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Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
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Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / Health Sciences Journal of Adıyaman University     Open Access  
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AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
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Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
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Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
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American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
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Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
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Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
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Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası     Open Access  
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
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Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
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Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives Medical Review Journal / Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi     Open Access  
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Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASHA Leader     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
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Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine     Open Access  
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Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  
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Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Medical Journal     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Advances in Microbial Physiology
  [SJR: 1.44]   [H-I: 51]   [4 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0065-2911
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • Anaerobic Bacterial Response to Nitrosative Stress
    • Authors: Jeffrey A. Cole
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2018
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): Jeffrey A. Cole
      This chapter provides an overview of current knowledge of how anaerobic bacteria protect themselves against nitrosative stress. Nitric oxide (NO) is the primary source of this stress. Aerobically its removal is an oxidative process, whereas reduction is required anaerobically. Mechanisms required to protect aerobic and anaerobic bacteria are therefore different. Several themes recur in the review. First, how gene expression is regulated often provides clues to the physiological function of the gene products. Second, the physiological significance of reports based upon experiments under extreme conditions that bacteria do not encounter in their natural environment requires reassessment. Third, responses to the primary source of stress need to be distinguished from secondary consequences of chemical damage due to failure of repair mechanisms to cope with extreme conditions. NO is generated by many mechanisms, some of which remain undefined. An example is the recent demonstration that the hybrid cluster protein combines with YtfE (or RIC protein, for repair of iron centres damaged by nitrosative stress) in a new pathway to repair key iron–sulphur proteins damaged by nitrosative stress. The functions of many genes expressed in response to nitrosative stress remain either controversial or are completely unknown. The concentration of NO that accumulates in the bacterial cytoplasm is essentially unknown, so dogmatic statements cannot be made that damage to transcription factors (Fur, FNR, SoxRS, MelR, OxyR) occurs naturally as part of a physiologically relevant signalling mechanism. Such doubts can be resolved by simple experiments to meet six proposed criteria.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:39:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2018.01.001
  • Nitric Oxide Signalling in Yeast
    • Authors: Rika I. Astuti; Ryo Nasuno; Hiroshi Takagi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2018
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): Rika I. Astuti, Ryo Nasuno, Hiroshi Takagi
      Nitric oxide (NO) is a cellular signalling molecule widely conserved among organisms, including microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and fungi, and higher eukaryotes such as plants and mammals. NO is mainly produced by the activities of NO synthase (NOS) or nitrite reductase (NIR). There are several NO detoxification systems, including NO dioxygenase (NOD) and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR). NO homeostasis, based on the balance between NO synthesis and degradation, is important for regulating its physiological functions, since an excess of NO causes nitrosative stress due to the high reactivity of NO and NO-derived compounds. In yeast, NO may be involved in stress responses, but the role of NO and the mechanism underlying NO signalling are poorly understood due to the lack of mammalian NOS orthologs in the yeast genome. NOS and NIR activities have been observed in yeast cells, but the gene-encoding NOS and the mechanism by which NO production is catalysed by NIR remain unclear. On the other hand, yeast cells employ NOD and GSNOR to maintain intracellular redox balance following endogenous NO production, treatment with exogenous NO, or exposure to environmental stresses. This article reviews NO metabolism (synthesis, degradation) and its regulation in yeast. The physiological roles of NO in yeast, including the oxidative stress response, are also discussed. Such investigations into NO signalling are essential for understanding how NO modulates the genetics and physiology of yeast. In addition to being responsible for the pathology and pharmacology of various degenerative diseases, NO signalling may be a potential target for the construction and engineering of industrial yeast strains.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:39:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2018.01.003
  • The Inflammasome: Regulation of Nitric Oxide and Antimicrobial Host
