education depends upon the generosity of body donors. However, little is known regarding the demographics of body donors in Brazil, where voluntary body donation is a relatively rare phenomenon. Hence, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the demographic profile of applicants to the Body Donation Program (BDP) at the Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre in Brazil, as well as to assess whether the observed characteristics of body donors are unique to that sample, or if they merely reflect the characteristics of the regional population. Information derived from the specific forms filled out by donors between January 2008 and June 2016 at the time of registration were collected. Data from 416 forms were analyzed. Based on this study, the typical applicant in Brazil is typically a white female (67.4%), over 60 years of age (60.3%), unmarried or single (70.6%), affiliated with a religious group (89.1%), of middle class background (40.4%), who has completed high school and/or holds a university degree (93.8%). The motivation of donors was, in most cases, an altruistic gesture, represented by the desire to help society and science. Elucidating these demographic characteristics of potential donors may help identify the target public to which information regarding body donation campaigns could be directed. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T14:45:27.953229-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1687
       
  • Neuroanatomy education: The impact on perceptions, attitudes, and
           knowledge of an intensive course on general practice residents
    • Authors: Mavilde Arantes; Joselina Maria Barbosa, Maria Amélia Ferreira
      Abstract: General practitioners are responsible for the management of an increasing number of patients with neurological illness, and thus a solid education in neurosciences is a necessary component of their training. This study examines the effects of an intensive clinical neuroanatomy course on twenty general practice residents’ perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge. A knowledge test was completed by the participants and by a control group at four different time points. The participants were asked to answer a questionnaire about their reasons for signing up for the course and their attitudes and perceptions toward the course experience. Experimental and control groups demonstrated identical mean baseline test scores. The experimental group significantly increased its test scores (plus 49.0% correct answers, a mean improvement of 120%) relative to controls after the educational intervention. There were no differences among scores from the evaluated time points after the educational intervention in the experimental group. In the control group, there were likewise no significant differences between the four evaluated time points. Most participants indicated that they signed up for the course to update/acquire knowledge and skills in the field of neurosciences, and also because they had difficulty in diagnosing and managing patients with neurological diseases. Participants’ attitudes and perceptions toward the course experience were very positive. Most of the participants (n = 17; 85%) rated the course as “extremely useful,” and 3 (15%) rated it as “very useful.” This study provides evidence demonstrating the potential positive effect of neurosciences education to general practice residents. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T14:30:26.75365-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1686
       
  • Climbing Bloom's taxonomy pyramid: Lessons from a graduate histology
           course
    • Authors: Nikki B. Zaidi; Charles Hwang, Sara Scott, Stefanie Stallard, Joel Purkiss, Michael Hortsch
      Abstract: Bloom's taxonomy was adopted to create a subject-specific scoring tool for histology multiple-choice questions (MCQs). This Bloom's Taxonomy Histology Tool (BTHT) was used to analyze teacher- and student-generated quiz and examination questions from a graduate level histology course. Multiple-choice questions using histological images were generally assigned a higher BTHT level than simple text questions. The type of microscopy technique (light or electron microscopy) used for these image-based questions did not result in any significant differences in their Bloom's taxonomy scores. The BTHT levels for teacher-generated MCQs correlated positively with higher discrimination indices and inversely with the percent of students answering these questions correctly (difficulty index), suggesting that higher-level Bloom's taxonomy questions differentiate well between higher- and lower-performing students. When examining BTHT scores for MCQs that were written by students in a Multiple-Choice Item Development Assignment (MCIDA) there was no significant correlation between these scores and the students' ability to answer teacher-generated MCQs. This suggests that the ability to answer histology MCQs relies on a different skill set than the aptitude to construct higher-level Bloom's taxonomy questions. However, students significantly improved their average BTHT scores from the midterm to the final MCIDA task, which indicates that practice, experience and feedback increased their MCQ writing proficiency. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-02-23T14:40:23.921286-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1685
       
  • Effects of image-based and text-based active learning exercises on student
           examination performance in a musculoskeletal anatomy course
    • Authors: M. Melissa Gross; Mary C. Wright, Olivia S. Anderson
      Abstract: Research on the benefits of visual learning has relied primarily on lecture-based pedagogy, but the potential benefits of combining active learning strategies with visual and verbal materials on learning anatomy has not yet been explored. In this study, the differential effects of text-based and image-based active learning exercises on examination performance were investigated in a functional anatomy course. Each class session was punctuated with an average of 12 text-based and image-based active learning exercises. Participation data from 231 students were compared with their examination performance on 262 questions associated with the in-class exercises. Students also rated the helpfulness and difficulty of the in-class exercises on a survey. Participation in the active learning exercises was positively correlated with examination performance (r = 0.63, P 
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T11:05:28.254055-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1684
       
  • A preliminary survey of professionalism teaching practices in anatomy
           education among Indian Medical Colleges
    • Authors: Ilavenil Karunakaran; Ponniah Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Sheela Das Nalinakumari
      Abstract: Professionalism and ethics have gained widespread recognition as competencies to be fulfilled, taught, and assessed within medical education. The role of the anatomy course in developed nations has evolved over time and now encompasses multiple domains, including knowledge, skills, and the inculcation of professionalism and ethics. The Medical Council of India recently recommended the integration of professionalism teaching in undergraduate medical curricula. The authors investigated whether the initial orientation lectures and instructions given by faculty at the outset of undergraduate medical anatomy courses throughout India served a “hidden curriculum” regarding professionalism practices, and whether these orientation messages could serve as an early exposure to medical professionalism and ethics for medical students. An online survey was carried out among 102 anatomy faculty members across India requesting details about specific professionalism protocols and instructions regarding behavior in the dissection hall that are routinely given to preclinical students, as well as the importance that they placed on professional behavior. It was found that most faculty members regularly instruct students regarding expected behavior during the anatomy course, including dissection practices. These instructions stress attributes of professionalism like humanism, accountability, and honesty. However, there needs to be a more concentrated effort by educators to prohibit such unprofessional practices like dissection hall photography, and better information is required regarding biomedical waste disposal. Despite the absence of clear guidelines for professionalism teaching in medical education in India, the existing framework of anatomy education provides an opportunity to introduce the concept of professionalism to the first-year medical student. This opportunity may provide an early foundation for designing a professionalism-integrated curriculum. Anat Sci Educ. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T11:10:27.320376-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1679
       
