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  Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8250 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2224 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
4 open     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access  
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Científica Estudiantil     Open Access  
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Herediana     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access  
Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)     Open Access  
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta Medica International     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acupuncture and Natural Medicine     Open Access  
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / Health Sciences Journal of Adıyaman University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Advances in Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access  
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Skeletal Muscle Function Assessment     Open Access  
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Thoracic and Critical Care Medicine     Open Access  
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
AJSP: Reviews & Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ALERTA : Revista Científica del Instituto Nacional de Salud     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Althea Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Anatomica Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ankara Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası     Open Access  
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Clinical Hypertension     Open Access  
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Annals of Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives Medical Review Journal / Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi     Open Access  
Archives of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology     Open Access  
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access  
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASHA Leader     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Clinical Chemistry
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.562
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 26  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0065-2423
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3182 journals]
  • Long noncoding RNAs in cancer: From discovery to therapeutic targets
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Ramesh Choudhari, Melina J. Sedano, Alana L. Harrison, Ramadevi Subramani, Ken Y. Lin, Enrique I. Ramos, Rajkumar Lakshmanaswamy, Shrikanth S. Gadad Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have gained considerable attention in recently as key players in biological regulation; however, the mechanisms by which lncRNAs govern various disease processes remain mysterious and are just beginning to be understood. The ease of next-generation sequencing technologies has led to an explosion of genomic information, especially for the lncRNA class of noncoding RNAs. LncRNAs exhibit the characteristics of mRNAs, such as polyadenylation, 5′ methyl capping, RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription, and splicing. These transcripts comprise more than 200 nucleotides (nt) and are not translated into proteins. Directed interrogation of annotated lncRNAs from RNA-Seq datasets has revealed dramatic differences in their expression, largely driven by alterations in transcription, the cell cycle, and RNA metabolism. The fact that lncRNAs are expressed cell and tissue-specifically makes them excellent biomarkers for ongoing biological events. Notably, lncRNAs are differentially expressed in several cancers and show a distinct association with clinical outcomes. Novel methods and strategies are being developed to study lncRNA function and will provide researchers with the tools and opportunities to develop lncRNA-based therapeutics for cancer.
       
  • Biochemistry of blood platelet activation and the beneficial role of plant
           oils in cardiovascular diseases
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Beata Olas The main function of blood platelets is to form hemostatic plugs and enable thrombosis. These properties, however, can be greatly influenced by dietary components which may inhibit certain steps of platelet activation, including platelet aggregation. Such inhibition can play a role in the prophylaxis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases associated with blood platelet hyperactivation. In fact, plant and fish oils have been identified and specifically used for this purpose. Numerous in vivo and in vitro experiments have explored the potential use of these oils to inhibit platelet activation as well as their role in reducing oxidative stress and blood pressure, and lowering triglyceride and cholesterol. This chapter presents and compares the anti-platelet effects of fish and plant oils and their constituents, especially fatty acids. Studies on healthy subjects and patients with various cardiovascular diseases are also examined. Findings indicate that both fish and plant oils contain protective components with anti-platelet activity having clearly defined mechanisms of action. Although both are excellent sources of omega fatty acids and vitamins, plant oils contain components with cardioprotective benefit in hypercholesterolemics, i.e., phytosterols. Plant oils may hence play a key role in strategies for preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases associated with platelet hyperactivation. Further studies are clearly needed to determine the precise dose of these components needed for effective prophylaxis and treatment.
       
