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  Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 7328 journals)
    - ALLERGOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY (197 journals)
    - ANAESTHESIOLOGY (105 journals)
    - CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (309 journals)
    - CHIROPRACTIC, HOMEOPATHY, OSTEOPATHY (21 journals)
    - COMMUNICABLE DISEASES, EPIDEMIOLOGY (202 journals)
    - DENTISTRY (245 journals)
    - DERMATOLOGY AND VENEREOLOGY (149 journals)
    - EMERGENCY AND INTENSIVE CRITICAL CARE (106 journals)
    - ENDOCRINOLOGY (137 journals)
    - FORENSIC SCIENCES (35 journals)
    - GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY (162 journals)
    - GERONTOLOGY AND GERIATRICS (118 journals)
    - HEMATOLOGY (142 journals)
    - HYPNOSIS (4 journals)
    - INTERNAL MEDICINE (139 journals)
    - LABORATORY AND EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE (90 journals)
    - MEDICAL GENETICS (59 journals)
    - MEDICAL SCIENCES (1833 journals)
    - NURSES AND NURSING (293 journals)
    - OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY (177 journals)
    - ONCOLOGY (356 journals)
    - OPHTHALMOLOGY AND OPTOMETRY (121 journals)
    - ORTHOPEDICS AND TRAUMATOLOGY (145 journals)
    - OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (74 journals)
    - PATHOLOGY (98 journals)
    - PEDIATRICS (243 journals)
    - PHYSICAL MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION (140 journals)
    - PSYCHIATRY AND NEUROLOGY (741 journals)
    - RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE (181 journals)
    - RESPIRATORY DISEASES (92 journals)
    - RHEUMATOLOGY (63 journals)
    - SPORTS MEDICINE (68 journals)
    - SURGERY (351 journals)
    - UROLOGY, NEPHROLOGY AND ANDROLOGY (132 journals)

MEDICAL SCIENCES (1833 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access  
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access  
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access  
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access  
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Fundeni Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access  
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Journal Khulna     Open Access  
Basal Ganglia     Hybrid Journal  
Basic Sciences of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BC Medical Journal     Free  
Benha Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bijblijven     Hybrid Journal  
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biologics in Therapy     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Advances in Therapy
  [SJR: 0.79]   [H-I: 44]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1865-8652 - ISSN (Online) 0741-238X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Predictors for the Treatment Effect of Sodium Glucose Co-transporter 2
           Inhibitors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    • Authors: Shusuke Yagi; Ken-ichi Aihara; Takeshi Kondo; Kiyoe Kurahashi; Sumiko Yoshida; Itsuro Endo; Daiju Fukuda; Yutaka Nakaya; Kin-ichiro Suwaki; Takashi Takeji; Toshihiro Wada; Hotimah Masdan Salim; Saori Hama; Tomomi Matsuura; Takayuki Ise; Kenya Kusunose; Koji Yamaguchi; Takeshi Tobiume; Hirotsugu Yamada; Takeshi Soeki; Tetsuzo Wakatsuki; Munehide Matsuhisa; Michio Shimabukuro; Masashi Akaike; Masataka Sata
      Pages: 124 - 134
      Abstract: Introduction Predictors for the effect of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors at lowering hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients remain unclear. We therefore aimed to elucidate these predictors in type 2 diabetes patients after 3 months of SGLT2 treatment. Methods A total of 302 consecutive type 2 diabetes patients who had been treated with SGLT2 inhibitors as monotherapy or add-on therapy to existing antidiabetic treatments were enrolled retrospectively. After excluding 27 patients whose HbA1c levels could not be evaluated 3 months after treatment, the glucose-lowering effects of SGLT2 inhibitors were assessed in 275 patients by measuring HbA1c levels before and 3 months after treatment. The predictors for changes in HbA1c levels after 3 months of treatment were evaluated. Results SGLT2 inhibitor treatment for 3 months decreased HbA1c levels from 7.8 ± 1.2% to 7.4 ± 1.0% (p < 0.0001). A multiple regression analysis showed that the independent determinants for SGLT2 inhibitor treatment effect included decreased HbA1c levels after 1 month of treatment, high baseline HbA1c levels, and a high estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Conclusion We show that type 2 diabetes patients who received the greatest glucose-lowering effect with SGLT2 inhibitor treatment were those with preserved renal function (high baseline eGFR) and high baseline HbA1c levels. Moreover, SGLT2 inhibitor treatment efficacy could be predicted by the patients’ initial response to treatment.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0639-z
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Using Self-Reported Patient Experiences to Understand Patient Burden:
           Learnings from Digital Patient Communities in Ankylosing Spondylitis
    • Authors: Prashanth Sunkureddi; Dawn Gibson; Stephen Doogan; John Heid; Samir Benosman; Yujin Park
      Abstract: Introduction Online communities contain a wealth of information containing unsolicited patient experiences that may go beyond what is captured by guided surveys or patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments used in clinical settings. This study described patient experiences reported online to better understand the day-to-day disease burden of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods Unguided, English-language patient narratives reported between January 2010 and May 2016 were collected from 52 online sources (e.g., general/health social networking sites, patient–physician Q&A sites, AS forums). Using natural language processing combined with manual curation, patient-reported experiences within narratives were evaluated and categorized into social, physical, emotional, cognitive, and role activity (SPEC-R) concepts to assess functional impairment. The same SPEC-R categorization was applied to 5 AS-specific PRO instruments to evaluate their coverage of concepts extracted from patient narratives. Results A total of 34,780 narratives from 3449 patients with AS were included. Physical aspects of AS (e.g., pain and mobility) were most commonly reported by patients (86.7%), followed by emotional (32.5%), cognitive (23.6%), role activity (8.7%) and social (5.1%). Some frequently discussed subconcepts were effectively captured by ≥ 2 PRO instruments, such as pain (65.3%), asthenia (19.9%), musculoskeletal impairment (19.9%), depression (9.9%), and anger/frustration (5.4%); others [e.g., anxiety (19.1%), mental impairment (3.2%), impulsivity (2.9%)] were not addressed by any of the PRO instruments. Conclusion These findings highlight the importance of analyzing patient experiences beyond clinical trial settings and physician reports; continuous assessment of existing PRO instruments in collaboration with patients may increase their utility in real-world settings. Funding Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation.
      PubDate: 2018-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0669-1
       