  • Using collaborative two-stage examinations to address test anxiety in a
           large enrollment gateway course
    • Authors: Kimberly A. Fournier; Jannelle Couret, Jason B. Ramsay, Joshua L. Caulkins
      Abstract: Large enrollment foundational courses are perceived as “high stakes” because of their potential to act as barriers for progression to the next course or admittance to a program. The nature of gateway courses makes them ideal settings to explore the relationship between anxiety, pedagogical interventions, and student performance. Here, two-stage collaborative examinations were implemented to improve test-taking skills and address widespread test anxiety in an introductory human anatomy course. Test anxiety data were collected (using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire) before the first examination and last examination. Most students experienced decreased test anxiety over the course of the semester; however, some students may have experienced performance limiting conditions due to test anxiety at the end of the semester based on academic ability in the course (in “C” students when compared to “A” students: P 
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T11:55:37.281948-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1677
       
  • Anatomy education environment measurement inventory: A valid tool to
           measure the anatomy learning environment
    • Authors: Siti Nurma Hanim Hadie; Asma' Hassan, Zul Izhar Mohd Ismail, Mohd Asnizam Asari, Aaijaz Ahmed Khan, Fazlina Kasim, Nurul Aiman Mohd Yusof, Husnaida Abdul Manan@Sulong, Tg Fatimah Murniwati Tg Muda, Wan Nor Arifin, Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff
      Abstract: Students' perceptions of the education environment influence their learning. Ever since the major medical curriculum reform, anatomy education has undergone several changes in terms of its curriculum, teaching modalities, learning resources, and assessment methods. By measuring students' perceptions concerning anatomy education environment, valuable information can be obtained to facilitate improvements in teaching and learning. Hence, it is important to use a valid inventory that specifically measures attributes of the anatomy education environment. In this study, a new 11-factor, 132-items Anatomy Education Environment Measurement Inventory (AEEMI) was developed using Delphi technique and was validated in a Malaysian public medical school. The inventory was found to have satisfactory content evidence (scale-level content validity index [total] = 0.646); good response process evidence (scale-level face validity index [total] = 0.867); and acceptable to high internal consistency, with the Raykov composite reliability estimates of the six factors are in the range of 0.604–0.876. The best fit model of the AEEMI is achieved with six domains and 25 items (X2 = 415.67, P 
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T11:51:09.20316-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1683
       
  • Anonymous body or first patient' A status report and needs assessment
           regarding the personalization of donors in dissection courses in German,
           Austrian, and Swiss Medical Schools
    • Abstract: Many Anglo‐American universities have undertaken a paradigm shift in how the dissection of human material is approached, such that students are encouraged to learn about the lives of body donors, and to respectfully “personalize” them as human beings, rather than treating the specimens as anonymous cadavers. For the purposes of this study, this provision of limited personal information regarding the life of a body donor will be referred to as “personalization” of body donors. At this time, it is unknown whether this paradigm shift in the personalization of body donors can be translated into the German‐speaking world. A shift from donor anonymity to donor personalization could strengthen students' perception of the donor as a “first patient,” and thereby reinforce their ability to empathize with their future patients. Therefore, this study aimed to collect data about the current status of donation practices at German‐speaking anatomy departments (n = 44) and to describe the opinions of anatomy departments, students (n = 366), and donors (n = 227) about possible donor personalization in medical education. Anatomy departments in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland were invited to participate in an online questionnaire. One‐tenth of registered donors at Ulm University were randomly selected and received a questionnaire (20 items, yes‐no questions) by mail. Students at the University of Ulm were also surveyed at the end of the dissection course (31 items, six‐point Likert‐scale). The majority of students were interested in receiving additional information about their donors (78.1%). A majority of donors also supported the anonymous disclosure of information about their medical history (92.5%). However, this information is only available in about 28% of the departments surveyed and is communicated to the students only irregularly. Overall, 78% of anatomy departments were not in favor of undertaking donor personalization. The results appear to reflect traditional attitudes among anatomy departments. However, since students clearly preferred receiving additional donor information, and most donors expressed a willingness to provide this information, one could argue that a change in attitudes is necessary. To do so, official recommendations for a limited, anonymous personalization of donated cadaveric specimens might be necessary. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
       
  • The histopathologic reliability of tissue taken from cadavers within the
           gross anatomy laboratory
    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the histopathologic reliability of embalmed cadaveric tissue taken from the gross anatomy laboratory. Tissue samples from hearts, livers, lungs, and kidneys were collected after the medical students' dissection course was completed. All of the cadavers were embalmed in a formalin‐based fixative solution. The tissue was processed, embedded in paraffin, sectioned at six micrometers, and stained with H&E. The microscope slides were evaluated by a board certified pathologist to determine whether the cellular components of the tissues were preserved at a high enough quality to allow for histopathologic diagnosis. There was a statistically significant relationship between ratings and organ groups. Across all organs, there was a smaller proportion of “poor” ratings. The lung group had the highest percentage of “poor” ratings (23.1%). The heart group had the least “poor” ratings (0.0%). The largest percentage of “satisfactory” ratings were in the lung group (52.8%), and the heart group contained the highest percentage of “good” ratings (58.5%) The lung group had the lowest percentage of “good” ratings (24.2%). These results indicate that heart tissue is more reliable than lung, kidney, or liver tissue when utilizing tissue from the gross anatomy laboratory for research and/or educational purposes. This information advises educators and researchers about the quality and histopathologic reliability of tissue samples obtained from the gross anatomy laboratory. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
       
