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Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
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Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
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Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / Health Sciences Journal of Adıyaman University     Open Access  
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
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Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
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Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Skeletal Muscle Function Assessment     Open Access  
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
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Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
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American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access  
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American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy     Open Access  
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ankara Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası     Open Access  
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Fundeni Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives Medical Review Journal / Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi     Open Access  
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access  
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASHA Leader     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention     Open Access  
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine     Open Access  
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Medical Journal     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Advances in Clinical Chemistry
  [SJR: 0.938]   [H-I: 33]   [28 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0065-2423
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • Chapter Six Uncertainty in Measurement: Procedures for Determining
           Uncertainty With Application to Clinical Laboratory Calculations
    • Authors: Robert B. Frenkel; Ian Farrance
      Pages: 125 - 207
      Abstract: Publication date: 2018
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry, Volume 85
      Author(s): Robert B. Frenkel, Ian Farrance
      In Part II of this review we consider the very common case of multiple inputs to a measurement process. We derive, using only elementary steps and the basic mathematics covered in Part I, the formula for the propagation of uncertainties from the inputs to the output. The Gaussian density distribution is briefly explained, since an understanding of this distribution is needed for the determination of so-called expanded uncertainties at the end of a measurement process. The propagation formula in general involves correlations among the inputs, although in many cases these correlations can be considered negligible. Correlations, however, need to be taken into account in related matters such as line-fitting and have particular relevance to method comparisons. These topics are addressed briefly. We next discuss the important question of bias and its incorporation into the expression of uncertainty. We present, finally, six real-world cases in clinical chemistry where uncertainty in the estimated value of the measurand is calculated using the propagation formula.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:08:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2018)
  • Chapter One Protein Carbamylation: Chemistry, Pathophysiological
           Involvement, and Biomarkers
    • Authors: Stéphane Jaisson; Christine Pietrement; Philippe Gillery
      Pages: 1 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: 2018
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry, Volume 84
      Author(s): Stéphane Jaisson, Christine Pietrement, Philippe Gillery
      Protein carbamylation refers to a nonenzymatic modification, which consists in the binding of isocyanic acid on protein functional groups. This reaction is responsible for the alteration in structural and functional properties of proteins, which participate in their molecular aging. Protein molecular aging is now considered a molecular substratum for the development of chronic and inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease, or rheumatoid arthritis. As a consequence, carbamylation-derived products have been proposed as interesting biomarkers in various pathological contexts and appropriate analytical methods have been developed for their quantification in biological fluids. The purpose of this review is (i) to describe the biochemical bases of the carbamylation reaction, (ii) to explain how it contributes to protein molecular aging, (iii) to provide evidence of its involvement in aging and chronic diseases, and (iv) to list the available biomarkers of carbamylation process and the related analytical methods.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T15:29:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2018)
  • Chapter Five Uncertainty in Measurement: Procedures for Determining
           Uncertainty With Application to Clinical Laboratory Calculations
    • Authors: Robert B. Frenkel; Ian Farrance
      Pages: 125 - 207
      Abstract: Publication date: 2018
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry, Volume 84
      Author(s): Robert B. Frenkel, Ian Farrance
      The “Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement” (GUM) is the foundational document of metrology. Its recommendations apply to all areas of metrology including metrology associated with the biomedical sciences. When the output of a measurement process depends on the measurement of several inputs through a measurement equation or functional relationship, the propagation of uncertainties in the inputs to the uncertainty in the output demands a level of understanding of the differential calculus. This review is intended as an elementary guide to the differential calculus and its application to uncertainty in measurement. The review is in two parts. In Part I, Section 3, we consider the case of a single input and introduce the concepts of error and uncertainty. Next we discuss, in the following sections in Part I, such notions as derivatives and differentials, and the sensitivity of an output to errors in the input. The derivatives of functions are obtained using very elementary mathematics. The overall purpose of this review, here in Part I and subsequently in Part II, is to present the differential calculus for those in the medical sciences who wish to gain a quick but accurate understanding of the propagation of uncertainties.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T15:29:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2018)
