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Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
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Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
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Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
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Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
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Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
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Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
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Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
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Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
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Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
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Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
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Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Journal Cover Annals of Microbiology
  [SJR: 0.402]   [H-I: 26]   [10 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1590-4261 - ISSN (Online) 1869-2044
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Genome sequence and annotation of Sporolactobacillus pectinivorans
           GD201205 T , a lactic acid-producing bacterium
    • Authors: Quanxue Lan; Xing Gan; Hanlan Tang; Lixin Luo; Jing Chen; Guowu Yang; Jianfei Huang
      Pages: 159 - 162
      Abstract: The novel species Sporolactobacillus pectinivorans GD201205T can produce lactic acid and aromatic compounds such as isoamyl acetate and phenethyl acetate. To characterize this strain, we sequenced the whole genome of S. pectinivorans GD201205T and determined that it contains a 3,926,837-bp chromosome with a GC content of 44.27%, 4320 genes, 64 tRNAs, 14 rRNAs, and four sRNAs. The identification of the gene sequence of S. pectinivorans GD201205T provides a basis for understanding its molecular genetics and features, which in turn will facilitate its potential application as a starter culture in the food processing industry.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-018-1323-5
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 3 (2018)
  • The significance of the diversity and composition of the cecal microbiota
           of the Tibetan swine
    • Authors: Weiping Yang; Haiyun Xin; Fangjun Cao; Jinxing Hou; Li Ma; Lijuan Bao; Fangyuan Wang; Zhantao Yu; Binyun Cao
      Abstract: The Tibetan swine (TIS) is a non-ruminant herbivore with high disease resistance. Also, it has the ability to digest plants with high fiber content. However, it is not known whether any relationship exist between these characteristics of the TIS and its cecal microbiota. Thus, this study aims to investigate the cecal microbiota of the adult TIS using high-throughput sequencing techniques in order to explore possible relationships between these unique characteristics of the TIS (high disease resistance and ability to digest high fiber plants) and its cecal microbiota. PIC pigs (lean type) were chosen as controls. The results show that 75,069 valid sequences of the 16S rRNA gene at V4-V5 region were obtained in the cecal content of TIS. They were composed of 15 phyla, 70 genera and divided into 660 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the predominant phyla in both breeds, but TIS had more Bacteroidetes than Firmicutes. Also, 42.4% of the cecal bacteria were found to be unclassified and uncultured. Many cellulolytic bacteria were also found in the two breeds. TIS (88.10%) had much higher abundance in the core bacterial communities than PIC pigs (81.29%), and the proportion of Bacteroides and Spirochaetes that can effectively degrade cellulose were 6.01 and 6.40% higher than PIC pigs, respectively, while Proteobacteria that are closely related to gastrointestinal diseases were 1.61% lower than PIC pigs. Thus, the disease resistance of the TIS and its ability to digest plants with high fiber content may be related to high abundance of core bacterial communities as well as the large number of unknown and unclassified bacteria.
      PubDate: 2018-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-018-1329-z
  • Pathogenicity and genomic characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus
           strain PB1937 causing shrimp acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease in
    • Authors: Songzhe Fu; Liping Wang; Huiqin Tian; Dawei Wei; Ying Liu
      Abstract: Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) outbreaks in cultured shrimps were identified in Zhangpu, China. One Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain PB1937 was isolated from the cultured shrimps and was confirmed as a causative agent of the AHPND outbreak by employing Koch’s four postulates. Challenge tests with 106 cells ml−1 of strain PB1937 caused 100% mortality of shrimps, indicating it had sufficient virulence to cause the outbreak. Phylogenomic analysis revealed a clear divergence between PB1937 and 14 publicly available V. parahaemolyticus strains and divided 11 AHPND-causing strains into six genomic clusters. Prophage profiling of above strains revealed strong correlations with their genomic relationship, while Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) were almost absent in the genomes. The binary toxin gene pirABvp directly related to the development of AHPND was found in a 70-kb plasmid p1937-1 in PB1937 but was absent in a 78-kb novel plasmid p1937-2, which shared 46% sequence similarity with p1937-1. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that PB1937 has a novel truncated type VI secretion system (T6SS1) which possibly affects its antibacterial activity. In addition, three novel genomic islands were reported. The analysis of the genomes gave some clues regarding the correlation of virulence with its genomic trait for the AHPND strains.