  • Ask an anatomist: Identifying global trends, topics and themes of academic
           anatomists using twitter
    • Abstract: Social media (SoMe) is increasingly used in higher education (HE) to access knowledge and enable global communication. The SoMe platform Twitter® is particularly beneficial in these contexts because it is readily accessible, easily searchable (via hashtags) and global. Given these advantages, the twitter platform @AskAnatomist was created to foster a global weekly tweet chat, where students and academics from can ask and address anatomy‐related questions. The aim of this study was to identify themes arising in the early stages of the @AskAnatomy Twitter community to gain insights into current needs/key areas for academic anatomists, students, and other followers. A qualitative analysis of tweets including the hashtag #AnatQ, (the associated @AskAnatomist hashtag), was undertaken to achieve this aim. Thematic analysis revealed three core themes arising in the formative stages of the @AskAnatomist Twitter site: (1) anatomical education modalities, (2) specific anatomy content, and (3) research motivations. These themes reveal controversies within the field of anatomical sciences, areas for potential education resource improvement and research, as well as the humor of anatomists. Though the original intent of the @AskAnatomist site was to engage the general public in anatomy content and knowledge, tweet analysis suggests that academic anatomists were the primary active “tweeters”. Interestingly, this analysis reveals that the @AskAnatomist site progressed into a web‐based community of practice (CoP), suggesting an additional benefit of SoMe communities in the field of anatomy.
       
  • E‐learning in medical education: One size does not fit all
    •  
  • Evaluating a bedside tool for neuroanatomical localization with
           extended‐matching questions
    • Abstract: Neuroanatomical localization (NL) is a key skill in neurology, but learners often have difficulty with it. This study aims to evaluate a concise NL tool (NLT) developed to help teach and learn NL. To evaluate the NLT, an extended‐matching questions (EMQ) test to assess NL was designed and validated. The EMQ was validated with fourth‐year medical students and internal medicine and neurology residents. The NLT's usability was evaluated with third‐ and fourth‐year students, and the effectiveness was evaluated with an experimental study of second‐year students, using the EMQ as the outcome measure. Students were taught how to use both the NLT and textbook algorithms (control) to perform NL, then randomized into either group, and only allowed to use their assigned tool to complete the EMQ. Primary outcome was the difference in mean EMQ scores expressed as a percentage of total score. For EMQ validation, students (n = 56) scored lower than residents (n = 50) (76.7% ± 1.7 vs. 83.0% ± 1.6; mean ± standard error of mean, P 
       
  • Learning and study strategies correlate with medical students' performance
           in anatomical sciences
    • Abstract: Much of the content delivered during medical students' preclinical years is assessed nationally by such testing as the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®) Step 1 and Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination® (COMPLEX‐USA®) Step 1. Improvement of student study/learning strategies skills is associated with academic success in internal and external (USMLE Step 1) examinations. This research explores the strength of association between the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) scores and student performance in the anatomical sciences and USMLE Step 1 examinations. The LASSI inventory assesses learning and study strategies based on ten subscale measures. These subscales include three components of strategic learning: skill (Information processing, Selecting main ideas, and Test strategies), will (Anxiety, Attitude, and Motivation) and self‐regulation (Concentration, Time management, Self‐testing, and Study aid). During second year (M2) orientation, 180 students (Classes of 2016, 2017, and 2018) were administered the LASSI survey instrument. Pearson Product‐Moment correlation analyses identified significant associations between five of the ten LASSI subscales (Anxiety, Information processing, Motivation, Selecting main idea, and Test strategies) and students' performance in the anatomical sciences and USMLE Step 1 examinations. Identification of students lacking these skills within the anatomical sciences curriculum allows targeted interventions, which not only maximize academic achievement in an aspect of an institution's internal examinations, but in the external measure of success represented by USMLE Step 1 scores. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
       
  • Analysis of testing with multiple choice versus open‐ended questions:
           Outcome‐based observations in an anatomy course
    • Abstract: The pedagogical approach for both didactic and laboratory teaching of anatomy has changed in the last 25 years and continues to evolve; however, assessment of student anatomical knowledge has not changed despite the awareness of Bloom's taxonomy. For economic reasons most schools rely on multiple choice questions (MCQ) that test knowledge mastered while competences such as critical thinking and skill development are not typically assessed. In contrast, open‐ended question (OEQ) examinations demand knowledge construction and a higher order of thinking, but more time is required from the faculty to score the constructed responses. This study compares performances on MCQ and OEQ examinations administered to a small group of incoming first year medical students in a preparatory (enrichment) anatomy course that covered the thorax and abdomen. In the thorax module, the OEQ examination score was lower than the MCQ examination score; however, in the abdomen module, the OEQ examination score improved compared to the thorax OEQ score. Many students attributed their improved performance to a change from simple memorization (superficial learning) for cued responses to conceptual understanding (deeper learning) for constructed responses. The results support the view that assessment with OEQs, which requires in depth knowledge, would result in student better performance in the examination. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
       
  • Best evidence of anatomy education' Insights from the most recent
           literature
    •  
  • Simulating the multi‐disciplinary care team approach: Enhancing student
           understanding of anatomy through an ultrasound‐anchored
           interprofessional session
    • Abstract: Quality of healthcare delivery is dependent on collaboration between professional disciplines. Integrating opportunities for interprofessional learning in health science education programs prepares future clinicians to function as effective members of a multi‐disciplinary care team. This study aimed to create a modified team‐based learning (TBL) environment utilizing ultrasound technology during an interprofessional learning activity to enhance musculoskeletal anatomy knowledge of first year medical (MD) and physical therapy (PT) students. An ultrasound demonstration of structures of the upper limb was incorporated into the gross anatomy courses for first‐year MD (n = 53) and PT (n = 28) students. Immediately before the learning experience, all students took an individual readiness assurance test (iRAT) based on clinical concepts regarding the assigned study material. Students observed while a physical medicine and rehabilitation physician demonstrated the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic and procedural tool for the shoulder and elbow. Following the demonstration, students worked within interprofessional teams (n = 14 teams, 5–6 students per team) to review the related anatomy on dissected specimens. At the end of the session, students worked within interprofessional teams to complete a collaborative clinical case‐based multiple choice post‐test. Team scores were compared to the mean individual score within each team with the Wilcoxon signed‐rank test. Students scored higher on the collaborative post‐test (95.2 ±10.2%) than on the iRAT (66.1 ± 13.9% for MD students and 76.2 ±14.2% for PT students, P 
       
