Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8669 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2406 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 201 - 400 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
Asian Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atención Primaria Práctica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
AUP Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (AJUM)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine     Open Access  
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Journal Khulna     Open Access  
Basal Ganglia     Hybrid Journal  
Basic Sciences of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batı Karadeniz Tıp Dergisi / Medical Journal of Western Black Sea     Open Access  
Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings     Hybrid Journal  
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BC Medical Journal     Free  
Benha Medical Journal     Open Access  
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bijblijven     Hybrid Journal  
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal  
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectronic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Biologics in Therapy     Open Access  
Biology of Sex Differences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomarker Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical & Life Sciences Collection     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biomedical Informatics Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Optics Express     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Photonics     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
Biomedical Research Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Biomedicine Hub     Open Access  
Biomedicines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomedika     Open Access  
Biomolecular and Health Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biophysics Reports     Open Access  
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Biosafety and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biosalud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biostatistics & Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Birat Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BIRDEM Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Birth Defects Research     Hybrid Journal  
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
BJR|Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BJS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Black Sea Journal of Health Science     Open Access  
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Blickpunkt Medizin     Hybrid Journal  
BMC Biomedical Engineering     Open Access  
BMC Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
BMC Medical Research Methodology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
BMC Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
BMC Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BMC Research Notes     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
BMH Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMI Journal : Bariátrica & Metabólica Iberoamericana     Open Access  
BMJ     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1886)
BMJ Case Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BMJ Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BMJ Innovations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BMJ Leader     Hybrid Journal  
BMJ Open     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
BMJ Open Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
BMJ Open Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMJ Sexual & Reproductive Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BMJ Surgery, Interventions, & Health Technologies     Open Access  
Bodine Journal     Open Access  
Boletín del Consejo Académico de Ética en Medicina     Open Access  
Boletín del ECEMC     Open Access  
Boletin Médico de Postgrado     Open Access  
Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México     Open Access  
Bone     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Bone and Tissue Regeneration Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Reports     Open Access  
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Bozok Tıp Dergisi / Bozok Medical Journal     Open Access  
Brachytherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Brain and Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Brain Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brain Connectivity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Brain Impairment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Pain (BrJP)     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Breastfeeding Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
British Journal of Biomedical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
British Journal of General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
British Journal of Hospital Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Buddhachinaraj Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bulletin Amades     Open Access  
Bulletin de la Société de pathologie exotique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Legal Medicine     Open Access  
Bulletin of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin of the History of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Free  
Bulletin of the Scientific Centre for Expert Evaluation of Medicinal Products     Open Access  
Bundesgesundheitsblatt - Gesundheitsforschung - Gesundheitsschutz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Burapha Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Burns     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cadernos de Naturologia e Terapias Complementares     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Calcified Tissue International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Bulletin of Medical History     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Medical Association Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Canadian Medical Education Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Prosthetics & Orthotics Journal     Open Access  
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Care Management Journals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports     Open Access  
Case Reports in Acute Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Clinical Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Study and Case Report     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
CASUS : Revista de Investigación y Casos en Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cell & Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cell Adhesion & Migration     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cell and Molecular Response to Stress     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cell and Tissue Transplantation and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cell Cycle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Cell Death and Differentiation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cell Death Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Health and Cytoskeleton     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cell Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CEN Case Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Central African Journal of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ceylon Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
British Medical Bulletin
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.355
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 6  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0007-1420 - ISSN (Online) 1471-8391
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [412 journals]
  • Things fall apart: the British health crisis 2010–2020 and targeted
           biological therapy for asthma
    • Authors: Vetter N.
      Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: These important subjects have full free online access. In addition, as usual, the Bulletin has a section to celebrate its amazing archive (see end of ‘In this Issue’). The British Medical Bulletin (BMB) has been further developing its website and has a fascinating section on the Nobel Prize winners who wrote for the Bulletin and went on to win the accolade.
      PubDate: Fri, 15 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldaa007
      Issue No: Vol. 133, No. 1 (2020)
  • Things Fall Apart: the British Health Crisis 2010–2020
    • Authors: Hiam L; Dorling D, McKee M.
