Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8665 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2403 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
4 open     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AAS Open Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AboutOpen     Open Access  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access  
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Científica Estudiantil     Open Access  
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Herediana     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)     Open Access  
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta Medica International     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acupuncture and Natural Medicine     Open Access  
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / Health Sciences Journal of Adıyaman University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Cell and Gene Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Clinical Radiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Advances in Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Skeletal Muscle Function Assessment     Open Access  
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Thoracic and Critical Care Medicine     Open Access  
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AJOB Empirical Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AJSP: Reviews & Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Al-Qadisiah Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alerta : Revista Científica del Instituto Nacional de Salud     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Althea Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Anatomica Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ankara Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası     Open Access  
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Clinical Hypertension     Open Access  
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Annals of Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery Protocols     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Musculoskeletal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of the RussianAacademy of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arabian Journal of Scientific Research / المجلة العربية للبحث العلمي     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives Medical Review Journal / Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi     Open Access  
Archives of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology     Open Access  
Archives of Clinical Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Organ Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Pulmonology and Respiratory Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Renal Diseases and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASHA Leader     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Therapy
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.075
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 5  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1865-8652 - ISSN (Online) 0741-238X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Primary Care Physicians’ Knowledge of the Cardiovascular Effects of
           Diabetes Medications: Findings from an Online Survey
    • Abstract: Introduction Cardiovascular (CV) outcomes trial (CVOT) results have led to changes in indications for some glucose-lowering agents, with recommendations based on the presence of comorbidities. Objective This study aimed to understand internal medicine (IM) and family medicine (FM) physicians’ knowledge of CVOTs and beliefs about type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) medications, excluding insulin, for CV disease risk reduction. Methods WebMD, LLC, fielded a 23-item online survey from September 18 to 20, 2018, to 47,534 Medscape members (US IM and FM physicians) who were invited to participate via e-mail (quota = 500). Results Of the 702 physicians who responded, 503 were eligible and completed the survey. Overall, 39% of respondents were not familiar with the 2018 American Diabetes Association treatment recommendations for those with T2DM and atherosclerotic CV disease. Respondents reported they were most familiar with TECOS (42%), LEADER (39%), EMPA-REG OUTCOME (33%), and CANVAS (30%). Many respondents did not know which CVOT showed superiority for major adverse CV events (26%) or CV mortality (31%). When provided with a list of seven treatment priorities, 33% of respondents ranked using T2DM medications with CV benefits as least important. Conclusions Findings from this 2018 survey suggest that there are knowledge gaps among IM and FM physicians regarding the results from CVOTs, with implications for the treatment of patients with T2DM and CV disease. Graphical
      PubDate: 2020-07-04
  • Low Level Laser Therapy in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Narrative Review
    • Abstract: Abstract Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is the most common musculoskeletal disorder, especially in middle up to old age. KOA also results in many complications like changes in gait. Nowadays, changes in lifestyle and the reduced physical activity make people more vulnerable to KOA. Therefore, considering the increasing prevalence of KOA in many societies and the costs imposed on the afflicted people and their governments, providing conservative management approaches with a view to saving time and money is important. There are an assortment of conservative strategies in the management of KOA including low level laser therapy (LLLT). Since the introduction of lasers in the medical field in 1960, various types of lasers with widespread administration programs are used for medical conditions from cosmetics to surgery. However, there are conflicting findings on the application of lasers in osteoarthritis. To discuss the basis of the highest level of evidence, only systematic reviews with or without meta-analyses published up to January 2019 were included in the present work. In this regard, Scopus, PEDro, Medline, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane, PubMed, Irandoc, Iran Medex, Magiran, and SID were searched to retrieve articles in English or Persian. A total of 22 systematic reviews and meta-analyses were found, 14 of which were included in this study. The accepted articles were published between 1991 and up to 2019. The purpose of this narrative review was to investigate the effect of LLLT on pain and function in subjects with KOA. The result of the present review may help clinicians in making evidence-based decisions on optimal care in relation to administering LLLT.
      PubDate: 2020-07-03
  • Correction to: Panel Discussion: Some Aspects of the Management of
           Patients with X-Linked Hypophosphataemic Rickets
    • Abstract: In the original article, third author name has been published incorrectly.