  • Advances in PCOS Pathogenesis and Progression—Mitochondrial
           Mutations and Dysfunction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2018
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Ioana R. Ilie
      Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common female endocrine disorder, which still remains largely unsolved in terms of etiology and pathogenesis despite important advances in our understanding of its genetic, epigenetic, or environmental factor implications. It is a heterogeneous disease, frequently associated with insulin resistance, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress and probably accompanied with subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) and some malignant lesions as well, such as endometrial cancer. Discrepancies in the clinical phenotype and progression of PCOS exist between different population groups, which nuclear genetic studies have so far failed to explain. Over the last years, mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly recognized as an important contributor to an array of diseases. Because mitochondria are under the dual genetic control of both the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, mutations within either DNA molecule may result in deficiency in respiratory chain function that leads to a reduced ability to produce cellular adenosine-5′-triphosphate and to an excessive production of reactive oxygen species. However, the association between variants in mitochondrial genome, mitochondrial dysfunction, and PCOS has been investigated to a lesser extent. May mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) become an additional target of investigations on the missing PCOS heritability' Are mutations in mtDNA implicated in the initiation and progression of PCOS complications, e.g., CVDs, diabetes mellitus, cancers'

      PubDate: 2018-06-12T05:46:41Z
  • Tissue and Blood Biomarkers in Lung Cancer: A Review
    • Authors: Michael J. Duffy; Ken O’Byrne
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2018
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Michael J. Duffy, Ken O’Byrne
      Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death, worldwide. Historically, lung cancer has been divided into two main histological types: small cell and nonsmall cell (NSC) type with the latter being subdivided into adenocarcinoma, squamous cell type, and large cell type. The treatment of the NSC lung cancer (NSCLC), especially the adenocarcinoma subtype, has been transformed in the last decade by the availability of predictive biomarkers for molecularly targeted therapies. Currently, for patients with advanced adenocarcinomas, testing for sensitizing mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is mandatory prior to the administration of anti-EGFR inhibitors such as erlotinib, gefitinib, afatinib, or osimertinib. For patients unable to provide tumor tissue, EGFR mutational analysis may be performed on plasma. For predicting response to crizotinib, testing for ALK and ROS1 gene rearrangement is necessary. The presence of ALK rearrangements is also a prerequisite for treatment with ceritinib, alectinib, or brigatinib. For predicting response to single agent pembrolizumab in the first-line treatment of patients with advanced adenocarcinoma or squamous cell NSCLCs, PD-L1 should be measured by an approved assay (e.g., PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx method). Although not widely used, serum biomarkers such as neuron-specific enolase, progastrin-releasing peptide, carcinoembryonic antigen, CYFRA 21-1, and squamous cell carcinoma antigen may help in the differential diagnosis of lung cancer when a tissue diagnosis is not possible. Serum biomarkers may also be of use in determining prognosis and monitoring response to systemic therapies. With the increasing use of biomarkers, personalized treatment especially for patients with adenocarcinoma-type NSCLC is finally on the horizon.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T04:16:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2018.05.001
  • Adiponectin and Its Isoforms in Pathophysiology
    • Authors: Merel van Andel; Annemieke C. Heijboer; Madeleine L. Drent
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2018
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Merel van Andel, Annemieke C. Heijboer, Madeleine L. Drent
      Adiponectin circulates in blood in multiple isoforms. High molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin is thought to be most biologically active and promotes glucose uptake, insulin sensitivity, and fatty acid oxidation. In obesity, adiponectin isoform formation is disrupted, leading to an inverse association between metabolic disease and HMW and total adiponectin. Adiponectin isoforms also function as acute-phase reactants influencing inflammation in acute and chronic disease. Interestingly, adiponectin and mortality have a U-shaped association. Unfortunately, data concerning adiponectin and its pathophysiologic function conflict. This is predominantly due to difficulties in adequate measurement of adiponectin isoforms and lack of a gold standard. In this review we provide a general overview of the formation and function of adiponectin and its isoforms under physiologic conditions. We highlight the ways adiponectin isoform formation is disrupted in obesity and its ensuing pathologic conditions. Furthermore, we will elaborate on the role of adiponectin isoforms as inflammatory proteins with respect to cardiac and kidney disease and discuss the association of adiponectin with mortality. Finally, we will provide a historical perspective on the measurement of adiponectin isoforms, current limitations, and future challenges.