      Pages: 4 - 15
      Abstract: BackgroundA very large number of studies have reported a stalling of health improvements in the UK since 2010.Sources of dataAlmost all relevant data are produced by the Office for National Statistics and other national statistical agencies.Areas of agreementThere has been a dramatic slowdown in life expectancy and diverging trends in infant mortality in the UK as a whole and England and Wales, respectively.Areas of controversyMany commentators are loath to describe the falls in life expectancy as actual falls or to ascribe blame to the political situation in the UK.Growing pointsHealth trends in the UK are worrying and raise important questions about government policies.Areas timely for developing researchThese findings point to a need for greater investment in research on the political determinants of health, on the timely detection and interpretation of evidence of worsening health, and on how political and policy processes respond to such findings.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldz041
      Issue No: Vol. 133, No. 1 (2020)
  • Targeted biologic therapy for asthma
    • Authors: Hynes G; Pavord I.
      Pages: 16 - 35
      Abstract: BackgroundAsthma is a common and potentially serious condition affecting 300 million people worldwide. For many years, we have relied on a one-size-fits-all approach to its management, using corticosteroids and bronchodilators for all symptomatic patients. However, with more recent advances, it has become clear that asthma is a heterogeneous condition with multiple different underlying pathways. Understanding the different subtypes will be a key to giving us the ability to intervene in a targeted way to personalize care for patients with asthma.Sources of dataKey published literature, guidelines and trials from of agreementThe most widely studied of these subtypes is T2 high eosinophilic asthma, for which there are an increasing number of biologic therapies available. T2 high asthma is associated with the cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13, for each of which biologics have been developed.Areas of controversyIt is currently unclear which of the available biologics provides superior efficacy. It is also unclear how to select which biologic for which patient.Growing pointsHead-to-head trials of the available T2 biologics will be important to determine superiority, and a suggested order for trialling biologics. Going further than this, we would like to see further analyses of available biologics to allow us to predict responders from non-responders in advance of administering therapy.Areas timely for developing researchNon-eosinophilic T2 low asthma is an area that is under-researched and for which there are few treatments available. It is likely that there are different subtypes in this category of asthma and unravelling what these are will be crucial to developing effective treatments.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldaa004
      Issue No: Vol. 133, No. 1 (2020)
  • Challenges in molecular diagnosis of X-linked Intellectual disability
    • Authors: De Luca C; Race V, Keldermans L, et al.
      Pages: 36 - 48
      Abstract: BackgroundIntellectual disability (ID) affects 1–3% of the Western population and is heterogeneous in origin. Mutations in X-linked genes represent 5–10% of ID in males. Fragile X syndrome, due to the silencing of the FMR1 gene, is the most common form of ID, with a prevalence of around 1:5000 males. Females are usually non- or mildly affected carriers, and in a few rare cases, the only gender affected. Array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) have dramatically changed the nature of human genome analysis leading to the identification of new X-linked intellectual disability syndromes and disease-causing genes.Sources of dataOriginal papers, reviews, guidelines and experiences of the diagnostic laboratories.Areas of agreementFamily history and clinical examination still are essential to choose the appropriate diagnostic tests, including, a disease-specific genetic test, aCGH or FMR1 molecular analysis. If negative, NGS approaches like well-defined gene panels, whole exome, or even whole genome sequencing, are increasingly being used, improving diagnostics and leading to the identification of novel disease mechanisms.Areas of controversyThe main challenge in the era of NGS is filtering and interpretation of the data generated by the analysis of a single individual. In X-linked cases, assessing pathogenicity is particularly challenging, even more when the variant is found to be inherited from a healthy carrier mother or when a heterozygous X-linked mutation is found in an impaired female.Growing pointsAt present, variant interpretation remains a challenging task, especially in X-linked disorders. We review the main difficulties and propose a comprehensive overview that might aid in variant interpretation. Establishing a genetic diagnosis facilitates counseling and allows better delineation of clinical phenotypes.Areas timely for developing researchTo improve variant interpretation, there is need to refine in silico predictions with specific criteria for each gene, and to develop cost-effective functional tools, which can be easily transferred to diagnostics.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Feb 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldz039
      Issue No: Vol. 133, No. 1 (2020)
  • The role of the immune system in tendon healing: a systematic review
    • Authors: Chisari E; Rehak L, Khan W, et al.
