for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help
  Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 7249 journals)
    - ALLERGOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY (196 journals)
    - ANAESTHESIOLOGY (105 journals)
    - CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (308 journals)
    - CHIROPRACTIC, HOMEOPATHY, OSTEOPATHY (21 journals)
    - COMMUNICABLE DISEASES, EPIDEMIOLOGY (199 journals)
    - DENTISTRY (244 journals)
    - DERMATOLOGY AND VENEREOLOGY (147 journals)
    - EMERGENCY AND INTENSIVE CRITICAL CARE (106 journals)
    - ENDOCRINOLOGY (137 journals)
    - FORENSIC SCIENCES (34 journals)
    - GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY (162 journals)
    - GERONTOLOGY AND GERIATRICS (116 journals)
    - HEMATOLOGY (139 journals)
    - HYPNOSIS (4 journals)
    - INTERNAL MEDICINE (135 journals)
    - LABORATORY AND EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE (87 journals)
    - MEDICAL GENETICS (59 journals)
    - MEDICAL SCIENCES (1802 journals)
    - NURSES AND NURSING (292 journals)
    - OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY (175 journals)
    - ONCOLOGY (348 journals)
    - OPHTHALMOLOGY AND OPTOMETRY (121 journals)
    - ORTHOPEDICS AND TRAUMATOLOGY (145 journals)
    - OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (73 journals)
    - PATHOLOGY (96 journals)
    - PEDIATRICS (242 journals)
    - PHYSICAL MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION (140 journals)
    - PSYCHIATRY AND NEUROLOGY (736 journals)
    - RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE (180 journals)
    - RESPIRATORY DISEASES (90 journals)
    - RHEUMATOLOGY (63 journals)
    - SPORTS MEDICINE (68 journals)
    - SURGERY (347 journals)
    - UROLOGY, NEPHROLOGY AND ANDROLOGY (132 journals)

MEDICAL SCIENCES (1802 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access  
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access  
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access  
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access  
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Fundeni Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access  
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Journal Khulna     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Research Council Bulletin     Open Access  
Basal Ganglia     Hybrid Journal  
Basic Sciences of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BC Medical Journal     Free  
Benha Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bijblijven     Hybrid Journal  
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biologics in Therapy     Open Access  
Biology of Sex Differences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Advances in Clinical Chemistry
  [SJR: 0.938]   [H-I: 33]   [29 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0065-2423
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3049 journals]
  • Indoor Tanning a Gianus Bifrons: Vitamin D and Human Cancer
    • Authors: Giuseppe Lippi; Gianfranco Cervellin; Elisa Danese
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Giuseppe Lippi, Gianfranco Cervellin, Elisa Danese
      Despite it is now undeniable that indoor tanning exposure is associated with a number of skin cancers, its favorable effects on vitamin D status may bear some underestimated and currently unexplored health benefits. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin naturally present in a limited number of foods, the concentration of which largely depends on ultraviolet (UV) B sources exposure in humans. A strong, graded, and inverse association has been documented between serum vitamin D and the risk of developing certain types of malignancy, especially colorectal, breast, lung, bladder, and kidney cancers. The overall mortality from any type of cancer is also apparently lower in subjects with increased values of serum vitamin D. Both genomic and nongenomic mechanisms have been identified to support the anticancer effects of vitamin D. Notably, UVB radiation emitted from indoor tanning devices is effective to linearly increase the serum vitamin D concentration, up to twofold. Therefore, some favorable effects against the risk of developing many human diseases, including nonskin cancers, cannot be excluded at first glance, although they may not be only linked to vitamin D status. Further large, prospective or randomized studies should be hence planned to definitely establish whether the unfavorable effects of indoor tanning exposure on skin cancers may be outweighed by the still unexplored benefits attributable to amelioration of vitamin D status.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T19:47:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.10.005
       
  • Urinary Nucleosides and Deoxynucleosides
    • Authors: Małgorzata Patejko; Wiktoria Struck-Lewicka; Danuta Siluk; Małgorzata Waszczuk-Jankowska; Michał J. Markuszewski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Małgorzata Patejko, Wiktoria Struck-Lewicka, Danuta Siluk, Małgorzata Waszczuk-Jankowska, Michał J. Markuszewski
      Urinary nucleosides and deoxynucleosides are mainly known as metabolites of RNA turnover and oxidative damage of DNA. For several decades these metabolites have been examined for their potential use in disease states including cancer and oxidative stress. Subsequent improvements in analytical sensitivity and specificity have provided a reliable means to measure these unique molecules to better assess their relationship to physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions. In fact, some are currently used as antiviral and antitumor agents. In this review we provide insight into their molecular characteristics, highlight current separation techniques and detection methods, and explore potential clinical usefulness.