  • Real-World Evaluation of Direct and Indirect Economic Burden Among
           Endometriosis Patients in the United States
    • Authors: Ahmed M. Soliman; Eric Surrey; Machaon Bonafede; James K. Nelson; Jane Castelli-Haley
      Abstract: Introduction The prevalence of endometriosis and the need for treatment in the USA has led to the need to explore the contemporary cost burden associated with the disease. This retrospective cohort study compared direct and indirect healthcare costs in patients with endometriosis to a control group without endometriosis. Methods Women aged 18–49 years with endometriosis (date of initial diagnosis = index date) were identified in the Truven Health MarketScan® Commercial database between 2010 and 2014 and female control patients without endometriosis were matched by age and index year. The following outcomes were compared: healthcare resource utilization (HRU) during the 12-month pre- and post-index periods (including inpatient admissions, pharmacy claims, emergency room visits, physician office visits, and obstetrics/gynecology visits), annual direct (medical and pharmacy) and indirect (absenteeism, short-term disability, and long-term disability) healthcare costs during the 12-month post-index period (in 2014 US$). Multivariate analyses were conducted to estimate annual total direct and indirect costs, controlling for demographics, pre-index clinical characteristics, and pre-index healthcare costs. Results Overall, 113,506 endometriosis patients and 927,599 controls were included. Endometriosis patients had significantly higher HRU during both the pre- and post-index periods compared to controls (p < 0.0001, all categories of HRU). Approximately two-thirds of endometriosis patients underwent an endometriosis-related surgical procedure (including laparotomy, laparoscopy, hysterectomy, oophorectomy, and other excision/ablation procedures) in the first 12 months post-index. Mean annual total adjusted direct costs per endometriosis patient during the 12-month post-index period was over three times higher than that for a non-endometriosis control [$16,573 (standard deviation (SD) = $21,336) vs. $4733 (SD = $14,833); p < 0.005]. On average, incremental direct and indirect 12-month costs per endometriosis patient were $10,002 and $2132 compared to their matched controls (p < 0.005). Conclusions Endometriosis patients incurred significantly higher direct and indirect healthcare costs than non-endometriosis patients. Funding AbbVie Inc.
      PubDate: 2018-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0667-3
       