  • Clotting factors: Clinical biochemistry and their roles as plasma enzymes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): William E. Winter, Dina N. Greene, Stacy G. Beal, James A. Isom, Heather Manning, Gloria Wilkerson, Neil Harris The purpose of this review is to describe structure and function of the multiple proteins of the coagulation system and their subcomponent domains. Coagulation is the process by which flowing liquid blood plasma is converted to a soft, viscous gel entrapping the cellular components of blood including red cells and platelets and thereby preventing extravasation of blood. This process is triggered by the minimal proteolysis of plasma fibrinogen. This transforms the latter to sticky fibrin monomers which polymerize into a network. The proteolysis of fibrinogen is a function of the trypsin-like enzyme termed thrombin. Thrombin in turn is activated by a cascade of trypsin-like enzymes that we term coagulation factors. In this review we examine the mechanics of the coagulation cascade with a view to the structure-function relationships of the proteins. We also note that two of the factors have no trypsin like protease domain but are essential cofactors or catalysts for the proteases. This review does not discuss the major role of platelets except to highlight their membrane function with respect to the factors.Coagulation testing is a major part of routine diagnostic clinical pathology. Testing is performed on specimens from individuals either with bleeding or with thrombotic disorders and those on anticoagulant medications. We examine the basic in-vitro laboratory coagulation tests and review the literature comparing the in vitro and in vivo processes. In vitro clinical testing typically utilizes plasma specimens and non-physiological or supraphysiological activators.Because the review focuses on coagulation factor structure, a brief overview of the evolutionary origins of the coagulation system is included.
       
  • Vascular and valvular calcification biomarkers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Alberto Clemente, Irene Traghella, Annamaria Mazzone, Silverio Sbrana, Cristina Vassalle Vascular and valvular calcification constitutes a major health problem with serious clinical consequences. It is important for medical laboratorians to improve their knowledge on this topic and to know which biological markers may have a potential interest and might be useful for diagnosis and for management of ectopic calcifications.This review focuses on the pathophysiological mechanisms of vascular and valvular calcification, with emphasis on the mechanisms that are different for the two types of events, which underscore the need for differentiated healthcare, and explain different response to therapy. Available imaging and scoring tools used to assess both vascular and valvular calcification, together with the more studied and reliable biological markers emerging in this field (e.g., Fetuin A and matrix Gla protein), are discussed. Recently proposed functional assays, measuring the propensity of human serum to calcify, appear promising for vascular calcification assessment and are described. Further advancement through omic technologies and statistical tools is also reported.Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine practitioners overlook this new era that will engage them in the near future, where a close cooperation of professionals with different competencies, including laboratorists, is required. This innovative approach may truly revolutionize practice of laboratory and of whole medicine attitude, making progression in knowledge of pathways relevant to health, as the complex calcification-related pathways, and adding value to patient care, through a precision medicine strategy.
       
  • Advances in diagnostic microfluidics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Alison Burklund, Amogha Tadimety, Yuan Nie, Nanjing Hao, John X.J. Zhang Microfluidics is an emerging field in diagnostics that allows for extremely precise fluid control and manipulation, enabling rapid and high-throughput sample processing in integrated micro-scale medical systems. These platforms are well-suited for both standard clinical settings and point-of-care applications. The unique features of microfluidics-based platforms make them attractive for early disease diagnosis and real-time monitoring of the disease and therapeutic efficacy. In this chapter, we will first provide a background on microfluidic fundamentals, microfluidic fabrication technologies, microfluidic reactors, and microfluidic total-analysis-systems. Next, we will move into a discussion on the clinical applications of existing and emerging microfluidic platforms for blood analysis, and for diagnosis and monitoring of cancer and infectious disease. Together, this chapter should elucidate the potential that microfluidic systems have in the development of effective diagnostic technologies through a review of existing technologies and promising directions.
       
  • Tryptophan in health and disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Stefano Comai, Antonella Bertazzo, Martina Brughera, Sara Crotti Tryptophan (TRP), an essential amino acid in mammals, is involved in several physiological processes including neuronal function, immunity, and gut homeostasis. In humans, TRP is metabolized via the kynurenine and serotonin pathways, leading to the generation of biologically active compounds, such as serotonin, melatonin and niacin. In addition to endogenous TRP metabolism, resident gut microbiota also contributes to the production of specific TRP metabolites and indirectly influences host physiology.The variety of physiologic functions regulated by TRP reflects the complex pattern of diseases associated with altered homeostasis. Indeed, an imbalance in the synthesis of TRP metabolites has been associated with pathophysiologic mechanisms occurring in neurologic and psychiatric disorders, in chronic immune activation and in the immune escape of cancer. In this chapter, the role of TRP metabolism in health and disease is presented. Disorders involving the central nervous system, malignancy, inflammatory bowel and cardiovascular disease are discussed.
       