      PubDate: 2018-03-21T08:25:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2018.02.007
  • Metabolomics and Lipidomics of Ischemic Stroke
    • Authors: Anthony
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Anthony Au
      Ischemic stroke is a sudden loss of brain function due to the reduction of blood flow. Brain tissues cease to function with subsequent activation of the ischemic cascade. Metabolomics and lipidomics are modern disciplines that characterize the metabolites and lipid components of a biological system, respectively. Because the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke is heterogeneous and multifactorial, it is crucial to establish comprehensive metabolomic and lipidomic approaches to elucidate these alterations in this disease. Fortunately, metabolomic and lipidomic studies have the distinct advantages of identifying tissue/mechanism-specific biomarkers, predicting treatment and clinical outcome, and improving our understanding of the pathophysiologic basis of disease states. Therefore, recent applications of these analytical approaches in the early diagnosis of ischemic stroke were discussed. In addition, the emerging roles of metabolomics and lipidomics on ischemic stroke were summarized, in order to gain new insights into the mechanisms underlying ischemic stroke and in the search for novel metabolite biomarkers and their related pathways.

      PubDate: 2018-03-21T08:25:50Z
  • Proteomics for Biomarker Identification and Clinical Application in Kidney
    • Authors: Lin Chen; Wei Su; Hua Chen; Dan-Qian Chen; Ming Wang; Yan Guo; Ying-Yong Zhao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Lin Chen, Wei Su, Hua Chen, Dan-Qian Chen, Ming Wang, Yan Guo, Ying-Yong Zhao
      Treatment effectiveness for kidney disease is limited by lack of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic biomarkers. The gold standard test renal biopsy along with serum creatinine and proteinuria is often necessary to establish a diagnosis, particularly in glomerular disease. Proteomics has become a powerful tool for novel biomarker discovery in kidney disease. Novel proteomics offer earlier and more accurate diagnosis of renal pathology than possible with traditional biomarkers such as serum creatinine and urine protein. In addition, proteomic biomarkers could also be useful to choose the most suitable therapeutic targets. This review focuses on the current status of proteomic biomarkers from animal models (5/6 nephrectomy, unilateral ureteral obstruction, and diabetic nephropathy) and human studies (chronic kidney disease, glomerular diseases, transplantation, dialysis, acute and drug-induced kidney injury) to assess relevant findings and clinical usefulness. Current issues and problems related to the discovery, validation, and clinical application of proteomic biomarkers are discussed. We also describe several proteomic strategies highlighting technologic advancements, specimen selection, data processing and analysis. This review might provide help in future proteomic studies to improve the diagnosis and management of kidney disease.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T07:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2018.02.005
  • Obesity, Thrombotic Risk, and Inflammation in Cancer
    • Authors: Benjamín Rubio-Jurado; Luz-Ma-Adriana Balderas-Peña; Eduardo E. García-Luna; María G. Zavala-Cerna; Carlos Riebeling-Navarro; Pedro A. Reyes; Arnulfo H. Nava-Zavala
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Benjamín Rubio-Jurado, Luz-Ma-Adriana Balderas-Peña, Eduardo E. García-Luna, María G. Zavala-Cerna, Carlos Riebeling-Navarro, Pedro A. Reyes, Arnulfo H. Nava-Zavala
      Neoplasms exhibits a high incidence and mortality rates due to their complex and commonly overlapping clinical, biochemical, and morphologic profiles influenced by acquired or inherited molecular abnormalities, cell of origin, and level of differentiation. Obesity appears related to ~20% of cancers including endometrial, esophageal, colorectal, postmenopausal breast, prostate, and renal. Several factors other than obesity, i.e., insulin, insulin-like growth factor, sexual hormones, and adipokines may play a potential role in neoplasia. Cancer-associated hypercoagulable and thrombotic states are influenced by abnormalities in the vascular wall and susceptibility to invasion, interference in blood flow and increase in circulating tissue factor and thrombin, activation of cell growth factors, the presence of a central catheter, chemotherapies, neoplasm type, and surgery. In cancer, thromboembolic complications are the second most frequent cause of death with pulmonary thromboembolism in ~50% of cases postmortem. Thrombosis worsens prognosis as demonstrated with a survival rate as low as 12% per year vs 36% in nonthrombic patients. Deep vein thrombosis is the most frequent thromboembolic complication in cancer. It is usually detected at diagnosis and within the first 3 months of chemotherapy. The underlining mechanisms of this association should be further studied to identify patients at higher risk and develop adequate prevention, diagnostic, and treatment measures. The D-dimer test can be successfully used to assess the fibrinolytic phase of coagulation and as such is routinely used in suspected cases of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism. In addition, significant advances have been made in understanding the composition and functional capabilities of the gut microbiota in the inflammatory process, obesity, and its roles in cancer; however, the intricate balance that exists within the microbiota may not only affect the host directly, it can also disrupt the entire microbial community. Conclusions: Cancer is a prothrombotic and inflammatory state in which the activation of coagulation is related to tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. It is important to identify the relationship between body mass index with these processes and clarify their importance in cancer prognosis. Future research should answer the question if manipulation of resident microbial communities could potentially improve prognosis and treatment outcome.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T07:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2018.02.006
