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  Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 7992 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2100 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
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ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
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Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / Health Sciences Journal of Adıyaman University     Open Access  
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Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
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Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
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Advances in Skeletal Muscle Function Assessment     Open Access  
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
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Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Althea Medical Journal     Open Access  
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Anatomica Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ankara Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası     Open Access  
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
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Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Hypertension     Open Access  
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Annals of Health Research     Open Access  
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives Medical Review Journal / Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi     Open Access  
Archives of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology     Open Access  
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access  
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASHA Leader     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine     Open Access  
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover
Advances in Clinical Chemistry
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.562
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 26  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0065-2423
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3160 journals]
  • A practical guide to validation and verification of analytical methods in
           the clinical laboratory
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Joachim Pum Although the measures to improve quality in the clinical laboratory have been enormous in the past years, not least of all due to the introduction of the ISO standards 15189 and 17025, the handling of validation and verification of method performance often still differs widely from laboratory to laboratory. Much of what is published on the topic contains complex statistics and is difficult to implement in routine laboratories. The result is, that this point is often neglected or implemented incorrectly, which in turn can lead to false conclusions about method performances, potentially compromising patient safety or contributing to incorrect diagnoses. As it has long become a standard requirement for accredited laboratories to evaluate and document the analytical performance of all methods not only prior to their first implementation, but also during ongoing operation, there is a need for clear, standardized and practical guidelines on the subject. This review summarizes the current literature on the topic, focusing on the requirements for method validations, or as the case may be, verifications and describes when to validate, when to verify and which statistical tests are appropriate for each. Proper interpretation of statistical test results and acceptance criteria for each procedure are alluded to. Specific topics, which are addressed, are precision and bias verification of quantitative, qualitative and semi-quantitative procedures, method comparisons with Bland-Altman Plots, Passing-Bablok regression analysis, 2 × 2 contingency tables and bubble charts, linearity studies, analytical sensitivity and specificity, performing carry-over studies and establishing and confirming reference ranges.
       
  • Acute phase reactant serum amyloid A in inflammation and other diseases
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Yan Zhang, Jie Zhang, Huiming Sheng, Haichuan Li, Rongfang Wang Acute-phase reactant serum amyloid A (A-SAA) plays an important role in acute and chronic inflammation and is used in clinical laboratories as an indicator of inflammation. Although both A-SAA and C-reactive protein (CRP) are acute-phase proteins, the detection of A-SAA is more conclusive than the detection of CRP in patients with viral infections, severe acute pancreatitis, and rejection reactions to kidney transplants. A-SAA has greater clinical diagnostic value in patients who are immunosuppressed, patients with cystic fibrosis who are treated with corticoids, and preterm infants with late-onset sepsis. Nevertheless, for the assessment of the inflammation status and identification of viral infection in other pathologies, such as bacterial infections, the combinatorial use of A-SAA and other acute-phase proteins (APPs), such as CRP and procalcitonin (PCT), can provide more information and sensitivity than the use of any of these proteins alone, and the information generated is important in guiding antibiotic therapy. In addition, A-SAA-associated diseases and the diagnostic value of A-SAA are discussed. However, the relationship between different A-SAA isotypes and their human diseases are mostly derived from research laboratories with limited clinical samples. Thus, further clinical evaluations are necessary to confirm the clinical significance of each A-SAA isotype. Furthermore, the currently available A-SAA assays are based on polyclonal antibodies, which lack isotype specificity and are associated with many inflammatory diseases. Therefore, these assays are usually used in combination with other biomarkers in the clinic.
       
  • Titin fragment in urine: A noninvasive biomarker of muscle degradation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Masafumi Matsuo, Hiroyuki Awano, Nobuhiro Maruyama, Hisahide Nishio Titin/connectin, encoded by the TTN gene, is the largest protein in humans. It acts as a molecular spring in the sarcomere of striated muscles. Although titin is degraded in the skeletal muscles of patients with muscular dystrophies, studies of titin have been limited by its mammoth size. Mutations in the TTN gene have been detected not only in skeletal muscle diseases but in cardiac muscle diseases. TTN mutations result in a wide variety of phenotypes. Recent proteome analysis has found that titin fragments are excreted into the urine of patents with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have shown that urinary titin is a useful noninvasive biomarker for the diagnosis and screening of not only DMD, but also of neuromuscular diseases, for predicting the outcome of cardiomyopathy and for evaluating physical activities. The development of ELISA systems to measure urinary titin has opened a door to studying muscle degradation directly and noninvasively. This review provides current understanding of urinary titin and future prospects for measuring this protein.
       