  • Exosomes of male reproduction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 September 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Saradha Baskaran, Manesh Kumar Panner Selvam, Ashok Agarwal Exosomes are nanosized membrane vesicles secreted by wide variety of cells and found in abundance in biological fluids including semen. They contain cargo of lipids, proteins, microRNAs and mRNAs, and are known to play a major role in intracellular communication. Seminal exosomes mainly include epididymosomes and prostasomes. Most of the proteins associated with the epididymosomes are transferred to the sperm subcellular or membranous domains during their epididymal transit and are involved in the acquisition of fertilizing ability, modulation of motility and protection against oxidative stress. Proteins associated with prostasomes stimulate sperm motility and regulate the timing of capacitation to avoid premature induction of acrosome reaction. Furthermore, prostasomes protect the sperm from immune responses within the female reproductive tract. Overall, exosome-associated proteins play an indispensable role in maturation of spermatozoa and therefore, serve as an excellent biomarker in early diagnosis of male infertility.
       
  • Recent advances in the determination of insulins from biological fluids
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Andreas Thomas, Mario Thevis The qualitative and quantitative determination of insulin and its related substances (e. g., C-peptide) is of great importance in many different areas of analytical chemistry. In particular, due to the steadily increasing prevalence of metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus, an adequate control of the circulating amount of insulin is desirable. In addition, also in forensics and doping control analysis, the determination of insulin in blood, urine or other biological matrices plays a major role. However, in order to establish general reference values for insulin and C-peptide for diabetology, the comparability of measured concentrations is indispensable. This has not yet been fully implemented, although enormous progress has been made in recent years, and the search for a “gold standard” method is still ongoing. In addition to established ligand-binding assays, an increasing number of mass-spectrometric methods have been developed and employed as the to-date available systems (for example, high-resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometers) provide the sensitivity required to determine analyte concentrations in the sub-ng/mL (sub-100 pmol/L) level. Meanwhile, also high-throughput measurements have been realized to meet the requirement of testing a high number of samples in a short period of time. Further developments aim at enabling the online measurement of insulin in the blood with the help of an insulin sensor and, in the following, in addition to a brief review, today's state of the art testing developments are summarized.
       
  • Biomarkers in aggression
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Mirko Manchia, Stefano Comai, Martina Pinna, Federica Pinna, Vassilios Fanos, Eileen Denovan-Wright, Bernardo Carpiniello Aggressive behavior exerts an enormous impact on society remaining among the main causes of worldwide premature death. Effective primary interventions, relying on predictive models of aggression that show adequate sensitivity and specificity are currently lacking. One strategy to increase the accuracy and precision of prediction would be to include biological data in the predictive models. Clearly, to be included in such models, biological markers should be reliably associated with the specific trait under study (i.e., diagnostic biomarkers). Aggression, however, is phenotypically highly heterogeneous, an element that has hindered the identification of reliable biomarkers. However, current research is trying to overcome these challenges by focusing on more homogenous aggression subtypes and/or by studying large sample size of aggressive individuals. Further advance is coming by bioinformatics approaches that are allowing the integration of inter-species biological data as well as the development of predictive algorithms able to discriminate subjects on the basis of the propensity toward aggressive behavior. In this review we first present a brief summary of the available evidence on neuroimaging of aggression. We will then treat extensively the data on genetic determinants, including those from hypothesis-free genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and candidate gene studies. Transcriptomic and neurochemical biomarkers will then be reviewed, and we will dedicate a section on the role of metabolomics in aggression. Finally, we will discuss how biomarkers can inform the development of new pharmacological tools as well as increase the efficacy of preventive strategies.
       
  • Metabolomics in genetic testing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Jacopo Troisi, Pierpaolo Cavallo, Angelo Colucci, Luca Pierri, Giovanni Scala, Steven Symes, Carter Jones, Sean Richards Metabolomics is an intriguing field of study providing a new readout of the biochemical activities taking place at the moment of sampling within a subject's biofluid or tissue. Metabolite concentrations are influenced by several factors including disease, environment, drugs, diet and, importantly, genetics. Metabolomics signatures, which describe a subject's phenotype, are useful for disease diagnosis and prognosis, as well as for predicting and monitoring the effectiveness of treatments. Metabolomics is conventionally divided into targeted (i.e., the quantitative analysis of a predetermined group of metabolites) and untargeted studies (i.e., analysis of the complete set of small-molecule metabolites contained in a biofluid without a pre-imposed metabolites-selection). Both approaches have demonstrated high value in the investigation and understanding of several monogenic and multigenic conditions. Due to low costs per sample and relatively short analysis times, metabolomics can be a useful and robust complement to genetic sequencing.
       