  • A Review of Photodynamic Therapy for Neoplasms of the Head and Neck
    • Authors: Francisco J. Civantos; Barış Karakullukcu; Merrill Biel; Carl E. Silver; Alessandra Rinaldo; Nabil F. Saba; Robert P. Takes; Vincent Vander Poorten; Alfio Ferlito
      Abstract: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the use of a phototoxic drug which is activated by low powered laser light to destroy neoplastic cells. Multiple photosensitizers have been studied and tumors have been treated in a variety of head and neck sites over the last 30 years. PDT can effectively treat head and neck tumors, particularly those of the superficial spreading type, and the classic application of this technology has been in the patient with a wide field of dysplastic change and superficial carcinomatosis. Interstitial treatment has been used to treat more invasive cancer. Data is available from case series and institutional experiences, but very little randomized data is available. We review the mechanisms of action, historical development, available data, and current knowledge regarding PDT for the various head and neck subsites, and discuss possible future directions, with an emphasis on clinical application.
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0659-3
       
  • A Phase 1 Pharmacokinetic Study of Cysteamine Bitartrate Delayed-Release
           Capsules Following Oral Administration with Orange Juice, Water, or
           Omeprazole in Cystinosis
    • Authors: Danielle Armas; Robert J. Holt; Nils F. Confer; Gregg C. Checani; Mohammad Obaidi; Yuli Xie; Meg Brannagan
      Abstract: Introduction Cystinosis is a rare, metabolic, autosomal recessive, genetic lysosomal storage disorder characterized by an accumulation of cystine in various organs and tissues. Cysteamine bitartrate (CB) is a cystine-depleting aminothiol agent approved in the United States and Europe in immediate-release and delayed-release (DR) formulations for the treatment of nephropathic cystinosis in children and adults. It is recommended that CBDR be administered with fruit juice (except grapefruit juice) for maximum absorption. Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor that inhibits gastric acid secretion and, theoretically, may cause the premature release of cysteamine by increasing intragastric pH, thereby affecting the PK of CBDR. Methods This open-label, three-period, randomized study in healthy adult subjects was designed primarily to compare the pharmacokinetics of CBDR capsules after a single oral dose administered with orange juice, water, or multiple oral doses of omeprazole with water at steady state. A total of 32 subjects were randomly assigned to receive study agents in one of two treatment sequences. Results All subjects completed the study and baseline characteristics of the overall population and the two treatment sequence populations were similar. Peak mean plasma cysteamine concentrations following co-administration of CBDR capsules with orange juice (1892 ng/mL) were higher compared with co-administration with water (1663 ng/mL) or omeprazole 20 mg and water (1712 ng/mL). Mean time to peak plasma concentration was shorter with omeprazole co-administration (2.5 h) compared with orange juice (3.5 h) or water (3.0 h). Statistical comparisons between treatment groups indicated that exposure as assessed by AUC0–t, AUC0–∞, and Cmax were all within the 80–125% bioequivalence ranges for all comparisons. All treatments were generally well tolerated. Conclusion Overall, the pharmacokinetics of cysteamine bitartrate DR capsules are not significantly impacted by co-administration with orange juice, water only, or omeprazole (with water). Funding Horizon Pharma, Inc.
      PubDate: 2018-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0661-9
       
  • Single-Dose Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Two Formulations of
           Lenalidomide 25 mg in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized Crossover Study
    • Authors: SeungHwan Lee; Jun Gi Hwang; Sang Yeob Park; Hye Jung Lim; Sa-Won Lee; Min-Hyo Seo; JaeWoo Kim; Jang Hee Hong
      Abstract: Background Lenalidomide is used for the treatment of multiple myeloma in combination with dexamethasone. The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics (PKs) and assess the bioequivalence of two formulations of lenalidomide 25 mg: Lenalid® 25 mg tablet (test formulation) and Revlimid® 25 mg capsule (reference formulation). Methods A randomized, single-dose, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence crossover study was conducted in 42 healthy subjects. All subjects were randomly assigned to one of the two sequences, and they received a single dose of test or reference formulation in the first period and the alternative formulation during the next period under fasting conditions. Serial blood samples for PK evaluation were collected up to 24 h post-dose and the PK parameters were estimated by non-compartmental methods. Throughout the study, tolerability was assessed on the basis of adverse events, vital signs, and clinical laboratory tests. Results The test formulation showed similar PK profiles to those of the reference formulation. The geometric mean ratio and 90% confidence interval (CI) of the test formulation to the reference formulation for maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was 0.9995 (0.9250–1.0799) and the corresponding value for the area under the concentration–time curve from time zero to time of last quantifiable concentration (AUCt) was 0.9648 (0.9451–0.9850). Both CIs were within the conventional bioequivalence range of 0.8–1.25. The tolerability profile was not significantly different between the two formulations. Conclusion This study found that the PKs of the two formulations of lenalidomide 25 mg were similar and the test formulation met the regulatory criteria for assuming bioequivalence with the reference formulation. Funding Samyang Biopharmaceutical Corp.
      PubDate: 2018-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0660-x
       
