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  Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 7439 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (1857 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access  
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
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Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
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Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
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Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
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Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access  
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Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access  
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
AJSP: Reviews & Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access  
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ankara Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Fundeni Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Journal Khulna     Open Access  
Basal Ganglia     Hybrid Journal  
Basic Sciences of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BC Medical Journal     Free  
Benha Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bijblijven     Hybrid Journal  
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Advances in Therapy
  [SJR: 0.79]   [H-I: 44]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1865-8652 - ISSN (Online) 0741-238X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • The Proteolytic Fraction from Latex of Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis
           (P1G10) Enhances Wound Healing of Diabetic Foot Ulcers: A Double-Blind
           Randomized Pilot Study
    • Authors: Luís A. B. Tonaco; Flavia L. Gomes; Gustavo Velasquez-Melendez; Miriam T. P. Lopes; Carlos E. Salas
      Abstract: Introduction The aim of the study was to investigate the role of the proteolytic fraction from Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis, designated as P1G10, on the healing of chronic foot ulcers in neuropathic patients with diabetes 2. Methods Fifty patients were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial, to verify the efficacy and safety of a topical dressing formulated with 0.1% P1G10, intended for wound healing, versus a hydrogel (control) protocol. Upon completion of the intervention, the outcome evaluated the number of patients attaining full epithelization (100%), or at least 80% healing. Statistical analysis compared the data on each group for the significance of the differences. Results Collection of data was finished in week 16, and the results were analyzed by intention to treat. The results showed that, in the control group, 5 patients attained 100% ulcer healing, 3 patients ≥ 80% healing and 11 experienced ulcer changes ≤ 80%, and the remainder showed no changes or their wounds became worse. Meanwhile, in the P1G10 group, 11 patients experienced full healing, 4 had healing ≥ 80% and 5 had ulcer changes ≤ lower than 80%, and the remainder showed no changes or their wounds became worse. The healing incidence for the first endpoint (100% healing) showed that the P1G10 group was 2.95-fold more efficacious than the control group (CI 95%) and 2.52-fold (CI, 95%) higher than its control for the second endpoint (80% healing). Conclusions These data support the hypothesis that topical application of the proteolytic fraction identified as P1G10 significantly enhances foot ulcer healing compared to hydrogel treatment.
      PubDate: 2018-03-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0684-2
       
  • Economic Burden of HR+/HER2- Metastatic Breast Cancer Among Adult
           Premenopausal Women
    • Authors: Geneviève Gauthier; Patrick Gagnon-Sanschagrin; Annie Guérin; Rebecca Burne; Tania Small; Polly Niravath; Anand A. Dalal
      Abstract: Introduction Premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HR+/HER2-) metastatic breast cancer (mBC) have complex treatment needs and may receive sequential combinations of endocrine therapy (ET) or chemotherapy. This study describes healthcare utilization (HRU) and costs among premenopausal women with HR+/HER2- mBC in real-world settings from a payer’s perspective. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, premenopausal women with HR+/HER2- mBC who received ET or chemotherapy were identified from the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan database (1 January 2006–31 December 2015). The main HRU outcomes per patient per 6 months (PPP6 M) were measured during each line of therapy and included number of days in inpatient (IP) and outpatient (OP) services. Healthcare costs per patient per month (PPPM) included medical and pharmacy costs. Results A total of 3203 patients received first-line, 2194 received second-line, and 1242 received third-line therapy for mBC. Mean number of IP days PPP6 M were 1.6, 1.3, and 1.5 days in the first, second, and third lines, respectively. Mean number of days with OP services PPP6 M was 31.4, 30.9, and 23.3 in the first, second, and third lines, respectively. Among patients receiving ET, mean total healthcare costs were $6521, $4440, and $4555 PPPM in the first, second, and third line, respectively. Among patients receiving chemotherapy, mean total healthcare costs were $16,842, $12,868, and $16,129 PPPM in the first, second, and third line, respectively. These costs were mainly driven by treatment and OP costs. Conclusion Real-world HRU and costs among premenopausal women with HR+/HER2- mBC are extensive. Patients who received chemotherapy incurred approximately twice the costs of patients treated with ET. Funding Novartis Pharmaceutical Corp.
      PubDate: 2018-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0689-x
       