      PubDate: 2017-12-07T18:46:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.10.001
       
  • Laboratory Assessment of Anemia
    • Authors: Sirisha Kundrapu; Jaime Noguez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Sirisha Kundrapu, Jaime Noguez
      Anemia is one of the most common health problems in both industrialized and developing countries. It has been recognized by the World Health Organization as an important disorder leading to significant health care burden. Laboratory testing plays a significant role in the diagnosis of most types of anemia since the clinical diagnosis may not always be straightforward, especially with multiple underlying conditions. Once the existence of anemia is established, the cause must be determined to enable selection of a specific and effective therapy. Various hematologic parameters and biochemical tests can be used in combination with patient clinical history to identify the most likely causes of anemia.

      PubDate: 2017-12-07T18:46:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.10.006
       
  • Locked Nucleic Acid Technology for Highly Sensitive Detection of Somatic
           Mutations in Cancer
    • Authors: Takayuki Ishige; Sakae Itoga; Kazuyuki Matsushita
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Takayuki Ishige, Sakae Itoga, Kazuyuki Matsushita
      The molecular diagnosis of the cancer mutational status is essential for modern clinical laboratory medicine. Mutations in EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA genes are widely analyzed in solid tumors such as lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma. The allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, high-resolution melting, and Sanger sequencing are used for detecting and identifying gene mutations in many clinical laboratories. The locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs that contain a methylene bridge connecting the 2′ oxygen and 4′ carbon in the ribose moiety. This methylene bridge locks the ribose group into a C3′-endo conformation. LNA, including an oligonucleotide, increases the thermal stability of hybrid strands. The use of LNA technology in molecular diagnostic methods improves the specificity and sensitivity of assays. This review describes routinely analyzed mutations and molecular diagnostic methods used in the clinical laboratory along with the performance improvement of mutational analysis with LNA.

      PubDate: 2017-11-27T17:59:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.10.002
       
  • Liquid Biopsy: From Basic Research to Clinical Practice
    • Authors: Mónica Macías; Estibaliz Alegre; Angel Díaz-Lagares; Ana Patiño; Jose L. Pérez-Gracia; Miguel Sanmamed; Rafael López-López; Nerea Varo; Alvaro González
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Mónica Macías, Estibaliz Alegre, Angel Díaz-Lagares, Ana Patiño, Jose L. Pérez-Gracia, Miguel Sanmamed, Rafael López-López, Nerea Varo, Alvaro González
      Liquid biopsy refers to the molecular analysis in biological fluids of nucleic acids, subcellular structures, especially exosomes, and, in the context of cancer, circulating tumor cells. In the last 10 years, there has been an intensive research in liquid biopsy to achieve a less invasive and more precise personalized medicine. Molecular assessment of these circulating biomarkers can complement or even surrogate tissue biopsy. Because of this research, liquid biopsy has been introduced in clinical practice, especially in oncology, prenatal screening, and transplantation. Here we review the biology, methodological approaches, and clinical applications of the main biomarkers involved in liquid biopsy.

      PubDate: 2017-11-27T17:59:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.10.003
       
  • Toward a Blood-Borne Biomarker of Chronic Hypoxemia: Red Cell Distribution
           Width and Respiratory Disease
    • Authors: Joseph
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Joseph W. Yčas
      Hypoxemia (systemic oxygen desaturation) marks the presence, risk, and progression of many diseases. Episodic or nocturnal hypoxemia can be challenging to detect and quantify. A sensitive, specific, and convenient marker of recent oxygen desaturation represents an unmet medical need. Observations of acclimatization to high altitude in humans and animals reveals several proteosomic, ventilatory, and hematological responses to low oxygen tension. Of these, increased red cell distribution width (RDW) appears to have the longest persistence. Literature review and analyses of a 2M patient database across the full disease pathome revealed that increased RDW is predictive of poor outcome for certain diseases including many if not all hypoxigenic conditions. Comprehensive review of diseases impacting the respiratory axis show many are associated with increased RDW and no apparent counterexamples. The mechanism linking RDW to outcome is unknown. Conjectural roles for iron deficiency, inflammation, and oxidative stress have not been born out experimentally. Sports-doping studies show that erythropoietin (EPO) injection can induce formation of unusually large red blood cells (RBC) in sufficient numbers to increase RDW. Because endogenous EPO responds strongly to hypoxemia, this molecule could potentially mediate a long-lived RDW response to low oxygenation. RDW may be a guidepost signaling that unexploited information is embedded in subtle RBC variation. Applying modern techniques of measurement and analysis to certain RBC characteristics may yield a more specific and sensitive marker of chronic pulmonary and circulatory diseases, sleep apnea, and opioid inhibition of breathing.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T13:01:15Z
       