      Pages: 49 - 64
      Abstract: IntroductionThe role of the immune system in tendon healing relies on polymorphonucleocytes, mast cells, macrophages and lymphocytes, the ‘immune cells’ and their cytokine production. This systematic review reports how the immune system affects tendon healing.Sources of dataWe registered our protocol (registration number: CRD42019141838). After searching PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases, we included studies of any level of evidence published in peer-reviewed journals reporting clinical or preclinical results. The PRISMA guidelines were applied, and risk of bias and the methodological quality of the included studies were assessed. We excluded all the articles with high risk of bias and/or low quality after the assessment. We included 62 articles assessed as medium or high quality.Areas of agreementMacrophages are major actors in the promotion of proper wound healing as well as the resolution of inflammation in response to pathogenic challenge or tissue damage. The immune cells secrete cytokines involving both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors which could affect both healing and macrophage polarization.Areas of controversyThe role of lymphocytes, mast cells and polymorphonucleocytes is still inconclusive.Growing pointsThe immune system is a major actor in the complex mechanism behind the healing response occurring in tendons after an injury. A dysregulation of the immune response can ultimately lead to a failed healing response.Areas timely for developing researchFurther studies are needed to shed light on therapeutic targets to improve tendon healing and in managing new way to balance immune response.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldz040
      Issue No: Vol. 133, No. 1 (2020)
  • Understanding the genetic basis of congenital insensitivity to pain
    • Authors: Drissi I; Woods W, Woods C.
      Pages: 65 - 78
      Abstract: Introduction or backgroundCongenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) is caused by extremely rare Mendelian genetic disorders. CIP individuals demonstrate the unexpectedly severe consequences of painlessness. Although only a small number of causative conditions and genes are known, most have led to profound insights into human nociception. CIP gene discovery is catalyzing the manufacture of completely new classes of analgesics, and these are needed as alternatives to synthetic highly potent opioids.Sources of peer-reviewed journal articles and reviews.Areas of agreementThe importance of nerve growth factor-tropomyosin receptor kinase A (NGF-TRKA) signalling for nociceptor genesis and subsequent pain sensing.New analgesics can be generated from knowledge of the NGF-TRKA nociceptor pathway.Increased susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus infection is a consequence of deficient NGF-TRKA signalling.Mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channels SCN9A and SCN11A can cause congenital painlessness, and in contradistinction, other mutations can cause episodic neuropathic pain.SCN9A/Nav1.7 is an analgesic target.SCN11A/Nav1.9 is unlikely to be an analgesic target.There are further Mendelian causes of painlessness to be discovered.Areas of controversyWhich NGF-TRKA intracellular signalling pathways operate in nociceptor development and which in post-natal pain sensing'Why have no clinically effective Nav1.7 antagonist been generated'SCN9A-CIP causes analgesia, at least in part, through endogenous opioids.Why do all CIP phenotypes involve a complete loss of all types of nociception'Areas timely for developing researchPRDM12 as an analgesic target.Discovery of the function and analgesic potential of new CIP genes.Can NGF-TRKA be used in the treatment of S. aureus'
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldaa003
      Issue No: Vol. 133, No. 1 (2020)
  • Therapeutic potential of microRNA in tendon injuries
    • Authors: Giordano L; Porta G, Peretti G, et al.