    • Authors: Rajalaksmy A. Ramachandran; Christopher Lupfer; Hasan Zaki
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2018
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): Rajalaksmy A. Ramachandran, Christopher Lupfer, Hasan Zaki
      Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous signalling molecule that plays diverse physiological functions including antimicrobial host defence. During microbial infection, NO is synthesized by inducible NO synthase (iNOS), which is expressed by host immune cells through the recognition of microbial pattern molecules. Therefore, sensing pathogens or their pattern molecules by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are located at the cell surface, endosomal and phagosomal compartment, or in the cytosol, is key in inducing iNOS and eliciting antimicrobial host defence. A group of cytosolic PRRs is involved in inducing NO and other antimicrobial molecules by forming a molecular complex called the inflammasome. Assembled inflammasomes activate inflammatory caspases, such as caspase-1 and caspase-11, which in turn process proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 into their mature forms and induce pyroptotic cell death. IL-1β and IL-18 play a central role in immunity against microbial infection through activation and recruitment of immune cells, induction of inflammatory molecules, and regulation of antimicrobial mediators including NO. Interestingly, NO can also regulate inflammasome activity in an autocrine and paracrine manner. Here, we discuss molecular mechanisms of inflammasome formation and the inflammasome-mediated regulation of host defence responses during microbial infections.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:39:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2018.01.004
  • Emerging Roles of Nitric Oxide Synthase in Bacterial Physiology
    • Authors: Elizabeth H. Hutfless; Sujata S. Chaudhari; Vinai C. Thomas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2018
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): Elizabeth H. Hutfless, Sujata S. Chaudhari, Vinai C. Thomas
      Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent inhibitor of diverse cellular processes in bacteria. Therefore, it was surprising to discover that several bacterial species, primarily Gram-positive organisms, harboured a gene encoding nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Recent attempts to characterize bacterial NOS (bNOS) have resulted in the discovery of structural features that may allow it to function as a NO dioxygenase and produce nitrate in addition to NO. Consistent with this characterization, investigations into the biological function of bNOS have also emphasized a role for NOS-dependent nitrate and nitrite production in aerobic and microaerobic respiration. In this review, we aim to compare, contrast, and summarize the structure, biochemistry, and biological role of bNOS with mammalian NOS and discuss how recent advances in our understanding of bNOS have enabled efforts at designing inhibitors against it.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:39:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2018.01.006
  • Reactive Cysteine Persulphides: Occurrence, Biosynthesis, Antioxidant
           Activity, Methodologies, and Bacterial Persulphide Signalling
    • Authors: Tomohiro Sawa; Katsuhiko Ono; Hiroyasu Tsutsuki; Tianli Zhang; Tomoaki Ida; Motohiro Nishida; Takaaki Akaike
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2018
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): Tomohiro Sawa, Katsuhiko Ono, Hiroyasu Tsutsuki, Tianli Zhang, Tomoaki Ida, Motohiro Nishida, Takaaki Akaike
      Cysteine hydropersulphide (CysSSH) is a cysteine derivative having one additional sulphur atom bound to a cysteinyl thiol group. Recent advances in the development of analytical methods for detection and quantification of persulphides and polysulphides have revealed the biological presence, in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, of hydropersulphides in diverse forms such as CysSSH, homocysteine hydropersulphide, glutathione hydropersulphide, bacillithiol hydropersulphide, coenzyme A hydropersulphide, and protein hydropersulphides. Owing to the chemical reactivity of the persulphide moiety, biological systems utilize persulphides as important intermediates in the synthesis of various sulphur-containing biomolecules. Accumulating evidence has revealed another important feature of persulphides: their potent reducing activity, which implies that they are implicated in the regulation of redox signalling and antioxidant functions. In this chapter, we discuss the biological occurrence and possible biosynthetic mechanisms of CysSSH and related persulphides, and we include descriptions of recent advances in the analytical methods that have been used to detect and quantitate persulphide species. We also discuss the antioxidant activity of persulphide species that contributes to protecting cells from reactive oxygen species-associated damage, and we examine the signalling roles of CysSSH in bacteria.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:39:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2018.01.002
  • Nitric Oxide, an Old Molecule With Noble Functions in Pseudomonas
           aeruginosa Biology
    • Authors: Masanori Toyofuku; Sang-Sun Yoon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2018
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): Masanori Toyofuku, Sang-Sun Yoon
      Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium, is characterized by its versatility that enables persistent survival under adverse conditions. It can grow on diverse energy sources and readily acquire resistance to antimicrobial agents. As an opportunistic human pathogen, it also causes chronic infections inside the anaerobic mucus airways of cystic fibrosis patients. As a strict respirer, P. aeruginosa can grow by anaerobic nitrate ( NO 3 − ) respiration. Nitric oxide (NO) produced as an intermediate during anaerobic respiration exerts many important effects on the biological characteristics of P. aeruginosa. This review provides information regarding (i) how P. aeruginosa grows by anaerobic respiration, (ii) mechanisms by which NO is produced under such growth, and (iii) bacterial adaptation to NO. We also review the clinical relevance of NO in the fitness of P. aeruginosa and the use of NO as a potential therapeutic for treating P. aeruginosa infection.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:39:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2018.01.005