  • Perioperative Management of Patients with Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases
           Undergoing Major Orthopaedic Surgery: A Practical Overview
    • Authors: Roberta Gualtierotti; Marco Parisi; Francesca Ingegnoli
      Abstract: Patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases often need orthopaedic surgery due to joint involvement. Total hip replacement and total knee replacement are frequent surgical procedures in these patients. Due to the complexity of the inflammatory rheumatic diseases, the perioperative management of these patients must envisage a multidisciplinary approach. The frequent association with extraarticular comorbidities must be considered when evaluating perioperative risk of the patient and should guide the clinician in the decision-making process. However, guidelines of different medical societies may vary and are sometimes contradictory. Orthopaedics should collaborate with rheumatologists, anaesthesiologists and, when needed, cardiologists and haematologists with the common aim of minimising perioperative risk in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases. The aim of this review is to provide the reader with simple practical recommendations regarding perioperative management of drugs such as disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, corticosteroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and tools for a risk stratification for cardiovascular and thromboembolic risk based on current evidence for patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases.
      PubDate: 2018-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0686-0
       
  • A Comparison Between Rheological Properties of Intra-articular Hyaluronic
           Acid Preparations and Reported Human Synovial Fluid
    • Authors: Mat Nicholls; Ajay Manjoo; Peter Shaw; Faizan Niazi; Jeffrey Rosen
      Abstract: Introduction This study aims to compare the properties of currently available intra-articular hyaluronate (IA-HA) products widely available in the USA to those of healthy knee synovial fluid with respect to their bulk rheological properties. We hypothesize that products would have differing rheological properties, with some more closely resembling the properties and physiological aspects of healthy joint fluid HA. Methods We obtained reported HA product molecular weights, as well as measurements of the presence of cross-linking, zero shear rate viscosity, shear thinning ratio, and crossover frequency for the following IA-HA products available in the USA: Euflexxa®, Orthovisc®, Supartz®, Monovisc®, Synvisc®, Synvisc-One®, Gel-One®, and Hyalgan®. Results Differences were seen between the study products across all of the investigated parameters. Hyalgan, Supartz, Orthovisc, and Euflexxa had a linear chain structure, while Synvisc, Synvisc-One, and Monovisc were cross-linked in structure. Molecular weight, shear rates, and crossover frequencies ranged widely across tested products, with values ranging from below to above those reported for healthy knee synovial fluid HA. When compared to healthy knee parameter values reported within the current literature, observed parameters for Euflexxa and Orthovisc were typically seen to be the most similar to healthy knee synovial fluid. When comparing Euflexxa and Orthovisc directly, Euflexxa was more often similar to the properties of healthy knee synovial fluid with respect to the observed parameters of molecular structure, shear rates, and crossover frequency. Conclusion Available IA-HA products vary with respect to molecular weight, presence of cross-linking, shear rate dependency of viscosity, and crossover frequency. Since IA-HA treatment for osteoarthritis aims to restore synovial fluid back to original HA property characteristics, using HA supplements resembling healthy synovial fluid is a logical approach. Our findings demonstrate that Euflexxa is the most similar to healthy synovial fluid with respect to molecular structure, shear rates, and crossover frequency. Funding Ferring Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2018-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0688-y
       
  • Long-term Efficacy of Safinamide on Parkinson’s Disease Chronic Pain
    • Authors: Carlo Cattaneo; Jaime Kulisevsky; Viviana Tubazio; Paola Castellani
      Abstract: Introduction Chronic pain is an important yet overlooked non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD), caused by an imbalance of the dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems. Safinamide has a multimodal mechanism of action, dopaminergic (reversible MAO-B inhibition) and non-dopaminergic (modulation of the abnormal glutamate release), that might be beneficial for both motor and non-motor symptoms. Objectives To investigate the long-term (2-year) efficacy of safinamide on PD chronic pain and to confirm the positive effects observed after 6 months of treatment. Methods This is a post hoc analysis of the data from the 2-year study 018, focused on the reduction of concomitant pain treatments and on the scores of pain-related items of the Parkinson’s disease quality of life questionnaire (PDQ-39). Results Safinamide, compared with placebo, significantly improved the PDQ-39 items 37 (“painful cramps or spasm,” p = 0.0074) and 39 (“unpleasantly hot or cold,” p = 0.0209) and significantly reduced the number of concomitant pain treatments by 26.2% (p = 0.005). A significantly greater proportion of patients in the safinamide group was not using pain drugs after 2 years of treatment (p = 0.0478). Conclusions The positive effects of safinamide on PD chronic pain were maintained in the long term. Further investigations are desirable to confirm their clinical relevance.
      PubDate: 2018-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0687-z
       
