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Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
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Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
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ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
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Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
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Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Journal Cover Annals of Microbiology
  [SJR: 0.402]   [H-I: 26]   [10 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1590-4261 - ISSN (Online) 1869-2044
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Quorum sensing activity of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium
           Serratia glossinae GS2 isolated from the sesame ( Sesamum indicum L.)
    • Authors: Byung Kwon Jung; Abdur Rahim Khan; Sung-Jun Hong; Gun-Seok Park; Yeong-Jun Park; Ho-Jin Kim; Hwang-Ju Jeon; Muhammad Aaqil Khan; Muhammad Waqas; In-Jung Lee; Sung-Eun Lee; Jae-Ho Shin
      Pages: 623 - 632
      Abstract: Abstract Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) affect plant growth through various mechanisms, such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity, and biofilm formation. The aim of the study reported here was to isolate and characterize rhizobacteria that produce quorum-sensing signal molecules and other PGPR-related molecules. A biofilm-forming bacterium, GS2, was isolated from the rhizosphere of a sesame plant and subsequently found to produce two quorum-sensing signal molecules that were identified as N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (m/z 200) and N-octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (m/z 228) by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The strain was also found to produce IAA (17.2 μg mL−1), gibberellins (113.7 μg mL−1), and ACC deaminase (9.7 μM α-ketobutyrate mg−1 protein h−1). The strain was identified as Serratia glossinae based on a comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Inoculation of the strain promoted growth of a gibberellin-deficient rice dwarf mutant (Waito-C). Different growth attributes, including shoot and root elongation, chlorophyll content, and plant weight could be attributed to the PGPR characteristics of strain GS2. These results suggest that S. glossinae strain GS2 can serve as a microbial agent that improves plant growth.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1291-1
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 9 (2017)
  • Identification and characterization of genes involved in kojic acid
           biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus
    • Authors: Hala A. M. Ammar; Ali Y. Srour; Saeid M. Ezzat; Asmaa M. Hoseny
      Pages: 691 - 702
      Abstract: Abstract Although Aspergillus flavus is a strong producer strain for kojic acid (KA), up till now there is no report on genes encoding KA. Conversely, KA genes from A. oryzae have been reported, with kojA, kojR and kojT genes, an enzyme gene, a transcription factor and a transporter, respectively, having been cloned and characterized. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to identify and characterize KA genes from A. flavus. To achieve this goal, we first produced by gamma irradiation A. flavus and A. oryzae mutants with improved levels of KA with respect to wild type (WT) strains. Then, we cloned orthologs of A. oryzae kojA, kojR and kojT from A. flavus. Finally, we analyzed the expression levels of KA genes in mutant (MT) and WT strains of both species. The mutants A. flavus HAk1-M2 and A. oryzae HAk2-M26 were found to produce KA at levels 2.5- and 3.02-fold higher than their parent strains after 7–10 days under shaking conditions. The cloned A. flavus genes AFLA_096040, AFLA_096050 and AFLA_096060, exhibited 99–100% similarity to kojA, kojR and kojT genes from A. oryzae, respectively. Gene expression analyses revealed that the expression levels of KA genes nicely overlap with KA levels both in A. flavus and A. oryzae, MT and WT strains. In addition, we cloned the laeA gene, which controls the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites from A. flavus. The results showed that, unlike A. oryzae, the expression of laeA in A. flavus does not correlate with KA biosynthesis. Our findings are of importance and reveal that the gene cluster comprising AFLA_096040, AFLA_096050 and AFLA_096060 is potentially involved in KA biosynthesis.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1297-8
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2017)
  • Diversity and dynamics stability of bacterial community in traditional
           solid-state fermentation of Qishan vinegar