  • Cytochrome bd and Gaseous Ligands in Bacterial Physiology
    • Authors: Elena Forte; Vitaliy B. Borisov; João B. Vicente; Alessandro Giuffrè
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 July 2017
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): Elena Forte, Vitaliy B. Borisov, João B. Vicente, Alessandro Giuffrè
      Cytochrome bd is a unique prokaryotic respiratory terminal oxidase that does not belong to the extensively investigated family of haem–copper oxidases (HCOs). The enzyme catalyses the four-electron reduction of O2 to 2H2O, using quinols as physiological reducing substrates. The reaction is electrogenic and cytochrome bd therefore sustains bacterial energy metabolism by contributing to maintain the transmembrane proton motive force required for ATP synthesis. As compared to HCOs, cytochrome bd displays several distinctive features in terms of (i) metal composition (it lacks Cu and harbours a d-type haem in addition to two haems b), (ii) overall three-dimensional structure, that only recently has been solved, and arrangement of the redox cofactors, (iii) lesser energetic efficiency (it is not a proton pump), (iv) higher O2 affinity, (v) higher resistance to inhibitors such as cyanide, nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and (vi) ability to efficiently metabolize potentially toxic reactive oxygen and nitrogen species like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and peroxynitrite (ONOO−). Compelling evidence suggests that, beyond its bioenergetic role, cytochrome bd plays multiple functions in bacterial physiology and affords protection against oxidative and nitrosative stress. Relevant to human pathophysiology, thanks to its peculiar properties, the enzyme has been shown to promote virulence in several bacterial pathogens, being currently recognized as a target for the development of new antibiotics. This review aims to give an update on our current understanding of bd-type oxidases with a focus on their reactivity with gaseous ligands and its potential impact on bacterial physiology and human pathophysiology.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T07:05:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.05.002
  • Haem-Based Sensors of O2: Lessons and Perspectives
    • Authors: Eduardo H.S. Sousa; Marie-Alda Gilles-Gonzalez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2017
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): Eduardo H.S. Sousa, Marie-Alda Gilles-Gonzalez
      Haem-based sensors have emerged during the last 15 years as being a large family of proteins that occur in all kingdoms of life. These sensors are responsible mainly for detecting binding of O2, CO and NO and reporting the ligation status to an output domain with an enzymatic or macromolecule-binding property. A myriad of biological functions have been associated with these sensors, which are involved in vasodilation, bacterial symbiosis, chemotaxis and biofilm formation, among others. Here, we critically review several bacterial systems for O2 sensing that are extensively studied in many respects, focusing on the lessons that are important to advance the field.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T07:05:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.05.001
  • Mechanism and Role of Globin-Coupled Sensor Signalling
    • Authors: Johnnie A. Walker; Shannon Rivera; Emily E. Weinert
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2017
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): Johnnie A. Walker, Shannon Rivera, Emily E. Weinert
      The discovery of the globin-coupled sensor (GCS) family of haem proteins has provided new insights into signalling proteins and pathways by which organisms sense and respond to changing oxygen levels. GCS proteins consist of a sensor globin domain linked to a variety of output domains, suggesting roles in controlling numerous cellular pathways, and behaviours in response to changing oxygen concentration. Members of this family of proteins have been identified in the genomes of numerous organisms and characterization of GCS with output domains, including methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins, kinases, and diguanylate cyclases, have yielded an understanding of the mechanism by which oxygen controls activity of GCS protein output domains, as well as downstream proteins and pathways regulated by GCS signalling. Future studies will expand our understanding of these proteins both in vitro and in vivo, likely demonstrating broad roles for GCS in controlling oxygen-dependent microbial physiology and phenotypes.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T07:05:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.05.003
  • The Microbiology of Ruthenium Complexes
    • Authors: Hannah Southam; Jonathan Butler Jonathan Chapman Robert Poole
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): Hannah M. Southam, Jonathan A. Butler, Jonathan A. Chapman, Robert K. Poole
      Ruthenium is seldom mentioned in microbiology texts, due to the fact that this metal has no known, essential roles in biological systems, nor is it generally considered toxic. Since the fortuitous discovery of cisplatin, first as an antimicrobial agent and then later employed widely as an anticancer agent, complexes of other platinum group metals, such as ruthenium, have attracted interest for their medicinal properties. Here, we review at length how ruthenium complexes have been investigated as potential antimicrobial, antiparasitic and chemotherapeutic agents, in addition to their long and well-established roles as biological stains and inhibitors of calcium channels. Ruthenium complexes are also employed in a surprising number of biotechnological roles. It is in the employment of ruthenium complexes as antimicrobial agents and alternatives or adjuvants to more traditional antibiotics, that we expect to see the most striking developments in the future. Such novel contributions from organometallic chemistry are undoubtedly sorely needed to address the antimicrobial resistance crisis and the slow appearance on the market of new antibiotics.

