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Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
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Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
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African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access  
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
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American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
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American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
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American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access  
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American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
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Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
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Annals of Fundeni Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arak Medical University Journal     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access  
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access  
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Atención Familiar     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avicenna Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Journal Khulna     Open Access  
Bangladesh Medical Research Council Bulletin     Open Access  
Basal Ganglia     Hybrid Journal  
Basic Sciences of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BC Medical Journal     Free  
Benha Medical Journal     Open Access  
Bijblijven     Hybrid Journal  
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biologics in Therapy     Open Access  
Biology of Sex Differences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomarker Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Advances in Medical Sciences
  [SJR: 0.489]   [H-I: 25]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1896-1126 - ISSN (Online) 1898-4002
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • The alterations in alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase
           activities in the sera of patients with renal cell carcinoma
    • Authors: Karolina Orywal; Wojciech Jelski; Tadeusz Werel; Maciej Szmitkowski
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 63, Issue 1
      Author(s): Karolina Orywal, Wojciech Jelski, Tadeusz Werel, Maciej Szmitkowski
      Purpose In a previous study we showed that the total activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and its isoenzyme class I was significantly higher in renal cancer (RCC) cells compared to normal kidney. The aim of this study was to compare the activities of ADH isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in the sera of patients with different stages of RCC and healthy subjects. Materials and methods Serum samples were taken from 54 patients with clear cell RCC (17 patients in stage II, 22 in stage III and 15 in stage IV) and 52 healthy patients. Class III, IV of ADH and the total ADH activity was measured by the photometric method. For the measurement of ADH class I, II and the total ALDH activity we employed the fluorometric method. Results The total activity of ADH and its isoenzyme class I were significantly higher in the sera of patients with every stage of RCC compared to healthy subjects. The analysis of ALDH activity did not indicate significant differences between tested groups. Conclusions The increased activity of total ADH and its isoenzyme class I in the sera of patients with RCC, seems to be caused by isoenzymes being released from cancerous cells and may be useful for diagnostics of renal cancer.

      PubDate: 2017-08-06T13:01:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.05.001
  • Impact of intervention on metabolic outcomes among dropouts with type 2
    • Authors: Merja K. Laine; Timo Kauppila; Mikko Honkasalo; Marko Raina; Johan G. Eriksson
      Pages: 5 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 63, Issue 1
      Author(s): Merja K. Laine, Timo Kauppila, Mikko Honkasalo, Marko Raina, Johan G. Eriksson
      Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an individual intervention given by health care professionals to dropouts with type 2 diabetes (T2D) on their metabolic profile. Materials/methods In 2010, we identified 356 T2D dropouts in Vantaa Health Centre, Finland. At the baseline visit the participants’ status was assessed including laboratory tests. Diabetes counseling was given, and drug treatment was enhanced when needed. The follow-up visit was performed 13 to 30 months later including the same assessments as performed at the baseline visit. The dropouts who attended the follow-up visit formed the study group. One third (n=115) of the dropouts participated in the follow-up visit. Results The study participants (mean age 61.4 years) were older than the non-participants (mean age 58.5 years) (p=0.009). After the intervention the proportion of participants with hemoglobin A1c≥9% (75mmol/mol) decreased from 15.5% to 5.2% (p=0.004). Improvements were also observed in general in hemoglobin A1c, from 6.6% (49mmol/mol) to 6.3% (45mmol/mol) (p=0.001), in total cholesterol, from 4.9mmol/l to 4.5mmol/l (p=0.011), in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, from 2.9mmol/l to 2.6mmol/l (p=0.015) and in diastolic blood pressure, from 90mmHg to 84mmHg (p=0.001). Conclusions Dropouts with T2D were difficult to bring back to the public health care system, especially men under the age of 60 years. Dropouts who participated in the intervention showed improvements in several metabolic outcomes.