    • Authors: Xing Gan; Hanlan Tang; Dongdong Ye; Pan Li; Lixin Luo; Weifeng Lin
      Pages: 703 - 713
      Abstract: Abstract Qishan vinegar is a typical Chinese fermented cereal product that is prepared using traditional solid-state fermentation (SSF) techniques. The final qualities of the vinegar produced are closely related to the multiple bacteria present during SSF. In the present study, the dynamics of microbial communities and their abundance in Daqu and vinegar Pei were investigated by the combination of high throughput sequencing and quantitative PCR. Results showed that the Enterobacteriales members accounted for 94.7%, 94.6%, and 92.2% of total bacterial sequences in Daqu Q3, Q5, and Q10, respectively. Conversely, Lactobacillales and Rhodospirillales dominated during the acetic acid fermentation (AAF) stage, corresponding to the quantitative PCR results. Lactobacillus, Acetobacter, Weissella, Leuconostoc and Bacillus were the dominant and characteristic bacterial genera of Qishan vinegar during AAF process. Redundancy analysis suggested that Lactobacillales and Rhodospirillales had a positive correlation with humidity and acidity, respectively. These results confirmed that the bacterial community structure could be affected by physiochemical factors, which determined the unique bacterial composition at different fermentation stages and showed batch-to-batch consistency and stability. Therefore, the conformity of bacterial community succession with physiochemical parameters guaranteed the final quality of Qishan vinegar products. This study provided a scientific perspective for the uniformity and stability of Qishan vinegar, and might aid in controlling the manufacturing process.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1299-6
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 10 (2017)
  • Differential response of single and co-inoculation of Rhizobium
           leguminosarum and Mesorhizobium ciceri for inducing water deficit stress
           tolerance in wheat
    • Authors: Sana Ullah; Muhammad Yahya Khan; Hafiz Naeem Asghar; Muhammed Javed Akhtar; Zahir Ahmad Zahir
      Abstract: Abstract Limited soil water availability is a major threat to agricultural productivity because it inhibits plant growth and yields. Various strategies have been adopted to mitigate water deficit stress in plants; however, using extremophilic microbes with plant growth promoting traits could be an environmentally friendly and cost-effective approach to improve crop stress resilience. Rhizobia are well known for their symbiotic association with legumes, but they can also improve the fitness of non-legumes under stressed conditions. Thus, different rhizobial strains were isolated from nodules of two legumes (lentil and chickpea) and tested for osmoadaptation at four different polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) levels, i.e., − 0.05, − 0.65, − 1.57, and − 2.17 MPa. Two stress-tolerant rhizobial strains, SRL5 and SRC8, were selected to evaluate their potential to induce tolerance against water deficits in wheat grown at four different percentages of field capacity (FC; 40, 60, 80, and 100%). Rhizobial inoculation improved physiological parameters and growth of wheat under water deficit; however, co-inoculation of selected rhizobia was better than sole application. Grain yield was most limited at the highest level of water deficit but sole inoculation with SRC8 and SRL5 improved yield by 24% and 19%, respectively. Combined inoculation increased grain yield by up to 48% compared to the uninoculated control. Thus, rhizobia from different legumes possess enormous potential for improving the resilience of cereals (non-legumes) to water deficit stress. Moreover, co-inoculation of rhizobia could be more beneficial than their sole application.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1302-2
  • Diversity and dynamics of the DNA and cDNA-derived bacterial compost
           communities throughout the Agaricus bisporus mushroom cropping process
    • Authors: Conor Francis Mcgee; Helen Byrne; Aisling Irvine; Jude Wilson