  • miRNAs: Nanomachines That Micromanage the Pathophysiology of Diabetes
           Mellitus
    • Authors: Shilpy Sharma; Abraham B. Mathew; Jeetender Chugh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Shilpy Sharma, Abraham B. Mathew, Jeetender Chugh
      Diabetes mellitus (DM) refers to a combination of heterogeneous complex metabolic disorders that are associated with episodes of hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance occurring as a result of defects in insulin secretion, action, or both. The prevalence of DM is increasing at an alarming rate, and there exists a need to develop better therapeutics and prognostic markers for earlier detection and diagnosis. In this review, after giving a brief introduction of diabetes mellitus and microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis pathway, we first describe various in vitro and animal model systems that have been developed to study diabetes. Further, we elaborate on the significant roles played by miRNAs as regulators of gene expression in the context of development of diabetes and its secondary complications. The different approaches to quantify miRNAs and their potential to be used as therapeutic targets for alleviation of diabetes have also been discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-08-11T02:27:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.06.003
       
  • Fortilin: A Potential Target for the Prevention and Treatment of Human
           Diseases
    • Authors: Decha Pinkaew; Ken Fujise
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Decha Pinkaew, Ken Fujise
      Fortilin is a highly conserved 172-amino-acid polypeptide found in the cytosol, nucleus, mitochondria, extracellular space, and circulating blood. It is a multifunctional protein that protects cells against apoptosis, promotes cell growth and cell cycle progression, binds calcium (Ca2+) and has antipathogen activities. Its role in the pathogenesis of human and animal diseases is also diverse. Fortilin facilitates the development of atherosclerosis, contributes to both systemic and pulmonary arterial hypertension, participates in the development of cancers, and worsens diabetic nephropathy. It is important for the adaptive expansion of pancreatic β-cells in response to obesity and increased insulin requirement, for the regeneration of liver after hepatectomy, and for protection of the liver against alcohol- and ER stress-induced injury. Fortilin is a viable surrogate marker for in vivo apoptosis, and it plays a key role in embryo and organ development in vertebrates. In fish and shrimp, fortilin participates in host defense against bacterial and viral pathogens. Further translational research could prove fortilin to be a viable molecular target for treatment of various human diseases including and not limited to atherosclerosis, hypertension, certain tumors, diabetes mellitus, diabetic nephropathy, hepatic injury, and aberrant immunity and host defense.

      PubDate: 2017-08-11T02:27:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.06.006
       
  • Calcium and Bone Metabolism Indices
    • Authors: Song
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Lu Song
      Calcium and inorganic phosphate are of critical importance for many body functions, thus the regulations of their plasma concentrations are tightly controlled by the concerted actions of reabsorption/excretion in the kidney, absorption in the intestines, and exchange from bone, the major reservoir for calcium and phosphate in the body. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) control calcium homeostasis, whereas PTH, 1,25(OH)2D, and bone-derived fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF 23) control phosphate homeostasis. Hypoparathyroidism can cause hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, whereas deficient vitamin D actions can cause osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children. Hyperparathyroidism, alternatively, can cause hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia. Laboratory tests of calcium, phosphate, PTH, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D are very useful in the diagnosis of abnormalities associated with calcium and/or phosphate metabolisms. Bone is constantly remodeled throughout life in response to mechanical stress and a need for calcium in extracellular fluids. Metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis, osteomalacia in adults or rickets in children, and renal osteodystrophy develop when bone resorption exceeds bone formation. Bone turnover markers (BTM) such as serum N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP) and C-terminal collagen cross-link (CTX) may be useful in predicting future fracture risk or monitoring the response to anti-resorptive therapy. There is a need to standardize sample collection protocols because certain BTMs exhibit large circadian variations and tend to be influenced by food intakes. In the United States, a project to standardize BTM sample collection protocols and to establish the reference intervals for serum P1NP and serum CTX is ongoing. We anticipate the outcome of this project to shine lights on the standardization of BTM assays, sample collection protocols, reference intervals in relation to age, sex, and ethnic origins, and clinical utilities of BTMs. This review will briefly discuss the regulations of calcium and phosphate homeostasis, laboratory's role in the diagnosis, and monitoring of bone and calcium metabolism, as well as the usefulness and controversies of the utilities of BTMs in the diagnosis and monitoring of metabolic bone diseases.

      PubDate: 2017-08-11T02:27:56Z
       
  • Cytokines and MicroRNA in Coronary Artery Disease
    • Authors: Hamed Mirzaei; Gordon A. Ferns; Amir Avan; Majid G. Mobarhan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Hamed Mirzaei, Gordon A. Ferns, Amir Avan, Majid G. Mobarhan
      Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major health problem globally. The high incidence and case fatality of CVD are, to a large extent, a consequence of its late diagnosis and lack of highly sensitive and specific markers. Only a very small number of biomarkers, such as troponin, detect late disease. There is some evidence of an association and dysregulation between specific cytokines in the pathogenesis of CVD. These molecules are involved in inflammatory and immune mechanisms associated with atherogenesis. Several molecular/cellular pathways that include STAT, MAPK, and SMAD are modulated by cytokines. Against this background, microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs with important roles in pathological events, leading to atherosclerotic CVD. It has been shown that the latter could affect cytokine production and contribute to progression of atherosclerotic CVD. Moreover, modulation of miRNAs appears to inhibit cardiomyocyte apoptosis, attenuate infarct size, and reduce cardiac dysfunction. This review highlights several recent preclinical and clinical studies on the role of cytokines in CVD, novel miRNA-based therapeutic approaches for therapeutic intervention, and potential circulating cytokines that have promise as biomarkers in CVD.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T20:54:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.06.004
       