      PubDate: 2017-08-06T13:01:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.05.003
  • Genetic basis of enzymatic resistance of E. coli to aminoglycosides
    • Authors: Dominika Ojdana; Anna Sieńko; Paweł Sacha; Piotr Majewski; Piotr Wieczorek; Anna Wieczorek; Elżbieta Tryniszewska
      Pages: 9 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 63, Issue 1
      Author(s): Dominika Ojdana, Anna Sieńko, Paweł Sacha, Piotr Majewski, Piotr Wieczorek, Anna Wieczorek, Elżbieta Tryniszewska
      Purpose Over the past years, an increase in resistance to aminoglycosides has been observed among Enterobacteriaceae rods. This resistance development reduces therapeutic options for infections caused by multidrug-resistance organisms. Because of the changing epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and resistance to aminoglycosides, we investigated the prevalence of the aac(3)-Ia, aac(6′)-Ib, ant(4′)-IIa, ant(2”)-Ia, and aph(3”)-Ib genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs) in ESBL-producing Escherichia coli as well as ESBL-non-producing isolates. To understand bacterial resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics, we estimated resistance phenotypes and the presence of genes responsible for this resistance. Materials and methods The study was conducted on 44 E.coli strains originated from patients hospitalized at University Hospital of Bialystok. MIC values were obtained for gentamicin, amikacin, netilmicin, and tobramycin. Isolates were tested for the presence of the aac(3)-Ia, aac(6′)-Ib, ant(4′)-IIa, ant(2”)-Ia, and aph(3”)-Ib genes with the use of the PCR technique. Results Resistance to aminoglycosides was found in 79.5% of the isolates. The highest percentages of resistance were observed for tobramycin (70,5%) and gentamicin (59%), followed by netilmicin (43.2%) and amikacin (11.4%). PCR assays revealed the presence of aac(6′)-Ib among 26 (59.2%) strains, aph(3”)-Ib among 16 (36.2%), aac(3)-Ia among 7 (15.9%), and ant(2”)-Ia among 2 (4.6%) strains. Conclusions The enzymatic resistance against aminoglycosides in northeastern Poland among clinical isolates of E. coli is predominantly caused by aac(6′)-Ib and aph(3”)-Ib. Amikacin may be used for therapy of infections caused by ESBL-producing E. coli, because of the low rates of resistance.

      PubDate: 2017-08-06T13:01:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.05.004
  • A systematic review on the role of eicosanoid pathways in rheumatoid
    • Authors: Malvina Hoxha
      Pages: 22 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 63, Issue 1
      Author(s): Malvina Hoxha
      Background Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by the production of eicosanoids, cytokines, adhesion molecules, infiltration of T and B lymphocytes in the synovium and oxygen reduction accompanied by the cartilage degradation. Eicosanoids are responsible for the progressive destruction of cartilage and bone, however neither steroids, nor the non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), cannot slow down cartilage and bone destruction providing only symptomatic improvement. The current rheumatoid arthritis treatment options include mainly the use of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, the corticosteroids, the NSAIDs and biological agents. Methods PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase electronic database were used as the main sources for extracting several articles, reviews, original papers in English for further review and analysis on the implication of arachidonic acid metabolites with rheumatoid arthritis and different strategies of targeting arachidonic acid metabolites, different enzymes or receptors for improving the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Results We first focused on the role of individual prostaglandins and leukotrienes, in the inflammatory process of arthritis, concluding with an outline of the current clinical situation of rheumatoid arthritis and novel treatment strategies targeting the arachidonic acid pathway. Conclusions Extended research is necessary for the development of these novel compounds targeting the eicosanoid pathway, by increasing the levels of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids (PGD2,15dPGJ2), by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids (PGE2, LTB4, PGI2) involved in rheumatoid arthritis or also by developing dual compounds displaying both the COX-2 inhibitor/TP antagonist activity within a single compound.