      Abstract: Abstract The cultivation of Agaricus bisporus involves the conversion of agricultural materials via fermentation into utilisable simple sugars as a nutrient source for the fungal crop during mushroom cropping. However, little is currently known about the role of the bacterial community contributing to the fermentation process. In this investigation we characterised the composition and dynamics of the DNA and cDNA-derived bacterial populations throughout a commercial mushroom cropping process using MiSeq sequencing. Both methods indicated substantial changes in the bacterial community structure after the first flush of the mushroom crop. However, differences were observed between the composition of the bacterial community determined by each of the two methods. The cDNA-derived community indicated that thermotolerant genera with known sulphur-reducing characteristics were highly active up to the first flush. Activity of the phyla Actinobacteria and Firmicutes was observed to increase as fermentation progressed, indicating that the members of these phyla played prominent roles in the conversion of wheat straw into utilisable sugars. The cDNA-derived community comprised genera with roles in the nitrification process that became highly active at post flush 1. Subsequent chemical analysis of extractable nitrate indicated that substantial nitrification occurred up until the termination of the cropping process. This study has demonstrated that a highly dynamic bacterial community is present throughout the mushroom cropping process.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1303-1
  • Statistically optimized production and characterization of vanillin from
           creosol using newly isolated Klebsiella pneumoniae P27
    • Authors: Geetanjali T. Mali; Pramod J. Kasabe; Padma Babulal Dandge
      Abstract: Abstract The current research study deals with the screening of a potent vanillin-producing microorganism among 96 isolated strains. Biochemical characterization and molecular identification confirmed that the isolated strain belongs to the Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria, so it was denoted as Klebsiella pneumoniae P27. The optimization of medium components for the enhanced production of vanillin was carried out using two-stage statistical experimental designs, in which the significant medium components for vanillin production were screened using a Plackett-Burman experimental design. And the optimal levels of those noteworthy factors were determined by using central composite design. The statistical optimization of medium components resulted in increases in vanillin production and vanillyl alcohol oxidase activity of 2.05-fold and 3.055-fold, respectively. The highest vanillin production (30.88 mg/L) and vanillyl alcohol oxidase activity (0.044 U/mL) was observed after 16 h of incubation in the presence of 0.26 mL/L creosol, 8.06 g/L yeast extract and 2.77 g/L NH4NO3 in the production medium. The optimally produced vanillin was extracted and confirmed using FTIR and LCMS spectral analysis. The results of the current study support a statistical process optimization approach as a potential technique for the enhanced production of vanillin from creosol by using newly isolated Klebsiella pneumoniae P27 bacterial strain.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1300-4
  • Green bio-dispersant removal efficacy estimation for controlling biofilms
           in cooling towers
    • Authors: Francesca Di Pippo; Francesca de Tora; Luciana Di Gregorio; Marco Buccolini; Rossano Capocecera; Simona Rossetti; Valter Tandoi
      Abstract: Abstract In this study the effect of green bio-dispersants on cooling water biofilm attachment has been investigated. As monitoring biofilm growth in industrial cooling systems is extremely complex and difficult, we developed a simple method to additively evaluate the effectiveness of green bio-dispersants on biofilms grown in two different lab-scale systems using, as inoculum, make-up water from an industrial cooling tower. The proposed method uses spectrophotometry to estimate the detached biomass after bio-dispersant action. The biofilm detachment rate and the removal percentage of biofilm were calculated after the use of six green bio-dispersants, two non-green dispersants and three controls at two different concentrations. Under all tested conditions, green bio-dispersants showed higher biofilm removal percentage and detachment rate than non-green additives. These results suggest that highly performing green additives could be recommended as a reasonable replacement for non-green additives for controlling biofilms in cooling towers, in accordance to the European Union’s REACH regulation.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1301-3
  • Effect of trace elements and optimization of their composition for the
           nitrification of a heterotrophic nitrifying bacterium, Acinetobacter
           harbinensis HITLi7 T , at low temperature
    • Authors: Zejia Zheng; Weiguang Li; Xiaofei Huang; Wen Qin