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
  • The Burden of Progressive Fibrosing Interstitial Lung Disease: A DELPHI
    • Abstract: Introduction The term progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease (ILD) describes patients with fibrotic ILDs who, irrespective of the aetiology of the disease, show a progressive course of their disease despite current available (and non-licensed) treatment. Besides in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, little is known about management and the burden of patients with fibrotic ILD, particularly those with a progressive behaviour. Methods Using the Delphi method, 40 European experts in ILD management delivered information on management of (progressive) fibrosing ILD and on the impact of the disease on patients’ quality of life (QoL) and healthcare resource utilisation (HCRU). Annual costs were calculated for progressive and non-/slow-progressive fibrosing ILD for diagnosis, follow-up management, exacerbation management, and end-of-life care based on the survey data. Results Physicians reported that progression in fibrosing ILD worsens QoL in both patients and their caregivers. Progression of fibrosing ILD was associated with a greater use of HCRU for follow-up visits and maintenance treatment compared with the non-/slow progression. The number of patients who suffered at least one acute exacerbation was reported to be more than three times higher in progressive fibrosing ILD patients than in patients with non-/slow-progressive fibrosing ILD. On average, annual estimated costs of progressive fibrosing ILD per patient were 1.8 times higher than those of the non-/slow-progressive form of the disease. Conclusions Progression in fibrosing ILD causes a significant impact on QoL and HCRU and costs. These survey data underline the need for safe and effective therapies to slow the disease progression.
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
  • Best Practice Approach to Successful Conversion of Fosaprepitant to
           Aprepitant IV in a Large Multisite Community Oncology Infusion Center: A
           Retrospective Analysis
    • Abstract: Purpose To evaluate the impact on cost, time, resource use, and clinic workflow of converting the route of drug administration from a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist (NK-1 RA) 30-min intravenous (IV) infusion to aprepitant IV, and more specifically to IV push, within a multicenter community oncology practice. Methods This was a retrospective, multicenter time, motion, and resource/cost evaluation study. Conversion to aprepitant IV was determined by calculating number of doses of aprepitant IV versus fosaprepitant administered in patients receiving moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy regimens. Operational advantages (i.e., supply costs, time saved) of switching from fosaprepitant IV infusion to aprepitant administered as a 2-min IV push were assessed. Results A total of 12,908 doses of aprepitant IV 130 mg were administered at 13 Rocky Mountain Cancer Centers clinics over an 18-month period. Conversion from fosaprepitant to aprepitant IV reached 90% after 9 months of aprepitant IV initiation. Supply costs per administration were reduced ($2.51 to $0.52) when aprepitant was prepared as an IV push versus an NK-1 RA infusion. The overall time savings per administration of aprepitant was reduced by 90% (from 36.5 to 3.5 min, 33 min saved) as an IV push rather than an infusion. Most of the time saved per administration (30 min) pertained to the infusion nurse, and 3 min was saved by the pharmacy technician. Conclusion Successful conversion to aprepitant, and specifically to a 2-min IV push, provides time, cost, and resource savings, improves operational efficiency, and avoids the negative impact of potential future IV fluid shortages.
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
  • Pharmacokinetics and Dialyzability of a Single Oral Dose of Amenamevir, an
           Anti-Herpes Drug, in Hemodialysis Patients
    • Abstract: Introduction Amenamevir (ASP2151), a herpesvirus helicase-primase inhibitor, is currently used for the treatment of herpes zoster in Japan. Amenamevir is mainly metabolized in the liver, and urinary excretion of amenamevir is approximately 10% in healthy adults. The increase of systemic exposure in non-dialysis patients with severe renal impairment was much less than that associated with nucleoside antiviral agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and dialyzability of a single oral dose (400 mg) of amenamevir in hemodialysis patients. Methods This was a single-arm, open-label, multicenter clinical pharmacology study. Nine patients aged 20–80 years with end-stage kidney disease and undergoing maintenance hemodialysis three times weekly were enrolled. Pharmacokinetics and dialyzability were investigated by serial collection of blood samples until 48 h post-dose during the study. Results The maximum plasma concentration and time to reach maximum plasma concentration during 24 h post-dose were 1585 ng/mL and 6.2 h, respectively. The area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC) from time zero to 24 h was 23,890 ng h/mL. The median terminal elimination half-life within 24 h before, during, and after hemodialysis was 14.7, 15.2, and 12.4 h, respectively. The AUC in hemodialysis patients was approximately double that in healthy adults. This increase in AUC was much less than that reported in nucleoside antiviral agents. The hemodialysis clearance, elimination fraction percentage, and amount of amenamevir removed were 37.8 mL/min, 28.1%, and 132.0 μg, respectively. The amount of amenamevir removed by hemodialysis was minimal. None of the hemodialysis parameters were associated with serum albumin. This study revealed no clinically relevant safety concerns. Conclusion There were no clinically relevant safety concerns when 400 mg of amenamevir was administered as a single dose to hemodialysis patients without dose adjustment and/or modification of the dosing schedule. Trial Registration JapicCTI-184242.