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T21:15:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.06.004
  • Patients with atrial fibrillation and coronary artery disease –
           Double trouble
    • Authors: Ewelina Michniewicz; Elżbieta Mlodawska; Paulina Lopatowska; Anna Tomaszuk-Kazberuk; Jolanta Malyszko
      Pages: 30 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 63, Issue 1
      Author(s): Ewelina Michniewicz, Elżbieta Mlodawska, Paulina Lopatowska, Anna Tomaszuk-Kazberuk, Jolanta Malyszko
      Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cardiovascular disease while atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Both diseases share associated risk factors – hypertension, diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea, obesity and smoking. Moreover, inflammation plays a causative role in both diseases. The prevalence of CAD in patients with AF is from 17% to 46.5% while the prevalence of AF among patients with CAD is low and it is estimated from 0.2% to 5%. AF is a well-established factor of poor short- and long-term prognosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and is associated with a marked increase in overall mortality. The arrhythmia is common after cardiac surgeries and occurs in about 20 to 40% of patients after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. It is predicted that between 5 and 15% of AF patients will require stenting at some point in their lives and will receive triple therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel or ticagrelor and oral anticoagulation (OAC). This requires careful consideration of antithrombotic therapy, balancing bleeding risk, stroke risk, and in-stent thrombosis with subsequent acute coronary syndromes. Co-prescription of OAC with antiplatelet therapy, in particular triple therapy, increases the absolute risk of major bleeding. In addition, major bleeding is associated with an up to 5-fold increased risk of death following an acute coronary syndrome. Coexistence of AF and CAD worsens the prognosis even in carefully treated patients.

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T21:15:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.06.005
  • Antidepressant-like activity of methyl jasmonate involves modulation of
           monoaminergic pathways in mice
    • Authors: Solomon Umukoro; Adaeze Adebesin; Gladys Agu; Osarume Omorogbe; Stephen Babajide Asehinde
      Pages: 36 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 63, Issue 1
      Author(s): Solomon Umukoro, Adaeze Adebesin, Gladys Agu, Osarume Omorogbe, Stephen Babajide Asehinde
      Purpose The efficacy of current antidepressant drugs has been compromised by adverse effects, low remission and delay onset of action necessitating the search for alternative agents. Methyl jasmonate (MJ), a bioactive compound isolated from Jasminum grandiflorum has been shown to demonstrate antidepressant activity but its mechanism of action remains unknown. Thus, the role of monoaminergic systems in the antidepression-like activity of MJ was investigated in this study. Materials and methods Mice were given i.p. injection of MJ (5, 10 and 20mg/kg), imipramine (10mg/kg) and vehicle (10mL/kg) 30min before the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were carried out. The involvement of monoaminergic systems in the anti-depressant-like effect of MJ (20mg/kg) was evaluated using p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA), metergoline, yohimbine, prazosin, sulpiride and haloperidol in the TST. Results MJ significantly decrease the duration of immobility in the FST and TST relative to control suggesting antidepressant-like property. However, pretreatment with yohimbine (1mg/kg, i.p., an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist) or prazosin (62.5μg/kg, i.p., an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist) attenuated the antidepressant-like activity of MJ. Also, pCPA; an inhibitor of serotonin biosynthesis (100mg/kg, i.p) or metergoline (4mg/kg, i.p., 5-HT2 receptor antagonist) reversed the anti-immobility effect of MJ. Sulpiride (50mg/kg, i.p., a D2 receptor antagonist) or haloperidol (0.2mg/kg, i.p., a dopamine receptor antagonist) reversed the anti-immobility effect of MJ. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems may play a role in the antidepressant-like activity of MJ.

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T21:15:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.07.005
  • Trimethylamine-N-oxide, as a risk factor for atherosclerosis, induces
           stress in J774A.1 murine macrophages
    • Authors: Abbas Mohammadi; Zakaria Vahabzadeh; Soran Jamalzadeh; Tahereh Khalili
      Pages: 57 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 63, Issue 1
      Author(s): Abbas Mohammadi, Zakaria Vahabzadeh, Soran Jamalzadeh, Tahereh Khalili
      Purpose Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a biomarker for kidney problems. It has also been introduced as a risk factor for atherosclerosis. The classic risk factors for atherosclerosis trigger cellular and humeral immunoreaction in macrophages through induction of heat shock protein expressions and increased levels of GRP94 and HSP70 are associated with increased atherosclerosis risk. The present study evaluated the possible effect(s) of TMAO on the expression of GRP94 and HSP70 at protein levels. Methods J774A.1 murine macrophages were treated with different micromolar concentrations of TMAO and 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA), a chemical chaperone, for 8, 18, 24, and 48h intervals. Tunicamycin was also used as a control for induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Western blotting was used to evaluate the expression of GRP94 and HSP70 in macrophages at protein levels. Result Tunicamycin greatly increased protein levels of GRP94. Similarly, but to a lesser extent compared to tunicamycin, TMAO also increased GRP94. In 24h treated cells, only 300μM of TMAO, and in cells treated for 48h, all doses of TMAO produced a significant increase in relative HSP70 protein levels compared to the control. PBA failed to induce any changes in GRP94 or HSP70 protein levels. Conclusion GRP94 and HSP70 are stress-inducible heat shock protein, so the elevation in J774A.1 murine macrophages can clearly define cells under stress and elucidate the contribution of stress induced by TMAO that may have a part in the abnormal activation of macrophages involved in foam cell formation.