  • Biological and Molecular Characterization of Circulating Tumor Cells: A
           Creative Strategy for Precision Medicine'
    • Authors: Shukun Chen; Amin El-Heliebi; Thomas Kroneis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Shukun Chen, Amin El-Heliebi, Thomas Kroneis
      Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a group of rare cells disseminated from either primary or metastatic tumors into the blood stream. CTCs are considered to be the precursor of cancer metastasis. As a critical component of liquid biopsies, CTCs are a unique tool to understand the formation of metastasis and a valuable source of information on intratumor heterogeneity. Much effort has been invested in technologies for the detection of CTCs because they are rare cells among the vast number of blood cells. Studies in various cancers have repeatedly demonstrated that increased CTC counts prior to or during treatment are significantly associated with poor outcomes. In the new era of precision medicine, the study of CTCs reaches far beyond detection and counting. The rapidly growing field of analytical platforms for rare-cell analysis allows in-depth characterization of CTCs at the bulk cell and single-cell level. Genetic profiling of CTCs may provide an insight into the real-time tumor status, may allow the monitoring and evaluation of treatment response in clinical routine, and may lead to the development of novel therapeutic targets as well.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T20:54:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.06.001
       
  • Human Papillomavirus and Its Testing Assays, Cervical Cancer Screening,
           and Vaccination
    • Authors: Yusheng Zhu; Yun Wang; Julie Hirschhorn; Kerry J. Welsh; Zhen Zhao; Michelle R. Davis; Sarah Feldman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Yusheng Zhu, Yun Wang, Julie Hirschhorn, Kerry J. Welsh, Zhen Zhao, Michelle R. Davis, Sarah Feldman
      Human papillomavirus (HPV) was found to be the causative agent for cervical cancer in the 1980s with almost 100% of cervical cancer cases testing positive for HPV. Since then, many studies have been conducted to elucidate the molecular basis of HPV, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis of the virus, and the risk factors for HPV infection. Traditionally, the Papanicolaou test was the primary screening method for cervical cancer. Because of the discovery and evolving understanding of the role of HPV in cervical dysplasia, HPV testing has been recommended as a new method for cervical cancer screening by major professional organizations including the American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology. In order to detect HPV infections, many sensitive and specific HPV assays have been developed and used clinically. Different HPV assays with various principles have shown their unique advantages and limitations. In response to a clear causative relationship between high-risk HPV and cervical cancer, HPV vaccines have been developed which utilize virus-like particles to create an antibody response for the prevention of HPV infection. The vaccines have been shown in long-term follow-up studies to be effective for up to 8 years; however, how this may impact screening for vaccinated women remains uncertain. In this chapter, we will review the molecular basis of HPV, its pathogenesis, and the epidemiology of HPV infection and associated cervical cancer, discuss the methods of currently available HPV testing assays as well as recent guidelines for HPV screening, and introduce HPV vaccines as well as their impact on cervical cancer screening and treatments.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T12:01:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.01.004
       
  • Bulky DNA Adducts, Tobacco Smoking, Genetic Susceptibility, and Lung
           Cancer Risk
    • Authors: Armelle Munnia; Roger W. Giese; Simone Polvani; Andrea Galli; Filippo Cellai; Marco E.M. Peluso
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Armelle Munnia, Roger W. Giese, Simone Polvani, Andrea Galli, Filippo Cellai, Marco E.M. Peluso
      The generation of bulky DNA adducts consists of conjugates formed between large reactive electrophiles and DNA-binding sites. The term “bulky DNA adducts” comes from early experiments that employed a 32P-DNA postlabeling approach. This technique has long been used to elucidate the association between adducts and carcinogen exposure in tobacco smoke studies and assess the predictive value of adducts in cancer risk. Molecular data showed increased DNA adducts in respiratory tracts of smokers vs nonsmokers. Experimental studies and meta-analysis demonstrated that the relationship between adducts and carcinogens was linear at low doses, but reached steady state at high exposure, possibly due to metabolic and DNA repair pathway saturation and increased apoptosis. Polymorphisms of metabolic and DNA repair genes can increase the effects of environmental factors and confer greater likelihood of adduct formation. Nevertheless, the central question remains as to whether bulky adducts cause human cancer. If so, lowering them would reduce cancer incidence. Pooled and meta-analysis has shown that smokers with increased adducts have increased risk of lung cancer. Adduct excess in smokers, especially in prospective longitudinal studies, supports their use as biomarkers predictive of lung cancer.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T04:02:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.01.006
       