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
  • Ombitasvir, Paritaprevir, Ritonavir, and Dasabuvir Mini-Tabs Plus
           Ribavirin for Children Aged 3–11 Years with Hepatitis C Genotype 1a
    • Abstract: Introduction To assess the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of mini-tablet formulations of ombitasvir (OBV), paritaprevir (PTV), ritonavir, and dasabuvir (DSV) with or without ribavirin for 12 weeks in children infected with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT) 1. Methods This is an ongoing, open-label, Phase 2/3 study in children 3–11 years old infected with HCV GT1 who were HCV treatment-naïve and non-cirrhotic. Pediatric mini-tablet formulations of OBV, PTV, ritonavir, and DSV plus ribavirin oral solution were administered for 12 weeks based on body weight. Endpoints included SVR12, adverse events (AEs), and pharmacokinetic parameters. Results Overall, 26 children received OBV, PTV, ritonavir, and DSV plus ribavirin; 14 were 3–8 years old and 12 were 9–11 years old; 35% were male; and all had chronic HCV GT1a infection. The SVR12 rate was 96% (25/26; 95% CI 81.1–99.3), with 1 child failing to achieve SVR12 due to non-adherence and treatment discontinuation. Treatment-emergent AEs of Grade ≥ 3 occurred in 3 children; 2 events in 1 child were considered serious; and none were considered treatment-related. No AEs led to discontinuation of study treatment. The most common AEs were headache (27%), fatigue (23%), pyrexia (19%), and vomiting (19%). Pharmacokinetic results showed mini-tablet formulations of OBV, PTV, DSV, and ritonavir drug exposures were comparable to the adult formulation. Conclusion The mini-tablet combination of OBV, PTV, ritonavir, and DSV plus ribavirin to treat HCV GT1a infection for 12 weeks was highly effective and suitable in children 3–11 years of age. Trial Registration identifier, NCT02486406.
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
  • Diagnosis and Management of Hypothyroidism in Gulf Cooperation Council
           (GCC) Countries
    • Abstract: Abstract Hypothyroidism is one of the most common chronic endocrine conditions. However, as symptoms of hypothyroidism are non-specific, up to 60% of those with thyroid dysfunction are unaware of their condition. Left untreated, hypothyroidism may contribute to other chronic health conditions. In the Arabian Gulf States, hypothyroidism is thought to be common, but is underdiagnosed, and management approaches vary. An advisory board of leading Saudi endocrinologists and policy advisers was convened to discuss and formulate recommendations for the diagnosis and management of hypothyroidism in Saudi Arabia based on their clinical expertise. The final document was shared with leading endocrinologists from the other Gulf  Cooperation Council (GCC) and aconsensus report was generated and summerized in this article. While there is no consensus regarding population screening of hypothyroidism, current recommendations suggest screening patients with risk factors, including those with a history of head or neck irradiation, a family history of thyroid disease or pharmacological treatment that may affect thyroid function. Evidence from a cross-sectional study in Saudi Arabia suggests screening the elderly (> 60 years), at least in the primary care setting. In Saudi Arabia, the incidence of congenital hypothyroidism is approximately 1 in every 3450 newborns. Saudi nationwide population prevalence data are lacking, but a single-centre study estimated that the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in the primary care setting was 10%. Prevalence rates were higher in other cross-sectional studies exclusively in women (13–35%). The recommendations included in this  article aim to streamline the diagnosis and clinical management of hypothyroidism in the GCC, especially in the primary care setting, with the intention of improving treatment outcomes. Further study on the incidence, prevalence and risk factors for, and clinical features of, hypothyroidism in the GCC countries is required.