  • Advances in monitoring anticoagulant therapy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Mojca Božič Mijovski Anticoagulant drugs directly or indirectly influence coagulation factors preventing fibrin formation, thus preventing blood clotting. They are classified into two groups according to the mode of application, namely parenteral and oral drugs. Among the latter, vitamin K antagonists (most often warfarin) were most widely used for almost a century. In recent years new oral anticoagulant drugs have become available that directly target either factor IIa or Xa (direct oral anticoagulants, DOACs). The proportion of patients to whom DOACs are prescribed is increasing because clinical studies have proved they are at least as effective and safe as vitamin K antagonists. Some of the anticoagulant drugs require regular laboratory monitoring, while others only need assessment of blood drug levels in specific clinical situations.This chapter provides an overview of appropriate laboratory tests used for either regular laboratory monitoring of therapy or occasional assessment of the anticoagulant effect of both parenteral and oral anticoagulant drugs used in clinical practice.
       
  • Telomeres in neurological disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Ayyappan Anitha, Ismail Thanseem, Mahesh Mundalil Vasu, Vijitha Viswambharan, Suresh A. Poovathinal Ever since their discovery, the telomeres and the telomerase have been topics of intensive research, first as a mechanism of cellular aging and later as an indicator of health and diseases in humans. By protecting the chromosome ends, the telomeres play a vital role in preserving the information in our genome. Telomeres shorten with age and the rate of telomere erosion provides insight into the proliferation history of cells. The pace of telomere attrition is known to increase at the onset of several pathological conditions. Telomere shortening has been emerging as a potential contributor in the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD), schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and depression. The rate of telomere attrition in the brain is slower than that of other tissues owing to the low rate of cell proliferation in brain. Telomere maintenance is crucial for the functioning of stem cells in brain. Taking together the studies on telomere attrition in various neurological disorders, an association between telomere shortening and disease status has been demonstrated in schizophrenia, AD and depression, in spite of a few negative reports. But, studies in ASD and PD have failed to produce conclusive results. The cause-effect relationship between TL and neurological disorders is yet to be elucidated. The factors responsible for telomere erosion, which have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders, need to be explored in detail. Telomerase activation is now being considered as a potential therapeutic strategy for neurological disorders.
       
  • Chapter Six - The chemical and laboratory investigation of hemolysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Clinical Chemistry, Volume 89Author(s): Alexa J. Siddon, Christopher A. Tormey The abnormal breakdown of circulating red blood cells (RBCs), also known as hemolysis, is a significant clinical issue that can present as a primary disorder or arise secondary to another disease process. The evaluation for pathologic hemolysis (and the establishment of a hemolytic disorder) is heavily dependent on assays performed and overseen by the divisions of Hematology, Blood Bank/Transfusion Medicine, Clinical Chemistry, and Immunology in the clinical laboratory. Because of the wide variety of assays used across the spectrum of clinical pathology and potential pitfalls/limitations associated with this testing, the decision of which assay to choose and, perhaps more importantly, how to interpret results, can both be quite challenging. Thus, the aim of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review on the laboratory investigation of pathologic forms of hemolysis and hemolytic disorders. This chapter will: (1) introduce basic concepts on the pathophysiology of hemolysis and (2) examine assays available for hemolysis on a laboratory-by-laboratory basis, with a particular emphasis on the strengths, limitations, and clinical interpretations of each of these assays.
       