      PubDate: 2018-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-018-1328-0
  • Metabolic responses of Aspergillus terreus under low dissolved oxygen and
           pH levels
    • Authors: Pajareeya Songserm; Aphichart Karnchanatat; Sitanan Thitiprasert; Somboon Tanasupawat; Suttichai Assabumrungrat; Shang-Tian Yang; Nuttha Thongchul
      Abstract: The metabolic responses of Aspergillus terreus NRRL1960 to stress conditions (low dissolved oxygen and pH with limited nitrogen and phosphate) in the two-phase fermentation were investigated in this study. The fermentation kinetics suggested that itaconate production was suppressed under low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. A slight change in pH caused a significant change in itaconate production. The transcriptomic data revealed that under low DO concentration, the glycolytic pathway was uncoupled from the oxidative phosphorylation, resulting in the activation of substrate-level phosphorylation as an alternative route for ATP regeneration. The downregulation of pdh genes, the genes encoding ATP synthase and succinate dehydrogenase, confirmed the observation of the uncoupling of the oxidative TCA cycle from glycolysis. It was found that the upregulation of pyc resulted in a large pool of oxaloacetate in the cytosol. This induced the conversion of oxaloacetate to malate. The upregulation of the gene encoding fumarate hydratase with the subsequent formation of fumarate was found to be responsible for the regeneration of NADPH and ATP under the condition of a low dissolved oxygen level. The large pool of oxaloacetate drove itaconic acid production also via the oxidative TCA cycle. Nevertheless, the downregulation of ATP synthase genes resulted in the deficiency of the proton-pumping H+ ATPase and the subsequent stress due to the failure to maintain the physiological pH. This resulted in itaconate production at a low titer. The fermentation kinetics and the transcriptomic data provided in this study can be used for further process optimization and control to improve itaconate production performance.
      PubDate: 2018-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-018-1330-6
  • SacAcuA/SacSrtN system modulates the metabolism by controlling the special
           proteins in Saccharopolyspora erythraea
    • Authors: Ying Zhou; Zhi-Hai Li; Bang-Ce Ye
      Abstract: NƐ-lysine acetylation is a dynamic, reversible, regulatory post-translational modification in prokaryotes and eukaryotes that modulates a variety of protein functions. As known, acetylation is introduced to lysine mainly through two ways in vivo: nonenzymatic acetylation and acetyltransferase/deacetylase system. Herein, we select the Gcn5-like protein acetyltransferase SacAcuA (encoded by SACE_5148) and the sirtuin-type NAD+-dependent deacetylase SacSrtN (encoded by SACE_3798) as the researching objects. By comparison of ΔSACE_3798 and ΔSACE_5148 to wild type of Saccharopolyspora erythraea, the growth and the synthesis of secondary metabolites were affected by SacAcuA/SacSrtN system. Moreover, 96 proteins were classified into three aspects of cellular components, molecular function, and biological processes. These findings suggest that the acetyltransferase/deacetyltransferase system could not only catalyze the acetylation/deacetylation of special proteins but also affect the protein level to modulate the primary and secondary metabolism in S. erythraea.
      PubDate: 2018-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-018-1325-3
  • Mercury removal by engineered Escherichia coli cells expressing different
           rice metallothionein isoforms
    • Authors: Azar Shahpiri; Asghar Mohammadzadeh
      Abstract: Mercury is one of the more common and potentially most harmful toxic metals. Remediation using conventional physical and chemical methods is uneconomical and generates large volumes of chemical waste. Bioremediation of hazardous metals has received considerable and growing interest over the years. In the present work, genetically engineered Escherichia coli cells, which express four rice metallothionein (MT) isoforms as fusions with glutathione-S-transferase (GST), were tested for their ability to remove mercury. The results showed that the E. coli cells expressing OsMT1, OsMT2, OsMT3, and OsMT4 are able to remove 20, 13.7, 10, and 7 nmol Hg2+/mg (dry weight) from the culture medium, respectively. The recombinant GST–OsMTs were purified using affinity chromatography. The UV absorption spectra and the results of 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic) acid (DTNB) assay recorded after the reconstitution of the apo-OsMTs with mercury confirmed that the different OsMT isoforms were able to form mercury complexes in vitro with different binding capacities and different binding strength.
