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  Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 7797 journals)
    - ALLERGOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY (196 journals)
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    - CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (323 journals)
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    - INTERNAL MEDICINE (151 journals)
    - LABORATORY AND EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE (94 journals)
    - MEDICAL GENETICS (58 journals)
    - MEDICAL SCIENCES (2005 journals)
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    - RHEUMATOLOGY (66 journals)
    - SPORTS MEDICINE (74 journals)
    - SURGERY (371 journals)
    - UROLOGY, NEPHROLOGY AND ANDROLOGY (142 journals)

MEDICAL SCIENCES (2005 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access  
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)     Open Access  
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta Medica International     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access  
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acupuncture and Natural Medicine     Open Access  
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / Health Sciences Journal of Adıyaman University     Open Access  
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Medical Ethics     Open Access  
Advances in Medical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access  
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Skeletal Muscle Function Assessment     Open Access  
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
AJSP: Reviews & Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Anatomica Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ankara Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası     Open Access  
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives Medical Review Journal / Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi     Open Access  
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access  
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASHA Leader     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine     Open Access  
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover
Advances in Clinical Chemistry
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.562
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 29  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0065-2423
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • Fecal Calprotectin
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 October 2018Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Ruth M. Ayling, Klaartje Kok Calprotectin is a 36 kDa member of the S100 family of proteins. It is derived predominantly from neutrophils and has direct antimicrobial effects and a role within the innate immune response. Calprotectin is found in various body fluids in proportion to the degree of any existing inflammation and its concentration in feces is about six times that of plasma. Measurement of fecal calprotectin is a useful surrogate marker of gastrointestinal inflammation. It has a high negative predictive value in ruling out inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in undiagnosed, symptomatic patients and a high sensitivity for diagnosing the disease making it useful as a tool for prioritising endoscopy. In patients with known IBD, fecal calprotectin can be a useful tool to assist management, providing evidence of relapse or mucosal healing to enable therapy to be intensified or reduced.There are a number of commercial calprotectin assays with marked difference in performance as judged by external quality assessment and at present no standardised reference material exists. Various factors may affect results including age, medication and day to day variation. Laboratories should therefore be mindful of the characteristics of their own assay and factors that may affect results.
       
  • Serum Ethanolamine Plasmalogen and Urine M yo-Inositol as Cognitive
           Decline Markers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2018Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Ryouta Maeba, Atsushi Araki, Yoshinori Fujiwara Recent studies have suggested that metabolic disorders, particularly type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), were linked at the clinical and molecular levels. Brain insulin deficiency and resistance may be key events in AD pathology mechanistically linking AD to T2DM. Ethanolamine plasmalogens (PlsEtns) are abundant in the brain and play essential roles in neuronal function and myelin formation. As such, PlsEtn deficiency may be pathologically relevant in some neurodegenerative disorders such as AD. Decreased brain PlsEtn associated with dementia may reflect serum PlsEtn deficiency. We hypothesized that myo-inositol plays a role in myelin formation through its facilitation of PlsEtn biosynthesis. Excessive urinary myo-inositol (UMI) loss would likely result in PlsEtn deficiency potentially leading to demyelinating diseases such as dementia. Accordingly, measurement of both serum PlsEtn and baseline UMI excretion could improve the detection of cognitive impairment (CI) in a more specific and reliable manner. To verify our hypothesis, we conducted a clinical observational study of memory clinic outpatients (MCO) and cognitively normal elderly (NE) for nearly 4.5 years. We demonstrated that serum PlsEtn concentration associated with UMI excretion was useful for predicting advancing dementia in patients with mild CI. Because hyperglycemia and associated insulin resistance might be a leading cause of increased baseline UMI excretion, serum PlsEtn quantitation would be useful in detecting CI among the elderly with hyperglycemia. Our findings suggest that myo-inositol is a novel candidate molecule linking T2DM to AD.
       
  • Glutathione as a Marker for Human Disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Garrett Teskey, Rachel Abrahem, Ruoqiong Cao, Karo Gyurjian, Hicret Islamoglu, Mariana Lucero, Andrew Martinez, Erik Paredes, Oscar Salaiz, Brittanie Robinson, Vishwanath Venketaraman Glutathione (GSH), often referred to as “the master antioxidant,” participates not only in antioxidant defense systems, but many metabolic processes, and therefore its role cannot be overstated. GSH deficiency causes cellular risk for oxidative damage and thus as expected, GSH imbalance is observed in a wide range of pathological conditions including tuberculosis (TB), HIV, diabetes, cancer, and aging. Consequently, it is not surprising that GSH has attracted the attention of biological researchers and pharmacologists alike as a possible target for medical intervention. Here, we discuss the role GSH plays amongst these pathological conditions to illuminate how it can be used as a marker for human disease.
       