  • A Review of New Findings in Adult T-cell Leukemia–Lymphoma: A Focus on
           Current and Emerging Treatment Strategies
    • Authors: Olivier Hermine; Juan Carlos Ramos; Kensei Tobinai
      Abstract: Adult T-cell leukemia–lymphoma (ATL), a rare and aggressive T-cell malignancy caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), is associated with a poor prognosis. Evidence-based standard treatment options are lacking and outcomes are generally unsatisfactory, particularly for patients with relapsed or refractory disease. Continued research is contributing to changing treatment landscape as a number of existing and investigational agents are evaluated. We describe the epidemiology of HTLV-1 and ATL, discuss the biology behind the disease, review current treatment practices and guidelines, and provide an overview of emerging therapies in ATL, with a focus on those for relapsed or refractory disease.
      PubDate: 2018-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0658-4
       
  • Haptoglobin Genotype and Vitamin E Versus Placebo for the Treatment of
           Nondiabetic Patients with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in China: A
           Multicenter, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial Design
    • Authors: Shufei Zang; On behalf of the Chinese NAFLD Clinical Research Network (CNAFLD CRN); Jin Chen; Yu Song; Lang Bai; Jinjun Chen; Xiaoling Chi; Fangping He; Huiping Sheng; Jing Wang; Shilong Xie; Wen Xie; Yongfeng Yang; Jing Zhang; Minghua Zheng; Zhengsheng Zou; Bingyuan Wang; Junping Shi
      Abstract: Introduction Vitamin E is one of the most promising agents for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) treatment, and its drug responsiveness may be closely associated with haptoglobin (Hp) genotype. However, its efficacy and safety remain unknown in China. This clinical trial of vitamin E versus placebo for the treatment of nondiabetic patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (VENS) is conducted to evaluate (a) the efficacy and safety of treatment with vitamin E softgel (300 mg/day) determined from standardized histologic scoring of liver biopsies, (b) whether treatment with vitamin E improves biochemical parameters, cytokines, anthropometric parameters, controlled attenuation parameter (CAP), and transient elastography (TE) values determined by Fibroscan and health-related quality of life (SF-36), (c) whether the efficacy of vitamin E treatment is associated with the Hp genotype in nondiabetic adults with NASH. Methods VENS is a multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo parallel controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of treatment with vitamin E softgel in nondiabetic adults with NASH versus treatment with placebo in China. Liver biopsies are read by a pathological evaluation committee independently according to the NASH Clinical Research Network (CRN) scoring system. The NAFLD activity score (NAS) represents the sum of scores for steatosis, lobular inflammation, and hepatocyte ballooning. The definition of histologic improvement requires all three of the following criteria to be met: (a) either improvement in NAS by at least 2 points or post-treatment NAS score no higher than 3, (b) at least 1-point improvement in the score for ballooning, and (c) no worsening of fibrosis stages. We plan to recruit 120 biopsy-proven NASH patients from13 centers in China. Participants will be randomly assigned to groups treated with either with vitamin E (100 mg, tid) or placebo for 96 weeks then followed by 24 weeks of post-treatment observation. Biochemical parameters, cytokines, anthropometric parameters, CAP and TE values, Hp genotype, and several questionnaires will be collected as per the schedule. This protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Hangzhou Normal University Affiliated Hospital to ensure patients safety, and R&G Pharmastudies Co., Ltd. was established for monitoring the accumulated interim data to review efficacy and quality of data collection and overall study management. Results As a preliminary study, a mobile phone application (app) for lifestyle modification and database recording (http://laiyivens.365hy.com) was exploited for every participant. The percentage of NAFLD patients with Hp 2-2 allele is much higher than that of Western patients (65.71% vs 36%, respectively), which suggests that the Chinese benefit more from vitamin E treatment. Conclusion VENS is the first randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the efficacy of Vitamin E in treating nondiabetic NASH patients in China. Trial Registration This study registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov (registration number: NCT02962297). Funding Zhejiang Medicine Co., Ltd.
      PubDate: 2018-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0670-8
       