      PubDate: 2018-02-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-018-1326-2
  • Comparative study on intestinal bacterial communities of Boleophthalmus
           pectinirostris and Periophthalmus magnuspinnatus with different sexes and
           feeding strategies
    • Authors: Rongrong Ma; Sikai Wang; Feng Zhao; Chao Xu; Yan Ji; Chao Song; Yu Wang; Ping Zhuang
      Abstract: Intertidal mudflats are unique, highly productive ecosystems. Boleophthalmus pectinirostris and Periophthalmus magnuspinnatus are common fish species that are distributed in the intertidal mudflats of the Yangtze Estuary in China. They perform important ecological functions and have different feeding strategies. Herein, we studied the intestinal microbial diversity and structure of wild B. pectinirostris and P. magnuspinnatus with different sexes and feeding strategies during their breeding season. Gut samples of B. pectinirostris and P. magnuspinnatus individuals (female:male ratio = 1:1) were collected and subjected to high-throughput DNA sequencing. The results showed Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum in all the four sample groups: 73.5% in the males and 52.6% in the females of B. pectinirostris and 40.2% in the males and 40.9% in the females of P. magnuspinnatus. Aeromonas, Shewanella, Halomonas, and Acinetobacter of the phylum Proteobacteria were dominant genera in all the sample groups and accounted for 62.13% of the ten dominant genera. The diversity of the intestinal microflora in the omnivorous P. magnuspinnatus was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that in the herbivorous B. pectinirostris. Beta diversity, including PCoA and UPGMA of unweighted UniFrac distances, showed that B. pectinirostris samples were clustered together, and P. magnuspinnatus samples were clustered together, implying the effect of the feeding habits on the microbial community structure is more considerable than that of sex.
      PubDate: 2018-01-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-018-1324-4
  • Dairy propionibacteria as direct-fed microbials: in vitro effect on acid
           metabolism of Streptococcus bovis and Megasphaera elsdenii
    • Authors: Jianbiao Luo; Chaminda Senaka Ranadheera; Stuart King; Craig Andrew Evans; Surinder Baines
      Abstract: Ruminal acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid, a decrease of pH in the rumen and subsequent imbalance of the rumen fermentation process, affects the health and productivity of dairy cows and beef cattle. Direct-fed microbials have potential for use in the control and prevention of ruminal acidosis. This study investigated the interaction between five strains of dairy propionibacteria, Megasphaera elsdenii and Streptococcus bovis in various co-culture combinations in a simulated rumen environment comprising unmodified rumen digesta supplemented with excess glucose. While suppression of lactic acid accumulation by both the dairy propionibacteria and M. elsdenii in the presence of S. bovis in the simulated rumen conditions was evident, propionibacteria were found to be more effective than M. elsdenii in controlling lactic acid levels.
      PubDate: 2018-01-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-018-1322-6
  • Dynamics and diversity of a microbial community during the fermentation of
           industrialized Qingcai paocai, a traditional Chinese fermented vegetable
           food, as assessed by Illumina MiSeq sequencing, DGGE and qPCR assay
    • Authors: Huipeng Liang; Liguo Yin; Yahao Zhang; Cong Chang; Wenxue Zhang
      Abstract: Paocai is a traditional Chinese fermented food and typically produced via spontaneous fermentation. We have investigated the microbial community utilized for the fermentation of industrialized Qingcai paocai using the combination of Illumina MiSeq sequencing, PCR-mediated denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay. Three main phyla, namely Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, were identified by both MiSeq sequencing and PCR-DGGE. The dominant genera observed in the fermentation were Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, Vibrio and Halomonas. Most genera affiliated with Proteobacteria or Bacteroidetes were detected more often during the earlier part of the fermentation, while Lactobacillus (affiliated with Firmicutes) was dominant during the later fermentation stages. Fungal community analysis revealed that Debaryomyces, Pichia and Kazachstania were the main fungal genera present in industrialized Qingcai paocai, with Debaryomyces being the most dominant during the fermentation process. The quantities of dominant genera Lactobacillus and Debaryomyces were monitored using qPCR and shown to be 109–1012 and 106–1010 copies/mL, respectively. During the later fermentation process of industrialized Qingcai paocai, Lactobacillus and Debaryomyces were present at 1011 and 108 copies/mL, respectively. These results facilitate further understanding of the unique microbial ecosystem during the fermentation of industrialized Qingcai paocai and guide future improvement of the fermentation process.