  • A Randomized Trial Investigating the Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics,
           and Safety of Subcutaneous Semaglutide Once-Weekly in Healthy Male
           Japanese and Caucasian Subjects
    • Authors: Ippei Ikushima; Lene Jensen; Anne Flint; Tomoyuki Nishida; Jeppe Zacho; Shin Irie
      Abstract: Introduction Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue for once-weekly subcutaneous treatment of type 2 diabetes. This trial compared the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of semaglutide in Japanese and Caucasian subjects. Methods In this single-center, double-blind, parallel-group, 13-week trial, 44 healthy male subjects (22 Japanese, 22 Caucasian) were randomized within each race to semaglutide 0.5 mg (n = 8), 1.0 mg (n = 8), placebo 0.5 mg (n = 3) or 1.0 mg (n = 3). The primary endpoint was semaglutide exposure at steady state [area under the curve (AUC0–168h)]. Results Steady-state exposure of semaglutide was similar for both populations: AUC0–168h estimated race ratio (ERR), Japanese/Caucasian: 0.5 mg, 1.06; 1.0 mg, 0.99; maximum concentration (Cmax) ERR: 0.5 mg, 1.06; 1.0 mg, 1.02. Exposure after the first dose (0.25 mg) was slightly higher in Japanese versus Caucasian subjects (AUC0–168h ERR 1.11; Cmax ERR 1.14). Dose-dependent increases in AUC0–168h and Cmax occurred in both populations. Accumulation was as expected, based on the half-life (t1/2, ~ 1 week) and dosing interval of semaglutide. Significant body weight reductions were observed with semaglutide 0.5 mg and 1.0 mg in Japanese (both p ≤ 0.05) and Caucasian (both p ≤ 0.05) subjects versus placebo. No new safety issues were identified. Conclusions The pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and safety profiles of semaglutide were similar in Japanese and Caucasian subjects, suggesting that no dose adjustment is required for the clinical use of semaglutide in Japanese subjects. Funding Novo Nordisk A/S, Denmark. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02146079. Japanese trial registration number JapicCTI-142550.
      PubDate: 2018-03-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0677-1
       
  • Adalimumab Reduces Extraintestinal Manifestations in Patients with
           Crohn’s Disease: A Pooled Analysis of 11 Clinical Studies
    • Authors: Edouard J. Louis; Walter Reinisch; David A. Schwartz; Robert Löfberg; Anne M. Robinson; Sofie Berg; Anthony W. Wang; Jen-fue Maa; Bidan Huang; Brandee Pappalardo
      Abstract: Introduction Extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) are common and associated with additional morbidity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adalimumab therapy on EIM resolution and identify potential predictors of EIM resolution in adult and pediatric patients with moderate to severe CD. Methods EIM data were pooled from 11 induction, maintenance, and open-label extension studies of adalimumab. Resolution of EIMs was evaluated at approximately 6 months and 1 year. Median time to initial EIM resolution and first EIM recurrence (reflecting durable resolution) of any EIM and specific categories of EIMs (arthritis/arthralgia, ocular, cutaneous) were calculated. A Cox model was used to determine predictors of initial and durable EIM resolution. Results At baseline, 54% (1137/2094) of patients receiving adalimumab and 51% (297/586) receiving placebo had EIMs. EIM resolution occurred in a significantly greater proportion of adalimumab versus placebo patients at 6 months (54% vs 31%; P < .001) and 1 year (60% vs 42%; P = .008). Median time to initial resolution of any EIM, arthritis/arthralgia, and cutaneous EIMs was significantly shorter in patients receiving adalimumab versus placebo. Durable resolution of any EIM and arthritis/arthralgia was significantly longer for patients receiving adalimumab versus placebo. Clinically meaningful predictors of EIM resolution included adalimumab treatment, male sex, and moderate (versus severe) disease activity at baseline. Conclusion Adalimumab is effective for achieving initial and durable resolution of any EIM and, in particular, arthritis/arthralgia in patients with moderate to severe CD. Predictors of EIM resolution included adalimumab treatment and moderate disease severity. Funding AbbVie.
      PubDate: 2018-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0678-0
       