  • Production of accurate skeletal models of domestic animals using
           three‐dimensional scanning and printing technology
    • Abstract: Access to adequate anatomical specimens can be an important aspect in learning the anatomy of domestic animals. In this study, the authors utilized a structured light scanner and fused deposition modeling (FDM) printer to produce highly accurate animal skeletal models. First, various components of the bovine skeleton, including the femur, the fifth rib, and the sixth cervical (C6) vertebra were used to produce digital models. These were then used to produce 1:1 scale physical models with the FDM printer. The anatomical features of the digital models and three‐dimensional (3D) printed models were then compared with those of the original skeletal specimens. The results of this study demonstrated that both digital and physical scale models of animal skeletal components could be rapidly produced using 3D printing technology. In terms of accuracy between models and original specimens, the standard deviations of the femur and the fifth rib measurements were 0.0351 and 0.0572, respectively. All of the features except the nutrient foramina on the original bone specimens could be identified in the digital and 3D printed models. Moreover, the 3D printed models could serve as a viable alternative to original bone specimens when used in anatomy education, as determined from student surveys. This study demonstrated an important example of reproducing bone models to be used in anatomy education and veterinary clinical training. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
       
  • Dual‐Extrusion 3D Printing of Anatomical Models for Education
    • Abstract: Two material 3D printing is becoming increasingly popular, inexpensive and accessible. In this paper, freely available printable files and dual extrusion fused deposition modelling were combined to create a number of functional anatomical models. To represent muscle and bone FilaFlex3D flexible filament and polylactic acid (PLA) filament were extruded respectively via a single 0.4 mm nozzle using a Big Builder printer. For each filament, cubes (5 mm3) were printed and analyzed for X, Y, and Z accuracy. The PLA printed cubes resulted in errors averaging just 1.2% across all directions but for FilaFlex3D printed cubes the errors were statistically significantly greater (average of 3.2%). As an exemplar, a focus was placed on the muscles, bones and cartilage of upper airway and neck. The resulting single prints combined flexible and hard structures. A single print model of the vocal cords was constructed which permitted movement of the arytenoids on the cricoid cartilage and served to illustrate the action of intrinsic laryngeal muscles. As University libraries become increasingly engaged in offering inexpensive 3D printing services it may soon become common place for both student and educator to access websites, download free models or 3D body parts and only pay the costs of print consumables. Novel models can be manufactured as dissectible, functional multi‐layered units and offer rich possibilities for sectional and/or reduced anatomy. This approach can liberate the anatomist from constraints of inflexible hard models or plastinated specimens and engage in the design of class specific models of the future. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
       
  • Is the supply of continuing education in the anatomical sciences keeping
           up with the demand' Results of a national survey
    • Abstract: Continuing education (CE) is an essential element in the life‐long learning of health care providers and educators. Despite the importance of the anatomical sciences in the training and practice of clinicians, no studies have examined the need/state of anatomy‐related CE nationally. This study assessed the current landscape of CE in the anatomical sciences to contextualize preferences for CE, identify factors that influence the perceived need for CE, and examine the association between supply and demand. Surveys were distributed to educators in the anatomical sciences, practicing physical therapists (PTs), and anatomy training programs across the United States. Twenty‐five percent (9 of 36) of training programs surveyed offered CE, certificates, or summer series programs related to anatomy. The majority of PTs (92%) and anatomy educators (81%) felt they had a potential or actual need for anatomy related CE with the most popular formats being online videos/learning modules and intensive, hands‐on workshops. The most commonly perceived barriers to participating in CE for both groups were program location, cost, and duration, while educators also perceived time of year as a significant factor. Logistic regression analyses revealed that no investigated factor influenced the need or desire for PTs to engage in anatomy related CE (P ≤ 0.124), while teaching experience and the highest level of learner taught significantly influenced the perceived need among anatomy educators (P 
       
  • Benefits of extracurricular participation in dissection in a
           prosection‐based medical anatomy program
    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extracurricular cadaveric dissection program available to medical students at an institution with a modern (time‐compressed, student‐centered, and prosection‐based) approach to medical anatomy education. Quantitative (Likert‐style questions) and qualitative data (thematic analysis of open‐ended commentary) were collated from a survey of three medical student cohorts who had completed preclerkship. Perceived benefits of dissection included the hands‐on learning style and the development of anatomy expertise, while the main barrier that limited participation was the time‐intensive nature of dissection. Despite perceived benefits, students preferred that dissection remain optional. Analysis of assessments for the MD2016 cohort revealed that dissection participation was associated with enhanced performance on anatomy items in each systems‐based unit examination, with the largest benefits observed on discriminating items that assessed knowledge application. In conclusion, this study revealed that there are academic and perceived benefits of extracurricular participation in dissection. While millennial medical students recognized these benefits, these students also indicated strong preference for having flexibility and choice in their anatomy education, including the choice to participate in cadaveric dissection. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
       
  • Anatomy education in occupational therapy curricula: Perspectives of
           practitioners in the United States
    • Abstract: The study of human anatomy is an integral component in the education of future occupational therapists, yet there is a paucity of research that explores the anatomy needs of students and new practitioners. As a follow up from a pilot study that surveyed a small cohort of practicing therapists, this article aimed to determine occupational therapy (OT) practitioners' views on anatomy course structure and content deemed important to include in OT curricula, entry level practitioners' anatomy knowledge, and application of anatomy in current practice. A Likert scale and free text questionnaire was distributed to practicing occupational therapists across the United States. Fifty‐four percent of the participants in this cohort favored a standalone course, as compared to 94% in the pilot study group. Anatomy course content areas were comparable across groups. Systems identified as essential to cover in an OT anatomy course included skeletal, muscular, and nervous. Regions included the upper limb, thorax/trunk, head and neck, and lower limb. Seventy percent of participants in both groups felt that entry‐level practitioners had adequate anatomy knowledge; 30% did not. Practice areas requiring anatomy knowledge included assessment of joint movement, muscle strength, pain, and functional mobility. Qualitative analysis of free text response data revealed the importance of anatomy knowledge in OT assessment and intervention strategies, determining the impact of injury or disease on occupational performance, client safety, and communication with other health care professionals and families. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
       