      PubDate: 2018-01-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1321-z
  • Genome sequencing of Pediococcus acidilactici (NRCC1), a novel isolate
           from dromedary camel ( Camelus dromedarius ) rumen fluid
    • Authors: Rakesh Ranjan; Ramesh J. Pandit; Srinivas M. Duggirala; Chaitanya G. Joshi; Shradhdha Sharma; Niteen V. Patil
      Abstract: The lactic acid bacterium Pediococcus acidilactici has recently been reported to help in treating constipation, diarrhea, relieving stress, and enhancing growth rate and immune response in humans, birds, fishes, and small animals. In the present study, we sequenced and analyzed the whole genome of P. acidilactici NRCC1, a novel isolate from rumen fluid of dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). The genome of P. acidilactici NRCC1 was assembled into 60 contigs, comprising 1,785,679 bp and 42.5% GC content. The 1705 CDS were predicted and annotated using the RAST server. The genome encodes numerous enzymes for utilization of different carbohydrates. It also harbors genes for antibiotic biosynthesis and many others which might confer probiotic properties. The comparative genome analysis with P. acidilactici DSM 20284 revealed some unique features in P. acidilactici NRCC1. Thus, the genome sequencing of P. acidilactici NRCC1 has opened up new horizons for further research in animal probiotics and feed supplements.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1320-0
  • Employing oxygen pulses to modulate Lachancea thermotolerans –
           Saccharomyces cerevisiae Chardonnay fermentations
    • Authors: Kirti Shekhawat; Tristan Jade Porter; Florian F. Bauer; Mathabatha E. Setati
      Abstract: Oxygen is sometimes deliberately introduced in winemaking at various stages to enhance yeast biomass formation and prevent stuck fermentation. However, there is limited information on how such interventions affect the dynamics of yeast populations. Our previous study in synthetic grape juice showed that oxygen supply enhances the persistence of Lachancea thermotolerans, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Metschnikowia pulcherrima. The three non-Saccharomyces yeasts showed differences in growth as a function of oxygen. The present study focused on evaluating the influence of short oxygen pulses on population dynamics and the aroma profile of Chardonnay wine inoculated with L. thermotolerans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results confirmed a positive effect of oxygen on the relative performance of L. thermotolerans. The mixed culture fermentation with L. thermotolerans with S. cerevisiae developed a distinct aroma profile when compared to monoculture S. cerevisiae. Specifically, a high concentration of esters, medium chain fatty acids and higher alcohols was detected in the mixed culture fermentation. The data also showed that the longer persistence of L. thermotolerans due to addition of oxygen pulses influenced the formation of major volatile compounds such as ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl caprylate, ethyl caprate, ethyl-3-hydroxybutanoate, ethyl phenylacetate, propanol, isobutanol, butanol, isoamyl alcohol, hexanol, isobutyric acid, butyric acid, iso-valeric acid, hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, and decanoic acid.
      PubDate: 2017-12-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1319-6
  • In-vitro assessment of probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum
           WU-P19 isolated from a traditional fermented herb
    • Authors: Wilawan Palachum; Yusuf Chisti; Wanna Choorit
      Abstract: Samples of fermented herbs were used to isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Of a total of 19 isolates, eight were resistant both to gastric acid and bile salts (glycocholic acid, GCA; taurocholic acid, TCA; glycodeoxycholic acid, GDCA; and taurodeoxycholic acid, TDCA). Most isolates exhibited a pH-dependent surface hydrophobicity: a pH of 4 conferred a greater hydrophobicity compared to a pH of 7. Based on the hydrophobicity characteristics, the LAB isolate WU-P19 from the traditional fermented herb Oroxylum indicum was selected for further study. WU-P19 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum WU-P19. The presence of bile salts GCA and GDCA in the culture medium induced production of the relevant bile salt hydrolase. Relative to controls, the presence of the bile salts in the culture medium affected the carbon and nitrogen contents of the cells and their hydrophobicity. Cells grown in a medium free of bile salts were morphologically different to cells grown in the presence of GCA and GDCA. WU-P19 was resistant to several antibiotics. It produced β-galactosidase and inhibited growth of the tested pathogenic bacteria at various levels. In vitro, L. plantarum WU-P19 adapted well to conditions typical of the various zones of the human gastrointestinal tract. In view of the promising results, in vivo evaluations are planned for the isolate WU-P19.