  • Head and Neck Cancer: A Review of the Impact of Treatment Delay on Outcome
    • Authors: Andrés Coca-Pelaz; Robert P. Takes; Kate Hutcheson; Nabil F. Saba; Missak Haigentz; Carol R. Bradford; Remco de Bree; Primož Strojan; Valerie J. Lund; William M. Mendenhall; Iain J. Nixon; Miquel Quer; Alessandra Rinaldo; Alfio Ferlito
      Abstract: Delay between the initial symptoms, diagnosis, and the definitive treatment of head and neck cancers is associated with tumor progression and upstaging. These delays may lead to poor outcomes and may mandate more aggressive treatments with unnecessary morbidity and even mortality. The multidisciplinary team approach for the treatment of patients with head and neck cancers has improved organization of standard clinical guidelines, but this development has yet to translate into a demonstrable impact on survival. We review the association between waiting times (time between diagnosis and initiation of treatment) and clinical outcomes in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
      PubDate: 2018-02-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0663-7
       
  • Detection of Distant Metastases in Head and Neck Cancer: Changing
           Landscape
    • Authors: Remco de Bree; Asaf Senft; Andrés Coca-Pelaz; Luiz Kowalski; Fernando Lopez; William Mendenhall; Miquel Quer; Alessandra Rinaldo; Ashok R. Shaha; Primož Strojan; Robert P. Takes; Carl E. Silver; C. René Leemans; Alfio Ferlito
      Abstract: As head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients with distant metastases (DM) were generally treated only palliatively, the value of screening for DM was usually limited to attempts to avoid extensive locoregional treatment when DM were present pretreatment. Recently, the concept of treating oligometastases, e.g., by metastatectomy or stereotactic body radiotherapy, has been reintroduced for HNSCC and may cause a change in the treatment paradigm. Although whole body 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) combined with computed tomography (CT; WB-FDG-PET/CT) is still the mainstay diagnostic technique, there is a growing body of evidence supporting implementation of whole body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) as an important diagnostic technique for screening for DM. Also, FDG-PET/MRI may become a valuable technique for the detection of DM in HNSCC patients. Because the yield of examinations for detection of DM is too low to warrant routine screening of all HNSCC patients, only patients with high risk factors should be selected for intense screening for DM. Clinical and histopathological risk factors are mainly related to the extent of lymph node metastases. Risk for development of DM may also be assessed by molecular characterization of the primary tumor using genomic and proteomic technologies and radiomics. More research is needed to develop a new protocol for screening for DM after introduction of the concept of treating oligometastases in HNSCC.
      PubDate: 2018-02-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0662-8
       
  • Causality Assessment of Olfactory and Gustatory Dysfunction Associated
           with Intranasal Fluticasone Propionate: Application of the Bradford Hill
           Criteria
    • Authors: Chandrashekhar S. Muganurmath; Amy L. Curry; Andrew H. Schindzielorz
      Abstract: Causality assessment is crucial to post-marketing pharmacovigilance and helps optimize safe and appropriate use of medicines by patients in the real world. Self-reported olfactory and gustatory dysfunction are common in the general population as well as in patients with allergic rhinitis and nasal polyposis. Intranasal corticosteroids, including intranasal fluticasone propionate (INFP), are amongst the most effective drugs indicated in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and nasal polyposis. While intranasal corticosteroids are associated with olfactory and gustatory dysfunction and are currently labeled for these adverse events, causality assessment has not been performed to date. Although there is no single widely accepted method to assess causality in pharmacovigilance, the Bradford Hill criteria offer a robust and comprehensive approach because nine distinct aspects of an observed potential drug–event association are assessed. In this literature-based narrative review, Hill’s criteria were applied to determine causal inference between INFP and olfactory and gustatory dysfunction.
      PubDate: 2018-02-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0665-5
       
