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  Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 7268 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (1810 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access  
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access  
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access  
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Fundeni Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access  
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Journal Khulna     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Research Council Bulletin     Open Access  
Basal Ganglia     Hybrid Journal  
Basic Sciences of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BC Medical Journal     Free  
Benha Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bijblijven     Hybrid Journal  
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biologics in Therapy     Open Access  
Biology of Sex Differences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomarker Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Advances in Phytomedicine
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1572-557X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Chapter 1 Natural compounds as antioxidant and molting inhibitors can play
           a role as a model for search of new botanical pesticides
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Chapter 2 Pesticides based on plant essential oils: from traditional
           practice to commercialization
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Chapter 3 Natural substrates and inhibitors of multidrug resistant pumps
           (MDRs) redefine the plant antimicrobials
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Chapter 4 New concept to search for alternate insect control agents from
           plants
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Chapter 5 Role of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) for the control of
           insects and acari: present status and future prospects
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Chapter 6 Bioactivity of fabaceous plants against food-borne and plant
           pathogens: potentials and limitations
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Chapter 7 Screening of plants against fungi affecting crops and stored
           foods
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Chapter 8 Opportunities and potentials of botanical extracts and products
           for management of insect pests in cruciferous vegetables
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Chapter 9 The potential for using neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss)
           extracts for pine weevil management in temperate forestry
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Chapter 10 Plant allelochemicals in thrips control strategies
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Chapter 11 Importance of plant secondary metabolites for protection
           against insects and microbial infections
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Chapter 12 Naturally occurring house dust mites control agents:
           development and commercialization
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Chapter 13 The search for plant-derived compounds with antifeedant
           activity
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Chapter 14 An overview of the antimicrobial properties of Mexican
           medicinal plants
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Chapter 15 Promissory botanical repellents/deterrents for managing two key
           tropical insect pests, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and the mahogany
           shootborer Hypsipyla grandella
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Chapter 16 Naturally occurring anti-insect proteins: current status and
           future aspects
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Chapter 17 Antifungal natural products: assays and applications
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Preface to the Series
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Reverse pharmacognosy: a new concept for accelerating natural drug
           discovery
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 2

      Combinatorial chemistry and high throughput screening (HTS) led to identification of numerous in vitro active and selective hits. Nevertheless, finding in vivo active drugs remains a difficult challenge. Traditional medicine cures based on natural materials have proven useful for many populations worldwide. These huge and disperse amounts of knowledge are sometimes neglected in Western research because of great differences in the concepts of illness. We introduce here a new approach named “reverse pharmacognosy” (from diverse molecules to plants) coupled with pharmacognosy (from biodiverse plants to molecules). Reverse pharmacognosy utilizes new techniques, such as HTS, virtual screening and knowledge database with traditional usage of plants. Integrating pharmacognosy and reverse pharmacognosy in the research process, provided an efficient and rapid tool for natural drug discovery.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Effects of plant extracts on gene expression profiling: from macroarrays
           to microarray technology
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 2

      DNA hybridization arrays (macro- and microarrays) are very useful tools for the analysis of gene expression profiles in human pathologies. In addition, macro- and microarrays can be used in pharmacogenomic and toxicogenomic experiments, aimed at extensive analyses of the effects of therapeutic drugs on overall gene expression of target cells. Despite the fact that extracts from medicinal plants have been described to retain interesting biological activity, including anti-inflammatory, antitumor and antimicrobial effects, few data are present in the literature on gene expression profile studies. Here, we review results on the effects of plant extracts from Moringa oleifera on the gene expression profile of a human tumor cell line, the K562 cell line, originally isolated from a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in blast crisis, very useful for the identification of antitumor compounds. The data obtained using macroarrays were compared with those obtained using reverse-transcription polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR). Effects of M. oleifera extracts were compared to those of Emblica officinalis. The results obtained suggest that a general strategy for the development of specific therapeutic approaches could be proposed starting from gene expression studies employing macro- or microarrays. Treatment of target cells with plant extracts will allow to identify genes, which are down- or up-regulated. For these genes, the molecular analysis of the promoter regions and coding sequences could allow to design decoy oligonucleiodes (ODN), antisense DNA or RNA, peptides and monoclonal antibodies expected to mimic the biological effects of the employed plant extracts.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Effects of medicinal plant extracts on molecular interactions between DNA
           and transcription factors
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 2