  • Chapter Two - New biomarkers in endometriosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Clinical Chemistry, Volume 89Author(s): Larissa M. Coutinho, Márcia C. Ferreira, Ana Luiza L. Rocha, Márcia M. Carneiro, Fernando M. Reis Endometriosis is a benign gynecological disorder which presents significant challenges in terms of diagnosis and management. Despite decades of research, there are no sufficiently sensitive and specific signs and symptoms nor blood tests for the clinical confirmation of endometriosis, which hampers prompt diagnosis and treatment. The huge majority of potential biomarkers has been discarded in research stage and very few have been translated to clinical practice. Serum CA-125 is the most studied and used one, but studies have shown its poor diagnostic performance. Several factors involved in the chronic inflammatory process of endometriosis, such as hormones, cytokines, chemokines, angiogenic factors, oxidative stress markers and others, have been implicated in the disease's pathogenesis and have been extensively studied, but not a single one has successfully been able to accurately identify the disease. MicroRNAs have emerged more recently but their utility to detect endometriosis remains uncertain. The search for a biomarker or a set of biomarkers is still open and may benefit from novel molecular biology and bioinformatics approaches to mine and uncover molecular signatures specifically associated with the disease.
       
  • Clinical implications of fetuin-A
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Peter Jirak, Lars Stechemesser, Elena Moré, Michael Franzen, Albert Topf, Moritz Mirna, Vera Paar, Rudin Pistulli, Daniel Kretzschmar, Bernhard Wernly, Uta C. Hoppe, Michael Lichtenauer, Hermann Salmhofer Fetuin-A, also termed alpha2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein, is a 46 kDa hepatocyte derived protein (hepatokine) and serves multifaceted functions.(i)It acts as systemic inhibitor of extraosseous calcification, serves as transport protein for calcium and phosphate in colloidal calciprotein particles and is involved in bone mineralization. Severe derangements of this system occur in chronic renal disease and are associated with mineral bone disorder. Fetuin-A levels have been associated with survival of renal and transplant patients. Low fetuin-A and high calcification propensity each increase mortality.(ii)An independent second aspect of fetuin-A is its interaction with the insulin receptor. Associations of fetuin-A levels with metabolic syndrome as well as pursuant atherosclerotic vascular effects have been established. This could be explained by differences in patient characteristics, different stages of vascular calcifications, presence of diabetes and kidney dysfunction.(iii)A further issue is the acute phase response of fetuin-A to various inflammatory stimuli and injuries. Dependent on the mode of stimulation, fetuin-A may work as a positive or negative acute phase protein. It may also serve as a protective agent in severe systemic inflammation. A suggestive role of fetuin-A may evolve in wasting and malnutrition–inflammation–atherosclerosis syndromes of chronic disease. A novel aspect is the putative role of fetuin-A in adipose tissue inflammation.(iv)With respect to heart disease, aspects of coronary arterial disease, heart failure and valvular stenosis and calcification have been elucidated. Associations of fetuin-A levels have been found with coronary artery disease, ischemic cardiomyopathy and aortic stenosis.
       
  • Implementing circulating tumor DNA analysis in a clinical laboratory: A
           user manual
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 January 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Thibaud Koessler, Alfredo Addeo, Thierry Nouspikel Liquid biopsy, the analysis of cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), is becoming one of the most promising tools in oncology. It has already shown its usefulness in selecting and modulating therapy via remote analysis of the tumor genome and holds important promises in cancer therapy and management, such as assessing the success of key therapeutic steps, monitoring residual disease, early detection of relapses, and establishing prognosis. Yet, ctDNA analysis is technically challenging and its implementation in the laboratory raises multiple strategic and practical issues. As for oncology clinics, integration of this novel test in well-established therapeutic protocols can also pose numerous questions. The current review is intended as a field guide for (1) diagnostic laboratories wishing to implement, validate and possibly accredit ctDNA testing and (2) clinical oncologists interested in integrating the various applications of liquid biopsies in their daily practice. We provide advice and practical recommendations based on our own experience with the technical validations of these methods and on a review of the current literature, with a focus toward gastro-intestinal, lung and breast cancers.
       