  • Anatomical Sciences Education Vol. 10, Issue 5, 2017 Cover Image
    •  
  • Editorial Board and Table of Contents
    •  
  • Improved medical student perception of ultrasound using a paired anatomy
           teaching assistant and clinician teaching model
    • Abstract: This study describes a new teaching model for ultrasound (US) training, and evaluates its effect on medical student attitudes toward US. First year medical students participated in hands-on US during human gross anatomy (2014 N = 183; 2015 N = 182). The sessions were facilitated by clinicians alone in 2014, and by anatomy teaching assistant (TA)-clinician pairs in 2015. Both cohorts completed course evaluations which included five US-related items on a four-point scale; cohort responses were compared using Mann-Whitney U tests with significance threshold set at 0.05. The 2015 survey also evaluated the TAs (three items, five-point scale). With the adoption of the TA-clinician teaching model, student ratings increased significantly for four out of five US-items: “US advanced my ability to learn anatomy” increased from 2.91 ± 0.77 to 3.35 ± 0.68 (P 
       
  • Novel dissection of the central nervous system to bridge gross anatomy and
           neuroscience for an integrated medical curriculum
    • Abstract: Medical schools in the United States continue to undergo curricular change, reorganization, and reformation as more schools transition to an integrated curriculum. Anatomy educators must find novel approaches to teach in a way that will bridge multiple disciplines. The cadaveric extraction of the central nervous system (CNS) provides an opportunity to bridge gross anatomy, neuroanatomy, and clinical neurology. In this dissection, the brain, brainstem, spinal cord, cauda equina, optic nerve/tract, and eyes are removed in one piece so that the entire CNS and its gateway to the periphery through the spinal roots can be appreciated. However, this dissection is rarely, if ever, performed likely due to time constraints, perceived difficulty, and lack of instructions. The goals of this project were (i) to provide a comprehensive, step-by-step guide for an en bloc CNS extraction and (ii) to determine effective strategies to implement this dissection/prosection within modern curricula. Optimal dissection methods were determined after comparison of various approaches/tools, which reduced dissection time from approximately 10 to 4 hours. The CNS prosections were piloted in small group sessions with two types of learners in two different settings: graduate students studied wet CNS prosections within the dissection laboratory and medical students used plastinated CNS prosections to review clinical neuroanatomy and solve lesion localization cases during their neurology clerkship. In both cases, the CNS was highly rated as a teaching tool and 98% recommended it for future students. Notably, 90% of medical students surveyed suggested that the CNS prosection be introduced prior to clinical rotations. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
       
  • Performance equivalency between computer-based and traditional
           pen-and-paper assessment: A case study in clinical anatomy
    • Abstract: The time, material, and staff-consuming nature of anatomy's traditional pen-and-paper assessment system, the increase in the number of students enrolling in medical schools and the ever-escalating workload of academic staff have made the use of computer-based assessment (CBA) an attractive proposition. To understand the impact of such shift in the assessment method, an experimental study evaluating its effect on students' performance was designed. Additionally, students' opinions toward CBA were gathered. Second-year medical students attending a Clinical Anatomy course were randomized by clusters in two groups. The pen-and-paper group attended two sessions, each consisting of a traditional sectional anatomy steeplechase followed by a theoretical examination, while the computer group was involved in two similar sessions conducted in a computerized environment. At the end of each of the computer sessions, students in this group filled an anonymous questionnaire. In the first session, pen-and-paper group students scored significantly better than computer-group students in both the steeplechase (mean ± standard deviation: 66.00 ± 14.15% vs. 43.50 ± 19.10%; P 
       
  • Validation of clay modeling as a learning tool for the periventricular
           structures of the human brain
    • Abstract: Visualizing anatomical structures and functional processes in three dimensions (3D) are important skills for medical students. However, contemplating 3D structures mentally and interpreting biomedical images can be challenging. This study examines the impact of a new pedagogical approach to teaching neuroanatomy, specifically how building a 3D-model from oil-based modeling clay affects learners' understanding of periventricular structures of the brain among undergraduate medical students in Colombia. Students were provided with an instructional video before building the models of the structures, and thereafter took a computer-based quiz. They then brought their clay models to class where they answered questions about the structures via interactive response cards. Their knowledge of periventricular structures was assessed with a paper-based quiz. Afterward, a focus group was conducted and a survey was distributed to understand students' perceptions of the activity, as well as the impact of the intervention on their understanding of anatomical structures in 3D. Quiz scores of students that constructed the models were significantly higher than those taught the material in a more traditional manner (P 
       
  • Take away body parts! an investigation into the use of 3D-printed
           anatomical models in undergraduate anatomy education
    • Abstract: Understanding the three-dimensional (3D) nature of the human form is imperative for effective medical practice and the emergence of 3D printing creates numerous opportunities to enhance aspects of medical and healthcare training. A recently deceased, un-embalmed donor was scanned through high-resolution computed tomography. The scan data underwent segmentation and post-processing and a range of 3D-printed anatomical models were produced. A four-stage mixed-methods study was conducted to evaluate the educational value of the models in a medical program. (1) A quantitative pre/post-test to assess change in learner knowledge following 3D-printed model usage in a small group tutorial; (2) student focus group (3) a qualitative student questionnaire regarding personal student model usage (4) teaching faculty evaluation. The use of 3D-printed models in small-group anatomy teaching session resulted in a significant increase in knowledge (P = 0.0001) when compared to didactic 2D-image based teaching methods. Student focus groups yielded six key themes regarding the use of 3D-printed anatomical models: model properties, teaching integration, resource integration, assessment, clinical imaging, and pathology and anatomical variation. Questionnaires detailed how students used the models in the home environment and integrated them with anatomical learning resources such as textbooks and anatomy lectures. In conclusion, 3D-printed anatomical models can be successfully produced from the CT data set of a recently deceased donor. These models can be used in anatomy education as a teaching tool in their own right, as well as a method for augmenting the curriculum and complementing established learning modalities, such as dissection-based teaching. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
       