      PubDate: 2017-05-30T05:25:26Z
  • The Role of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria in Metal Phytoremediation
    • Authors: Zhaoyu Kong; Bernard R. Glick
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): Zhaoyu Kong, Bernard R. Glick
      Phytoremediation is a promising technology that uses plants and their associated microbes to clean up contaminants from the environment. In recent years, phytoremediation assisted by plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) has been highly touted for cleaning up toxic metals from soil. PGPB include rhizospheric bacteria, endophytic bacteria and the bacteria that facilitate phytoremediation by other means. This review provides information about the traits and mechanisms possessed by PGPB that improve plant metal tolerance and growth, and illustrate mechanisms responsible for plant metal accumulation/translocation in plants. Several recent examples of phytoremediation of metals facilitated by PGPB are reviewed. Although many encouraging results have been reported in the past years, there have also been numerous challenges encountered in phytoremediation in the field. To implement PGPB-assisted phytoremediation of metals in the natural environment, there is also a need to critically assess the ecological effects of PGPB, especially for those nonnative bacteria.

      PubDate: 2017-05-30T05:25:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.04.001
  • Metal Resistance and Its Association With Antibiotic Resistance
    • Authors: Chandan Pal; Karishma Asiani; Sankalp Arya; Christopher Rensing; Dov J. Stekel; D.G. Joakim Larsson; Jon L. Hobman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2017
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): Chandan Pal, Karishma Asiani, Sankalp Arya, Christopher Rensing, Dov J. Stekel, D.G. Joakim Larsson, Jon L. Hobman
      Antibiotic resistance is recognised as a major global threat to public health by the World Health Organization. Currently, several hundred thousand deaths yearly can be attributed to infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The major driver for the development of antibiotic resistance is considered to be the use, misuse and overuse of antibiotics in humans and animals. Nonantibiotic compounds, such as antibacterial biocides and metals, may also contribute to the promotion of antibiotic resistance through co-selection. This may occur when resistance genes to both antibiotics and metals/biocides are co-located together in the same cell (co-resistance), or a single resistance mechanism (e.g. an efflux pump) confers resistance to both antibiotics and biocides/metals (cross-resistance), leading to co-selection of bacterial strains, or mobile genetic elements that they carry. Here, we review antimicrobial metal resistance in the context of the antibiotic resistance problem, discuss co-selection, and highlight critical knowledge gaps in our understanding.