      Abstract: Abstract The effects of trace elements on ammonium degradation performance and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) secretion of Acinetobacter harbinensis HITLi7T at low temperature were investigated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to obtain the optimal composition of trace elements and analyze their correlation. In this study, the results indicated that the ammonium removal performance could be enhanced by the presence of 0.1 mg L−1 Fe, Mn, or B in pure cultivation. When the concentrations of Fe and Mn were 0.2 mg L−1, the ammonium removal rates of the novel strain HITLi7T were 0.49 ± 0.01 mg L−1·h−1 and 0.58 ± 0.01 mg L−1·h−1, respectively, while it was the low concentration of 0.05 mg L−1 B that showed the maximum ammonium removal rate (0.56 ± 0.02 mg L−1·h−1) of strain HITLi7T. The regression model was obtained and the optimal formulation of trace elements was: B 0.064 mg L−1, Fe 0.12 mg L−1, and Mn 0.1 mg L−1. Based on these values, the experimental ammonium removal rate could reach 0.59 mg L−1·h−1, which matched well with the predicted response. The study also found that the addition of trace elements, causing high ammonium removal rates, resulted in a high polysaccharide (PS) ratio in the EPS secreted by Acinetobacter harbinensis HITLi7T. Especially under the optimal conditions, the PS ratio reached the highest value of 49.9%.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1298-7
  • Soil fungal community variation by large-scale reclamation in Sanjiang
           plain, China
    • Authors: Fei Xu; Tijiu Cai; Xue Yang; Wenzhi Sui
      Abstract: Abstract Large-scale marshland reclamation can cause substantial changes to the soil fungal community by disturbances associated with the growth of crop plants and by the addition of fertilizers and pesticides. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of the fungal-specific internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene region was used to identify fungal taxa. We analyzed the variation in soil fungi diversity and community composition in marshland, paddy, and farmland corn soils, and investigated the relationship between soil fungal community composition and soil physicochemical characteristics to quantify the effect of large-scale reclamation on marshland soil environment in the Sanjiang Plain, northeast China. Marshland soil contained most of the 1997 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found across all sites (1241), while paddy soil had only 614 OTUs and farmland corn soil 817 OTUs. All reclaimed lands presented a decline in richness and diversity of soil fungi at the OTU level, and soil fungal richness was significantly different between marshland and reclaimed sites (P < 0.05), although it did not differ significantly between marshland and farmland corn sites. Additionally, soil fungal community composition showed different trends and structure after the reclamation. One-way analysis of variance showed Basidiomycota, Zygomycota, Glomeromycota, and Chytridiomycota composition differed significantly between marshland and reclaimed sites (P < 0.05). Nine dominant genera (relative abundance >1.5% in at least one site) and many unclassified genera showed significant variation between marshland and reclaimed sites, including Blumeria, Tomentella, Peziza, Hypholoma, Zopfiella, Mrakia, and Fusarium. Soil fungal community composition and diversity were affected by soil moisture, pH, total carbon (C), available nitrogen (N), soil organic carbon, soil dissolved organic carbon, and C/N (the ratio of total carbon to total nitrogen). The present results contribute to understanding the fungal community in marshland ecosystems, and the role of environmental variability as a predictor of fungal community composition.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1296-9
  • Modulation of proline metabolic gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana
           under water-stressed conditions by a drought-mitigating Pseudomonas putida
    • Authors: Daipayan Ghosh; Sunetra Sen; Sridev Mohapatra
      Abstract: Abstract Although amelioration of drought stress in plants by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is a well reported phenomenon, the molecular mechanisms governing it are not well understood. We have investigated the role of a drought ameliorating PGPR strain, Pseudomonas putida GAP-P45 on the regulation of proline metabolic gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana under water-stressed conditions. Indeed, we found that Pseudomonas putida GAP-P45 alleviates the effects of water-stress in A. thaliana by drastic changes in proline metabolic gene expression profile at different time points post stress induction. Quantitative real-time expression analysis of proline metabolic genes in inoculated plants under water-stressed conditions showed a delayed but prolonged up-regulation of the expression of genes involved in proline biosynthesis, i.e., ornithine-Δ-aminotransferase (OAT), Δ 1 -pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase1 (P5CS1), Δ 1 -pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR), as well as proline catabolism, i.e., proline dehydrogenase1 (PDH1) and Δ 1 -pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH). These observations were positively correlated with morpho-physiological evidences of water-stress mitigation in the plants inoculated with Pseudomonas putida GAP-P45 that showed better growth, increased fresh weight, enhanced plant water content, reduction in primary root length, enhanced chlorophyll content in leaves, and increased accumulation of endogenous proline. Our observations point towards PGPR-mediated enhanced proline turnover rate in A. thaliana under dehydration conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1294-y