  • Periodontal disease: From the lenses of light microscopy to the specs of
           proteomics and next-generation sequencing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Nagihan Bostanci, Kai Bao, David Greenwood, Angelika Silbereisen, Georgios N. Belibasakis Periodontal disease entails the inflammatory destruction of the tooth supporting (periodontal) tissues as a result of polymicrobial colonization of the tooth surface in the form of biofilms. Extensive data collected over the past decades on this chronic disease demonstrate that its progression is infrequent and episodic, and the susceptibility to it can vary among individuals. Physical assessments of previously occurring damage to periodontal tissues remain the cornerstone of detection and diagnosis, whereas traditionally used diagnostic procedures do neither identify susceptible individuals nor distinguish between disease-active and disease-inactive periodontal sites. Thus, more sensitive and accurate “measurable biological indicators” of periodontal diseases are needed in order to place diagnosis (e.g., the presence or stage) and management of the disease on a more rational less empirical basis.Contemporary “omics” technologies may help unlock the path to this quest. High throughput nucleic acid sequencing technologies have enabled us to examine the taxonomic distribution of microbial communities in oral health and disease, whereas proteomic technologies allowed us to decipher the molecular state of the host in disease, as well as the interactive cross-talk of the host with the microbiome. The newly established field of metaproteomics has enabled the identification of the repertoire of proteins that oral microorganisms use to compete or co-operate with each other. Vast such data is derived from oral biological fluids, including gingival crevicular fluid and saliva, which is progressively completed and catalogued as the analytical technologies and bioinformatics tools progressively advance. This chapter covers the current “omics”-derived knowledge on the microbiome, the host and their “interactome” with regard to periodontal diseases, and addresses challenges and opportunities ahead.
       
  • Evaluation of analytical performance of immunoassay methods for cTnI and
           cTnT: From theory to practice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Aldo Clerico, Martina Zaninotto, Andrea Padoan, Silvia Masotti, Veronica Musetti, Concetta Prontera, Rudina Ndreu, Giancarlo Zucchelli, Claudio Passino, Marco Migliardi, Mario Plebani Current guidelines worldwide recommend cardiac troponins I (cTnI) and T (cTnT) as the biomarkers of choice for the differential diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and the measurement of the 99th upper reference population limit (URL) value for cardiac troponins, with an imprecision of ≤ 10 CV%. Measuring the 99th URL of cTnI and cTnT is a challenging analytical task due to low biomarker concentrations present in healthy subjects. Therefore, since the year 2006, several manufacturers have established new generation cTnI and cTnT immunoassays with an improved analytical sensitivity in accordance with the quality specifications described in international guidelines, the more recent of which state that only immunoassays that meet the required quality specifications should be considered “high-sensitivity” methods. For the early diagnosis of ACS, and for the stratification of cardiovascular risk in cardiac patients and the general population, high-sensitivity methods should be employed. It is therefore important for laboratory professionals and clinicians to gain a thorough understanding of the analytical performances of immunoassay methods for cTnI and cTnT, especially at low to normal concentration ranges. The aim of the present study was to analyze critical aspects related to definition, analytical performance, pathophysiological interpretations, and the clinical relevance of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays.
       