  • Recognizing Gynecological Cancer in Primary Care: Risk Factors, Red Flags,
           and Referrals
    • Authors: Garth Funston; Helena O’Flynn; Neil A. J. Ryan; Willie Hamilton; Emma J. Crosbie
      Abstract: Early diagnosis of symptomatic gynecological cancer is likely to improve patient outcomes, including survival. The primary care practitioner has a key role to play in this—they must recognize the symptoms and signs of gynecological cancer and make prompt evidence-based decisions regarding further investigation and referral. However, this is often difficult as many of the symptoms of gynecological cancers are nonspecific and are more likely to be caused by benign rather than malignant disease. As primary care is generally the first point of patient contact, those working in this setting usually encounter cancer patients at an earlier, and possibly less symptomatic, stage than practitioners in secondary care. Despite these challenges, research has improved our understanding of the symptoms patients present to primary care with, and a range of tests and referral pathways now exist in the UK and other countries to aid early diagnosis. Primary care practitioners can also play a key role in gynecological cancer prevention. A significant proportion of gynecological cancer is preventable either through lifestyle changes such as weight loss, or, for cervical cancer, vaccination and/or engagement with screening programs. Primary care provides an excellent opportunity to discuss cancer risk with patients and to promote risk reduction strategies and lifestyle change. In this article, the first in a series discussing cancer detection in primary care, we concentrate on gynecological cancer and focus on the three most common forms that a primary care practitioner is likely to encounter: ovarian, endometrial, and cervical cancer. We outline key risk factors, briefly discuss prevention and screening strategies, and offer practical guidance on the recognition of symptoms and signs and the investigation and referral of women with suspected cancer. While this article is written from a UK primary care perspective, much of what is discussed will be of relevance to those working in other healthcare systems.
      PubDate: 2018-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0683-3
       
  • Multidisciplinary Management of Spondyloarthritis-Related Immune-Mediated
           Inflammatory Disease
    • Authors: Fernando Rizzello; Ignazio Olivieri; Alessandro Armuzzi; Fabio Ayala; Vincenzo Bettoli; Luca Bianchi; Luca Cimino; Antonio Costanzo; Antonio Cristaudo; Salvatore D’Angelo; Marco Daperno; Anna Chiara Fostini; Mauro Galeazzi; Michele Gilio; Paolo Gionchetti; Paolo Gisondi; Ennio Lubrano; Antonio Marchesoni; Annamaria Offidani; Ambrogio Orlando; Daniela Pugliese; Carlo Salvarani; Raffaele Scarpa; Maurizio Vecchi; Giampiero Girolomoni
      Abstract: Introduction Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) are chronic autoimmune conditions that share common pathophysiologic mechanisms. The optimal management of patients with IMIDs remains challenging because the coexistence of different conditions requires the intervention of several specialists. The aim of this study was to develop a series of statements defining overarching principles that guide the implementation of a multidisciplinary approach for the management of spondyloarthritis (SpA)-related IMIDs including SpA, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis and uveitis. Methods A Delphi consensus-based approach was used to identify a core set of statements. The process included development of initial questions by a steering committee, an exhaustive search of the literature using complementary approaches to identify potential statements and two Delphi voting rounds for finalization of the statements. Results Consensus was achieved on the related nature of IMIDs, the existence of a high prevalence of multiple IMIDs in a single patient and the fact that a multidisciplinary approach can result in a more extensive evaluation and comprehensive approach to treatment. The goals of a multidisciplinary team should be to increase diagnosis of concomitant IMIDs, improve the decision-making process, and increase patient satisfaction and adherence. Early referral and diagnosis, early recognition of concomitant IMIDs and optimizing treatment to improve patient quality of life are some of the advantages of using multidisciplinary teams. To be effective, a multidisciplinary team should be equipped with the appropriate tools for diagnosis and follow-up, and at a minimum the multidisciplinary team should include a dermatologist, gastroenterologist and rheumatologist; providing psychologic support via a psychologist and involving an ophthalmologist, general practitioners and nurses in multidisciplinary care is also important. Conclusion The present Delphi consensus identified a set of overarching principles that may be useful for implementation of a multidisciplinary approach for the management of SpA-related IMIDs. Funding Aristea and Hippocrates.
      PubDate: 2018-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0672-6
       
  • Understanding Interactions of Smoking on Prognosis of HPV-Associated
           Oropharyngeal Cancers
    • Authors: Missak Haigentz; Carlos Suarez; Primoz Strojan; Juan P. Rodrigo; Alessandra Rinaldo; Carol R. Bradford; June Corry; Robert P. Takes; Alfio Ferlito
      Abstract: The new 8th edition AJCC/UICC staging system for human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), developed to account for improved survival outcomes over HPV-negative cancers, includes anatomic features strictly associated with tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) and does not account for patient-specific characteristics that may impact prognosis. This commentary evaluates the evidence of smoking as an adverse prognostic factor in HPV-associated OPSCC. We review the multifactorial biological, clinical, and social/behavioral characteristics of smokers with OPSCC that impact outcomes, discuss current challenges with incorporating smoking history in prognostic classifications, and consider opportunities for future investigation.
      PubDate: 2018-03-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0682-4
       