  • Peptide Antibodies in Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics
    • Authors: Nicole H. Trier; Gunnar Houen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Nicole H. Trier, Gunnar Houen
      Peptide antibodies, with their high specificities and affinities, are invaluable reagents for peptide and protein recognition in biological specimens. Depending on the application and the assay, in which the peptide antibody is to used, several factors influence successful antibody production, including peptide selection and antibody screening. Peptide antibodies have been used in clinical laboratory diagnostics with great success for decades, primarily because they can be produced to multiple targets, recognizing native wildtype proteins, denatured proteins, and newly generated epitopes. Especially mutation-specific peptide antibodies have become important as diagnostic tools in the detection of various cancers. In addition to their use as diagnostic tools in malignant and premalignant conditions, peptide antibodies are applied in all other areas of clinical laboratory diagnostics, including endocrinology, hematology, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, infectious diseases, and amyloidoses.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T04:02:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.01.002
       
  • Advances in Molecular Diagnosis of Malaria
    • Authors: Z. Zheng; Z. Cheng
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Z. Zheng, Z. Cheng
      Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by five species of Plasmodium parasites. Accurate diagnosis of malaria plays an essential part in malaria control. With traditional diagnostic methodologies, malaria control programs have achieved remarkable success during the past decade, and are now heading toward malaria elimination in many areas. This new situation, however, calls for novel diagnostics with improved sensitivity, throughput, and reduced cost for active screening of malaria parasites, as all transfected individuals have to be identified in order to block transmission. In this chapter, we provide a brief introduction of malaria, the requirement of diagnostic advances in the age of malaria elimination, and a comprehensive overview of the currently available molecular malaria diagnostics, ranging from well-known tests to platforms in early stages of evaluation. We also discussed several practical issues for the application of molecular tests in malaria identification.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T00:28:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2016.11.006
       
  • Measurement and Clinical Utility of βCTX in Serum and Plasma
    • Authors: Stephen A.P. Chubb; Samuel D. Vasikaran
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Stephen A.P. Chubb, Samuel D. Vasikaran
      Biochemical markers of bone turnover (BTM) are released during bone remodeling and can be measured in blood or urine as noninvasive surrogate markers for the bone remodeling rate. The C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (βCTX) is released during bone resorption and is specific to bone tissue. Assays have been developed to measure βCTX in blood and in urine; most current use of βCTX measurement for research and in clinical practice is performed on a blood sample. Method-specific differences for serum and plasma βCTX have led to initiatives to standardize or harmonize βCTX commercial assays. βCTX demonstrates significant biological variation due to circadian rhythm and effect of food which can be minimized by standardized sample collection in the fasting state in the morning. While βCTX predicts fracture risk independent of bone mineral density, lack of data has precluded its inclusion in fracture risk calculators. The changes seen in βCTX with antiresorptive therapies have been well characterized and this has led to its widespread use for monitoring therapy in osteoporosis. However, more fracture-based data on appropriate treatment goals for monitoring need to be developed. Evidence is lacking for the use of βCTX in managing “drug holidays” of bisphosphonate treatment in osteoporosis or risk stratifying those at increased risk of developing osteonecrosis of the jaw. βCTX is useful as an adjunct to imaging techniques for the diagnosis of Paget's disease of bone and for monitoring therapy and detecting recurrence. βCTX also shows promise in the management of metastatic bone disease.

      PubDate: 2017-02-16T16:00:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.01.003
       
  • Microparticles in Chronic Heart Failure
    • Authors: Alexander E. Berezin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Alexander E. Berezin
      Heart failure (HF) continues to have a sufficient impact on morbidity, mortality, and disability in developed countries. Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that microparticles (MPs) might contribute to the pathogenesis of the HF development playing a pivotal role in the regulation of the endogenous repair system, thrombosis, coagulation, inflammation, immunity, and metabolic memory phenomenon. Therefore, there is a large body of data clarifying the predictive value of MP numerous in circulation among subjects with HF. Although the determination of MP signature is better than measurement of single MP circulating level, there is not yet close confirmation that immune phenotype of cells produced MPs are important for HF prediction and development. The aim of the chapter is to summarize knowledge regarding the role of various MPs in diagnosis and prognosis of HF. The role of MPs as a delivery vehicle for drugs attenuated cardiac remodeling is considered.

      PubDate: 2017-02-16T16:00:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.01.001
       
  • Physical Exercise and DNA Injury: Good or Evil?
    • Authors: Elisa Danese; Giuseppe Lippi; Fabian Sanchis-Gomar; Giorgio Brocco; Manfredi Rizzo; Maciej Banach; Martina Montagnana
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Elisa Danese, Giuseppe Lippi, Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Giorgio Brocco, Manfredi Rizzo, Maciej Banach, Martina Montagnana
      Regular, low-intensity physical activity is currently advocated for lowering the risk of developing many acute and especially chronic diseases. However, several lines of evidence attest that strenuous exercise may enhance inflammation and trigger the generation of free radical-mediated damage, thus overwhelming the undisputable benefits of regular, medium-intensity physical activity. Since reactive oxygen species are actively generated during high-intensity exercise, and these reactive compounds are known to impact DNA stability, we review here the current evidence about strenuous exercise and DNA injury. Despite the outcome of the various studies cannot be pooled due to considerable variation in design, sample population, outcome, and analytical techniques used to assess DNA damage, it seems reasonable to conclude that medium- to high-volume exercise triggers a certain amount of DNA injury, which appears to be transitory and directly proportional to exercise intensity. This damage, reasonably attributable to direct effect of free radicals on nucleic acids, is efficiently repaired in vivo within 24–72h. Therefore, physical exercise should not bear long-term consequences for athlete's health provided that an appropriate time of recovery between volumes of high-intensity exercise is set. Regular exertion, with a step-by-step increase of exercise load, also seems to be the most safe approach for eluding DNA instability.