  • A physiological comparative study of acid tolerance of Lactobacillus
           plantarum ZDY 2013 and L. plantarum ATCC 8014 at membrane and cytoplasm
    • Authors: Yilin Guo; Ximei Tian; Renhui Huang; Xueying Tao; Nagendra P. Shah; Hua Wei; Cuixiang Wan
      Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to disclose the acid tolerance mechanism of Lactobacillus plantarum by comparing L. plantarum ZDY 2013 with the type strain L. plantarum ATCC 8014 in terms of cell membrane, energy metabolism, and amino acid metabolism. L. plantarum ZDY 2013 had a superior growth performance under acidic condition with 100-fold higher survival rate than that of L. plantarum ATCC 8014 at pH 2.5. To determine the acid tolerance physiological mechanism, cell integrity was investigated through scanning electron microscopy. The study revealed that L. plantarum ZDY 2013 maintained cell morphology and integrity, which is much better than L. plantarum ATCC 8014 under acid stress. Analysis of energy metabolism showed that, at pH 5.0, L. plantarum ZDY 2013 enhanced the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase and decreased the ratio of NAD+/NADH in comparison with L. plantarum ATCC 8014. Similarly, amino acid metabolism of intracellular arginine, glutamate, and alanine was improved in L. plantarum ZDY 2013. Correspondingly, the activity of arginine deiminase and glutamate decarboxylase of L. plantarum ZDY 2013 increased by 1.2-fold and 1.3-fold compared with L. plantarum ATCC 8014 in acid stress. In summary, it is demonstrated that the special physiological behaviors (integrity of cell membrane, enhanced energy metabolism, increased amino acid and enzyme level) of L. plantarum ZDY 2013 can protect the cells from acid stress.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1295-x
  • Bacterial diversity of the outflows of a Polichnitos (Lesvos, Greece) hot
           spring, laboratory studies of a Cyanobacterium sp. strain and potential
           medical applications
    • Authors: Panagiotis Mizerakis; Panagiota Stathopoulou; George Tsiamis; Mohammed N. Baeshen; Jazem A. Mahyoub; Ahmed M. Elazzazy; Stamatia Bellou; Eleni Sakoulogeorga; Irene-Eva Triantaphyllidou; Theodora Mazioti; Panagiotis Katsoris; George Aggelis
      Abstract: Abstract The bacterial diversity of the outflows of Polichnitos (Lesvos, Greece) hot spring has been investigated. Cyanobacteria showing high sequence homologies with Phormidium sp. and Cyanobacterium aponinum were found. Members of the Alphaproteobacteria closely related to Rhodobium sp. Albidovulum sp., Rhodobacter sp., Microvigra sp., Nitratireductor sp. and Phaeobacter sp. Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Firmicutes were represented by members of Idiomarina sp., Marinobacter sp., Shinella sp., Bacillus sp. and Clostridium sp. with sequence homologies ranging from 92% to 100%. Members of the Bacteroidetes and Planctomycetes were represented by sequences of novel phylogenetic linkages exhibiting 87–90% sequence homology with type strains. When the hot spring consortium was cultivated in bioreactor repeated batch culture under photo-autotrophic growth conditions at temperature < 30 °C, Cyanobacterium sp. dominated over Phormidium sp. Cyanobacterium sp. seems to have biotechnological potential since its extracellular broth exhibited a strong insecticidal activity against larvae of Aedes aegypti (a vector of important human diseases) and significant anti-cancer activity against the PC3 human prostate cancer cell line, while its toxicity against human endothelial cells was relatively low.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1293-z
  • Characterization of root-associated microbiota in medicinal plants
           Astragalus membranaceus and Astragalus mongholicus
    • Authors: Haifeng Sun; Baoling Kang; Zhi Chai; Huanhuan Sun; Huizhi Du; Jianping Gao; Qianjing Feng; Chunfen Zhang; Qiufen Cao; Lanping Guo