      PubDate: 2017-04-06T12:00:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.02.001
  • Copper and Antibiotics: Discovery, Modes of Action, and Opportunities for
           Medicinal Applications
    • Authors: Alex G. Dalecki; Cameron L. Crawford; Frank Wolschendorf
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): Alex G. Dalecki, Cameron L. Crawford, Frank Wolschendorf
      Copper is a ubiquitous element in the environment as well as living organisms, with its redox capabilities and complexation potential making it indispensable for many cellular functions. However, these same properties can be highly detrimental to prokaryotes and eukaryotes when not properly controlled, damaging many biomolecules including DNA, lipids, and proteins. To restrict free copper concentrations, all bacteria have developed mechanisms of resistance, sequestering and effluxing labile copper to minimize its deleterious effects. This weakness is actively exploited by phagocytes, which utilize a copper burst to destroy pathogens. Though administration of free copper is an unreasonable therapeutic antimicrobial itself, due to insufficient selectivity between host and pathogen, small-molecule ligands may provide an opportunity for therapeutic mimicry of the immune system. By modulating cellular entry, complex stability, resistance evasion, and target selectivity, ligand/metal coordination complexes can synergistically result in high levels of antibacterial activity. Several established therapeutic drugs, such as disulfiram and pyrithione, display remarkable copper-dependent inhibitory activity. These findings have led to development of new drug discovery techniques, using copper ions as the focal point. High-throughput screens for copper-dependent inhibitors against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus uncovered several new compounds, including a new class of inhibitors, the NNSNs. In this review, we highlight the microbial biology of copper, its antibacterial activities, and mechanisms to discover new inhibitors that synergize with copper.

      PubDate: 2017-03-19T10:11:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.01.007
  • Bacterial Haemoprotein Sensors of NO: H-NOX and NosP
    • Authors: Bezalel Bacon; Lisa-Marie Nisbett; Elizabeth Boon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): Bezalel Bacon, Lisa-Marie Nisbett, Elizabeth Boon
      Low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) modulate varied behaviours in bacteria including biofilm dispersal and quorum sensing-dependent light production. H-NOX (haem-nitric oxide/oxygen binding) is a haem-bound protein domain that has been shown to be involved in mediating these bacterial responses to NO in several organisms. However, many bacteria that respond to nanomolar concentrations of NO do not contain an annotated H-NOX domain. Nitric oxide sensing protein (NosP), a newly discovered bacterial NO-sensing haemoprotein, may fill this role. The focus of this review is to discuss structure, ligand binding, and activation of H-NOX proteins, as well as to discuss the early evidence for NO sensing and regulation by NosP domains. Further, these findings are connected to the regulation of bacterial biofilm phenotypes and symbiotic relationships.

      PubDate: 2017-03-19T10:11:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.01.004
  • Manganese in Marine Microbiology
    • Authors: Colleen M. Hansel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): Colleen M. Hansel
      The importance of manganese in the physiology of marine microbes, the biogeochemistry of the ocean and the health of microbial communities of past and present is emerging. Manganese is distributed widely throughout the global ocean, taking the form of an essential antioxidant (Mn2+), a potent oxidant (Mn3+) and strong adsorbent (Mn oxides) sequestering disproportionately high levels of trace metals and nutrients in comparison to the surrounding seawater. Manganese is, in fact, linked to nearly all other elemental cycles and intricately involved in the health, metabolism and function of the ocean's microbiome. Here, we briefly review the diversity of microbes and pathways responsible for the transformation of Mn within the three Mn pools and their distribution within the marine environment. Despite decades of interrogation, we still have much to learn about the players, mechanisms and consequences of the Mn cycle, and new and exciting discoveries are being made at a rapid rate. What is clear is the dynamic and ever-inspiring complexity of reactions involving Mn, and the acknowledgement that microorganisms are the catalytic engine driving the Mn cycle.