      PubDate: 2017-02-16T16:00:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.01.005
       
  • PCR-Based Detection Methods for Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism or
           Mutation: Real-Time PCR and Its Substantial Contribution Toward
           Technological Refinement
    • Authors: Matsuda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): K. Matsuda
      Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and single-nucleotide mutations result from the substitution of only a single base. The SNP or mutation can be relevant to disease susceptibility, pathogenesis of disease, and efficacy of specific drugs. It is important to detect SNPs or mutations clinically. Methods to distinguish/detect SNPs or mutations should be highly specific and sensitive. In this regard, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has provided the necessary analytical performance for many molecular analyses. PCR-based methods for SNP/mutation detection are broadly categorized into two types—(1) polymorphic or mutant allele-directed specific analysis using primers matched with substituted nucleotide or using oligonucleotides to block or clamp the nontargeted template, and (2) melting curve analysis, which is combined with the real-time PCR techniques using hydrolysis probes, hybridization probes, or double-stranded DNA-binding fluorescent dyes. Innovative and novel approaches as well as technical improvements have made SNP- or mutation-detection methods increasingly more sophisticated. These advances include DNA/RNA preparation and subsequent amplification steps, and miniaturization of PCR instruments such that testing may be performed with relative ease in clinical laboratories or as a point-of-care test in clinical settings.

      PubDate: 2017-01-13T01:01:25Z
       
  • Advances in Circulating Tumor DNA Analysis
    • Authors: Perakis Auer; Belic Heitzer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): S. Perakis, M. Auer, J. Belic, E. Heitzer
      The analysis of cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a very promising tool and might revolutionize cancer care with respect to early detection, identification of minimal residual disease, assessment of treatment response, and monitoring tumor evolution. ctDNA analysis, often referred to as “liquid biopsy” offers what tissue biopsies cannot—a continuous monitoring of tumor-specific changes during the entire course of the disease. Owing to technological improvements, efforts for the establishment of preanalytical and analytical benchmark, and the inclusion of ctDNA analyses in clinical trial, an actual clinical implementation has come within easy reach. In this chapter, recent advances of the analysis of ctDNA are summarized starting from the discovery of cell-free DNA, to methodological approaches and the clinical applicability.

      PubDate: 2017-01-03T22:02:26Z
       
  • Triglycerides Revisited to the Serial
    • Authors: P.R.N. Viecili; Silva G.E. Hirsch F.G. Porto M.M. Parisi A.R.
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): P.R.N. Viecili, B. da Silva, G.E. Hirsch, F.G. Porto, M.M. Parisi, A.R. Castanho, M. Wender, J.Z. Klafke
      This review discusses the role of triglycerides (TGs) in the normal cardiovascular system as well as in the development and clinical manifestation of cardiovascular diseases. Regulation of TGs at the enzymatic and genetic level, in addition to their possible relevance as preclinical and clinical biomarkers, is discussed, culminating with a description of available and emerging treatments. Due to the high complexity of the subject and the vast amount of material in the literature, the objective of this review was not to exhaust the subject, but rather to compile the information to facilitate and improve the understanding of those interested in this topic. The main publications on the topic were sought out, especially those from the last 5 years. The data in the literature still give reason to believe that there is room for doubt regarding the use of TG as disease biomarkers; however, there is increasing evidence for the role of hypertriglyceridemia on the atherosclerotic inflammatory process, cardiovascular outcomes, and mortality.

      PubDate: 2017-01-03T22:02:26Z
       
  • Rapid Assessment of Drugs of Abuse
    • Authors: J.R. Wiencek; J.M. Colby; J.H. Nichols
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): J.R. Wiencek, J.M. Colby, J.H. Nichols
      Laboratory testing for drugs of abuse has become standard practice in many settings both forensic and clinical. Urine is the predominant specimen, but other specimens are possible including hair, nails, sweat, and oral fluid. Point-of-care test kits provide for rapid analysis at the site where specimens are collected allowing for immediate action on the results. POCT is based on immunochromatography where the drug in the patient's sample competes with drug and antibody conjugates in the test to develop or block the development of a colored line. Most POCTs are visually interpreted in a few minutes. The potential for false positives is possible due to drug cross-reactivity with the antibodies in the test. False negatives are also possible due to dilution of the sample and the potential for adulteration or sample substitution by the patient. POCT shows more variability than central laboratory testing because of the variety of operators involved in the testing process, but POCT has good agreement for most tests with mass spectrometry provided comparable cutoffs and cross-reactivity of drugs/metabolites are considered. Validation of the test performance with the intended operators will identify potential interferences and operational issues before implementing the test in routine practice. POCT offers faster turnaround of test results provided the limitations and challenges of the test are considered.