  • Standardization of BNP and NT-proBNP Immunoassays in Light of the Diverse
           and Complex Nature of Circulating BNP-Related Peptides
    • Authors: Alexander G. Semenov; Evgeniya E. Feygina
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2018
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Alexander G. Semenov, Evgeniya E. Feygina
      Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and the N-terminal fragment of the BNP precursor (NT-proBNP) are widely used as heart failure (HF) biomarkers. Since the discovery of BNP in 1988, much effort has been allocated to the precise detection of BNP and NT-proBNP levels for reliable HF diagnostics. As a result, measurements of these biomarkers are globally accepted and used in clinical practice for the diagnosis of acute and chronic HF, risk stratification, and monitoring response to therapy. Several immunoassays specific for BNP and NT-proBNP are currently commercially available. Recent comparative studies show that there are marked differences between different BNP and NT-proBNP assays and platforms, and the results of measurements are not comparable enough. The lack of equivalence between the assays complicates the interpretation of the results and renders the cut-off points for diagnostic decisions to be method dependent. Presently, there is no agreement on what kind of BNP or NT-proBNP standard should be used for calibration, and a certified reference material as well as reference measurement procedures are lacking. The aim of this chapter is to summarize the available data on the complex nature of BNP-related peptides, specificity for existing BNP and NT-proBNP immunoassays, and to discuss potential approaches for standardization of BNP and NT-proBNP measurements.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T07:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2018.02.001
  • Inflammatory Response During Myocardial Infarction
    • Authors: Joaquim B. Oliveira; Alexandre A.S.M. Soares; Andrei C. Sposito
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Joaquim B. Oliveira, Alexandre A.S.M. Soares, Andrei C. Sposito
      The occlusion of a coronary artery by a thrombus generated on a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque has been pursued in the last decades as a determining event for the clinical outcome after myocardial infarction (MI). Yet, MI causes a cell death wave front, which triggers an inflammatory response to clear cellular debris, and which in excess can double the myocardial lesion and influence the clinical prognosis in the short and long term. Accordingly, proper, timely regulated inflammatory response has now been considered a second pivotal player in cardiac recovery after MI justifying the search for pharmacological strategies to modulate inflammatory effectors. This chapter reviews the key events and the main effectors of inflammation after myocardial ischemic insult, as well as the contribution of this phenomenon to the progression of atherosclerosis.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T22:00:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.12.002
  • Blood Glucose Determination: Effect of Tube Additives
    • Authors: Giuseppe Lippi; Mads Nybo; Janne Cadamuro; Joao T. Guimaraes; Edmée van Dongen-Lases; Ana-Maria Simundic
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Giuseppe Lippi, Mads Nybo, Janne Cadamuro, Joao T. Guimaraes, Edmée van Dongen-Lases, Ana-Maria Simundic
      The measurement of fasting plasma glucose may be biased by a time-dependent decrease of glucose in blood tubes, mainly attributable to blood cell metabolism when glycolysis is not rapidly inhibited or blood cells cannot be rapidly separated from plasma. Although glycolysis inhibitors such as sodium fluoride (NaF) in combination with potassium oxalate (KOx) are currently used for overcoming this drawback, their efficacy for stabilizing blood glucose is seemingly limited, and probably lower than that of newer additives such as the citrate buffer. Therefore, we performed a critical analysis of the current scientific literature aimed to generate evidence-based information about the advantages of using citrate buffer in blood tubes compared to the more conventional NaF additive. The results of our systematic overview of the literature show that citrate blood tubes represent a considerable step forward in achieving more accurate and reliable plasma glucose measurements, thereby limiting the risk of underdiagnosing diabetes due to spurious decrease of glucose concentration in uncentrifuged blood specimens, ensuring higher stability of glucose levels over time, while simultaneously producing less hemolysis compared to NaF blood tubes. Therefore, we suggest that the use of this new mixture should be encouraged for achieving a higher degree of accuracy and standardization of plasma glucose measurements.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T22:00:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.12.003
  • Distribution of Fatty Acids and Lipids During Pregnancy
    • Authors: Preeti Chavan-Gautam; Alka Rani; Dilys J. Freeman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Preeti Chavan-Gautam, Alka Rani, Dilys J. Freeman
      Maternal fatty acid and lipid metabolism undergoes changes during pregnancy to facilitate fetal growth and development. Different types of fatty acids have different roles in maintaining a successful pregnancy and they are incorporated into different forms of lipids for the purpose of storage and transport. This chapter aims to provide an understanding of the distribution and metabolism of fatty acids and lipids in the maternal, placental, and fetal compartments. We further describe how this distribution is altered in maternal obesity, preterm birth, and pregnancy complications such as gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T22:00:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.12.006