      PubDate: 2017-12-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1318-7
  • Insights into the diversity and metabolic function of bacterial
           communities in sediments from Chilean salmon aquaculture sites
    • Authors: Katherine M. Hornick; Alejandro H. Buschmann
      Abstract: Aquaculture is an extremely valuable and rapidly expanding sector worldwide, but concerns exist related to environmental sustainability. The sediment below aquaculture farms receives inputs of antimicrobials, metal-containing products, and organic matter from uneaten food and fecal material. These inputs impact the surrounding marine microbial communities in complex ways; however, functional diversity shifts related to taxonomic composition remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effect of pollution from marine fish farms on sediment bacterial communities. We compared the bacterial communities and functional bacterial diversity in surface sediments at salmon aquaculture and reference sites in Chiloé, southern Chile, using Roche 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and the predictive metagenomics approach (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States, PICRUSt). Bacterial diversity, measured as the inverse Simpson index, was significantly lower at aquaculture than at reference sites, while species richness, based on Chao’s estimator, was not significantly different. Nevertheless, community composition differed significantly between reference and aquaculture sites. We found that Gammaproteobacteria and several taxa involved in remediating metal contamination and known to have antimicrobial resistances were enriched at aquaculture sites. However, PICRUSt predicted functions indicated a degree of functional redundancy between sites, whereas taxonomic-functional relationships indicated differences in the functional traits of specific taxa at aquaculture sites. This study provides a first step in understanding the bacterial community structure and functional changes due to Chilean salmon aquaculture and has direct implications for using bacterial shifts as indicators of aquaculture perturbations.
      PubDate: 2017-12-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1317-8
  • Schizophyllan production by newly isolated fungus Schizophyllum commune
           IBRC-M 30213: optimization of culture medium using response surface
    • Authors: Aref Mohammadi; Seyed Abbas Shojaosadati; Hajar Jamshidian Tehrani; Seyed Mohammad Mousavi; Tayebeh Saleh; Alireza Chackoshian Khorasani
      Abstract: Schizophyllan (SPG) is a commercially attractive biopolymer produced by Schizophyllum commune. An investigation on the potential for SPG production by Iranian native S. commune was conducted based on culture medium, fermentation conditions and bioreactor type, . Nine native fungal strains were isolated from the northern forest of Iran at different times. Based on growth rate and SPG production, one strain was selected for further study. Optimal medium composition and inoculum size for maximizing SPG production and minimizing biomass were determined using central composite design by setting sucrose, yeast extract, inoculum size, carboxymethyl cellulose and oleic acid in the ranges of 50–200 g/L, 1–4 g/L, 2–10%, 2–12 g/L and 0.032–0.222%, respectively. The results showed that optimal results were obtained at 93.47 g/L sucrose, 1.87 g/L yeast extract, 7.68% inoculum size, 9.07 g/L carboxymethyl cellulose and 0.13% oleic acid, with maximum SPG production of 9.97 g/L and minimum biomass of 35.18 g/L. Under these optimal conditions, the production of SPG was studied in stirred tank and bubble column bioreactors. The results revealed greater production in the stirred tank because of better mixing of the culture medium. The SPG produced was characterized using rheometery, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance), scanning electron microscopy and gel permeation chromatography. The results of these characterizations demonstrated the similarity of the SPG produced by S. commune IBRC-M 30213 to commercial SPG. Thus, the SPG produced shows good potential as a polysaccharide for use in various industries.