      PubDate: 2017-01-03T22:02:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2016.11.003
       
  • Infections: A Possible Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes
    • Authors: D. Banerjee; S. Chowdhary; S. Chakraborty; R. Bhattacharyya
      Pages: 145 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): S. Chakraborty, R. Bhattacharyya, D. Banerjee
      Diabetes mellitus is one of the biggest challenges to human health globally, with an estimated 95% of the global diabetic population having type 2 diabetes. Classical causes for type 2 diabetes, such as genetics and obesity, do not account for the high incidence of the disease. Recent data suggest that infections may precipitate insulin resistance via multiple mechanisms, such as the proinflammatory cytokine response, the acute-phase response, and the alteration of the nutrient status. Even pathogen products, such as lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycans, can be diabetogenic. Therefore, we argue that infections that are known to contribute to insulin resistance should be considered as risk factors for type 2 diabetes.

      PubDate: 2017-01-03T22:02:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-12-801773-9.00011-x
       
  • Droplet-Based Digital PCR: Application in Cancer Research
    • Authors: G. Perkins; H. Lu; F. Garlan; V. Taly
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): G. Perkins, H. Lu, F. Garlan, V. Taly
      The efficient characterization of genetic and epigenetic alterations in oncology, virology, or prenatal diagnostics requires highly sensitive and specific high-throughput approaches. Nevertheless, with the use of conventional methods, sensitivity and specificity were largely limited. By partitioning individual target molecules within distinct compartments, digital PCR (dPCR) could overcome these limitations and detect very rare sequences with unprecedented precision and sensitivity. In dPCR, the sample is diluted such that each individual partition will contain no more than one target sequence. Following the assay reaction, the dPCR process provides an absolute value and analyzable quantitative data. The recent coupling of dPCR with microfluidic systems in commercial platforms should lead to an essential tool for the management of patients with cancer, especially adapted to the analysis of precious samples. Applications in cancer research range from the analysis of tumor heterogeneity to that of a range of body fluids. Droplet-based dPCR is indeed particularly appropriate for the emerging field of liquid biopsy analysis. In this review, following an overview of the development in dPCR technology and different strategies based on the use of microcompartments, we will focus particularly on the applications and latest development of microfluidic droplet-based dPCR in oncology.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T18:59:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2016.10.001
       
  • CTRP1 in Liver Disease
    • Authors: P. Shabani; S. Emamgholipour; M. Doosti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): P. Shabani, S. Emamgholipour, M. Doosti
      Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease occurs in significant percentage of general population. NAFLD is closely associated with entire spectrum of metabolic-related disorders including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases. Considering several similar pathways underpinning metabolic disorders, presence of common molecular mediators contributing to pathomechanism of these disorders is expected. Mounting evidence has demonstrated important role of adipokines in the context of NAFLD. Adipokines produced by different tissues, mainly adipose, modulate numerous pathways including glucose and fatty acid metabolism and inflammation. CTRPs (C1q/TNF-related proteins) are a recently identified family of adipokines in which adiponectin is the most well-known ones. CTRP1 is a member of this family which has captured attention in recent years. CTRP1 enhances glucose and fatty acid oxidation, improves insulin sensitivity, attenuates plaque formation, and increases aldosterone production. Hence, various roles in metabolic pathways can link CTRP1 to NAFLD pathogenesis.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T22:01:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2016.10.002
       
  • Testing for Chronic Diarrhea
    • Authors: Raman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): M. Raman
      Chronic diarrhea is a frequently encountered symptom in clinical practice. The etiologies for chronic diarrhea are diverse and broad with varying clinical implications. A useful method of categorizing chronic diarrhea to guide a diagnostic work-up is a pathophysiology-based framework. Chronic diarrhea may be categorized as malabsorptive, secretory, osmotic, and inflammatory or motility related. Frequently, overlap between categories may exist for any given diarrhea etiology and diagnostic testing must occur with an understanding of the differential diagnosis. Investigations to achieve a diagnosis for chronic diarrhea range from screening blood and stool tests to more directed testing such as diagnostic imaging, and endoscopic and histological evaluation. The pathophysiology-based framework proposed in this chapter will allow the clinician to select screening tests followed by targeted tests to minimize cost and complications to the patient, while providing a highly effective method to achieve an accurate diagnosis.