  • Long Noncoding RNAs: Advances in Lipid Metabolism
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Yongzhi Zeng, Kun Ren, Xiao Zhu, Zhi Zheng, Guanghui Yi Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are an important group of pervasive noncoding RNAs (>200 nt) proposed to be crucial regulators of numerous physiological and pathological processes. Through interactions with RNA, chromatin, and protein, lncRNAs modulate mRNA stability, chromatin structure, and the function of proteins (including transcription factors). In addition, to their well-known roles in the modulation of cell growth, apoptosis, neurological disease progression and cancer metastasis, these large molecules have also been identified as likely mediators of lipid metabolism. In particular, lncRNAs orchestrate adipogenesis; fatty acid, cholesterol, and phospholipid metabolism and transport; and the formation of high-density and low-density lipoproteins (HDLs and LDLs). LncRNAs also appear to target several transcription factors that play essential roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism, such as liver X receptors (LXRs), sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Better understanding the regulatory roles of lncRNAs in dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and adipogenesis will reveal appropriate strategies to treat these diseases. In this review, we review recent progress in lncRNA-mediated regulation of lipid metabolism, as well as its role in the regulation of adipogenesis.
       
  • Protein Carbamylation in Chronic Kidney Disease and Dialysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Joshua Long, Xavier Vela Parada, Sahir Kalim Protein carbamylation is a nonenzymatic posttranslational protein modification that can be driven, in part, by exposure to urea's dissociation product, cyanate. In humans, when kidney function is impaired and urea accumulates, systemic protein carbamylation levels increase. Additional mediators of protein carbamylation have been identified including inflammation, diet, smoking, circulating free amino acid levels, and environmental exposures. Carbamylation reactions on proteins are capable of irreversibly changing protein charge, structure, and function, resulting in pathologic molecular and cellular responses. Carbamylation has been mechanistically linked to the biochemical pathways implicated in atherosclerosis, dysfunctional erythropoiesis, kidney fibrosis, autoimmunity, and other pathological domains highly relevant to patients with chronic kidney disease. In this review, we describe the biochemical impact of carbamylation on human proteins, the mechanistic role carbamylation can have on clinical outcomes in kidney disease, the clinical association studies of carbamylation in chronic kidney disease, including patients on dialysis, and the promise of therapies aimed at reducing carbamylation burden in this vulnerable patient population.
       
  • Free Circulating miRNAs Measurement in Clinical Settings: The Still
           Unsolved Issue of the Normalization
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Martina Faraldi, Marta Gomarasca, Giuseppe Banfi, Giovanni Lombardi Circulating molecules that are released into the circulation in response to specific stimuli are considered potential biomarkers for physiological or pathological processes. Their effective usefulness as biomarkers resides in their stability and high availability in all the biological fluids, combined with the limited invasiveness of intervention. Among the circulating molecules, miRNAs represent a novel class of biomarkers as they possess all the required characteristics such as sensitivity, predictivity, specificity, robustness, translatability, and noninvasiveness.miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs, that act as inhibitors of protein translation, and intervene in the complex network of the post-transcriptional mechanisms finely regulating gene expression.The emerging role of miRNAs as potential biomarkers for clinical applications (e.g., cancer and cardiovascular diseases diagnosis and prediction, musculoskeletal disease diagnosis and bone fracture risk prediction), however, requires the standardization of miRNA processing, from sample collection and sample storage, to RNA isolation, RNA reverse-transcription, and data analyses. Normalization is one of the most controversial issues related to quantitative Real-Time PCR data analysis since no universally accepted normalization strategies and reference genes exist, even more importantly, for circulating miRNA quantification. As it is widely demonstrated that the choice of different normalization strategies influences the results of gene expression analysis, it is important to select the most appropriate normalizers for each experimental set. This review discloses on the different strategies adopted in RT-qPCR miRNA normalization and the concerning issues to highlight on the need of a universally accepted methodology to make comparable the results produced by different studies.
       