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
  • Etrolizumab for the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease:
           An Overview of the Phase 3 Clinical Program
    • Abstract: Introduction Etrolizumab is a next-generation anti-integrin with dual action that targets two pathways of inflammation in the gut. A robust phase 3 clinical program in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease is ongoing and will evaluate the efficacy and safety of etrolizumab in well-defined patient populations in rigorous trials that include direct head-to-head comparisons against approved anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents (anti-TNF). The etrolizumab phase 3 clinical program consists of six randomized controlled trials (RCTs; UC: HIBISCUS I and II, GARDENIA, LAUREL, HICKORY; Crohn’s disease: BERGAMOT) and two open-label extension trials (OLEs; UC: COTTONWOOD; Crohn’s disease: JUNIPER) evaluating patients with moderately to severely active UC or Crohn’s disease. Methods In the UC RCTs, patients are randomly assigned according to each protocol to receive etrolizumab, adalimumab, infliximab, or placebo. In BERGAMOT, patients are randomly assigned to receive etrolizumab 105 mg, etrolizumab 210 mg, or placebo. The primary outcomes for the UC RCTs are Mayo Clinic score-based clinical response, remission, and clinical remission; for BERGAMOT, the co-primary outcomes are clinical remission (based on abdominal pain and stool frequency) and endoscopic improvement (based on the Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn’s disease). The OLEs will primarily assess long-term efficacy and safety. Secondary and exploratory endpoints include endoscopy, histology, quality of life, and biomarkers at various timepoints. Discussion The etrolizumab phase 3 clinical program is the largest and most comprehensive in inflammatory bowel disease, enrolling more than 3000 patients. The program explores both induction and maintenance regimens. HIBISCUS I and II and GARDENIA are among the first head-to-head trials in UC against an anti-TNF and are the first registrational trials making that comparison. This program will also help address unanswered clinical questions on evaluation of treatment effects and treatment selection across a range of patients with varying treatment histories using an extensive repository of patient samples and data. Trial Registration HIBISCUS I (NCT02163759), HIBISCUS II (NCT02171429), GARDENIA (NCT02136069), LAUREL (NCT02165215), HICKORY (NCT02100696), COTTONWOOD (NCT02118584), BERGAMOT (NCT02394028), JUNIPER (NCT02403323).
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
  • Treatment Sequencing in Patients with Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive
           Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in Japan: A Real-World Observational Study
    • Abstract: Introduction The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) alectinib was approved in Japan in 2014 for the treatment of ALK fusion gene-positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). With the approvals of crizotinib in 2012 and ceritinib in 2017, Japan became the first country with multiple ALK TKIs available for first-line or later use in patients with ALK-positive advanced NSCLC. Here, we collected and evaluated real-world data on ALK TKI clinical usage patterns and sequencing in patients with ALK-positive NSCLC in Japan. Methods This retrospective observational study used the Japanese Medical Data Vision database to analyze data from patients with a confirmed diagnosis of lung cancer who visited a healthcare facility in the database between April 2010 and March 2017, underwent an ALK test, received a prescription for an ALK TKI, and were at least 18 years old as of the date of the first ALK TKI prescription. There were no exclusion criteria. Descriptive analyses of demographics, baseline characteristics, ALK TKI treatment patterns and sequences, non-ALK TKI treatments received before, during, and after ALK TKI treatment, and treatment durations were reported. Results A total of 378 patients met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated in mutually exclusive groups of patients receiving one, two, or three ALK TKIs. The initial ALK TKI prescribed was crizotinib for 52.1% of patients and alectinib for 47.9% of patients; however, the proportion of patients receiving alectinib as the initial ALK TKI increased over time following the Japanese approval of alectinib in 2014. Of the 117 patients who received two or three ALK TKIs, 106 received crizotinib as the first ALK TKI and 11 received alectinib. Before the date of the patient’s first ALK TKI prescription, 153 of 378 patients (40.5%) had received chemotherapy. Of 104 patients who discontinued ALK therapy, 46.2% received chemotherapy and 5.8% received immunotherapy as their next treatment. Conclusion At the time of this analysis, most patients who received more than one ALK TKI received crizotinib as the initial ALK TKI. Additional ALK TKIs have since been approved in Japan as first-line or later therapeutic options for patients with ALK-positive NSCLC, but the optimal sequence of ALK TKI usage remains undetermined. As new data continue to emerge, additional research will be warranted to evaluate ALK TKI sequences that do not include crizotinib as the first therapy in this patient population.