  • Learning anatomy through Thiel- vs. formalin-embalmed cadavers: Student
           perceptions of embalming methods and effect on functional anatomy
           knowledge
    • Abstract: Thiel-embalmed cadavers, which have been adopted for use in anatomy teaching in relatively few universities, show greater flexibility and color retention compared to formalin-embalmed cadavers, properties which might be considered advantageous for anatomy teaching. This study aimed to investigate student attitudes toward the dissection experience with Thiel- compared to formalin/ethanol-embalmed cadavers. It also aimed to determine if one embalming method is more advantageous in terms of learning functional anatomy through the comparison of student anterior forearm functional anatomy knowledge. Student opinions and functional anatomy knowledge were obtained through use of a questionnaire from students at two medical schools, one using Thiel-, and one using more traditional formalin/ethanol-embalmed cadavers. Both the Thiel group and the formalin group of students were surveyed shortly after completing an anterior forearm dissection session. Significant differences (P-values
       
  • Current status of cadaver sources in Turkey and a wake-up call for Turkish
           anatomists
    • Abstract: Persisting difficulties in body procurement in Turkey led to the acquisition of donated, unclaimed, autopsied, and imported bodies regulated under current legislature. Yet, no study had investigated the extent of the on-going cadaver problem. This study was aimed to outline cadaver sources in anatomy departments and their effectiveness by means of an online survey. Additionally, official websites of each department were investigated regarding any information on body donation. Unclaimed cadavers (84.8%) were the major source for anatomy departments, followed by donated (50%) and imported cadavers (39.1%). Foundation-based medical faculties were more likely to import cadavers (P = 0.008). There was a moderate increase (rs = 0.567; P = 0.018) in donation registrations to our department after 2000. The departments in cities with significantly higher City-Based Gross Domestic Product measures (US$9,900 vs. US$16,772, P = 0.041), frequencies for mid- or high-school graduates (30.4% vs. 31.3%, P = 0.041), and frequencies for under- or post-graduates (13.1% vs. 15.8%, P = 0.24) had managed to use donated cadavers. Anatomy departments' major reasons for using unclaimed cadavers were education (45.9%), unclaimed cadavers being the only source (24.3%), and receiving inadequate donations (21.6%). Nine out of seventy-four departments (12.2%) provided information regarding body donation on their websites. Body procurement remains as a serious problem in Turkey and it is apparent that current legislature does not provide a sufficient cadaver inflow. Similarly, anatomy departments' effectiveness in public awareness of body donation and support in the National Body Donation Campaign seems questionable. Anat Sci Educ, © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
       
  • Working with Students as Partners in Anatomy Education
    •  
  • Understanding neurophobia: Reasons behind impaired understanding and
           learning of neuroanatomy in cross-disciplinary healthcare students
    • Abstract: Recent studies have highlighted a fear or difficulty with the study and understanding of neuroanatomy among medical and healthcare students. This has been linked with a diminished confidence of clinical practitioners and students to manage patients with neurological conditions. The underlying reasons for this difficulty have been queried among a broad cohort of medical, dental, occupational therapy, and speech and language sciences students. Direct evidence of the students' perception regarding specific difficulties associated with learning neuroanatomy has been provided and some of the measures required to address these issues have been identified. Neuroanatomy is perceived as a more difficult subject compared to other anatomy topics (e.g., reproductive/pelvic anatomy) and not all components of the neuroanatomy curriculum are viewed as equally challenging. The difficulty in understanding neuroanatomical concepts is linked to intrinsic factors such as the inherent complex nature of the topic rather than outside influences (e.g., lecture duration). Participants reporting high levels of interest in the subject reported higher levels of knowledge, suggesting that teaching tools aimed at increasing interest, such as case-based scenarios, could facilitate acquisition of knowledge. Newer pedagogies, including web-resources and computer assisted learning (CAL) are considered important tools to improve neuroanatomy learning, whereas traditional tools such as lecture slides and notes were considered less important. In conclusion, it is suggested that understanding of neuroanatomy could be enhanced and neurophobia be decreased by purposefully designed CAL resources. This data could help curricular designers to refocus attention and guide educators to develop improved neuroanatomy web-resources in future. Anat Sci Educ, © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
       
  • Cost-effective teaching of radiology with preclinical anatomy
    • Abstract: Graduating physicians in all subspecialties have an increased need for competency in radiology, particularly since the use of diagnostic imaging continues to grow. To integrate the teaching of radiology with anatomy during the first year of medical school at Howard University, a novel approach was developed to overcome the limitations of resources including funding, faculty, and curricular time. The resulting program relies on self-study and peer-to-peer interactions to develop proficiency at manipulating free versions of medical image viewer software (using the DICOM standard), identifying normal anatomy in medical images, and applying critical thinking skills to understand common clinical conditions. An effective collaborative relationship between a radiologist and anatomist was necessary to develop and implement the program of anatomic–radiographic instruction which consists of five tiers: (1) initial exposure to anatomy through dissection which provides a foundation of knowledge; (2) study of annotated radiographs from atlases; (3) a radiology quiz open to group discussions; (4) small group study of clinical cases with diagnostic images; and (5) radiographic tests. Students took all quizzes and tests by working from image datasets preloaded on their personal computers, mimicking the approach by which radiologists analyze medical images. In addition to stimulating student support of a new teaching initiative, the strengths of Howard's program are that it can be introduced into an existing preclinical curriculum in almost any medical school with minimal disruption, it requires few additional resources to implement and run, and its design is consistent with the principles of modern education theory. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
       