  • Laboratory assessment of multiple myeloma
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Tracy Morrison, Ronald A. Booth, Kristin Hauff, Philip Berardi, Alissa Visram Laboratory testing plays an essential role in the diagnosis and management of patients with multiple myeloma. A variety of chemistry and molecular assays are routinely used to monitor patient progress, response to treatment and relapse.Here, we have reviewed current literature and core guidelines on the details of laboratory testing in myeloma-related investigations. This includes the use and value of protein electrophoresis, serum free light chain and cytogenetic testing. Furthermore, we discuss other traditional chemistry assays essential to myeloma investigation, and potential interferences that may arise due to the disease nature of myeloma, that is, the presence of a monoclonal immunoglobulin. Finally, we discuss the importance of communication in protein electrophoresis results, where laboratorians are required to relate clinically relevant myeloma-relevant information to the ordering physician on the background of a complex pattern of serum or urine proteins.Laboratory testing in myeloma-related investigation relies on several traditional chemistry assays. However, we anticipate new tests and technologies to become available in the future with improved analytical sensitivity, as well as improved clinical sensitivity in identifying patients who are at high risk of progression to multiple myeloma.
       
  • Glycosylation markers in cancer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Atit Silsirivanit Alteration of glycosylation, a hallmark of cancer, results in the production of tumor-associated glycans or glycoproteins. These molecules are subsequently secreted or membrane-shed into the blood stream and thus serve as tumor-associated markers. Increased glycosylation in cancer is triggered by overexpression of glycoproteins that carry certain specific glycans, increase or decrease of nucleotide sugar donors and altered expression of glycosyltransferase and glycosidase enzymes. In this chapter, the biochemistry and function of glycoprotein, glycan and enzyme markers are reviewed. These glycosylation markers, applicable for detection and monitoring of cancer, include CA19-9, CA125, CEA, PSA and AFP. Because of their specific affinity to distinct sugar moieties, lectins are useful for developing assays to detect these tumor associated glycans and glycoproteins in clinical samples. As such, various enzyme-linked lectin assays (ELLA) have been developed for diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis. Because glycosylation changes occur early in cancer, the detection of tumor associated glycosylation markers using lectin based assays is an effective strategy to improve diagnosis and treatment resulting better outcomes clinically.
       
  • Probing the endogenous peptidomes of cancer for biomarkers: A new endeavor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2018Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Pey Yee Lee, Teck Yew Low, Rahman Jamal The life span of cancer patients can be prolonged with appropriate therapies if detected early. Mass screening for early detection of cancer, however, requires sensitive and specific biomarkers obtainable from body fluids such as blood or urine. To date, most biomarker discovery programs focus on the proteome rather than the endogenous peptidome. It has been long-established that tumor cells and stromal cells produce tumor resident proteases (TRPs) to remodel the surrounding tumor microenvironment in support of tumor progression. In fact, proteolytic products of TRPs have been shown to correlate with malignant behavior. Being of low molecular weight, these unique peptides can pass through the endothelial barrier of the vasculature into the bloodstream. As such, the cancer peptidome has increasingly become a focus for biomarker discovery. In this review, we discuss on the various aspects of the peptidome in cancer biomarker research.
       
  • Extracellular vesicle-associated MMPs: A modulator of the tissue
           microenvironment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2018Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Masayuki Shimoda Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small particles that mediate intercellular communications in local and distant microenvironments. Due to their ability to carry bioactive materials such as proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids, and to transfer their cargo into target cells, EVs are thought to be crucial mediators under pathological and physiological conditions. Recent investigations of their protein profiles have revealed the presence of metalloproteinases such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in EVs from various cell types and body fluids. Although information regarding the biological and clinical significance of MMPs in EVs is still limited, EV-associated MMPs can alter EV cargo by ectodomain shedding, exerting proteolytic activity following uptake by target cells, or directly contributing to degradation of extracellular matrix proteins surrounding cells. This review focuses on recent findings regarding EV-associated MMPs, and we further discuss their potential involvement in human diseases.
       
  • Clinical metabolomics of exhaled breath condensate in chronic respiratory
           diseases
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Mauro Maniscalco, Salvatore Fuschillo, Debora Paris, Adele Cutignano, Alessandro Sanduzzi, Andrea Motta Chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) are complex multifactorial disorders involving the airways and other lung structures. The development of reliable markers for an early and accurate diagnosis, including disease phenotype, and prediction of the response and/or adherence to treatment prescribed are essential points for the correct management of CRDs. Beside the traditional techniques to detect biomarkers, “omics” sciences have stimulated interest in clinical field as they could potentially improve the study of disease phenotype. Perturbations in a variety of metabolic and signaling pathways could contribute an understanding of CRDs pathogenesis. In particular, metabolomics provides powerful tools to map biological perturbations and their relationship with disease pathogenesis.The exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a natural matrix of the respiratory tract, and is well suited for metabolomics studies. In this article, we review the current state of metabolomics methodology applied to EBC in the study of CRDs.
       