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
  • Healthcare Resources Utilization and Costs of Patients with Non-IPF
           Progressive Fibrosing Interstitial Lung Disease Based on Insurance Claims
           in the USA
    • Abstract: Introduction Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the classic progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease (ILD), but some patients with ILDs other than IPF also develop a progressive fibrosing phenotype (PF-ILD). Information on use and cost of healthcare resources in patients with PF-ILD is limited. Methods We used USA-based medical insurance claims (2014–2016) to assess use and cost of healthcare resources in PF-ILD. Patients with at least two ILD claims and at least one pulmonologist visit were considered to have ILD. Pulmonologist visit frequency was used as a proxy to identify PF-ILD (at least four visits in 2016, or at least three more visits in 2016 vs. 2014). Results Of 2517 patients with non-IPF ILD, 15% (n = 373) had PF-ILD. Mean annual medical costs associated with ILD claims were $35,364 in patients with non-IPF PF-ILD versus $20,211 in the non-IPF ILD population. In 2016, patients with non-IPF PF-ILD made more hospital ILD claims than patients with non-IPF ILD (10.5 vs. 4.7). Conclusions These findings suggest higher disease severity and overall healthcare use for patients with a non-IPF ILD manifesting a progressive fibrosing phenotype (non-IPF PF-ILD).
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
  • Development and Validation of a Nomogram-Based Prognostic Evaluation Model
           for Sarcomatoid Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    • Abstract: Introduction Sarcomatoid hepatocellular carcinoma (SHC) is a rare subtype of liver cancer with extremely poor prognosis. This study aimed to identify the prognostic factors and develop an exclusive and efficient nomogram to predict cancer-specific survival (CSS) for SHC. Methods The data on patients diagnosed with SHC from January 1973 to December 2015 were retrieved from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, and these patients were included as the training cohort. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to identify the prognostic risk factors and construct a nomogram. The predictive accuracy and discriminative ability of the nomogram were determined using concordance index (C-index), calibration curve, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Decision curve analysis (DCA) was used to compare the clinical benefits of the prognostic evaluation model (PEM) with that of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system. The results were validated with an external validation cohort. Results In total, 116 patients with SHC were included in the training cohort. Multivariate Cox analysis revealed M stage (distant metastasis), primary tumor surgery, and chemotherapy to be associated with CSS, and along with tumor size, an integrated PEM was constructed. A calibration curve for the probability of survival showed good agreement between the nomogram and actual observation. The C-index value of the nomogram for predicting CSS and AJCC was 0.853 and 0.649, respectively. In the validation cohort, the C-index value of the PEM discrimination was better than that of the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system, CLIP score, and Okuda staging system, and no statistical difference was observed with eighth edition of the AJCC staging system and Izumi staging system. Conclusion The proposed four-factor nomogram of PEM could accurately predict the prognosis of SHC and could be used in clinical practice.
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
  • Correction to: Real-World Treatment Patterns, Adverse Events, Resource
           Use, and Costs Among Commercially Insured, Younger Patients with Chronic
           Lymphocytic Leukemia in the USA: A Retrospective Cohort Study
    • Abstract: In the original article, it has been noticed that the abbreviation ‘‘CLL’’ is incorrectly published throughout the paper as the abbreviation “CCL”. The correct abbreviation is “CLL”.
      PubDate: 2020-06-13
  • Real-World Treatment Patterns and Outcomes in Patients Receiving
           Second-Line Therapy for Advanced/Metastatic Esophageal Squamous Cell
    • Abstract: Introduction Currently available second-line (2L) therapies for advanced/metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (adv/met ESCC) include the taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel. In clinical trials, such therapies have provided only modest improvements in survival. Few studies have assessed outcomes in routine clinical practice in the USA. We compared real-world clinical outcomes in the US for patients receiving taxane or non-taxane 2L therapy for adv/met ESCC. Methods The Flatiron Health database was used to identify patients diagnosed with adv/met ESCC (1 January 2011–31 January 2019) who received 2L therapy; index date was date of adv/met diagnosis. Baseline variables and treatment regimens received were identified. Overall survival (OS; 2L start until death or last recorded medical activity) and duration of therapy (DoT; start of 2L therapy until last administration date of 2L therapy) in patients receiving taxane vs. non-taxane-based therapies in the 2L setting were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method. Results There were no clear differences in baseline characteristics between patients who received 2L taxane therapy (n = 37) and 2L non-taxane therapy (n = 49). Median (95% CI) 2L OS was significantly longer with 2L taxanes (7.3 [5.9–11.5] months) vs. 2L non-taxanes (5.1 [2.9–7.6] months); median (95% CI) 2L DoT was 2.1 (1.8–3.0) months vs. 3.3 (2.6–6.7) months, respectively. Conclusion Survival was generally poor in patients receiving 2L therapy for adv/met ESCC and was longer in patients receiving 2L taxanes than 2L non-taxane therapy. Efficacious, tolerable therapies for ESCC in the 2L setting are urgently needed.