  • Metabolomics of Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder: Overview
           and Future Perspective
    • Authors: Kenji Hashimoto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Kenji Hashimoto
      Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are the most common mood disorders. They are etiologically related, but clinically distinct psychiatric illnesses. Their shared clinical features result in high rates of misdiagnosis due to a lack of biomarkers that allow their differentiation. BD is more frequently misdiagnosed as MDD because of overlapping symptomology, often later onset of mania, and frequent occurrence of depressive episodes in patients with BD. Misdiagnosis is also increased when patients with BD present symptoms indicative of a clinically significant depressive episode, but are premorbid for manic symptoms, or previous manic states not recognized. Therefore, the development of specific biomarkers for these disorders would be invaluable for establishing the correct diagnosis and treatment of MDD and BD. This chapter presents an overview and future perspective of the identification of biomarkers for mood disorders using metabolomics.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T22:00:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.12.005
  • Circulating Tumor Cells and Implications of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal
    • Authors: Lori E. Lowes; Alison L. Allan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Lori E. Lowes, Alison L. Allan
      The majority of cancer-related deaths result from metastasis, the process by which cancer cells escape the primary tumor site and enter into the blood circulation in order to disseminate to secondary locations throughout the body. Tumor cells found within the circulation are referred to as circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and their detection and enumeration correlate with poor prognosis. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a dynamic process that imparts epithelial cells with mesenchymal-like properties, thus facilitating tumor cell dissemination and contributing to metastasis. However, EMT also results in the downregulation of various epithelial proteins typically utilized by CTC technologies for enrichment and detection of these rare cells, resulting in reduced detection of some CTCs, potentially those with a more metastatic phenotype. In addition to the current clinical role of CTCs as a prognostic biomarker, they also have potential as a predictive biomarker via CTC characterization. However, CTC characterization is complicated by the unknown biological significance of CTCs possessing an EMT-like phenotype, and the ability to capture and understand this CTC subpopulation is an essential step in the utilization of CTCs for patient management. This chapter will review the process of EMT and its contribution to metastasis; discusses current and future clinical applications of CTCs; and describes both traditional and novel methods for CTC enrichment, detection, and characterization with a specific focus on CTCs with an EMT phenotype.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T00:31:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.10.004
  • Indoor Tanning a Gianus Bifrons: Vitamin D and Human Cancer
    • Authors: Giuseppe Lippi; Gianfranco Cervellin; Elisa Danese
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Giuseppe Lippi, Gianfranco Cervellin, Elisa Danese
      Despite it is now undeniable that indoor tanning exposure is associated with a number of skin cancers, its favorable effects on vitamin D status may bear some underestimated and currently unexplored health benefits. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin naturally present in a limited number of foods, the concentration of which largely depends on ultraviolet (UV) B sources exposure in humans. A strong, graded, and inverse association has been documented between serum vitamin D and the risk of developing certain types of malignancy, especially colorectal, breast, lung, bladder, and kidney cancers. The overall mortality from any type of cancer is also apparently lower in subjects with increased values of serum vitamin D. Both genomic and nongenomic mechanisms have been identified to support the anticancer effects of vitamin D. Notably, UVB radiation emitted from indoor tanning devices is effective to linearly increase the serum vitamin D concentration, up to twofold. Therefore, some favorable effects against the risk of developing many human diseases, including nonskin cancers, cannot be excluded at first glance, although they may not be only linked to vitamin D status. Further large, prospective or randomized studies should be hence planned to definitely establish whether the unfavorable effects of indoor tanning exposure on skin cancers may be outweighed by the still unexplored benefits attributable to amelioration of vitamin D status.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T19:47:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.10.005
  • Urinary Nucleosides and Deoxynucleosides
    • Authors: Małgorzata Patejko; Wiktoria Struck-Lewicka; Danuta Siluk; Małgorzata Waszczuk-Jankowska; Michał J. Markuszewski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Małgorzata Patejko, Wiktoria Struck-Lewicka, Danuta Siluk, Małgorzata Waszczuk-Jankowska, Michał J. Markuszewski
      Urinary nucleosides and deoxynucleosides are mainly known as metabolites of RNA turnover and oxidative damage of DNA. For several decades these metabolites have been examined for their potential use in disease states including cancer and oxidative stress. Subsequent improvements in analytical sensitivity and specificity have provided a reliable means to measure these unique molecules to better assess their relationship to physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions. In fact, some are currently used as antiviral and antitumor agents. In this review we provide insight into their molecular characteristics, highlight current separation techniques and detection methods, and explore potential clinical usefulness.