  • Advances in Clinical Chemistry
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Clinical Chemistry, Volume 86Author(s):
       
  • New Biomarkers to Evaluate Hyperandrogenemic Women and Hypogonadal Men
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2018Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Sidika E. Karakas, Prasanth Surampudi Androgens can have variable effects on men and women. Women may be evaluated for androgen excess for several reasons. Typically, young premenopausal women present with clinical symptoms of hirsutism, alopecia, irregular menses, and/or infertility. The most common cause of these symptoms is polycystic ovary syndrome. After menopause, even though ovaries stop producing estrogen, they continue to produce androgen, and women can have new onset of hirsutism and alopecia. Laboratory evaluation involves measurement of the major ovarian and adrenal androgens. In women, age, phase of the menstrual cycle, menopausal status, obesity, metabolic health, and sex hormone-binding proteins significantly affect total-androgen levels and complicate interpretation. This review will summarize the clinically relevant evaluation of hyperandrogenemia at different life stages in women and highlight pitfalls associated with interpretation of commonly used hormone measurements.Hypogonadism in men is a clinical syndrome characterized by low testosterone and/or low sperm count. Symptoms of hypogonadism include decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, decreased vitality, decreased muscle mass, increased adiposity, depressed mood, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. Hypogonadism is a common disorder in aging men. Hypogonadism is observed rarely in young boys and adolescent men. Based on the defects in testes, hypothalamus, and/or pituitary glands, hypogonadism can be broadly classified as primary, secondary, and mixed hypogonadism. Diagnosis of hypogonadism in men is based on symptoms and laboratory measurement. Biomarkers in use/development for hypogonadism are classified as hormonal, Leydig and Sertoli cell function, semen, genetic/RNA, metabolic, microbiome, and muscle mass-related. These biomarkers are useful for diagnosis of hypogonadism, determination of the type of hypogonadism, identification of the underlying causes, and therapeutic assessment. Measurement of serum testosterone is usually the most important single diagnostic test for male hypogonadism. Patients with primary hypogonadism have low testosterone and increased luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Patients with secondary hypogonadism have low testosterone and low or inappropriately normal LH and FSH. This review provides an overview of hypogonadism in men and a detailed discussion of biomarkers currently in use and in development for diagnosis thereof.
       
  • Selenium in Complicated Pregnancy. A Review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2018Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Bronislaw A. Zachara Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element of significant importance in human health. Diet is the major source of Se, and intake of this element depends on its concentration in food sources as well as the amount of those sources consumed. Unfortunately, daily dietary intake of Se in most European countries is generally low, ∼30–40 μg/day, compared with the recommended dietary allowance, ∼55 and 70 μg/day for adult females and males, respectively. The importance of Se as an essential trace element is linked to its role as selenocysteine in a number of selenoproteins including antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidases (GSH-Pxs), thioredoxin reductases (TrxRs), and selenoprotein P (SePP). These enzymes protect tissues against the damaging effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other endogenous products of cellular metabolism implicated in DNA damage and potentially leading to mutagenesis, cell death, and carcinogenesis.Reduced body Se and antioxidant enzyme activity during pregnancy results in oxidative stress within tissues contributing to premature birth, miscarriage, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth retardation. Because placenta development is highly dependent on oxygen status, uncontrolled ROS formation is likely detrimental. Despite these findings, the role of Se and Se-dependent enzymes in pregnancy remains controversial.The objective of this review is to explore Se status in pregnancy with respect to adverse outcomes. Effects related to decreased antioxidant activity and increased oxidative stress will be highlighted.
       
  • Role of Salivary Biomarkers in Oral Cancer Detection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 July 2018Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Zohaib Khurshid, Muhammad S. Zafar, Rabia S. Khan, Shariq Najeeb, Paul D. Slowey, Ihtesham U. Rehman Oral cancers are the sixth most frequent cancer with a high mortality rate. Oral squamous cell carcinoma accounts for more than 90% of all oral cancers. Standard methods used to detect oral cancers remain comprehensive clinical examination, expensive biochemical investigations, and invasive biopsy. The identification of biomarkers from biological fluids (blood, urine, saliva) has the potential of early diagnosis. The use of saliva for early cancer detection in the search for new clinical markers is a promising approach because of its noninvasive sampling and easy collection methods. Human whole-mouth saliva contains proteins, peptides, electrolytes, organic, and inorganic salts secreted by salivary glands and complimentary contributions from gingival crevicular fluids and mucosal transudates. This diagnostic modality in the field of molecular biology has led to the discovery and potential of salivary biomarkers for the detection of oral cancers. Biomarkers are the molecular signatures and indicators of normal biological, pathological process, and pharmacological response to treatment hence may provide useful information for detection, diagnosis, and prognosis of the disease. Saliva's direct contact with oral cancer lesions makes it more specific and potentially sensitive screening tool, whereas more than 100 salivary biomarkers (DNA, RNA, mRNA, protein markers) have already been identified, including cytokines (IL-8, IL-1b, TNF-α), defensin-1, P53, Cyfra 21-1, tissue polypeptide–specific antigen, dual specificity phosphatase, spermidine/spermineN1-acetyltransferase , profilin, cofilin-1, transferrin, and many more. However, further research is still required for the reliability and validation of salivary biomarkers for clinical applications. This chapter provides the latest up-to-date list of known and emerging potential salivary biomarkers for early diagnosis of oral premalignant and cancerous lesions and monitoring of disease activity.
       