  • Association of Low Bone Mineral Density with Anti-Citrullinated Protein
           Antibody Positivity and Disease Activity in Established Rheumatoid
           Arthritis: Findings from a US Observational Cohort
    • Authors: Harris A. Ahmad; Evo Alemao; Zhenchao Guo; Christine K. Iannaccone; Michelle L. Frits; Michael Weinblatt; Nancy A. Shadick
      Abstract: Introduction To assess the relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide-2 (anti-CCP2) antibodies, and disease activity in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Patients enrolled in a single-center, observational cohort registry of patients with RA. Eligible patients had known BMD, as measured by digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR–BMD), and anti-CCP2 antibody measurements at the same time point or within 6 months. Anti-CCP2–immunoglobulin (Ig)G-positive (+) patients (≥ 20 U/mL) were distributed into three equal groups (Gp1–3), representing increasing anti-CCP2 antibody concentrations. Associations between BMD and anti-CCP2 antibody status and titer were explored in multivariate regression analyses controlling for covariates (including age, duration of RA, use of steroids, use of osteoporosis medication). Association between disease activity (DAS28 [CRP] < 2.6) and bone loss was also explored. Results A total of 149 patients (all women) were included (47 anti-CCP2 antibody negative [−], 102 anti-CCP2+ [34\titer group]). Mean disease duration was greater in the three anti-CCP2+ groups vs. the anti-CCP2− group. DXR–BMD was lower in the anti-CCP2+ vs. the anti-CCP2− groups (Gp1–3 vs. anti-CCP2−: P < 0.0001 for left and right hands). DXR–BMD decreased with increasing anti-CCP2 titer (P < 0.001 for left and right hands). Patients with low DXR–BMD were less likely to have a DAS28 (CRP) < 2.6 (P = 0.0181). Conclusion Among patients with established RA, data suggest that anti-CCP2+ patients, particularly those with high anti-CCP2 antibody titers, have lower hand BMD, and patients with lower hand BMD are less likely to have low disease activity. Funding Bristol-Myers Squibb. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier, NCT01793103.
      PubDate: 2018-01-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0657-x
       
  • Managing Obesity in Primary Care: Breaking Down the Barriers
    • Authors: Nicholas Forgione; Gary Deed; Gary Kilov; Georgia Rigas
      Abstract: Several Australian obesity management guidelines have been developed for general practice but, to date, implementation of these guidelines has been shown to be inadequate. In this review, we explore the barriers to obesity treatment and propose a four-stage plan to manage individuals with obesity in general practice using a framework of a multidisciplinary team. Funding: Novo Nordisk.
      PubDate: 2018-01-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0656-y
       
  • Treatment Dosing Patterns and Clinical Outcomes for Patients with Type 2
           Diabetes Starting or Switching to Treatment with Insulin Glargine (300
           Units per Milliliter) in a Real-World Setting: A Retrospective
           Observational Study
    • Authors: Shaloo Gupta; Hongwei Wang; Neil Skolnik; Liyue Tong; Ryan M. Liebert; Lulu K. Lee; Peter Stella; Anna Cali; Ronald Preblick
      Abstract: Introduction Usage patterns and effectiveness of a longer-acting formulation of insulin glargine at a strength of 300 units per milliliter (Gla-300) have not been studied in real-world clinical practice. This study evaluated differences in dosing and clinical outcomes before and after Gla-300 treatment initiation in patients with type 2 diabetes starting or switching to treatment with Gla-300 to assess whether the benefits observed in clinical trials translate into real-world settings. Methods This was a retrospective observational study using medical record data obtained by physician survey for patients starting treatment with insulin glargine at a strength of 100 units per milliliter (Gla-100) or Gla-300, or switching to treatment with Gla-300 from treatment with another basal insulin (BI). Differences in dosing and clinical outcomes before versus after treatment initiation or switching were examined by generalized linear mixed-effects models. Results Among insulin-naive patients starting BI treatment, no difference in the final titrated dose was observed in patients starting Gla-300 treatment versus those starting Gla-100 treatment [least-squares (LS) mean 0.43 units per kilogram vs 0.44 units per kilogram; P = 0.77]. Both groups had significant hemoglobin A1c level reductions (LS mean 1.21 percentage points for Gla-300 and 1.12 percentage points for Gla-100 ; both P < 0.001). The relative risk of hypoglycemic events after Gla-300 treatment initiation was lower than that after Gla-100 treatment initiation [0.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12–0.81; P = 0.018] at similar daily doses. The daily dose of BI was significantly lower after switching to treatment with Gla-300 from treatment with another BI (0.73 units per kilogram before switch vs 0.58 units per kilogram after switch; P = 0.02). The mean hemoglobin A1c level was significantly lower after switching than before switching (adjusted difference − 0.95 percentage points, 95% CI − 1.13 to − 0.78 percentage points ; P < 0.0001). Hypoglycemic events per patient-year were significantly lower (relative risk 0.17, 95% CI 0.11–0.26; P < 0.0001). Conclusions Insulin-naive patients starting Gla-300 treatment had fewer hypoglycemic events, a similar hemoglobin A1c level reduction, and no difference in insulin dose versus patients starting Gla-100 treatment. Patients switching to Gla-300 treatment from treatment with other BIs had significantly lower daily doses of BI, with fewer hypoglycemic events, without compromise of hemoglobin A1c level reduction. These findings suggest Gla-300 in a real-world setting provides benefits in terms of dosing, with improved hemoglobin A1c level and hypoglycemia rates. Funding Sanofi US Inc. (Bridgewater, NJ, USA).
      PubDate: 2018-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0651-3
       