      PubDate: 2017-03-19T10:11:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.01.005
  • Transition Metal Homeostasis in Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus
    • Authors: Andrew G. Turner; Cheryl-lynn Y. Ong; Mark J. Walker; Karrera Y. Djoko; Alastair G. McEwan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): Andrew G. Turner, Cheryl-lynn Y. Ong, Mark J. Walker, Karrera Y. Djoko, Alastair G. McEwan
      Trace metals such as Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu are essential for various biological functions including proper innate immune function. The host immune system has complicated and coordinated mechanisms in place to either starve and/or overload invading pathogens with various metals to combat the infection. Here, we discuss the roles of Fe, Mn and Zn in terms of nutritional immunity, and also the roles of Cu and Zn in metal overload in relation to the physiology and pathogenesis of two human streptococcal species, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes. S. pneumoniae is a major human pathogen that is carried asymptomatically in the nasopharynx by up to 70% of the population; however, transition to internal sites can cause a range of diseases such as pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis and bacteraemia. S. pyogenes is a human pathogen responsible for diseases ranging from pharyngitis and impetigo, to severe invasive infections. Both species have overlapping capacity with respect to metal acquisition, export and regulation and how metal homeostasis relates to their virulence and ability to invade and survive within the host. It is becoming more apparent that metals have an important role to play in the control of infection, and with further investigations, it could lead to the potential use of metals in novel antimicrobial therapies.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T07:30:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.01.002
  • Nutritional Immunity and Fungal Pathogenesis: The Struggle for
           Micronutrients at the Host–Pathogen Interface
    • Authors: Dhara Malavia; Aaron Crawford; Duncan Wilson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): Dhara Malavia, Aaron Crawford, Duncan Wilson
      All living organisms require certain micronutrients such as iron, zinc, manganese and copper for cellular function and growth. For human pathogens however, the maintenance of metal ion homeostasis is particularly challenging. This is because the mammalian host actively enforces extremes of micronutrient availability on potential microbial invaders—processes collectively termed nutritional immunity. The role of iron sequestration in controlling microbial infections is well established and, more recently, the importance of other metals including zinc, manganese and copper has been recognised. In this chapter, we explore the nutritional immune mechanisms that defend the human body against fungal infections and the strategies that these important pathogens exploit to counteract nutritional immunity and thrive in the infected host.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T07:30:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.01.006
  • The Role of Intermetal Competition and Mis-Metalation in Metal Toxicity
    • Authors: Anna Barwinska-Sendra; Kevin J. Waldron
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): Anna Barwinska-Sendra, Kevin J. Waldron
      The metals manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc are essential for almost all bacteria, but their precise metal requirements vary by species, by ecological niche and by growth condition. Bacteria thus must acquire each of these essential elements in sufficient quantity to satisfy their cellular demand, but in excess these same elements are toxic. Metal toxicity has been exploited by humanity for centuries, and by the mammalian immune system for far longer, yet the mechanisms by which these elements cause toxicity to bacteria are not fully understood. There has been a resurgence of interest in metal toxicity in recent decades due to the problematic spread of antibiotic resistance amongst bacterial pathogens, which has led to an increased research effort to understand these toxicity mechanisms at the molecular level. A recurring theme from these studies is the role of intermetal competition in bacterial metal toxicity. In this review, we first survey biological metal usage and introduce some fundamental chemical concepts that are important for understanding bacterial metal usage and toxicity. Then we introduce a simple model by which to understand bacterial metal homeostasis in terms of the distribution of each essential metal ion within cellular ‘pools’, and dissect how these pools interact with each other and with key proteins of bacterial metal homeostasis. Finally, using a number of key examples from the recent literature, we look at specific metal toxicity mechanisms in model bacteria, demonstrating the role of metal–metal competition in the toxicity mechanisms of diverse essential metals.

      PubDate: 2017-02-14T07:25:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.01.003
  • Metal-Based Combinations That Target Protein Synthesis by Fungi
    • Authors: Cindy Vallières; Simon V. Avery
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): Cindy Vallières, Simon V. Avery
      A wide range of fungicides (or antifungals) are used in agriculture and medicine, with activities against a spectrum of fungal pathogens. Unfortunately, the evolution of fungicide resistance has become a major issue. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new antifungal treatments. Certain metals have been used for decades as efficient fungicides in agriculture. However, concerns over metal toxicity have escalated over this time. Recent studies have revealed that metals like copper and chromate can impair functions required for the fidelity of protein synthesis in fungi. This occurs through different mechanisms, based on targeting of iron–sulphur cluster integrity or competition for uptake with amino acid precursors. Moreover, chromate at least acts synergistically with other agents known to target translation fidelity, like aminoglycoside antibiotics, causing dramatic and selective growth inhibition of several fungal pathogens of humans and plants. As such synergy allows the application of decreased amounts of metals for effective inhibition, it lessens concerns about nonspecific toxicity and opens new possibilities for metal applications in combinatorial fungicides targeting protein synthesis.

      PubDate: 2017-02-14T07:25:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.01.001
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