  • The Proteome of Cataract Markers: Focus on Crystallins
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 July 2018Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Keke Zhang, Xiangjia Zhu, Yi Lu Cataract is a major cause of blindness worldwide. It is characterized by lens opacification and is accompanied by extensive posttranslational modifications (PTMs) in various proteins. PTMs play an essential role in lens opacification. Several PTMs have been described in proteins isolated from relatively old human lenses, including phosphorylation, deamidation, racemization, truncation, acetylation, and methylation.An overwhelming majority of previous cataract proteomic studies have exclusively focused on crystallin proteins, which are the most abundant proteome components of the lens. To investigate the proteome of cataract markers, this chapter focuses on the proteomic research on the functional relevance of the major PTMs in crystallins of human cataractous lenses. Elucidating the role of these modifications in cataract formation has been a challenging task because they are among the most difficult PTMs to study analytically. The proteomic status of some amides presents similar properties in normal aged and cataractous lenses, whereas some may undergo greater PTMs in cataract. Therefore, it is of great importance to review the current proteomic research on crystallins, the major protein markers in different types of cataract, to elucidate the pathogenesis of this major human-blinding condition.
       
  • Advances in PCOS Pathogenesis and Progression—Mitochondrial
           Mutations and Dysfunction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2018Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Ioana R. Ilie Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common female endocrine disorder, which still remains largely unsolved in terms of etiology and pathogenesis despite important advances in our understanding of its genetic, epigenetic, or environmental factor implications. It is a heterogeneous disease, frequently associated with insulin resistance, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress and probably accompanied with subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) and some malignant lesions as well, such as endometrial cancer. Discrepancies in the clinical phenotype and progression of PCOS exist between different population groups, which nuclear genetic studies have so far failed to explain. Over the last years, mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly recognized as an important contributor to an array of diseases. Because mitochondria are under the dual genetic control of both the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, mutations within either DNA molecule may result in deficiency in respiratory chain function that leads to a reduced ability to produce cellular adenosine-5′-triphosphate and to an excessive production of reactive oxygen species. However, the association between variants in mitochondrial genome, mitochondrial dysfunction, and PCOS has been investigated to a lesser extent. May mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) become an additional target of investigations on the missing PCOS heritability' Are mutations in mtDNA implicated in the initiation and progression of PCOS complications, e.g., CVDs, diabetes mellitus, cancers'
       
  • Tissue and Blood Biomarkers in Lung Cancer: A Review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2018Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Michael J. Duffy, Ken O’Byrne Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death, worldwide. Historically, lung cancer has been divided into two main histological types: small cell and nonsmall cell (NSC) type with the latter being subdivided into adenocarcinoma, squamous cell type, and large cell type. The treatment of the NSC lung cancer (NSCLC), especially the adenocarcinoma subtype, has been transformed in the last decade by the availability of predictive biomarkers for molecularly targeted therapies. Currently, for patients with advanced adenocarcinomas, testing for sensitizing mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is mandatory prior to the administration of anti-EGFR inhibitors such as erlotinib, gefitinib, afatinib, or osimertinib. For patients unable to provide tumor tissue, EGFR mutational analysis may be performed on plasma. For predicting response to crizotinib, testing for ALK and ROS1 gene rearrangement is necessary. The presence of ALK rearrangements is also a prerequisite for treatment with ceritinib, alectinib, or brigatinib. For predicting response to single agent pembrolizumab in the first-line treatment of patients with advanced adenocarcinoma or squamous cell NSCLCs, PD-L1 should be measured by an approved assay (e.g., PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx method). Although not widely used, serum biomarkers such as neuron-specific enolase, progastrin-releasing peptide, carcinoembryonic antigen, CYFRA 21-1, and squamous cell carcinoma antigen may help in the differential diagnosis of lung cancer when a tissue diagnosis is not possible. Serum biomarkers may also be of use in determining prognosis and monitoring response to systemic therapies. With the increasing use of biomarkers, personalized treatment especially for patients with adenocarcinoma-type NSCLC is finally on the horizon.
       