      Abstract: Abstract Although the quality of herbal medicine is tightly associated with plant genotype and location, microbial traits of most herbs remain unclear. In this study, bacterial communities residing Astragali Radix, which is derived from Astragalus membranaceus and A. mongholicus roots, have been characterized by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. The samples were collected from four representive locations and differing in genotype and planting pattern. The spatial resolution study by ARISA firstly distinguished between the two anatomically-based parts, the periderm and secondary vascular tissue, demonstrating that microbial communities residing in the former were more diverse and clearly separated by host genotype and location as compared with those residing in the latter. Taxonomic coverage revealed that phyla of Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes and Bacteroidetes dominated the bacterial assemblages across the samples. The community diversity in A. mongholicus was more abundant than it was in A. membranaceus, especially A. mongholicus in Shanxi province of China. In addition, the conventional cultivation exerted consistently negative effects on microbiota complexity when compared with the planting pattern “imitating wild conditions”, which was regardless of the host genotype. With the focus on microbiota members in Shanxi, taxa associated with the genotype, geography and planting pattern were finally discriminated and used as indicators for the screening of endophytic bacteria that contain ACC deaminase. Taken together, microbiota should be an important trait of herbal medicines and the periderm should be a specialized niche for microbiota research in medicinal plants.
      PubDate: 2017-08-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1285-z
  • Improvement of lipid production from an oil-producing filamentous fungus,
           Penicillium brevicompactum NRC 829, through central composite statistical
    • Authors: Thanaa H. Ali; Mamdouh S. El-Gamal; Dina H. El-Ghonemy; Ghada E. Awad; Amir E. Tantawy
      Abstract: Abstract In the present study, 13 filamentous fungi were screened for their lipid production and an oleaginous fungus, Penicillium brevicompactum NRC 829, was found to be the highest lipid producer. Screening of various agro-industrial residues was performed and sunflower oil cake proved to be the best substrate for lipid production. A central composite design was employed to investigate the optimum concentrations of the most significant medium components required to improve the lipid production by P. brevicompactum. The results clearly revealed that the maximal lipid production of 8.014 ± 0.06 gL−1 (representing 57.6% lipid/dry biomass) was achieved by the fungus when grown for 6 days at 30 °C under static condition in a medium containing sunflower oil cake, NaNO3 and KCl at final concentrations of 8, 0.75 and 0.25 gL−1, respectively. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of P. brevicompactum lipid indicated that linoleic acid (LA) (C18:2–6, 9) was the most abundant fatty acid, accounting for up to 62% of the total fatty acid profile, followed by palmitoleic acid (C16:1, 16%) and linolenic acid (C18:3, 8%). These results suggest that P. brevicompactum NRC 829 may have potential for commercial development for the production of LA by fermentation using cheap raw material.
      PubDate: 2017-08-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1287-x
  • Xylan-hydrolyzing thermotolerant Candida tropicalis HNMA-1 for bioethanol
           production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate
    • Authors: Hoda Nouri; Mehrdad Azin; Mir Latif Mousavi
      Abstract: Abstract Sugarcane bagasse is one of the low-cost substrates used for bioethanol production. In order to solubilize sugars in hemicelluloses like xylan, a new thermotolerant isolate of Candida tropicalis HNMA-1 with xylan-hydrolyzing ability was identified and characterized. The strain showed relative tolerance to high temperature. Our results demonstrated 0.211 IU ml−1 xylanase activity at 40 °C compared to 0.236 IU ml−1 at 30 °C. The effect of high temperature on the growth and fermentation of xylose and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate were also investigated. In both xylose or hydrolysate medium, increased growth was recorded at 40 °C. Meanwhile, the efficiency of ethanol fermentation was adversely affected by temperature since yields of 0.088 g g−1 and 0.076 g g−1 in the xylose medium, in addition to 0.090 g g−1 and 0.078 g g−1 in the hydrolysate medium were noticed at 30 °C and 40 °C, respectively. Inhibitory compounds in the hydrolysate medium demonstrated negative effects on fermentation and productivity, with maximum ethanol concentration attained after 48 h in the hydrolysate, as opposed to 24 h in the xylose medium. Our data show that the newly thermotolerant isolate, C. tropicalis HNMA-1, is able to efficiently ferment xylose and hydrolysate, and also has the capacity for application in ethanol production from hemicellulosic sources.