  • Efficacy of Ivabradine in Combination with Beta-Blockers Versus
           Uptitration of Beta-Blockers in Patients with Stable Angina (CONTROL-2
           Study)
    • Authors: Maria Glezer; Yuri Vasyuk; Yuri Karpov
      Abstract: Introduction Heart rate (HR) reduction is an integral part of antianginal therapy, but many patients do not reach the guideline-recommended target of less than 60 bpm despite high use of beta-blockers (BB). Failure to uptitrate BB doses may be partly to blame. To explore other options for lowering HR and improving angina control, CONTROL-2 was initiated to compare the efficacy and tolerability of the combination of BBs with ivabradine versus uptitration of BBs to maximal tolerated dose, in patients with stable angina. Methods This multicenter, open, randomized study included 1104 patients with Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) class II or III stable angina, in sinus rhythm, and on background stable treatment with non-maximal recommended doses of BBs. Consecutive patients were allocated to ivabradine + BB or BB uptitration in a 4:1 ratio. Results At the end of the study (week 16), addition of ivabradine to BB treatment and BB uptitration resulted in reduction in HR (61 ± 6 vs. 63 ± 8 bpm; p = 0.001). At week 16, significantly more patients on ivabradine + BB were in CCS class I than with BB uptitration (37.1% vs. 28%; p = 0.017) and significantly more patients were angina-free (50.6% vs. 34.2%; p < 0.001). Patient health status based on the visual analogue scale (VAS) was also better in the ivabradine + BB group. Adverse events (AEs) were significantly more common with BB uptitration than with the ivabradine + BB combination (18.4% vs. 9.4%, p < 0.001). Conclusion In patients with stable angina, combination therapy with ivabradine + BB demonstrated good tolerability, safety, and more pronounced clinical improvement, compared to BB uptitration. Trial Registration ISRCTN30654443. Funding Servier.
      PubDate: 2018-03-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0681-5
       
  • Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments for Generalized Anxiety
           Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled
           Trials
    • Authors: Hrvoje Barić; Veljko Đorđević; Ivan Cerovečki; Vladimir Trkulja
      Abstract: Introduction The objective was to evaluate efficacy/safety of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) methods for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) based on randomized controlled trials in adults. Methods Data sources. Six electronic databases (“generalized anxiety (disorder)” and “randomized trial”) and reference lists of identified publications were searched to March 2017. Study selection. Eligibility: full-text publications (English, German language); CAM versus conventional treatment, placebo/sham or no treatment; GAD diagnosed according to standard criteria; and a validated scale for disease severity. Of the 6693 screened records, 32 were included (18 on biologically-based therapies, exclusively herbal preparations; eight on manipulative and body-based therapies; and three on alternative medical systems and three on mind–body therapies). Data extraction. Cochrane Collaboration methodology was used for quality assessment and data extraction. Results Direct comparisons of Kava Kava (Piper methysticum) extracts to placebo (4 quality trials, n = 233) were highly heterogeneous. Network meta-regression reduced heterogeneity and suggested a modest Kava effect [end-of-treatment Hamilton Anxiety scale score difference adjusted for baseline scores and trial duration: − 3.24 (95% CI − 6.65, 0.17; P = 0.059), Kava Kava 4 arms, n = 139; placebo 5 arms, n = 359]. Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) extract (1 quality trial, 10 weeks, n = 523) and a combination of extracts of C. oxycantha, E. californica and magnesium (1 quality trial, 12 weeks, n = 264) were superior to placebo and balneotherapy was superior to paroxetine (1 quality trial, 8 weeks, n = 237) indicating efficacy. All other trials were small and/or of modest/low quality and/or lacked assay sensitivity. Safety reporting was poor. Conclusion Evidence about efficacy/safety of most CAM methods in GAD is limited. Apparent efficacy of certain herbal preparations and body-based therapies requires further confirmation.
      PubDate: 2018-03-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0680-6
       
  • A Review of Microbiota and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Future in Therapies
    • Authors: Bruno K. Rodiño-Janeiro; María Vicario; Carmen Alonso-Cotoner; Roberto Pascua-García; Javier Santos
      Abstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), one of the most frequent digestive disorders, is characterized by chronic and recurrent abdominal pain and altered bowel habit. The origin seems to be multifactorial and is still not well defined for the different subtypes. Genetic, epigenetic and sex-related modifications of the functioning of the nervous and immune-endocrine supersystems and regulation of brain-gut physiology and bile acid production and absorption are certainly involved. Acquired predisposition may act in conjunction with infectious, toxic, dietary and life event-related factors to enhance epithelial permeability and elicit mucosal microinflammation, immune activation and dysbiosis. Notably, strong evidence supports the role of bacterial, viral and parasitic infections in triggering IBS, and targeting microbiota seems promising in view of the positive response to microbiota-related therapies in some patients. However, the lack of highly predictive diagnostic biomarkers and the complexity and heterogeneity of IBS patients make management difficult and unsatisfactory in many cases, reducing patient health-related quality of life and increasing the sanitary burden. This article reviews specific alterations and interventions targeting the gut microbiota in IBS, including prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, non-absorbable antibiotics, diets, fecal transplantation and other potential future approaches useful for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of IBS.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0673-5
       