      PubDate: 2017-12-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1316-9
  • Diversity and characterization of Azotobacter isolates obtained from rice
           rhizosphere soils in Taiwan
    • Authors: Syuan-Lu Chen; Meng-Ke Tsai; Yuh-Ming Huang; Cheng-Hua Huang
      Abstract: Azotobacter species, free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria, have been used as biofertilizers to improve the productivity of non-leguminous crops, including rice, due to their various plant growth-promoting traits. The purposes of this study were to characterize Azotobacter species isolated from rice rhizospheres in Taiwan and to determine the relationship between the species diversity of Azotobacter and soil properties. A total of 98 Azotobacter isolates were isolated from 27 paddy fields, and 16S rRNA gene sequences were used to identify Azotobacter species. The characteristics of these Azotobacter strains were analyzed including carbon source utilization and plant growth-promoting traits such as nitrogen fixation activity, indole acetic acid production, phosphate-solubilizing ability, and siderophore secretion. Of the 98 strains isolated in this study, 12 were selected to evaluate their effects on rice growth. Four species of Azotobacter were identified within these 98 strains, including A. beijerinckii, A. chroococcum, A. tropicalis, and A. vinelandii. Of these four species, A. chroococcum was predominant (51.0%) but A. beijerinckii had the highest level of nucleotide diversity. Strains within individual Azotobacter species showed diverse profiles in carbon source utilization. In addition, the species diversity of Azotobacter was significantly related to soil pH, Mn, and Zn. Members of the same Azotobacter species showed diverse plant growth-promoting traits, suggesting that the 98 strains isolated in this study may not equally effective in promoting rice growth. Of the 12 strains evaluated, A. beijerinckii CHB 461, A. chroococcum CHB 846, and A. chroococcum CHB 869 may be used to develop biofertilizers for rice cultivation because they significantly promoted rice growth. This study contributes to the selection of suitable Azotobacter strains for developing biofertilizer formulations and soil management strategies of Azotobacter for paddy fields.
      PubDate: 2017-12-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1312-0
  • Scenedesmus sp. cultivation using commercial-grade ammonium sources
    • Authors: Jimmy Soares; Robson Kriiger Loterio; Rinamara Martins Rosa; Michel Oliveira Santos; Antônio Galvão Nascimento; Nerilson Terra Santos; Thomas Christopher Rhys Williams; Adriano Nunes-Nesi; Marcio Arêdes Martins
      Abstract: The use of commercial-grade nutrients such as agricultural fertilizers is important for commercial microalgae cultivation, and this is particularly the case for biofuel production which is associated with low added value. Nitrogen is a very important macronutrient in microalgae cultivation, and ammonium sources are cheaper than nitrate sources. However, the growth response and cellular composition can be altered by the different nutrient sources. In the study reported here, we investigated the effects of different ammonium doses and commercial-grade macronutrients from agricultural fertilizers on the growth of Scenedesmus sp. BR003, a promising genus for biofuel production. Five growth media were developed using fertilizers and evaluated during Scenedesmus sp. cultivation under autotrophic conditions. The growth media differed in terms of their composition and concentration of macronutrients. We found that all commercial-grade media supported equal or higher cell concentrations, dry weight, water-soluble proteins, neutral carbohydrates, and total lipid production compared to the conventional BG11 medium. However, the commercial-grade growth medium with the highest ammonium content affected the coenobium pattern of Scenedesmus sp. BR003. Commercial-grade nutrient sources were a low-cost alternative to improve the growth of Scenedesmus sp. BR003. The different fertilizers also allowed for manipulation of microalgae chemical composition and phenotypic plasticity to target traits of commercial interest. Our results demonstrate the potential of using ammonium from agricultural fertilizers as a nitrogen source in combination with other commercial-grade macronutrients sources. In addition, this work demonstrates the ability of a robust Scenedesmus strain to grow in media of different compositions, even when a high dosage of ammonium was used.