      Pages: 79 - 94
      Abstract: IntroductionThe regulatory role of microRNA (miRNA) in several conditions has been studied, but their function in tendon healing remains elusive. This review summarizes how miRNAs are related to the pathogenesis of tendon injuries and highlights their clinical potential, focusing on the issues related to their delivery for clinical purposes.Sources of dataWe searched multiple databases to perform a systematic review on miRNA in relation to tendon injuries. We included in the present work a total of 15 articles.Areas of agreementThe mechanism of repair of tendon injuries is probably mediated by resident tenocytes. These maintain a fine equilibrium between anabolic and catabolic events of the extracellular matrix. Specific miRNAs regulate cytokine expression and orchestrate proliferation and differentiation of stromal cell lines involved in the composition of the extracellular matrix.Areas of controversyThe lack of effective delivery systems poses serious obstacles to the clinical translation of these basic science findings.Growing pointIn vivo studies should be planned to better explore the relationship between miRNA and tendon injuries and evaluate the most suitable delivery system for these molecules.Areas timely for developing researchInvestigations ex vivo suggest therapeutic opportunities of miRNA for the management of tendon injuries. Given the poor pharmacokinetic properties of miRNAs, these must be delivered by an adequate adjuvant transport system.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldaa002
      Issue No: Vol. 133, No. 1 (2020)
  • Obeticholic acid—a new therapy in PBC and NASH
    • Authors: Chapman R; Lynch K.
      Pages: 95 - 104
      Abstract: IntroductionObeticholic acid (OCA) is a semi-synthetic hydrophobic bile acid (BA) analogue that is highly selective agonist of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a key nuclear BA receptor, which induces expression of gut-derived hormones, in particular fibroblast growth factor 19. The resulting beneficial effects of OCA on glucose and lipid metabolism and particularly hepatic inflammation make it a candidate for the treatment of a variety of conditions including primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).Sources of dataIn PBC patients who have not initially responded to ursodeoxycholic acid, OCA has been shown in double-blind controlled clinical trials to significantly reduce serum alkaline phosphatase. To date, OCA is the only therapy licensed by the FDA, EMA and endorsed by NICE as second line therapy for PBC.No medications are currently approved in Europe or the USA for the treatment of NASH.In recent clinical trials, OCA has been shown encouraging results by improving liver blood tests and reducing liver fibrosis with no worsening of NASH.Areas of agreementOCA is the established second line therapy for PBC in those patients who fail to adequately respond to ursodeoxycholic acid.Areas of controversyThe main side effects of OCA treatment in both PBC and NASH is that of dose-dependent pruritis which can lead to treatment discontinuation in ~1–10% of patients. In addition, OCA-treated patients may also exhibit (reversible) alterations in serum lipid levels; most notably a small decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol. It is not yet known whether these changes carry a long-term cardiovascular risk in NASH.In addition, the relatively high cost of OCA may limit its use in cash-limited health systems.Growing PointsAdditional clinical trials are in progress to ascertain the long-term effects of OCA on survival in PBC and NASH.Areas timely for developing researchNew FXR agonists with a lower rate of side effects are being developed and trialed. Combination therapy with other agents may offer increased efficacy.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldaa006
      Issue No: Vol. 133, No. 1 (2020)
  • The epidemiology of osteoporosis
    • Authors: Clynes M; Harvey N, Curtis E, et al.
      Pages: 105 - 117
      Abstract: IntroductionWith a worldwide ageing population, the importance of the prevention and management of osteoporotic fragility fractures is increasing over time. In this review, we discuss in detail the epidemiology of fragility fractures, how this is shaped by pharmacological interventions and how novel screening programmes can reduce the clinical and economic burden of osteoporotic fractures.Sources of dataPubMed and Google Scholar were searched using various combinations of the keywords ‘osteoporosis’, ‘epidemiology’, ‘fracture’, ‘screening’, `FRAX’ and ‘SCOOP’.Areas of agreementThe economic burden of osteoporosis-related fracture is significant, costing approximately $17.9 and £4 billion per annum in the USA and UK.Areas of controversyRisk calculators such as the web-based FRAX® algorithm have enabled assessment of an individual’s fracture risk using clinical risk factors, with only partial consideration of bone mineral density (BMD).Growing pointsAs with all new interventions, we await the results of long-term use of osteoporosis screening algorithms and how these can be refined and incorporated into clinical practice.Areas timely for developing researchDespite advances in osteoporosis screening, a minority of men and women at high fracture risk worldwide receive treatment. The economic and societal burden caused by osteoporosis is a clear motivation for improving the screening and management of osteoporosis worldwide.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldaa005
      Issue No: Vol. 133, No. 1 (2020)
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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