      PubDate: 2016-11-21T16:02:18Z
       
  • Rationally Designed Peptide Probes for Extracellular Vesicles
    • Authors: R. Tamura; H. Yin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): R. Tamura, H. Yin
      Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are submicroscopic lipid vesicles secreted from cells and play significant roles in cell-to-cell communication by transporting varieties of cell signaling molecules like proteins, DNA, mRNA, and microRNA. Recent studies showed that EVs are highly correlated with cancer progression and metastasis. However, there are some difficulties in probing each vesicle using popular analytical methods because of their small sizes and heterogeneous origins. These obstacles may be overcome by using a novel approach that senses highly curved membrane and negatively charged membrane lipids. In this chapter, we highlight the basic biological concepts of EVs, isolation, and quantification methods, and recent advent of peptide probes for EVs.

      PubDate: 2016-11-14T13:01:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2016.09.001
       
  • Advances in Clinical Mass Spectrometry
    • Authors: French
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): D. French
      Although mass spectrometry has been used clinically for decades, the advent of immunoassay technology moved the clinical laboratory to more labor saving automated platforms requiring little if any sample preparation. It became clear, however, that immunoassays lacked sufficient sensitivity and specificity necessary for measurement of certain analytes or for measurement of analytes in specific patient populations. This limitation prompted clinical laboratories to revisit mass spectrometry which could additionally be used to develop assays for which there was no commercial source. In this chapter, the clinical applications of mass spectrometry in therapeutic drug monitoring, toxicology, and steroid hormone analysis will be reviewed. Technologic advances and new clinical applications will also be discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-11-14T13:01:00Z
       
  • Novel Biomarkers of Heart Failure
    • Authors: A. Savic-Radojevic; M. Pljesa-Ercegovac; M. Matic; D. Simic; S. Radovanovic; T. Simic
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): A. Savic-Radojevic, M. Pljesa-Ercegovac, M. Matic, D. Simic, S. Radovanovic, T. Simic
      Although substantial improvements have been made in majority of cardiac disorders, heart failure (HF) remains a major health problem, with both increasing incidence and prevalence over the past decades. For that reason, the number of potential biomarkers that could contribute to diagnosis and treatment of HF patients is, almost exponentially, increasing over the recent years. The biomarkers that are, at the moment, more or less ready for use in everyday clinical practice, reflect different pathophysiological processes present in HF. In this review, seven groups of biomarkers associated to myocardial stretch (mid-regional proatrial natriuretic peptide, MR-proANP), myocyte injury (high-sensitive troponins, hs-cTn; heart-type fatty acid-binding protein, H-FABP; glutathione transferase P1, GSTP1), matrix remodeling (galectin-3; soluble isoform of suppression of tumorigenicity 2, sST2), inflammation (growth differentiation factor-15, GDF-15), renal dysfunction (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, NGAL; kidney injury molecule-1, KIM-1), neurohumoral activation (adrenomedullin, MR-proADM; copeptin), and oxidative stress (ceruloplasmin; myeloperoxidase, MPO; 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG; thioredoxin 1, Trx1) in HF will be overviewed. It is important to note that clinical value of individual biomarkers within the single time points in both diagnosis and outcome prediction in HF is limited. Hence, the future of biomarker application in HF lies in the multimarker panel strategy, which would include specific combination of biomarkers that reflect different pathophysiological processes underlying HF.

      PubDate: 2016-11-07T10:09:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2016.09.002
       
  • Advances in Cardiac Biomarkers of Acute Coronary Syndrome
    • Authors: A.K. Saenger; N. Korpi-Steiner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 August 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): A.K. Saenger, N. Korpi-Steiner
      Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) encompasses a pathophysiological spectrum of cardiovascular diseases, all of which have significant morbidity and mortality. ACS was once considered an acute condition; however, new treatment strategies and improvements in biomarker assays have led to ACS being an acute and chronic disease. Cardiac troponin is the preferred biomarker for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, and there is considerable interest and efforts toward development and implementation of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays worldwide. Analytical and clinical performance characteristics of hs-cTn assays as well as testing limitations are important for laboratorians and clinicians to understand in order to utilize testing appropriately. Furthermore, expanding the clinical utility of hs-cTn into other cohorts such as asymptomatic community dwelling populations, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease populations supports novel opportunities for improved short- and long-term prognosis.

      PubDate: 2016-08-27T06:18:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2016.07.001
       
  • Vitamin D Testing—Where Are We and What Is on the Horizon'
    • Authors: Heureux
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): N. Heureux
      Vitamin D testing is part of laboratory practice since more than 30 years but has become a routine parameter only recently, due to a highly increasing amount of research in the field resulting in new clinical applications. Vitamin D actually represents a family of molecules of which 25OH Vitamin D and 1,25(OH)2 Vitamin D, under their D3 and D2 forms, are the most important to date. Physical detection methods and immunoassays exist for both molecules and are being reviewed and discussed. New developments in the measurement of C3-epi-25OH Vitamin D, 24,25(OH)2 Vitamin D, and free/bioavailable 25OH Vitamin D are also presented. The future of Vitamin D testing is considered based on the evolution of laboratories and based on the scientific research that is currently performed.

      PubDate: 2016-08-27T06:18:50Z
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 54.226.132.197
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2016