  • Experience from an optional dissection course in a clinically-orientated
           concept to complement system-based anatomy in a reformed curriculum
    • Abstract: Profound anatomical knowledge is the basis for modern demands in medicine and surgery, but many countries worldwide including Australia and New Zealand have discontinued offering dissection courses to medical and dental students during the past decades. This educational project done in Australia aimed at enhancing basic and advanced anatomy teaching by engaging a sub-group of second-year undergraduate students of a compulsory prosection- and model-based anatomy course (n = 54/170) in an optional multimodal course, which should easily articulate with a vertical curriculum. With topographical cadaver dissections as core, peer student-teams prepared and peer-assessed anatomy lectures based on clinical topics, which were rated highly by the peers and teachers. Anatomical knowledge was tested by quizzes and a multiple-choice examination. Individual dissection skills were self- and teacher-assessed. A final course grade was assigned based on these assessments. The grades in the system-based compulsory course achieved by the attendees of the paralleling dissection course were compared with their peers attending other optional courses. After beginning of the semester, the students in the dissection course performed similar, significantly (P 
       
  • Student and recent graduate perspectives on radiological imaging
           instruction during basic anatomy courses
    • Abstract: Recently, faculty at Pritzker School of Medicine, The University of Chicago, have made efforts to improve the depth of radiological anatomy knowledge that students have, but no insights exist as to student and resident opinions of how clinically helpful deep anatomical understanding is. A single-institution survey of second- and fourth-year medical students and postgraduate year 1–4 residents from 11 specialties, composed of five-point Likert questions, sample examination questions, and narrative response questions, was distributed in 2015. One hundred seventy-seven of the 466 potential respondents replied (71 residents and 106 students), response rate 38.0%. No nonresponse bias was present in two separate analyses. Respondents generally favored a superficial “identification” question as more relevant to clinical practice, which was positively associated with increasing clinical experience ρ = 0.357, P 
       
  • The skeletons in our closet: E-learning tools and what happens when one
           side does not fit all
    • Abstract: In the anatomical sciences, e-learning tools have become a critical component of teaching anatomy when physical space and cadaveric resources are limited. However, studies that use empirical evidence to compare their efficacy to visual-kinesthetic learning modalities are scarce. The study examined how a visual-kinesthetic experience, involving a physical skeleton, impacts learning when compared with virtual manipulation of a simple two-dimensional (2D) e-learning tool, A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy. Students from The University of Western Ontario, Canada (n = 77) participated in a dual-task study to: (1) investigate if a dual-task paradigm is an effective tool for measuring cognitive load across these different learning modalities; and (2) to assess the impact of knowledge recall and spatial ability when using them. Students were assessed using knowledge scores, Stroop task reaction times, and mental rotation test scores. Results demonstrated that the dual-task paradigm was not an effective tool for measuring cognitive load across different learning modalities with respect to kinesthetic learning. However, our study highlighted that handing physical specimens yielded major, positive impacts on performance that a simple commercial e-learning tool failed to deliver (P 
       
  • Willingness toward organ and body donation among anatomy professors and
           students in Mexico
    • Abstract: Most anatomists agree that cadaver dissection serves as a superior teaching tool in human anatomy education. However, attitudes toward body donation vary widely between different individuals. A questionnaire was developed to determine the attitudes toward body and organ donation among those who learn the most from cadavers: medical students, medical student teaching assistants, medical students involved in research, and anatomy professors. A cross-sectional, prospective study was designed in which the questionnaire was distributed among first-year human anatomy students before undertaking cadaver dissection at the beginning of the semester, and then again after a commemoration service at the end of the course. The questionnaire items included demographic data, as well as questions designed to characterize participants' attitudes regarding body/organ donation from strangers, family members, and whether participants would consider such practices with their own bodies. Out of a total of 517 students enrolled in the Human Anatomy course in the Medical School at the Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Mexico during January to June 2016, 95% responded to the first (491) and second (490) surveys. Participants' opinions on their own organ donation was similar before and after exposure to cadaver dissection, with between 87% and 81% in favor of such practices, and only 3% against it, in both surveys. Participants' willingness to donate their own bodies, as well as those of family members, increased, while reluctance regarding such practices decreased by half (P 
       
  • The impact of stereoscopic imagery and motion on anatomical structure
           recognition and visual attention performance
    • Abstract: Gross anatomy is located in a three-dimensional space. Visualizing aspects of structures in gross anatomy education should aim to provide information that best resembles their original spatial proportions. Stereoscopic three-dimensional imagery might offer possibilities to implement this aim, though some research has revealed potential impairments that may result from observing stereoscopic visualizations, such as discomfort. However, possible impairments of working memory such as decreased visual attention performance due to applying this technology in gross anatomy education have not yet been investigated. Similarly, in gross anatomy education the impact of stereoscopic imagery on learners' recognition of anatomical-spatial relationships and the impact of different presentation formats have only been investigated in a small number of studies. In this study, the performance of 171 teacher trainees working on the anatomy of hearing was examined, either with non-stereoscopic or stereoscopic imagery. Static and dynamic picture presentations were applied. Overall, benefits for stereoscopic imagery on estimating anatomical-spatial relations were found. The performance on a visual attention test indicates that the impact of stereoscopic visualizations on the human cognitive system varies more from person to person compared to non-stereoscopic visualizations. In addition, combinations of temporarily moving pictures and stereoscopic imagery lead to decreased visual attention performance compared to combinations of moving pictures and non-stereoscopic imagery. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
       