  • Effectiveness of a Fixed-Dose, Single-Pill Combination of Perindopril and
           Amlodipine in Patients with Hypertension: A Non-Interventional Study
    • Authors: Susanne V. Fleig; Bettina Weger; Hermann Haller; Florian P. Limbourg
      Abstract: Introduction We conducted a prospective, non-interventional, multicenter study to examine the effect of a fixed-dose combination of perindopril/amlodipine in patients with arterial hypertension. Methods Patients who were previously untreated or required a change in medication were treated with a fixed combination of perindopril/amlodipine (3.5/2.5 or 7.0/5.0 mg) for 12 weeks. Changes in office, home and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) were recorded. Adherence was assessed by the Hill-Bone medication adherence scale. Results Overall, 1814 patients (mean age 60.0 ± 13.4 years) were included in 614 German practices, and data of 1770 patients were analyzed. At study entry, 97.7% of patients received perindopril/amlodipine at a daily dose of 3.5 mg/2.5 mg, and 47.9% of patients remained on this dose during the study period. Treatment with perindopril/amlodipine decreased mean office BP from 163.7/95.4 to 133.6/80.3 mmHg (p < 0.0001), resulting in a hypertension control rate of 69.1%. Blood pressure control was comparable in previously untreated and treated patients (70.3 vs. 68.1%), and in younger and older patients (70.6 < 65 vs. 66.3% ≥ 65 years). Ambulatory BP measurements were available in a subgroup of patients (n = 167), and mean 24 h ambulatory BP decreased from 150.6 ± 12.6/88.9 ± 8.8 to 132.4 ± 11.9/79.4 ± 8.5 mmHg (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the proportion of patients with severe hypertension European Society of Hypertension/European Society of Cardiology (ESH/ESC) grade II or III decreased from 64.4 to 3.9%, and patients with pre-existing isolated systolic hypertension (n = 284) converted to normal BP in 67.6% of cases. Nearly half of the patients (47.2%) were perfectly adherent during the study. In previously treated patients, the percentage of patients with perfect adherence increased from 20.6% prior to study to 43.5% at final visit (p < 0.0001). Adverse drug reactions were documented for 4.9% of patients. Conclusion A fixed-dose combination of perindopril/amlodipine shows significant blood pressure reduction and improvement in medication adherence in a primary care setting. Trial Registration ISRCTN26323538. Funding Servier Deutschland GmbH.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0675-3
       
  • A Review of the Role of the Pharmacist in Heart Failure Transition of Care
    • Authors: Sarah L. Anderson; Joel C. Marrs
      Abstract: This article reviews current literature on the role of pharmacists in the transition of care (TOC) for patients with heart failure (HF) and the impact of their contributions on therapeutic and economic outcomes. Optimizing the TOC for patients with HF from the hospital to the community/home is crucial for improving outcomes and decreasing high rates of hospital readmissions, which are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and costs. A multidisciplinary team approach to the management of patients with HF facilitates the transition from the hospital to the ambulatory care setting, allowing for the consideration of medical, pharmacological, and lifestyle variables that impact the care of individual patients. Pharmacist participation on both inpatient and outpatient teams can provide a variety of services that have been shown to reduce hospital readmission rates and benefit patient management and treatment. These include medication reconciliation, patient education, medication dosage titration and adjustment, patient monitoring, development of disease management pathways, promotion of medication adherence, and postdischarge follow-up. In addition, as new pharmacologic treatments for HF become available, pharmacists can raise awareness of optimal drug use by maximizing education related to efficacy (e.g., adherence) and safety (e.g., potential side effects and drug interactions). Improving understanding of HF and its treatment will enable increased pharmacist involvement in the TOC that should lead to improved outcomes and reduced healthcare costs. Funding: Novartis.
      PubDate: 2018-02-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0671-7
       