      PubDate: 2020-06-12
  • PF-06881894, a Proposed Biosimilar to Pegfilgrastim, Versus US-Licensed
           and EU-Approved Pegfilgrastim Reference Products (Neulasta ® ):
           Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, Immunogenicity, and Safety of Single
           or Multiple Subcutaneous Doses in Healthy Volunteers
    • Abstract: Introduction PF-06881894 is a proposed biosimilar to pegfilgrastim (Neulasta®). This study evaluated the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PD/PK) equivalence, immunogenicity, and safety of PF-06881894 vs pegfilgrastim reference products (US- and EU-Neulasta®) in healthy volunteers. Methods A phase 1, open-label, randomized, crossover study was conducted to assess the pharmacologic equivalence and safety of a single 6-mg dose of PF-06881894, pegfilgrastim-US, and pegfilgrastim-EU. The primary PD endpoints were area under the effect-versus-time curve for absolute neutrophil count (ANC) from dose administration to 288 h postdose, and maximum observed ANC value among subjects confirmed negative for anti-pegfilgrastim antibodies. Primary PK variables included area under the serum pegfilgrastim-versus-time curve from the time of dose administration to time infinity and maximum observed serum pegfilgrastim concentration. A second phase 1, open-label, randomized (1:1), parallel-group, non-inferiority study was conducted to assess the immunogenicity and safety of multiple 6-mg doses of PF-06881894 versus pegfilgrastim-US. The primary endpoint for the immunogenicity study was the proportion of subjects with both negative baseline and confirmed positive postdose anti-pegfilgrastim antibodies at any time during the study. Results Across the single- and multiple-dose studies (N = 153 and N = 420 treated subjects, respectively), demographics for age (18–65 years), male gender (n = 264/573), and white race (n = 423/573) were similar. Three-way PD/PK equivalence of PF-06881894, pegfilgrastim-US, and pegfilgrastim-EU was demonstrated with the primary PD endpoints and primary PK variables being completely contained within the predefined 90% confidence interval acceptance limits (80–125%). The non-inferiority of PF-06881894 versus pegfilgrastim-US in terms of immunogenicity was established according to the prespecified non-inferiority margin (≤10%). Overall, there were no clinically meaningful differences in safety profiles among or between study groups. Conclusions Single-dose PF-06881894 demonstrated PD/PK equivalence and comparable safety with US- and EU-pegfilgrastim reference products. Multiple-dose PF-06881894 demonstrated immunogenicity non-inferiority to pegfilgrastim-US with comparable safety. Both studies contributed to the totality of evidence supporting biosimilarity. Trial Registration identifiers: NCT02629289 (C1221001); NCT03273842 (C1221005).
      PubDate: 2020-06-10
  • Correction to: Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Duration in Medically Managed
           Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: Sub-Analysis of the OPT-CAD Study
    • Abstract: In the original article, t
      PubDate: 2020-06-09
  • Cost-Effectiveness of Coronary and Peripheral Artery Disease
           Antithrombotic Treatments in Finland
    • Abstract: Introduction Currently, 15–20% of individuals with coronary artery disease (chronic coronary syndrome [CCS]) or peripheral artery disease (PAD) receiving routine treatment experience cardiovascular events (CVEs) within 3–4 years. Using PICOSTEPS (Patients-Intervention-Comparators-Outcomes-Setting-Time-Effects-Perspective-Sensitivity analysis) reporting, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of recently approved rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily in combination with acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg daily (RIV + ASA) for the prevention of CVEs among Finns with CCS or symptomatic PAD. Methods Myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, acute limb ischemia, amputations, major extracranial bleeding, venous thromboembolism, and cardiovascular deaths were modeled in a Markov model examining a cohort of patients with CCS or symptomatic PAD. Relative effects of the intervention (RIV + ASA) and comparator (ASA) were based on the COMPASS trial. The primary outcome was 3%/year discounted incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), defined as cost (2019 euros) per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained in the Finnish setting over a lifetime horizon. In addition to nonfatal and fatal CVEs, the effects factored Finnish non-CVE mortality, quality of life, and direct costs from a public payer perspective. Disaggregated costs and QALYs, costs per life year gained (LYG), and ischemic strokes avoided, net monetary benefit (NMB), expected value of perfect information (EVPI), economic value-added (EVA), cost-effectiveness table, and acceptability frontier were examined. Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results In the deterministic comparison with ASA over a lifetime horizon, RIV + ASA resulted in a benefit of 0.404 QALYs and 0.474 LYGs for an additional cost of €3241, resulting in an ICER of €8031/QALY. The probabilistic ICER was €4313/QALY (EVPI €1829/patient). RIV + ASA had positive NMB (€8791/patient), low EVPI (€88/patient), high EVA (€8703/patient), and 91% probability of cost-effectiveness using the willingness-to-pay of €25,254/QALY. The primary result was conservative and robust for RIV + ASA. Conclusion RIV + ASA was a cost-effective treatment alternative compared with ASA in patients with CCS or symptomatic PAD in Finland.