  • Master in oral biology program: A path to addressing the need for future
           dental educators
    • Abstract: In dental education, the anatomical sciences, which include gross anatomy, histology, embryology, and neuroanatomy, encompass an important component of the basic science curriculum. At Creighton University School of Dentistry, strength in anatomic science education has been coupled with a solid applicant pool to develop a novel Master of Science in Oral Biology, Anatomic Sciences track degree program. The program provides a heavy emphasis on developing teaching skills in predoctoral students as well as exposure to research processes to encourage the cohort to pursuing a career in academic dentistry. The individuals considered for this program are applicants for admission to the School of Dentistry that have not been accepted into the entering dental class for that year. The students undertake a two year curriculum, studying anatomic sciences with a special emphasis on teaching. The students also must complete a research project that requires a thesis. The students in the program are guaranteed acceptance to dental school upon successful completion of the program. After six years, the first ten students have received their Master of Science degrees and continued in dental school. The program is favorably viewed by the faculty and participating students. It is also considered successful by metrics. Nine of the ten graduates have said they would like to participate in academic dentistry in some capacity during their careers. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
       
  • Evaluation by medical students of the educational value of multi-material
           and multi-colored three-dimensional printed models of the upper limb for
           anatomical education
    • Abstract: For centuries, cadaveric material has been the cornerstone of anatomical education. For reasons of changes in curriculum emphasis, cost, availability, expertise, and ethical concerns, several medical schools have replaced wet cadaveric specimens with plastinated prosections, plastic models, imaging, and digital models. Discussions about the qualities and limitations of these alternative teaching resources are on-going. We hypothesize that three-dimensional printed (3DP) models can replace or indeed enhance existing resources for anatomical education. A novel multi-colored and multi-material 3DP model of the upper limb was developed based on a plastinated upper limb prosection, capturing muscles, nerves, arteries and bones with a spatial resolution of ∼1 mm. This study aims to examine the educational value of the 3DP model from the learner's point of view. Students (n = 15) compared the developed 3DP models with the plastinated prosections, and provided their views on their learning experience using 3DP models using a survey and focus group discussion. Anatomical features in 3DP models were rated as accurate by all students. Several positive aspects of 3DP models were highlighted, such as the color coding by tissue type, flexibility and that less care was needed in the handling and examination of the specimen than plastinated specimens which facilitated the appreciation of relations between the anatomical structures. However, students reported that anatomical features in 3DP models are less realistic compared to the plastinated specimens. Multi-colored, multi-material 3DP models are a valuable resource for anatomical education and an excellent adjunct to wet cadaveric or plastinated prosections. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
       
  • Visualization of stereoscopic anatomic models of the paranasal sinuses and
           cervical vertebrae from the surgical and procedural perspective
    • Abstract: Recent improvements in three-dimensional (3D) virtual modeling software allows anatomists to generate high-resolution, visually appealing, colored, anatomical 3D models from computed tomography (CT) images. In this study, high-resolution CT images of a cadaver were used to develop clinically relevant anatomic models including facial skull, nasal cavity, septum, turbinates, paranasal sinuses, optic nerve, pituitary gland, carotid artery, cervical vertebrae, atlanto-axial joint, cervical spinal cord, cervical nerve root, and vertebral artery that can be used to teach clinical trainees (students, residents, and fellows) approaches for trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery and cervical spine injection procedure. Volume, surface rendering and a new rendering technique, semi-auto-combined, were applied in the study. These models enable visualization, manipulation, and interaction on a computer and can be presented in a stereoscopic 3D virtual environment, which makes users feel as if they are inside the model. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
       
  • An exploration of anatomists’ views toward the use of body painting in
           anatomical and medical education: An international study
    • Abstract: Previous research has explored the experiences of medical students using body painting as a learning tool. However, to date, faculty experiences and views have not been explored. This international qualitative study utilized a grounded theory approach with data collection through interviews with academics and clinicians who utilized body painting as part of their anatomical teaching. Twenty-six anatomists participated in the study from 14 centers worldwide. Three themes emerged from the data: (1) the efficacy of body painting, (2) the promotion of knowledge retention and recall, (3) considerations and practicalities regarding the use of body painting as a teaching tool. Subthemes show that body painting is used as an adjunct to the curriculum for teaching surface anatomy and peer examination. Benefits included diffusing the formal curricula, high student engagement and learning for future clinical practice. Body painting was advocated for promoting knowledge retention and recall, particularly learning through the process of cognitive load due to combining the use of color and kinesthetic learning with anatomical theory. Critical discussions surfaced on the topic of undressing in the classroom due to cultural and personal considerations possibly leading to unequal involvement and different learning experiences. Overall results support previous research showing that anatomists appreciate body painting as an effective, enjoyable, engaging and cost efficient adjunct to the multimodal anatomy curriculum. The role of cognitive load theory in learning anatomy through body painting emerged from the data as a possible theoretical framework supporting learning benefits from body painting and is suggested for further investigation. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
       
  • Learning from human cadaveric prosections: Examining anxiety in speech
           therapy students
    • Abstract: Human anatomy education often utilizes the essential practices of cadaver dissection and examination of prosected specimens. However, these exposures to human cadavers and confronting death can be stressful and anxiety-inducing for students. This study aims to understand the attitudes, reactions, fears, and states of anxiety that speech therapy students experience in the dissection room. To that end, a before-and-after cross-sectional analysis was conducted with speech therapy students undertaking a dissection course for the first time. An anonymous questionnaire was administered before and after the exercise to understand students' feelings and emotions. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaires (STAI-S and STAI-T) were used to evaluate anxiety levels. The results of the study revealed that baseline anxiety levels measured using the STAI-T remained stable and unchanged during the dissection room experience (P > 0.05). Levels of emotional anxiety measured using the STAI-S decreased, from 15.3 to 11.1 points (P  0.05). A total of 63.4% of students described having thoughts about life and death. After the session, 100% of students recommended the dissection exercise, giving it a mean score of 9.1/10 points. Anatomy is an important subject for students in the health sciences, and dissection and prosection exercises frequently involve a series of uncomfortable and stressful experiences. Experiences in the dissection room may challenge some students' emotional equilibria. However, students consider the exercise to be very useful in their education and recommend it. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
       
 
 
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