  • Epigenetic reprogramming and potential application of epigenetic-modifying
           drugs in acquired chemotherapeutic resistance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Logeswari Ponnusamy, Prathap Kumar S. Mahalingaiah, Kamaleshwar P. Singh Chemotherapy is the most common clinical choice of treatment for cancer, however, acquired chemoresistance is a major challenge that limits the successful outcome of this option. Systematic review of in vitro, in vivo, preclinical and clinical studies suggests that acquired chemoresistance is polygenic, progressive, and involve both genetic and epigenetic heterogeneities and perturbations. Various mechanisms that confer resistance to chemotherapy are tightly controlled by epigenetic regulations. Poised epigenetic plasticity and temporal increase in epigenetic alterations upon chemotherapy make chemoresistance likely an epigenetic-driven process. The transient and reversible nature of epigenetic modulations enable ways to intervene the epigenetic re-programing associated with acquired chemoresistance via application of epigenetic modifying drugs. This review discusses recent understandings behind the various mechanisms of acquired chemoresistance that are under the control of epigenetic drivers, potential application of epigenetic-based drugs in resensitizing refractory cancers to chemotherapy, the limitations and future scope for clinical application of epigenetic therapeutics in successfully addressing chemoresistance.
       
  • Lectin biosensors in cancer glycan biomarker detection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): M. Luísa S. Silva Cancer has high incidence and it will continue to increase over the next decades. Detection and quantification of cancer-associated biomarkers is frequently carried out for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment monitoring at various disease stages. It is well-known that glycosylation profiles change significantly during oncogenesis. Aberrant glycans produced during tumorigenesis are, therefore, valuable molecules for detection and characterization of cancer, and for therapeutic design and monitoring. Although glycoproteomics has benefited from the development of analytical tools such as high performance liquid chromatography, two-dimensional gel and capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, these approaches are not well suited for rapid point-of-care (POC) testing easily performed by medical staff.Lectins are biomolecules found in nature with specific affinities toward particular glycan structures and bind them thus forming a relatively strong complex. Because of this characteristic, lectins have been used in analytical techniques for the selective capture or separation of certain glycans in complex samples, namely, in lectin affinity chromatography, or to characterize glycosylation profiles in diverse clinical situations, using lectin microarrays. Lectin-based biosensors have been developed for the detection of specific aberrant and cancer-associated glycostructures to aid diagnosis, prognosis and treatment assessment of these patients. The attractive features of biosensors, such as portability and simple use make them highly suitable for POC testing. Recent developments in lectin biosensors, as well as their potential and pitfalls in cancer glycan biomarker detection, are presented in this chapter.
       
  • Cytokines in heart failure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Adina Elena Stanciu The natural history of heart failure (HF) is not linear, because changes in the heart structure and function start long before the disease becomes clinically evident. Many different cytokines originating from intracardiac tissues (cardiomyocytes, cardiac endothelial cells, cardiac fibroblasts, and cardiac infiltrated immune cells) or extracardiac tissues (adipose tissue, gut, and lymphoid organs) have been identified in HF. Because the levels of circulating cytokines correlate with the development and severity of HF, these mediators may have both pathophysiological importance, through their ability to modulate inflammation, myocyte stress/stretch, myocyte injury and apoptosis, fibroblast activation and extracellular matrix remodeling, and utility as clinical predictive biomarkers. A greater understanding of the mechanisms mediated by the multifaceted network of cytokines, leading to distinct HF phenotypes (HF with reduced or preserved ejection fraction), is urgently needed for the development of new treatment strategies. In this chapter, all these issues were thoroughly discussed, pointing on the practical considerations concerning the clinical use of the cytokines as prognostic biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in HF.
       
  • Organokines in disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Hye Soo Chung, Kyung Mook Choi Studies have linked obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dementia. Their relationship to the incidence and progression of these disease states suggests an interconnected pathogenesis involving chronic low–grade inflammation and oxidative stress. Metabolic syndrome represents comorbidities of central obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension and hyperglycemia associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, NAFLD, atherosclerotic CVD and neurodegenerative disease. As the socioeconomic burden for these diseases has grown signficantly with an increasing elderly population, new and alternative pharmacologic solutions for these cardiometabolic diseases are required. Adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver are central endocrine organs that regulate inflammation, energy and metabolic homeostasis, and the neuroendocrine axis through synthesis and secretion of adipokines, myokines, and hepatokines, respectively. These organokines affect each other and communicate through various endocrine, paracrine and autocrine pathways. The ultimate goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive understanding of organ crosstalk. This will include the roles of novel organokines in normal physiologic regulation and their pathophysiological effect in obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, CVD, NAFLD and neurodegenerative disorders.
       
  • Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: Strategy to develop clinical peptide
           biomarkers for more accurate evaluation of the pathophysiological status
           of this syndrome
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Yoshihiko Araki, Mitsuaki Yanagida Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) is the most common and widely known as serious complication of pregnancy. As this syndrome is a major leading cause of maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity/mortality worldwide, many studies have sought to identify candidate molecules as potential disease biomarkers (DBMs) for use in clinical examinations. Accumulating evidence over the past 2 decades that the many proteolytic peptides appear in human humoral fluids, including peripheral blood, in association with an individual's health condition. This review provides the potential utility of peptidomic analysis for monitoring for pathophysiological status in HDP, and presents an overview of current status of peptide quantification technology. Especially, the technical limitations of the methods used for DBM discovery in the blood are discussed.
       
  • Myokines: The endocrine coupling of skeletal muscle and bone
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Marta Gomarasca, Giuseppe Banfi, Giovanni Lombardi Bone and skeletal muscle are integrated organs and their coupling has been considered mainly a mechanical one in which bone serves as attachment site to muscle while muscle applies load to bone and regulates bone metabolism. However, skeletal muscle can affect bone homeostasis also in a non-mechanical fashion, i.e., through its endocrine activity. Being recognized as an endocrine organ itself, skeletal muscle secretes a panel of cytokines and proteins named myokines, synthesized and secreted by myocytes in response to muscle contraction. Myokines exert an autocrine function in regulating muscle metabolism as well as a paracrine/endocrine regulatory function on distant organs and tissues, such as bone, adipose tissue, brain and liver.Physical activity is the primary physiological stimulus for bone anabolism (and/or catabolism) through the production and secretion of myokines, such as IL-6, irisin, IGF-1, FGF2, beside the direct effect of loading. Importantly, exercise-induced myokine can exert an anti-inflammatory action that is able to counteract not only acute inflammation due to an infection, but also a condition of chronic low-grade inflammation raised as consequence of physical inactivity, aging or metabolic disorders (i.e., obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus).In this review article, we will discuss the effects that some of the most studied exercise-induced myokines exert on bone formation and bone resorption, as well as a brief overview of the anti-inflammatory effects of myokines during the onset pathological conditions characterized by the development a systemic low-grade inflammation, such as sarcopenia, obesity and aging.
       
  • Advances in biomarker detection: Alternative approaches for blood-based
           biomarker detection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Miguel Rosado, Rafael Silva, Mariana G. Bexiga, John G. Jones, Bruno Manadas, Sandra I. Anjo In the clinical setting, a blood sample is typically the starting point for biomarker search and discovery. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a highly sensitive and informative method for characterizing a very wide range of metabolites and proteins and is therefore a potentially powerful tool for biomarker discovery. However, the physicochemical characteristics of blood coupled with very large ranges of protein and metabolite concentrations present a significant technical obstacle for resolving and quantifying putative biomarkers by MS. Blood fractionation procedures are being developed to reduce the proteome/metabolome complexity and concentration ranges, allowing a greater diversity of analytes, including those at very low concentrations, to be quantified. In this chapter, several strategies for enriching and/or isolating specific blood components are summarized, including methods for the analysis of low and high molecular weight compounds, usually neglected in this type of assays, extracellular vesicles, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). For each method, relevant practical information is presented for effective implementation.
       
  • Amino and organic acid analysis: Essential tools in the diagnosis of
           inborn errors of metabolism
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): William S. Phipps, Patti M. Jones, Khushbu Patel Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are a large class of genetic disorders that result from defects in enzymes involved in energy production and metabolism of nutrients. For every metabolic pathway, there are defects that can occur and potentially result in an IEM. While some defects can go undetected in one's lifetime, some have moderate to severe clinical consequences. In the latter case, the biochemical defect leads to accumulation of metabolites and byproducts that are toxic or interfere with normal biological function. Disorders of amino acid metabolism, organic acid metabolism and the urea cycle comprise a large portion of IEMs. Two essential tools required for the diagnosis of these categories of disorders are amino acid and organic acid profiling. Most all clinical laboratories offering metabolic testing perform amino acid analysis, while organic acid profiling is restricted to more specialized pediatric hospitals and reference laboratories. In this chapter, we will provide an overview of various methodologies employed for amino acid and organic acid profiling as well as specific examples to demonstrate how these techniques are applied in clinical laboratories for the diagnosis of IEMs.
       