  • Chapter Five - Adiponectin and Its Isoforms in Pathophysiology
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Clinical Chemistry, Volume 85Author(s): Merel van Andel, Annemieke C. Heijboer, Madeleine L. Drent Adiponectin circulates in blood in multiple isoforms. High molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin is thought to be most biologically active and promotes glucose uptake, insulin sensitivity, and fatty acid oxidation. In obesity, adiponectin isoform formation is disrupted, leading to an inverse association between metabolic disease and HMW and total adiponectin. Adiponectin isoforms also function as acute-phase reactants influencing inflammation in acute and chronic disease. Interestingly, adiponectin and mortality have a U-shaped association. Unfortunately, data concerning adiponectin and its pathophysiologic function conflict. This is predominantly due to difficulties in adequate measurement of adiponectin isoforms and lack of a gold standard.In this review we provide a general overview of the formation and function of adiponectin and its isoforms under physiologic conditions. We highlight the ways adiponectin isoform formation is disrupted in obesity and its ensuing pathologic conditions. Furthermore, we will elaborate on the role of adiponectin isoforms as inflammatory proteins with respect to cardiac and kidney disease and discuss the association of adiponectin with mortality. Finally, we will provide a historical perspective on the measurement of adiponectin isoforms, current limitations, and future challenges.
       
  • Chapter Four - Proteomics for Biomarker Identification and Clinical
           Application in Kidney Disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Clinical Chemistry, Volume 85Author(s): Lin Chen, Wei Su, Hua Chen, Dan-Qian Chen, Ming Wang, Yan Guo, Ying-Yong Zhao Treatment effectiveness for kidney disease is limited by lack of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic biomarkers. The gold standard test renal biopsy along with serum creatinine and proteinuria is often necessary to establish a diagnosis, particularly in glomerular disease. Proteomics has become a powerful tool for novel biomarker discovery in kidney disease. Novel proteomics offer earlier and more accurate diagnosis of renal pathology than possible with traditional biomarkers such as serum creatinine and urine protein. In addition, proteomic biomarkers could also be useful to choose the most suitable therapeutic targets. This review focuses on the current status of proteomic biomarkers from animal models (5/6 nephrectomy, unilateral ureteral obstruction, and diabetic nephropathy) and human studies (chronic kidney disease, glomerular diseases, transplantation, dialysis, acute and drug-induced kidney injury) to assess relevant findings and clinical usefulness. Current issues and problems related to the discovery, validation, and clinical application of proteomic biomarkers are discussed. We also describe several proteomic strategies highlighting technologic advancements, specimen selection, data processing and analysis. This review might provide help in future proteomic studies to improve the diagnosis and management of kidney disease.
       
  • Chapter Three - Obesity, Thrombotic Risk, and Inflammation in Cancer
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Clinical Chemistry, Volume 85Author(s): Benjamín Rubio-Jurado, Luz-Ma-Adriana Balderas-Peña, Eduardo E. García-Luna, María G. Zavala-Cerna, Carlos Riebeling-Navarro, Pedro A. Reyes, Arnulfo H. Nava-Zavala Neoplasms exhibits a high incidence and mortality rates due to their complex and commonly overlapping clinical, biochemical, and morphologic profiles influenced by acquired or inherited molecular abnormalities, cell of origin, and level of differentiation.Obesity appears related to ~ 20% of cancers including endometrial, esophageal, colorectal, postmenopausal breast, prostate, and renal. Several factors other than obesity, i.e., insulin, insulin-like growth factor, sexual hormones, and adipokines may play a potential role in neoplasia.Cancer-associated hypercoagulable and thrombotic states are influenced by abnormalities in the vascular wall and susceptibility to invasion, interference in blood flow and increase in circulating tissue factor and thrombin, activation of cell growth factors, the presence of a central catheter, chemotherapies, neoplasm type, and surgery. In cancer, thromboembolic complications are the second most frequent cause of death with pulmonary thromboembolism in ~ 50% of cases postmortem. Thrombosis worsens prognosis as demonstrated with a survival rate as low as 12% per year vs 36% in nonthrombic patients.Deep vein thrombosis is the most frequent thromboembolic complication in cancer. It is usually detected at diagnosis and within the first 3 months of chemotherapy. The underlining mechanisms of this association should be further studied to identify patients at higher risk and develop adequate prevention, diagnostic, and treatment measures.The D-dimer test can be successfully used to assess the fibrinolytic phase of coagulation and as such is routinely used in suspected cases of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism.In addition, significant advances have been made in understanding the composition and functional capabilities of the gut microbiota in the inflammatory process, obesity, and its roles in cancer; however, the intricate balance that exists within the microbiota may not only affect the host directly, it can also disrupt the entire microbial community.Conclusions: Cancer is a prothrombotic and inflammatory state in which the activation of coagulation is related to tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. It is important to identify the relationship between body mass index with these processes and clarify their importance in cancer prognosis. Future research should answer the question if manipulation of resident microbial communities could potentially improve prognosis and treatment outcome.
       