  • Efficacy and Safety of GPR119 Agonist DS-8500a in Japanese Patients with
           Type 2 Diabetes: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, 12-Week
           Study
    • Authors: Yuichiro Yamada; Yasuo Terauchi; Hirotaka Watada; Yasuhiko Nakatsuka; Kazuhito Shiosakai; Takuo Washio; Takashi Taguchi
      Abstract: Introduction G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) is a promising target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), as both insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion can be promoted with a single drug. We compared the efficacy and safety of the GPR119 agonist DS-8500a with placebo and sitagliptin 50 mg in Japanese patients with T2DM. Methods This randomized, double-blind, parallel-group comparison study was conducted in Japan (trial registration NCT02628392, JapicCTI-153068). Eligible patients aged ≥ 20 years with T2DM and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 7.0% and < 10.0% were randomized to receive placebo, DS-8500a (25, 50, or 75 mg), or sitagliptin 50 mg once daily for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in HbA1c from baseline to week 12. Secondary endpoints included change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glucose AUC0–3h during a meal tolerance test, 2-hour postprandial glucose (2hr-PPG), and changes in lipid parameters (total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-) cholesterol, and triglycerides) at week 12. Safety endpoints included adverse events, hypoglycemia, and clinical/laboratory variables. Results DS-8500a demonstrated dose-dependent HbA1c lowering compared with placebo at week 12: change from baseline − 0.23% (p = 0.0173), − 0.37% (p = 0.0001), and − 0.44% (p < 0.0001) in the 25-mg, 50-mg, and 75-mg groups, respectively. At 50- and 75-mg doses, DS-8500a significantly lowered FPG, glucose AUC0–3h, and 2hr-PPG compared with placebo. The glucose-lowering effect was maintained up to 12 weeks. DS-8500a did not lower any of the above parameters to a greater extent than sitagliptin. Compared with placebo and sitagliptin, DS-8500a 50 and 75 mg significantly reduced total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides, and significantly increased HDL-cholesterol. All DS-8500a doses were well tolerated. Two cases of clinically relevant drug-related hypoglycemia occurred in the DS-8500a 50-mg group. Conclusion DS-8500a was well tolerated and demonstrated significant glucose-lowering effects and favorable changes in lipid profiles up to 12 weeks in Japanese patients with T2DM. Funding Daiichi Sankyo Co. Ltd.
      PubDate: 2018-02-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0668-2
       
  • Dose Titration of Pregabalin in Patients with Painful Diabetic Peripheral
           Neuropathy: Simulation Based on Observational Study Patients Enriched
           with Data from Randomized Studies
    • Authors: Joe Alexander; Roger A. Edwards; Luigi Manca; Roberto Grugni; Gianluca Bonfanti; Birol Emir; Edward Whalen; Stephen Watt; Bruce Parsons
      Abstract: Introduction Achieving a therapeutic response to pregabalin in patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (pDPN) requires adequate upward dose titration. Our goal was to identify relationships between titration and response to pregabalin in patients with pDPN. Methods Data were integrated from nine randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials as well as one 6-week open-label observational study conducted by 5808 physicians (2642 patients with pDPN) in standard outpatient settings in Germany. These studies evaluated pregabalin for treatment of pDPN. Using these data, we examined “what if” scenarios using a microsimulation platform that integrates data from randomized and observational sources as well as autoregressive–moving-average with exogenous inputs models that predict pain outcomes, taking into account weekly changes in pain, sleep interference, dose, and other patient characteristics that were unchanging. Results Final pain levels were significantly different depending on dose changes (P < 0.0001), with greater proportions improving with upward titration regardless of baseline pain severity. Altogether, 78.5% of patients with pDPN had 0–1 dose change, and 15.2% had ≥ 2 dose changes. Simulation demonstrated that the 4.8% of inadequately titrated patients who did not improve/very much improve their pain levels would have benefited from ≥ 2 dose changes. Patient satisfaction with tolerability (range 90.3–96.2%) was similar, regardless of baseline pain severity, number of titrations, or extent of improvement, suggesting that tolerability did not influence treatment response patterns. Conclusion Upward dose titration reduced pain in patients with pDPN who actually received it. Simulation also predicted pain reduction in an inadequately titrated nonresponder subgroup of patients had they actually received adequate titration. The decision not to uptitrate must have been driven by factors other than tolerability. Funding Pfizer, Inc.
      PubDate: 2018-02-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0664-6
       