      Alteration of gene transcription is one of the approaches to control the expression of selected genes and could be achieved by molecules interfering with the interactions between transcription factors and DNA. In this respect, DNA-binding drugs are of great interest and the object of a large number of research articles. The most suitable techniques for a fast screening of these compounds are the electrophoretic mobility shift assay and the filter-binding approach. In this communication, we present evidence showing that extracts from medicinal plants could inhibit the interactions between nuclear factors and specific target DNA sequences. Among the results obtained, we found that low concentrations (6–12μg/binding reaction) of Aegle marmelos extracts, and very low concentrations (0.5μg/binding reaction) of Emblica officinalis extracts inhibit GATA-1/DNA interactions. On the contrary, up to 400μg/binding reaction of extracts from Argemone mexicana were still unable to inhibit GATA-1/DNA interactions. The employment of several analytical and preparative procedures, among which high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), will help in identifying the bioactive compounds responsible for this very interesting feature.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Herbal extracts and compounds active against herpes simplex virus
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 2

      Herbal compounds are being investigated for antiviral activity against a variety of infectious agents including herpes simplex virus (HSV). Purification and identification of the active compound are very important in the development of these compounds as therapeutic agents. Much of the information presented here deals with testing of crude extracts, purifying active compounds, identifying, and characterizing plant molecules that have antiviral activity against HSV. In the development of antiviral agents from plants, it is also important to understand the targets and modes of action of these potentially useful new agents. Topical antiviral agents would be of benefit to many patients with recurrent HSV infection for several reasons including the ease of use, avoiding systemic exposure to drug, and providing greater levels of antiviral compound at the site of virus replication. Another application of these compounds would be their use as topical microbicides to prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted viruses. Herbal compounds may be ideally suited for their ability to prevent the transmission of viruses such as HSV.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Pharmacological modulation of cough reflex
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 2

      The cough reflex is an attack of powerful expiratory efforts produced by active contractions of the expiratory muscles, preceded by deep inspirations. Cough is a normal physiological defensive reflex responsible for keeping the airways free of obstruction and harmful substances. However, cough is also the most frequent symptom of acute respiratory system diseases and is the most common reason why sick patients visit physicians. The largest diagnostic group associated with chronic cough is asthma or asthma-like syndromes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Furthermore, gastroesophageal reflux, rhinitis/postnasal drip syndrome and unpleasant side effects accompanying the therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) represent other causes of chronic cough. The cough reflex may be elicited by the activation of receptors of non-myelinated nociceptive Aδ-fibers and C-fibers and receptors of myelinated Aδ-fibers distributed throughout the respiratory tract. In recent times as proper cough receptors are thought to be rapidly adapting receptors (RARs) of myelinated fibers, C-fibers and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) localize on the non-myelinated fibers. As the pathological cough (especially its chronic form) has significant impact on patient's quality of life, observed either in physical activity or psychosocial domain, various treatment attitudes are used for different forms of cough (acute, subacute, chronic, productive, nonproductive, psychogenic, asthma-associated, or painful). Interest of research in this field is accompanied with the fact, that many antitussive drugs (mainly from the opioid group), which have been the antitussives of choice for decades, are limited by their unpleasant and very often adverse reactions. In this chapter the authors divided the drugs used in the pharmacological treatment of cough into several groups. These include the drugs acting at the level of receptors, the drugs affecting the propagation of cough impulses in afferent nerves, the drugs modulating the central coordination of cough reflex, the drugs acting at the level of efferent nerves, and the drugs affecting the effectors. Efficacy of many antitussive agents is connected with their influence on more than one level of cough reflex. Another group used in the therapy of cough are mucoactive substances that change the dry, irritant and nonproductive cough into the so-called productive cough with nonirritating expectoration. The last-mentioned group in this chapter is demulcerative and hydrating drugs, which can create a defense layer protecting the mucous membranes from other irritant stimuli.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Phytotherapy of cough
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 2

      The problems emerging from the treatment of cough during many types of respiratory diseases by conventional opioid antitussive agents, such as codeine and codeine-like compounds, are well known. In recent years, much effort has been made to create drugs that exhibit minimum side effect on the organism. One of them is the medicinal plants, which are potential source of substances with high-antitussive efficiency with minimal unwanted effects. Recent trends of modern phytotherapy include specification of active substances responsible for therapeutic effect as well as their quantification in the healing drugs, which enables the treatment rationalization, especially the dosing and pursuing of adverse effects. The purpose of this chapter is to give the overview of some medicinal plants and their active compounds with cough-suppressing activity. The common information about antitussive efficiency of selected herbal products are replenished with results of our ongoing research program related to search for potentially antitussive active herbal polysaccharides.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • The medicinal potential of black seed (Nigella sativa) and its components
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 2