  • Advances in electrochemical immunosensors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Elif Burcu Aydin, Muhammet Aydin, Mustafa Kemal Sezgintürk Immunosensors are compact tools on which antibody and antigen interactions are formed. The specific interaction between antibody and antigen is detected by using a transducer and an electrical signal is measured. This specific interaction between these molecules makes immunosensor very attractive for several applications in different fields. Electrochemical immunosensors are successful devices in selective and sensitive detection of several analytes. Electrochemical transducing methods such as voltammetric, potentiometric, conductometric or impedimetric have been utilized in different applications due to their excellent properties such as being low-cost, sensitivity and simplicity. In this chapter, the fundamentals of electrochemical immunosensors are summarized and different applications in food, environmental and clinical analyses are investigated and discussed.
       
  • Lipid trafficking in cardiovascular disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Andrei C. Sposito, Francesca Zimetti, Joaquim Barreto, Ilaria Zanotti The reduction of plasma apolipoprotein B (apoB) containing lipoproteins has long been pursued as the main modifiable risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This has led to an intense search for strategies aiming at reducing plasma apoB-lipoproteins, culminating in reduction of overall CV risk. Despite 3 decades of progress, CVD remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and, as such, new therapeutic targets are still warranted. Clinical and preclinical research has moved forward from the original concept, under which some lipids must be accumulated and other removed to achieve the ideal condition in disease prevention, into the concept that mechanisms that orchestrate lipid movement between lipoproteins, cells and organelles is equally involved in CVD. As such, this review scrutinizes potentially atherogenic changes in lipid trafficking and assesses the molecular mechanisms behind it. New developments in risk assessment and new targets for the mitigation of residual CVD risk are also addressed.
       
  • Toward a holistic approach for diagnosing sepsis in the emergency
           department
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Gianfranco Cervellin, Philipp Schuetz, Giuseppe Lippi Sepsis is an important healthcare issue worldwide due to the unfavorable clinical outcome and the increasing risk of antimicrobial resistance caused by inappropriate usage of antimicrobials. According to the Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3), sepsis is currently defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by deregulated host response to an infection. This updated definition has contributed to revolutionizing our current understanding of sepsis, emphasizing the central pathogenetic role of the non-homeostatic host response to microorganisms rather than the infection per se. As a result, “bloodstream infection” is no longer being used synonymously to sepsis. Although blood culture has been considered the gold standard for diagnosing sepsis for decades, the accuracy of this technique remains limited due to the low diagnostic sensitivity with high false negative rates in patients undergoing antimicrobial therapy, and in patients with severe localized infections or in noninfectious cause of sepsis. Also, preanalytical factors and possible contamination further limit the reliability of blood cultures. Recent evidence suggests that an increased concentration of some innovative sepsis biomarkers, especially procalcitonin and presepsin, more reliably reflects the systemic host response to infection. Recent evidence suggests that the measurement of such sepsis biomarkers in addition to blood culture or molecular biology further improves the diagnostic management of patients with possible sepsis. The current article aims to propose a “holistic” approach to sepsis diagnostics, encompassing a reasonable combination of clinical signs and symptoms, sepsis biomarkers and microbiological tests.
       
  • Proteomics of reproduction: Prospects and perspectives
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Manesh Kumar Panner Selvam, Saradha Baskaran, Ashok Agarwal In recent years, proteomics has been used widely in reproductive research in order to understand the molecular mechanisms related to gametes at the cellular level and the role of proteins involved in fertilization. Network and pathway analysis using bioinformatic tools have paved way to obtain a wider picture on the possible pathways associated with the key differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) and its implication in various infertility scenarios. A brief overview of advanced techniques and bioinformatic tools used for reproductive proteomics is presented. Key findings of proteomic-based studies on male and female reproduction are also presented. Furthermore, the chapter sheds light on the cellular pathways and potential biomarkers associated with male and female infertility. Proteomics coupled with bioinformatic analysis provides an ideal platform for non-invasive management of infertility in couples.
       
 
 
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