  • Using Self-Reported Patient Experiences to Understand Patient Burden:
           Learnings from Digital Patient Communities in Ankylosing Spondylitis
    • Authors: Prashanth Sunkureddi; Dawn Gibson; Stephen Doogan; John Heid; Samir Benosman; Yujin Park
      Abstract: Introduction Online communities contain a wealth of information containing unsolicited patient experiences that may go beyond what is captured by guided surveys or patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments used in clinical settings. This study described patient experiences reported online to better understand the day-to-day disease burden of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods Unguided, English-language patient narratives reported between January 2010 and May 2016 were collected from 52 online sources (e.g., general/health social networking sites, patient–physician Q&A sites, AS forums). Using natural language processing combined with manual curation, patient-reported experiences within narratives were evaluated and categorized into social, physical, emotional, cognitive, and role activity (SPEC-R) concepts to assess functional impairment. The same SPEC-R categorization was applied to 5 AS-specific PRO instruments to evaluate their coverage of concepts extracted from patient narratives. Results A total of 34,780 narratives from 3449 patients with AS were included. Physical aspects of AS (e.g., pain and mobility) were most commonly reported by patients (86.7%), followed by emotional (32.5%), cognitive (23.6%), role activity (8.7%) and social (5.1%). Some frequently discussed subconcepts were effectively captured by ≥ 2 PRO instruments, such as pain (65.3%), asthenia (19.9%), musculoskeletal impairment (19.9%), depression (9.9%), and anger/frustration (5.4%); others [e.g., anxiety (19.1%), mental impairment (3.2%), impulsivity (2.9%)] were not addressed by any of the PRO instruments. Conclusion These findings highlight the importance of analyzing patient experiences beyond clinical trial settings and physician reports; continuous assessment of existing PRO instruments in collaboration with patients may increase their utility in real-world settings. Funding Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation.
      PubDate: 2018-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0669-1
       
  • Real-World Evaluation of Direct and Indirect Economic Burden Among
           Endometriosis Patients in the United States
    • Authors: Ahmed M. Soliman; Eric Surrey; Machaon Bonafede; James K. Nelson; Jane Castelli-Haley
      Abstract: Introduction The prevalence of endometriosis and the need for treatment in the USA has led to the need to explore the contemporary cost burden associated with the disease. This retrospective cohort study compared direct and indirect healthcare costs in patients with endometriosis to a control group without endometriosis. Methods Women aged 18–49 years with endometriosis (date of initial diagnosis = index date) were identified in the Truven Health MarketScan® Commercial database between 2010 and 2014 and female control patients without endometriosis were matched by age and index year. The following outcomes were compared: healthcare resource utilization (HRU) during the 12-month pre- and post-index periods (including inpatient admissions, pharmacy claims, emergency room visits, physician office visits, and obstetrics/gynecology visits), annual direct (medical and pharmacy) and indirect (absenteeism, short-term disability, and long-term disability) healthcare costs during the 12-month post-index period (in 2014 US$). Multivariate analyses were conducted to estimate annual total direct and indirect costs, controlling for demographics, pre-index clinical characteristics, and pre-index healthcare costs. Results Overall, 113,506 endometriosis patients and 927,599 controls were included. Endometriosis patients had significantly higher HRU during both the pre- and post-index periods compared to controls (p < 0.0001, all categories of HRU). Approximately two-thirds of endometriosis patients underwent an endometriosis-related surgical procedure (including laparotomy, laparoscopy, hysterectomy, oophorectomy, and other excision/ablation procedures) in the first 12 months post-index. Mean annual total adjusted direct costs per endometriosis patient during the 12-month post-index period was over three times higher than that for a non-endometriosis control [$16,573 (standard deviation (SD) = $21,336) vs. $4733 (SD = $14,833); p < 0.005]. On average, incremental direct and indirect 12-month costs per endometriosis patient were $10,002 and $2132 compared to their matched controls (p < 0.005). Conclusions Endometriosis patients incurred significantly higher direct and indirect healthcare costs than non-endometriosis patients. Funding AbbVie Inc.
      PubDate: 2018-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0667-3
       
  • A Review of Photodynamic Therapy for Neoplasms of the Head and Neck
    • Authors: Francisco J. Civantos; Barış Karakullukcu; Merrill Biel; Carl E. Silver; Alessandra Rinaldo; Nabil F. Saba; Robert P. Takes; Vincent Vander Poorten; Alfio Ferlito
      Abstract: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the use of a phototoxic drug which is activated by low powered laser light to destroy neoplastic cells. Multiple photosensitizers have been studied and tumors have been treated in a variety of head and neck sites over the last 30 years. PDT can effectively treat head and neck tumors, particularly those of the superficial spreading type, and the classic application of this technology has been in the patient with a wide field of dysplastic change and superficial carcinomatosis. Interstitial treatment has been used to treat more invasive cancer. Data is available from case series and institutional experiences, but very little randomized data is available. We review the mechanisms of action, historical development, available data, and current knowledge regarding PDT for the various head and neck subsites, and discuss possible future directions, with an emphasis on clinical application.
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0659-3
       
 
 
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