  • Once-Daily Triple Therapy in Patients with COPD: Patient-Reported Symptoms
           and Quality of Life
    • Authors: Maggie Tabberer; David A. Lomas; Ruby Birk; Noushin Brealey; Chang-Qing Zhu; Steve Pascoe; Nicholas Locantore; David A. Lipson
      Abstract: Introduction Directly recorded patient experience of symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) can complement lung function and exacerbation rate data in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) clinical studies. The FULFIL study recorded daily symptoms and activity limitation together with additional patient-reported outcomes of dyspnea and HRQoL, as part of the prespecified analyses. FULFIL co-primary endpoint data have been previously reported. Methods FULFIL was a phase III, 24-week, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter study comparing once-daily single inhaler triple therapy [fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol (FF/UMEC/VI)] 100 µg/62.5 µg/25 µg with twice-daily inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist therapy [budesonide/formoterol (BUD/FOR)] 400 µg/12 µg in patients with symptomatic COPD at risk of exacerbations. A subset participated for 52 weeks. Patient-reported assessments were: Evaluating Respiratory Symptoms in COPD™ (E-RS: COPD), St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) for COPD, COPD Assessment Test (CAT), baseline and transitional dyspnea indices (TDI) and daily and global anchor questions for activity limitation. Results FF/UMEC/VI showed greater reductions from baseline in 4-weekly mean E-RS: COPD total and all subscale scores compared with BUD/FOR; differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05) at each time period. FF/UMEC/VI also demonstrated greater improvements from baseline at weeks 4 and 24 in SGRQ domain scores and TDI focal score compared with BUD/FOR. At weeks 4 and 24, improvements greater than the minimal clinically important difference from baseline were observed in CAT score with FF/UMEC/VI, but not BUD/FOR; differences were statistically significant (P ≤ 0.003). Conclusion These findings demonstrate sustained daily symptom and HRQoL benefits of FF/UMEC/VI versus BUD/FOR. The inclusion of the CAT may provide data that are readily generalizable to everyday clinical practice. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02345161. Funding GSK.
      PubDate: 2018-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0650-4
       
  • An Emerging Treatment Alternative for Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease
           Patients: A Review of Daprodustat
    • Authors: Kimberly A. Becker; John J. Jones
      Abstract: This article reviews an emerging therapeutic agent, which is currently in phase III development for the treatment of anemia secondary to chronic kidney disease, covering promising phase II results, drug characteristics, and the current phase III trials, which, if approved, may significantly impact the management of anemia in this patient population.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0655-z
       
  • Intragastric Balloon Treatment for Obesity: FDA Safety Updates
    • Authors: Chinara M. Tate; Allan Geliebter
      Abstract: Over the past year, the FDA has issued two letters to healthcare providers alerting them to adverse events associated with ORBERA and ReShape intragastric balloons (IGBs), including several deaths. Both IGB devices were FDA-approved for use in the US in the summer of 2015. Although the adverse events cited in the two letters occurred following FDA approval, there was already evidence prior to FDA approval that the safety and efficacy of ReShape and ORBERA were highly questionable. Since January 1, 2006, ORBERA and Reshape IGB have been implicated in 33 deaths. Given the cited evidence, we recommend FDA withdrawal of these two devices.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0647-z
       