      PubDate: 2017-12-07T18:46:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.10.001
  • Laboratory Assessment of Anemia
    • Authors: Sirisha Kundrapu; Jaime Noguez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Sirisha Kundrapu, Jaime Noguez
      Anemia is one of the most common health problems in both industrialized and developing countries. It has been recognized by the World Health Organization as an important disorder leading to significant health care burden. Laboratory testing plays a significant role in the diagnosis of most types of anemia since the clinical diagnosis may not always be straightforward, especially with multiple underlying conditions. Once the existence of anemia is established, the cause must be determined to enable selection of a specific and effective therapy. Various hematologic parameters and biochemical tests can be used in combination with patient clinical history to identify the most likely causes of anemia.

      PubDate: 2017-12-07T18:46:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.10.006
  • Locked Nucleic Acid Technology for Highly Sensitive Detection of Somatic
           Mutations in Cancer
    • Authors: Takayuki Ishige; Sakae Itoga; Kazuyuki Matsushita
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Takayuki Ishige, Sakae Itoga, Kazuyuki Matsushita
      The molecular diagnosis of the cancer mutational status is essential for modern clinical laboratory medicine. Mutations in EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA genes are widely analyzed in solid tumors such as lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma. The allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, high-resolution melting, and Sanger sequencing are used for detecting and identifying gene mutations in many clinical laboratories. The locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs that contain a methylene bridge connecting the 2′ oxygen and 4′ carbon in the ribose moiety. This methylene bridge locks the ribose group into a C3′-endo conformation. LNA, including an oligonucleotide, increases the thermal stability of hybrid strands. The use of LNA technology in molecular diagnostic methods improves the specificity and sensitivity of assays. This review describes routinely analyzed mutations and molecular diagnostic methods used in the clinical laboratory along with the performance improvement of mutational analysis with LNA.

      PubDate: 2017-11-27T17:59:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.10.002
  • Liquid Biopsy: From Basic Research to Clinical Practice
    • Authors: Mónica Macías; Estibaliz Alegre; Angel Díaz-Lagares; Ana Patiño; Jose L. Pérez-Gracia; Miguel Sanmamed; Rafael López-López; Nerea Varo; Alvaro González
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Mónica Macías, Estibaliz Alegre, Angel Díaz-Lagares, Ana Patiño, Jose L. Pérez-Gracia, Miguel Sanmamed, Rafael López-López, Nerea Varo, Alvaro González
      Liquid biopsy refers to the molecular analysis in biological fluids of nucleic acids, subcellular structures, especially exosomes, and, in the context of cancer, circulating tumor cells. In the last 10 years, there has been an intensive research in liquid biopsy to achieve a less invasive and more precise personalized medicine. Molecular assessment of these circulating biomarkers can complement or even surrogate tissue biopsy. Because of this research, liquid biopsy has been introduced in clinical practice, especially in oncology, prenatal screening, and transplantation. Here we review the biology, methodological approaches, and clinical applications of the main biomarkers involved in liquid biopsy.

      PubDate: 2017-11-27T17:59:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.10.003
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