  • Novel glomerular filtration markers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Jaya A. George, Verena Gounden Chronic kidney disease is currently assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate, a mathematical construct based on creatinine or creatinine and cystatin concentration. Creatinine-based equations have improved with standardization efforts and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study (MDRD) and CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration Study (CKD-EPI).Because the measurement of creatinine is subject to interference from non-GFR determinants, alternative markers have long been sought. These have included cystatin C and low molecular weight proteins like β2-microglobulin and beta trace protein. Tubular disease often occurs before glomerular filtration is impaired and investigators have investigated the excretion of other low molecular weight proteins such as Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) and Kidney Injury Molecule-1 and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase. While preliminary, there is some evidence linking these analytes with GFR, disease stage and mortality.Although asymmetrical dimethyl arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide, has been shown to be associated with progression of renal disease, symmetric dimethyl arginine may be a better marker. Recent work has also explored the potential of microRNA (miRNA) analysis and metabolomics studies to further elucidate this complex pathophysiologic disease process.Investigators hope to improve our ability to detect CKD by the use of test panels, i.e., various marker combinations thereof. Unfortunately, most of these markers lack standardization unlike traditional measures that rely on creatinine and cystatin C measurement.
       
  • Anti-angiogenic isoform of vascular endothelial growth factor-A in
           cardiovascular and renal disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Ryosuke Kikuchi, Megan Stevens, Kazuhiro Harada, Sebastian Oltean, Toyoaki Murohara Accumulating evidence suggests that pathologic interactions between the heart and the kidney can contribute to the progressive dysfunction of both organs. Recently, there has been an increase in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to increasing obesity rates. It has been reported that obesity causes various heart and renal disorders and appears to accelerate their progression.Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is a major regulator of angiogenesis and vessel permeability, and is associated with CVD and CKD. It is now recognized that alternative VEGF-A gene splicing generates VEGF-A isoforms that differ in their biological actions. Proximal splicing that includes an exon 8a sequence results in pro-angiogenic VEGF-A165a, whereas distal splicing inclusive of exon 8b yields the anti-angiogenic isoform of VEGF-A (VEGF-A165b).This review highlights several recent preclinical and clinical studies on the role of VEGF-A165b in CVD and CKD as a novel function of VEGF-A. This review also discusses potential therapeutic approaches of the use of VEGF-A in clinical settings as a potential circulating biomarker for CVD and CKD.
       
  • Emicizumab (ACE910): Clinical background and laboratory assessment of
           hemophilia A
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Giuseppe Lippi, Emmanuel J. Favaloro Congenital hemophilia A, a relatively common and sometimes life-threatening bleeding disorder, is caused by inherited deficiency of clotting factor (F) VIII. The adoption of an appropriate medical and environmental prophylaxis is critical for long-term management of hemophilia because it will considerably reduce the number of both mild and severe bleeding episodes. Among the many therapeutic options that have become available over the past decades, ACE910 (also known as emicizumab) is a bispecific immunoglobulin G antibody characterized by its unique ability to bind FIX or FIXa on one arm and FX on the other, thus abrogating FVIII activity in vivo. Several phase I to III clinical trials have now been published, confirming the clinical efficacy and relative safety of this new agent for long-term prophylaxis of hemophilia A, especially those patients having FVIII inhibitors. The recent regulatory clearance of ACE910 in many countries will hence impose additional challenges to clinical laboratories because the panel of available tests will need to address the emerging issue of monitoring patients treated with this novel anti-hemophilic agent by using conventional as well as innovative approaches. Therefore, this article is aimed to provide an update on clinical background and challenges of laboratory assessment in hemophilia A patients undergoing ACE910 administration.
       
 
 
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