      The seeds of Nigella sativa L., commonly known as black seed, have been used in traditional medicine by many Asian, Middle Eastern and Far Eastern Countries to treat headache, coughs, abdominal pain, diarrhea, asthma, rheumatism and other diseases. The seeds of this plant are the most extensively studied, both phytochemically and pharmacologically. The aqueous and oil extracts of the seeds have been shown to possess antioxidant, antiinflammatory, anticancer, analgesic and antimicrobial activities. Thymoquinone, the most abundant constituent of black seed essential oil, has been shown to be the active principle responsible for many of the seed's beneficial effects. This review paper describes the seed, its chemical components and popular uses in traditional medicine. The paper also discusses the medicinal potential and therapeutic values of some of the individual components present in the extracts of the seeds.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors from natural sources: recent advances
           and future prospects for cancer treatment
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 2

      Natural products have long been a source of cure for cancer, a disease of major cause of deaths in many countries. Despite the advances in cancer treatment, there is a continuing need for the development of new anticancer drugs by exploring the pool of natural products. Of the more than 2000 protein kinases that regulate cellular functions, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), have been extensively studied because of their essential role in the regulation of cell proliferation, transcription and apoptosis. Intensive screening has led, in the last few years, to the identification of a series of naturally occurring chemical inhibitors of CDKs, some of which display high selectivity and efficiency. These inhibitors are antiproliferative agents that arrest cells in G1 and/or G2/M phases of the cell cycle. In addition, many CDK inhibitors facilitate or trigger programmed cell death (apoptosis) in proliferating cells. The potential use of these inhibitors is being extensively evaluated for cancer chemotherapy. This paper reviews naturally derived CDK inhibitors with promising anticancer potential, mainly flavopiridol, staurosporines and indirubins, and the recent advances in understanding their mechanism of action and structure–function relationships at the molecular, cellular and physiological levels.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Anticancer and medicinal properties of essential oil and extracts of East
           Mediterranean sage (salvia triloba)
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 2

      The East Mediterranean Sage (Salvia triloba) is a native plant of the Mediterranean, which has been used in traditional medicine by many Asian and Middle Eastern countries to treat several ailments. The leaves of the plant are boiled as an herbal tea for the relief of headaches, stomachaches, abdominal pain and many other disorders. The aqueous and oil extracts of sage have been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antimicrobial activities. It has recently been shown that the oil extract of S. triloba has potent chemopreventive abilities in the DMBA/TPA mouse model of skin carcinogenesis. This review describes the popular uses of the East Mediterranean Sage in traditional medicine with an emphasis on the anticancer properties of the essential oil extract of the plant.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Marine organisms from Brazil as source of potential anticancer agents
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 2

      The marine environment is considered a very rich source of extremely potent bioactive compounds. Brazil is the largest country in South America, with more than 8500km of shoreline along the Atlantic Ocean, comprising a vast marine biodiversity. The studies on the chemistry of marine organisms in Brazil started in the beginning of the 1960s, but at that time the purpose for investigating the chemistry of marine organism was only that of a “phytochemistry” nature. It was only in the last decade that the effective collaboration between chemists and pharmacologists took place, and today, the studies on marine natural products in Brazil have focused two major points: the biomedical potential applications and the ecological role of the isolated substances. The aim of this chapter is to present the anticancer potential of Brazilian marine organisms. This potential will be discussed upon the great biodiversity observed in Brazilian coast and the studies performed by Brazilian groups on marine pharmacology. Screening programs with this purpose started just a few years ago, but some very promising results were obtained so far.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Anticancer potential of Northeast Brazilian plants
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 2

      Natural products have been isolated as biologically active compounds with great therapeutic potential, providing the molecular basis for most of drugs currently in clinical use, especially for cancer and infectious diseases. The aim of this chapter is to show the worth of Northeast Brazilian plants as a source of potential anticancer drugs. Brazil's vast biodiversity alone justifies the great potential of natural products research in the discovery of new medicines. Furthermore, some studies published by Brazilian research groups have substantiated this potential. Some data from these studies have been presented here. The rational use of the anticancer properties of northeastern Brazilian plants depends on the establishment of a screening program with a multidisciplinary team. A narrow collaboration between chemists, pharmacologists and biologists is essential to elucidate the active principles of medicinal plants.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Safety and efficacy of phytomedicines
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 2

      In this chapter the safety and efficacy of the phytomedicines around the globe have been discussed. Medicinal plants and herbal medicines are much more economic to use, than those of synthetic modern medicines. Due to this reason and also due to easy availability many poor patients of developing countries are attracted to these, even in developed countries like Germany, USA, etc., interests of people are growing. People believe that these herbal medicines are always safe, but unfortunately this is not the case. There are number of cases reported in the scientific reports around the globe, about the toxicities of the plants, plant products and herbal medicines. This chapter emphasizes and summarizes some of the important points on these safety and regulation issues.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Pharmacological and biochemical profiling of lead compounds from
           traditional remedies: the case of Croton cajucara
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 2