  • Chapter Two - Metabolomics and Lipidomics of Ischemic Stroke
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Clinical Chemistry, Volume 85Author(s): Anthony Au Ischemic stroke is a sudden loss of brain function due to the reduction of blood flow. Brain tissues cease to function with subsequent activation of the ischemic cascade. Metabolomics and lipidomics are modern disciplines that characterize the metabolites and lipid components of a biological system, respectively. Because the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke is heterogeneous and multifactorial, it is crucial to establish comprehensive metabolomic and lipidomic approaches to elucidate these alterations in this disease. Fortunately, metabolomic and lipidomic studies have the distinct advantages of identifying tissue/mechanism-specific biomarkers, predicting treatment and clinical outcome, and improving our understanding of the pathophysiologic basis of disease states. Therefore, recent applications of these analytical approaches in the early diagnosis of ischemic stroke were discussed. In addition, the emerging roles of metabolomics and lipidomics on ischemic stroke were summarized, in order to gain new insights into the mechanisms underlying ischemic stroke and in the search for novel metabolite biomarkers and their related pathways.
       
  • Chapter One - Standardization of BNP and NT-proBNP Immunoassays in Light
           of the Diverse and Complex Nature of Circulating BNP-Related Peptides
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Clinical Chemistry, Volume 85Author(s): Alexander G. Semenov, Evgeniya E. Feygina Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and the N-terminal fragment of the BNP precursor (NT-proBNP) are widely used as heart failure (HF) biomarkers. Since the discovery of BNP in 1988, much effort has been allocated to the precise detection of BNP and NT-proBNP levels for reliable HF diagnostics. As a result, measurements of these biomarkers are globally accepted and used in clinical practice for the diagnosis of acute and chronic HF, risk stratification, and monitoring response to therapy. Several immunoassays specific for BNP and NT-proBNP are currently commercially available. Recent comparative studies show that there are marked differences between different BNP and NT-proBNP assays and platforms, and the results of measurements are not comparable enough. The lack of equivalence between the assays complicates the interpretation of the results and renders the cut-off points for diagnostic decisions to be method dependent. Presently, there is no agreement on what kind of BNP or NT-proBNP standard should be used for calibration, and a certified reference material as well as reference measurement procedures are lacking. The aim of this chapter is to summarize the available data on the complex nature of BNP-related peptides, specificity for existing BNP and NT-proBNP immunoassays, and to discuss potential approaches for standardization of BNP and NT-proBNP measurements.
       
  • Chapter Six - Uncertainty in Measurement: Procedures for Determining
           Uncertainty With Application to Clinical Laboratory Calculations
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Clinical Chemistry, Volume 85Author(s): Robert B. Frenkel, Ian Farrance In Part II of this review we consider the very common case of multiple inputs to a measurement process. We derive, using only elementary steps and the basic mathematics covered in Part I, the formula for the propagation of uncertainties from the inputs to the output. The Gaussian density distribution is briefly explained, since an understanding of this distribution is needed for the determination of so-called expanded uncertainties at the end of a measurement process. The propagation formula in general involves correlations among the inputs, although in many cases these correlations can be considered negligible. Correlations, however, need to be taken into account in related matters such as line-fitting and have particular relevance to method comparisons. These topics are addressed briefly. We next discuss the important question of bias and its incorporation into the expression of uncertainty. We present, finally, six real-world cases in clinical chemistry where uncertainty in the estimated value of the measurand is calculated using the propagation formula.
       
 
 
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