      PubDate: 2017-12-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1315-x
  • Scenedesmus vacuolatus cultures for possible combined laccase-like
           phenoloxidase activity and biodiesel production
    • Authors: Dora Allegra Carbone; Immacolata Gargano; Pasquale Chiaiese; Antonino Pollio; Raffaele Marotta; Giuseppe Olivieri; Gabriele Pinto
      Abstract: A key aspect of the industrial development of microalgal production processes is the excessive cost of biomass production. A solution is a combination of biodiesel production and wastewater treatment. The microalga Scenedesmus has a high lipid content and a potential extracellular phenoloxidase activity, which could improve the phycoremediation of phenolic pollutants. In this work, the most suitable growth conditions to obtain this twofold aim were analyzed. First, different strains of Scenedesmus vacuolatus microalga were tested at different pH, salinity and CO2 concentration in the gas phase. The two most promising strains were then cultivated in autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions, and were investigated in terms of efficient nitrogen removal, fatty acid profile and maximized extracellular phenoloxidase activity in the medium. The results showed two extreme conditions: (1) biomass productivity doubled when photobioreactors were sparged with 5% CO2 supplemented air with respect to cultures sparged with air (the steady state values of strain 53 were 0.138 g L−1 day−1 in the presence of air, and 0.243 in the presence of CO2 addition), and N-starvation under 5% CO2enhanced the transesterified fraction of lipids (strain 53 FAME fraction in the presence of N-starvation was 33%, in the presence of nitrogen FAME fraction was 22%); (2) phenoloxidase activity was completely suppressed by presence of 5% CO2 in the gas phase (strain 53 0.21 U mL−1), indicating clear catabolite repression for the induction of this enzyme in the algal metabolism.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1309-8
  • Decrease of N -nitrosodimethylamine and N -nitrosodiethylamine by
           Lactobacillus pentosus R3 is associated with surface-layer proteins
    • Authors: Yaqing Xiao; Peijun Li; Mei Xu; Wu Wang; Conggui Chen
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of five strains of meat-borne bacteria to decrease N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and to elucidate the mechanism in Mann-Rogosa-Sharp (MRS) broth. Lactobacillus pentosus R3 was found to be the most effective in decreasing the concentration of the two N-nitrosamines (NAs) in MRS broth, with a rate of 22.05% for NDMA and 23.31% for NDEA. The concentration of the two NAs could not be reduced by either extracellular metabolites or intracellular extracts of Lb. pentosus R3 (P > 0.05), and proteinaceous substances in the cell debris were found to be responsible for the decrease. These were surface-layer proteins (SLPs) located on the cell wall. Therefore, the decrease in NDMA and NDEA by Lb. pentosus R3 is associated with its SLPs. Lb. pentosus R3 may be developed as a starter culture in the production of fermented foods with lower NAs.
      PubDate: 2017-11-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1314-y
  • In vitro rumen fermentation of soluble and non-soluble polymeric
           carbohydrates in relation to ruminal acidosis
    • Authors: Darwin; Anne Barnes; Ralf Cord-Ruwisch
      Abstract: The end-products of dietary carbohydrate fermentation catalysed by rumen microflora can serve as the primary source of energy for ruminants. However, ruminants provided with continuous carbohydrate-containing feed can develop a metabolic disorder called “acidosis”. We have evaluated the fermentation pattern of both soluble monomeric and non-soluble polymeric carbohydrates in the rumen in in vitro fermentation trials. We found that acidosis could occur within 6 h of incubation in the rumen culture fermenting sugars and starch. The formation of lactic acid and acetic acid, either alone or in mixture with ethanol, accounted for high build-up of acid in the rumen. Acidosis resulted even when only 20% of a normal daily feed load for all soluble and non-soluble carbohydrates was provided. DNA-based microbial analysis revealed that Prevotella was the dominant microbial species present in the rumen fluid.
      PubDate: 2017-11-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1307-x
  • Improving isobutanol titers in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with
           over-expressing NADPH-specific glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Zwf1)
    • Authors: Ruiqi Feng; Jingzhi Li; Aili Zhang
      Abstract: Isobutanol is a more promising biofuel than ethanol due to its higher energy density and lower hygroscopicity. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a model eukaryote, has the potential advantage to produce isobutanol because of its greater tolerance to higher alcohols. NADPH is a key cofactor for isobutanol synthesis, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Zwf1) is one of the main NADPH-supplying sources in S. cerevisiae. In this study, we investigated the effects of over-expressing ZWF1 on isobutanol titers. Our results showed that engineered strain HZAL-7023 produced 6.22 mg isobutanol per g glucose, which increased by 6.64-fold compared with the parent strain, while engineered strain HZAL-7023 22-ZWF1 produced 11.46 mg isobutanol per g glucose, which increased by 1.82-fold compared with engineered strain HZAL-7023. These results suggested that improvement of NADPH supply through over-expressing ZWF1 contributed to isobutanol biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae. These results also verified the proposed concept of increasing isobutanol titers in S. cerevisiae by resolving cofactor imbalance. Finally, this study provides a new strategy for enhancing isobutanol biosynthesis.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1304-0
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