  • The Effect of Novel Glucose Monitoring System (Flash Glucose Monitoring)
           on Mental Well-being and Treatment Satisfaction in Japanese People with
           Diabetes
    • Authors: Sumie Mitsuishi; Rimei Nishimura; Shin-ichi Harashima; Tomoyuki Kawamura; Daisuke Tsujino; Keiko Koide; Akiko Nishimura; Kazunori Utsunomiya; Nobuya Inagaki; Yoshihito Atsumi
      Abstract: Introduction FreeStyle Libre (Abbot Diabetes Care Ltd) has been launched as a novel glucose monitoring system called flash glucose monitoring (FGM) in Europe. Several reports are becoming available on its usefulness and safety. To date, however, reports from Asian countries have not been made available. In this study, we evaluated its usefulness in Japanese people with diabetes in terms of its mental well-being and patient satisfaction outcomes. Methods Individuals with type 1 and 2 diabetes treated with insulin were enrolled, and they performed self-monitoring of blood glucose. All participants were subjected to FGM for 14 days and compared for changes in mental well-being using the WHO-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) (1998 version) as well as in patient satisfaction using the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ) before and after implementation of FGM. Results The study included a total of 80 subjects (type 1/2 diabetes, 57/23). The WHO-5 scores were significantly improved from 15.5 ± 4.1 at baseline to 17.2 ± 4.5 after implementation of FGM (P < 0.001); the DTSQ scores also were significantly improved from 24.8 ± 6.0 to 26.7 ± 5.2 (P = 0.001). In type 1 diabetes, both the WHO-5 and DTSQ scores were significantly improved from baseline (P = 0.001, P = 0.001), while neither the WHO-5 scores nor the DTSQ scores were improved in type 2 diabetes. Conclusions The study results suggest that FGM has the potential to improve mental well-being and treatment satisfaction among individuals with type 1 diabetes.
      PubDate: 2017-12-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0649-x
       
  • The Effect of Phacoemulsification on Intraocular Pressure in Eyes with
           Hyperfiltration Following Trabeculectomy: A Prospective Study
    • Authors: Ivano Riva; Andreas Katsanos; Francesco Oddone; Luciano Quaranta
      Abstract: Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of visually non-significant cataract extraction in patients with hypotony maculopathy and reduced visual acuity due to over-filtering blebs after trabeculectomy. Methods Patients with intraocular pressure (IOP) < 6 mmHg and documented hypotony maculopathy due to over-filtering blebs after trabeculectomy were prospectively recruited. Eligible patients underwent visually non-significant cataract phacoemulsification, no earlier than 12 weeks from the diagnosis of hypotony maculopathy. IOP and visual acuity before and after phacoemulsification were compared at 1 and 3 months from surgery. Correlations between age, time interval between surgeries, baseline IOP, bleb type and IOP and visual acuity changes at 3 months after phacoemulsification were investigated. Results From January 2010 to September 2014, 20 consecutive adult patients met the inclusion criteria. Before phacoemulsification, mean IOP was 3.1 ± 1.6 mmHg. Following phacoemulsification, mean IOP increased to 8.6 ± 4.1 mmHg at 1 month (p < 0.01) and to 9.1 ± 4.3 mmHg at 3 months (p < 0.01). IOP elevation following phacoemulsification was observed in 16 of 20 eyes (80%). Mean visual acuity improved from Snellen 0.5 ± 0.1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 at 1 month (p < 0.01) to 0.7 ± 0.2 at 3 months (p < 0.01) after phacoemulsification. In 4 eyes in which the IOP was not elevated, surgical revision of the previous trabeculectomy was performed. No significant correlations between investigated variables, visual acuity and IOP changes at 3 months after phacoemulsification were found. Conclusion Phacoemulsification of visually non-significant cataract appears to be a safe and effective technique for managing chronic ocular hypotony with deep anterior chamber due to over-filtering blebs.
      PubDate: 2017-12-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0646-0
       
  • The Role of Trypsin:Chymotrypsin in Tissue Repair
    • Authors: Dilip Shah; Kushal Mital
      Abstract: Tissue damage of all types, such as surgical or accidental injuries, fractures, and burns, stimulates a well-orchestrated, physiological process of healing, which ultimately leads to structural and functional restoration of the damaged tissues. The tissue repair process can be broadly divided into four continuous and overlapping phases—hemostasis and coagulation, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. If the process is interrupted or halted during any stage, it leads to impaired healing and formation of a chronic wound. Chronic wounds are associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and poor quality of life. Therefore, prompt and effective management of acute tissue injury is necessary to prevent it from progressing to a chronic wound. Proteolytic enzymes have been used to facilitate tissue repair since ancient times. Trypsin:chymotrypsin is an oral proteolytic enzyme preparation which has been in clinical use since the 1960s. It provides better resolution of inflammatory symptoms and promotes speedier recovery of acute tissue injury than several of the other existing enzyme preparations. This review article revisits the role and clinical utility of trypsin:chymotrypsin combination in tissue repair. Funding: Torrent Pharmaceuticals Limited.
      PubDate: 2017-12-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0648-y
       
 
 
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