      PubDate: 2020-06-09
  • Dysfunctional Coagulation in COVID-19: From Cell to Bedside
    • Abstract: Abstract Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which can induce multisystem disease. Human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) widely expressing in arterial and venous endothelial cells and arterial smooth muscle cells has been identified as a functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2. Dysfunction of ACE2 leads to abnormal activation of the renin-angiotensin system and a systemic endotheliitis that may relate to abnormal coagulation and sepsis. Meanwhile, innate immune response and inflammation activation participate in dysfunctional coagulation. Previous research indicated that dysfunctional coagulation was one of the important risk factors accountable for a high risk of severe disease and death in patients with COVID-19. Understanding the possible mechanisms of dysfunctional coagulation and appropriate anticoagulation therapeutic strategies are important to prevent disease deterioration and reduce fatality rates during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
      PubDate: 2020-06-05
  • Treatment Persistence Between Long-Acting Injectable Versus Orally
           Administered Aripiprazole Among Patients with Schizophrenia in a
           Real-World Clinical Setting in Japan
    • Abstract: Introduction Persistence with antipsychotic treatment is critical in managing patients with schizophrenia. To evaluate whether aripiprazole long-acting injection (aripiprazole once-monthly, AOM) can contribute to longer treatment persistence compared with daily orally administered aripiprazole (OA) in real-world clinical settings in Japan, treatment persistence in patients with schizophrenia was compared between patients treated with AOM and those with OA, using a claims database compiled by JMDC Inc., Tokyo, Japan. Methods Data of patients with schizophrenia who newly initiated AOM or OA treatment between May 2015 and November 2017 were analyzed. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for treatment discontinuation of AOM vs. OA treatment, adjusted for age, sex, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose of antipsychotics, and the number of psychiatric hospitalizations. Results The analysis included 198 patients in the AOM group and 1240 patients in the OA group (mean age 38.4 ± 11.9 years and 39.3 ± 12.4 years, respectively). The AOM group was significantly less likely to discontinue treatment than the OA group (adjusted HR 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.43–0.68). When using the tolerable patients extracted from the OA group (i.e., patients with at least two OA prescriptions; n = 983) vs. the whole AOM group, AOM users were again significantly less likely to discontinue treatment (adjusted HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.53–0.86). Conclusion AOM was associated with longer treatment persistence than OA in the antipsychotic treatment of patients with schizophrenia in real-world clinical settings in Japan, suggesting that the use of AOM may contribute to longer antipsychotic treatment.
      PubDate: 2020-06-04
  • Papillary Thyroid Cancer—Aggressive Variants and Impact on
           Management: A Narrative Review
    • Abstract: Introduction Aggressive variants of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) have been described with increasing frequency. These variants include diffuse sclerosing variant, tall cell variant, columnar cell variant, solid variant, and hobnail variant. Methods We have performed a review of the more aggressive variants of PTC with respect to main characteristics, histological and molecular features, and the consequences that the knowledge of these variants should have in the treatment of the patients. Results At the present time, we do not know the prognostic value of these aggressive PTC variants. The extent of the surgical treatment and adjuvant therapy necessary should be decided on the basis of the extent of the tumor at presentation and the opinion of experienced clinicians. Conclusion These aggressive variants should be known by clinicians, to avoid underdiagnosis, and treated according to the latest recommendations in the literature.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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