      PubDate: 2017-08-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1292-0
  • Sakacin G is the main responsible bacteriocin for the anti-listerial
           activity of meat-borne Lactobacillus curvatus ACU-1
    • Authors: Mónica Adriana Mechoud; Ornella Estefanía Álvarez; María Elisa Cayré; Marcela Paola Castro; Carlos Minahk; Lucila Saavedra
      Abstract: Abstract The present study was conducted to quantify the expression of the sakacins produced by Lactobacillus curvatus ACU-1, a strain isolated from artisanal dry fermented sausages of Argentina. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening indicated the presence of sakacin G, P, and Q genes in L. curvatus ACU-1. Purification and activity assays determined that anti-Listeria activity was mainly associated to sakacin G, as mass spectrometry analysis revealed a single peak of 3832.60 Da. Further characterization by quantitative PCR demonstrated that L. curvatus ACU-1 transcription of the sakacin G structural gene was three orders of magnitude higher than the others. Interestingly, L. curvatus ACU-1 had skgA1/skgA2 as well as sppQ genes encoded in a plasmid, while the sppA gene that encodes for sakacin P was present in the bacterial chromosome. These results point out that sakacin G is the main peptide responsible for the anti-listerial activity of L. curvatus ACU-1, with little or no contribution of sakacin P and sakacin Q. The high level of expression of sakacin G demonstrated in the present work would facilitate its potential use in food preservation, improving the food quality, safety, and shelf life. In addition, the sakacin G promoter may serve as an interesting tool for the expression of other bacteriocins at higher levels.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1288-9
  • Traditional fermented beverages from Mexico as a potential probiotic
    • Authors: Haydee Eliza Romero-Luna; Humberto Hernández-Sánchez; Gloria Dávila-Ortiz
      Abstract: Abstract Fermentation is one of the oldest ways of processing food. Some fermented food is produced industrially, but can also be produced in an artisanal way by certain ethnic groups, called traditional fermented foods. In Mexico, there are a variety of traditional fermented beverages which are produced in an artisanal way. They include those made with maize (atole agrio, pozol, and tesgüino), fruit (tepache and colonche), and obtained by plant fermentation (pulque, tuba, and taberna). These beverages have been used since ancient times for religious and medicinal purposes. The medicinal effect may be due to fermented microorganisms. The presence of beneficial microorganisms known as probiotics provides beneficial effects to consumer health, improving the balance of intestinal host, and reducing the risk of gastrointestinal diseases, mainly. Most probiotics belong to the genus Lactobacillus, but Bifidobacterium, Bacillus, and yeast are also found. Therefore, it is important that the microbiological diversity of the beverages is studied and documented. This review includes information on the microbial diversity and probiotic potential of the most important traditional fermented beverages from Mexico.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1290-2
  • Correlation between lipid and carotenoid synthesis in
           torularhodin-producing Rhodotorula glutinis
    • Authors: Jana Tkáčová; Júlia Čaplová; Tatiana Klempová; Milan Čertík
      Abstract: Abstract The oleaginous red yeast Rhodotorula glutinis produces carotenoid pigments, especially torularhodin and β-carotene, in significant amounts. We have analyzed in detail carotenoid and lipid biosynthesis in a torularhodin-producing strain of R. glutinis cultivated at different carbon:nitrogen (C/N) ratios (20:1, 50:1, 70:1, and 100:1). When the strain was cultivated in media with low C/N ratios (20:1 and 50:1), glucose was completely utilized and carotenoid formation was stimulated. Maximum pigment production reached 12.9 mg/L of medium and 2.3 mg/g of biomass at the C/N ratio of 20:1. It was noted that β-carotene synthesis was prominent when glucose was present in the medium. However, glucose exhaustion in the media at C/N ratios of 20:1 and 50:1 was closely accompanied by the predominant formation of torularhodin. The growth of R. glutinis in media with C/N ratios of 70:1 and 100:1 favored lipid accumulation in the cells but carotenoid biosynthesis was reduced. In addition, glucose consumption was linked to a rapid decrease in oleic acid levels in the total intracellular lipids. The kinetic analysis clearly indicated a correlation between oleic acid levels in total lipids and torularhodin accumulation in the cells. The results may suggest that acetyl-CoA formed from oleic acid degradation is metabolized through the mevalonate/isoprenoid/carotenoid pathways directly to torularhodin.