      This present phytomedicinal study aims at both identifying the variety of the Croton cajucara lead molecule trans-dehydrocrotonin (DCTN), in all parts of 1 1 2 to 6 year old plants, and perform a general evaluation of its biological efficacy. In addition, the biochemical evaluation of trans-crotonin (CTN), trans-cajucarin B (t-CJC-B), cis-cajucarin B (c-CJC-B), acetyl aleuritolic acid (AAA), cajucarinolide (CJCR) and isocajucarinolide (ICJCR) were performed. The pharmacological action of bioactive extracts and semi-purified fractions of this Croton are discussed herein. The phytochemical investigation proved that only the stem bark of the mature plants (MP) is a rich source of DCTN (1.4% of dry bark), while 3-year-old plants contained only 0.26%. In young plants (YP) the triterpene AAA was the major component and in these the diterpene DCTN was not present. Phytochemical investigation of the C. cajucara stem bark yields AAA, CTN, DCTN, t-CJC-B, c-CJC-B, CJCR, ICJCR, trans-cajucarin A (t-CJC-A) and isosacacarin. In addition, the common metabolites 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzoic acid (vanilic acid), 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid and 2-methylamino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid (N-methyltyrosine) were isolated. The structure elucidation of DCTN and CTN was revised using 600MHz NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectrum, confirming their original structure. Synthetic transformation of DCTN afforded great amount of semi-synthetic CTN, CJCR and ICJCR derivatives, which were submitted to pharmacological experiments. Among the pharmacological experiments, DCTN and CTN were studied for their in vivo antitumor activities on Ehrlich carcinoma and Sarcoma 180 (S-180), and in vivo release was evaluated. The in vitro antiproliferative effects of DCTN and CTN were determined on the cultured Ehrlich carcinoma cells. The cytotoxic effects of CJCR, ICJCR, t-CJC-B, c-CJC-B, a tea preparation, and a MeOH extract were evaluated for human K562 leukemia and Ehrlich carcinoma cells. The tea preparation was also studied for its hepatotoxic effects on the weight variations and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) dosage in mice, in which GPT value variations revealed a dosage–response relation. The genotoxic action of DCTN was examined in Swiss mouse bone marrow cells in vivo, submitted to acute intraperitoneal treatment, by micronucleus (MN) and chromosomal aberration (CA) tests. Statistical analysis indicated that DCTN doses (50% and 75% of the LD50 via intraperitoneal or gavage treatments) were antimutagenic with regard to cyclophosphamide. The oral administration of DCTN and AAA (100mg/kg) reduced gastrointestinal transit of mice and index of gastric mucosa damage (GMD) induced by cold stress. After pylorus ligature in rats, similar dose of DCTN decreased acid secretion and volume. These compounds (1μM) also reduced the 14C-AP uptake induced by histamine (10−5 M); however, uniquely DCTN decreased the uptake induced by bethanechol.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Antihypertensive peptides from natural resources
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 2

      Blood pressure is regulated by many physiological systems in humans. In the vasopressor system, for example the renin-angiotensin system is thought to play an important role, where angiotensin II, which is produced from the cleavage of angiotensin I by angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) shows a potent vasocontractive activity. In this review, preparation of bioactive peptides from natural resources as well as their underlying antihypertensive mechanism will be discussed.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Xanthones as therapeutic agents: chemistry and pharmacology
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 2

      Xanthones are a class of heterocyclic compounds containing oxygen, with a yellow coloration and all of them have dibenzo-γ-pyrone as the basic skeleton. A number of this class of compounds has been isolated from a variety of natural sources (higher plants, fungi and lichens). They have gradually risen to great importance because of their many interesting pharmacological and biological properties.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Inhibition of immunodeficiency type-1 virus (HIV-1) life cycle by
           medicinal plant extracts and plant-derived compounds
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 2

      Identification of molecules inhibiting the different steps of the life cycle of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is central for the development of an efficient therapeutic treatment of AIDS. In this respect, this research takes great advantage from the fact that the molecular biology of the HIV-1 life cycle is well known. The present review summarizes and discusses strong evidences demonstrating that several medicinal plant extracts display anti-HIV-1 activities. Moreover, several compounds isolated from bioactive extracts were characterized in detail and found to exhibit inhibitory effects against different steps of the HIV-1 life cycle, including virus–cell fusion and virus absorption, reverse transcription, integration and proteolytic cleavage. Clinical trials on limited numbers of patients suffering from AIDS have been already reported, supporting the concept that some medicinal plant extracts or single molecules derived from them display anti-HIV effects not only in vitro but also in vivo. Therefore, medicinal plant extracts should be considered as an excellent source of clinically relevant anti-HIV-1molecules.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Anticancer properties of saffron, Crocus sativus Linn.
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 2