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1284-0
  • Population dynamics and metabolite analysis of yeasts involved in a
           Chinese miscellaneous-flavor liquor fermentation
    • Authors: Pulin Liu; Xiaomao Xiong; Shuang Wang; Lihong Miao
      Abstract: Abstract Baiyunbian liquor, the most popular miscellaneous-flavor liquor in China, is mainly produced in four successive fermentation batches every year. Sensory analysis based on the trained expert panel test revealed that the raw Baiyunbian liquor distilled from the last two fermentation batches always has higher quality than that distilled from the first two batches. In this study, the yeast composition, volatile compounds, and fermentation conditions associated with each fermentation batch were monitored. Significant differences were observed in the yeast community structure and fermentation parameters among different batches, which influenced the volatile profiles of the resulting liquors. Redundancy discriminate analysis and single-strain fermentation revealed that Pichia kudriavzevii and Candida humilis play important roles in enriching volatile compounds. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii were the dominant yeasts in the last two fermentation batches. The sensorial characteristics of the liquors produced by single-strain fermentation were also analyzed. This study provides an in-depth understanding of the factors that influence liquor production and is beneficial in the development of new fermentation techniques with stable liquor quality.
      PubDate: 2017-07-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1286-y
  • Induction of cellular immunity interleukin-12, antiproliferative effect,
           and related probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated in
    • Authors: Tanatip Thamacharoensuk; Malai Taweechotipatr; Akinobu Kajikawa; Sanae Okada; Somboon Tanasupawat
      Abstract: Abstract Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely known as probiotic microorganisms that afford several health benefits for the host. In this study, 15 isolates of LAB from various sources in Thailand were examined for their probiotic properties. Based on their phenotypic and genetic characteristics, they belong to the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, and Weissella. All isolates showed the ability to induce interleukin-12 (IL-12) at different levels. Cell-free supernatant of Lactobacillus acidipiscis SR7-1 and Lactobacillus farraginis SL4-1 showed an antiproliferative effect against Caco-2 cell lines with non-toxicity to normal cell lines (Vero cells), while they had no effect against U937 cell lines. Five strains, including Lactobacillus namurensis KC78-5, L. farraginis SL4-1, Lactobacillus mucosae SL7-2, Lactobacillus salivarius MSMC120-2 and Pediococcus pentosaceus PC73-3 grew at pH 3. All isolates were tolerant at 1% bile. L. farraginis SL4-1, L. mucosae SL7-2 and P. pentosaceus PC73-3 were not statistically different when compared to the negative control in vitro adhesion assay. These results suggest that L. farraginis SL4-1, L. mucosae SL7-2 and P. pentosaceus PC73-3, which meet the general criteria of probiotics, represent very interesting candidates for further study as anti-cancer agents, especially L. farraginis SL4-1, which has an antiproliferative effect against Caco-2 cells and immunomodulatory ability. These results also highlight the need for further study, especially in appropriate in vivo animal models.
      PubDate: 2017-07-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1280-4
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