      Crocus sativus L., commonly known as saffron, is the raw material for one of the most expensive spices in the world and it has been used in folk medicine for centuries. This chapter provides a review of the recent literature about the analysis and production of antitumour agents present in this plant and its potential application in cancer biotherapy.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Lead compounds and drug candidates from some Turkish plants for human
           health
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 2

      Biodiversity has tremendous potential in having excellent chemical diversity to drug discovery programs and in serving as templates for synthetic drugs. Research activities on plants growing in Turkey, showed that diverse classes of bioactive compounds ranging from simple aromatics, e.g. paeonol, to complex molecules of alkaloids, terpenoids and steroids possess significant biological activities, including anticholinesterase, anticholinergic, antihypertensive, antithrombocyter, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial and antibacterial. The results of these investigations and their potential therapeutic application have been reviewed in this chapter.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Molecular design of multifunctional anti-Salmonella agents based on
           natural products
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 2

      A series of aliphatic (2E)-alkenals and alkanals from C5 to C13 were tested for their antibacterial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis ssp choleraesuis ATCC 35640. The activity against this food-borne bacterium is correlated with the hydrophobic alkyl chain length from the hydrophilic aldehyde group. (2E)-Dodecenal (C12) was most effective against S. choleraesuis with the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 6.25μg/mL (34μM), followed by (2E)-undecenal (C11) with an MBC of 12.5μg/mL (77μM). The time kill curve study showed that (2E)-dodecenal was bactericidal against S. choleraesuis at any of its growing stages. The antibacterial action of medium-chain aldehydes comes in part from their ability to function as nonionic surfactants. Based on the above head and tail concept, a series of antioxidative alkyl gallates (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoates), was synthesized and tested for their antibacterial activity against S. choleraesuis. Nonyl (C9) and octyl (C8) gallates were noted to be the most effective against this food borne bacterium with MBCs of 12.5μg/mL, followed by decyl (C10) gallate with an MBC of 25μg/mL. Dodecyl (C12) gallate still exhibited the activity against S. choleraesuis with an MBC of 50μg/mL. Propyl (C3) gallate showed no activity against S. choleraesuis up to 3200μg/mL. The length of the alkyl group plays a role in eliciting the activity to a large extent.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Plant growth inhibitory activities by secondary metabolites isolated from
           Latin American flora
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 2

      This chapter studies phytochemicals that are biodirected, to find botanical-origin biopesticides targeted against weeds. It describes the identification of some monoterpenes, diterpenes, sesquiterpene lactones, limonoids, triterpenes, coumarins, and flavonoids, including their chemical derivatives from plants belonging to the families Asteraceae, Celastraceae, Gomortegaceae, Lauraceae, Meliaceae, Monimiaceae, Poaceae, and Winteraceae. The findings show that some natural compounds or their derivatives possess plant growth regulatory (PGR) or herbicidal activities. Compounds with acetylated and α-β-unsaturated carbonyl derivatives showed mainly PGR activity. It seems that an α-methylene-γ-lactone and a group α,β-unsaturated carbonyl are important for structural activity requirements. Allelopathic activities were assayed with Triticum aestivum, T. vulgare, Trifolium pratense, T. alexandrinum, T. angustifolium, Lolium multiflorum, Lactuca sativa, Physalis ixocarpa, and Raphanus sativus as weed seeds models. All of them are weedy pests in wheat, oat, potatoes, corn, bean, and other important crops of Latin America. Very little is known about the inhibitory activity of these natural compounds and their derivatives. Natural compounds that we have isolated represent a valuable resource for the study toward noxious weedy species of the allelopathic activities of these plants and their control. Progress in biochemical and allelopathic characterization of this pathway is outlined.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
  • Metabolomics – systematic studies of the metabolic profiling
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Phytomedicine, Volume 2

      Metabolomics is the systematic study of the unique chemical characteristics of an organism. It may be higher or lower plants or may be prokaryotes. Phytometabolomics is the science dealing with the metabolic profiling of plants. Here, we discuss about the rational and analytical technologies used in metabolomics. We will also discuss in general about some of the key applications of metabolomics, for instance in toxicology, functional genomics, nutrigenomics, aging research, and lipid profiling. The metabolic profiling is still under development, but it is likely to become quite an important issue.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:02Z
       
 
 
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