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T21:15:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.06.006
  • The influence of low level laser irradiation on vascular reactivity
    • Authors: Magdelena Mackiewicz-Milewska; Elżbieta Grześk; Andrzej C. Kroszczyński; Małgorzata Cisowska-Adamiak; Hanna Mackiewicz-Nartowicz; Lilianna Baran; Iwona Szymkuć-Bukowska; Michał Wiciński; Wojciech Hagner; Grzegorz Grześk
      Pages: 64 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 63, Issue 1
      Author(s): Magdelena Mackiewicz-Milewska, Elżbieta Grześk, Andrzej C. Kroszczyński, Małgorzata Cisowska-Adamiak, Hanna Mackiewicz-Nartowicz, Lilianna Baran, Iwona Szymkuć-Bukowska, Michał Wiciński, Wojciech Hagner, Grzegorz Grześk
      Introduction The mechanism of action of low level laser irradiationon on tissues is unclear.
      Authors of publications present the positive clinical impact of low and medium power laser irradiation on vascular reactivity

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T21:15:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.06.002
  • Endogenous non-enzymatic antioxidants in the human body
    • Authors: Iwona Mirończuk-Chodakowska; Anna Maria Witkowska; Małgorzata Elżbieta Zujko
      Pages: 68 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 63, Issue 1
      Author(s): Iwona Mirończuk-Chodakowska, Anna Maria Witkowska, Małgorzata Elżbieta Zujko
      The exposure of cells, tissues and extracellular matrix to harmful reactive species causes a cascade of reactions and induces activation of multiple internal defence mechanisms (enzymatic or non-enzymatic) that provide removal of reactive species and their derivatives. The non-enzymatic antioxidants are represented by molecules characterized by the ability to rapidly inactivate radicals and oxidants. This paper focuses on the major intrinsic non-enzymatic antioxidants, including metal binding proteins (MBPs), glutathione (GSH), uric acid (UA), melatonin (MEL), bilirubin (BIL) and polyamines (PAs).

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T21:15:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.05.005
  • A similar pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance is present in the airways
           of competitive athletes and non-exercising asthmatics
    • Authors: Marcin Kurowski; Janusz Jurczyk; Agnieszka Olszewska-Ziąber; Marzanna Jarzębska; Hubert Krysztofiak; Marek L. Kowalski
      Pages: 79 - 86
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 63, Issue 1
      Author(s): Marcin Kurowski, Janusz Jurczyk, Agnieszka Olszewska-Ziąber, Marzanna Jarzębska, Hubert Krysztofiak, Marek L. Kowalski
      Purpose Intensive exercise modifies airway inflammation and infection susceptibility. We aimed to determine the effect of exercise on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1ra, IL-10) and innate immunity protein (HSPA1, sCD14) levels in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and nasal secretions of competitive athletes, non-exercising asthmatics and healthy controls (HC). Material and methods The study group consisted of 15 competitive athletes (five speed skaters and ten swimmers) aged 15–25. The control groups comprised 10 mild-to-moderate asthmatics (AC) and seven HC. Athletes were assessed in- and off-training while asthmatics and controls at one time point. Nasal lavages and EBC were collected before and after a treadmill exercise challenge. Protein levels were assessed using ELISA. Results TNF-α levels in EBC were significantly higher in athletes than HC, but similar to asthmatic patients. In contrast, IL-1ra EBC concentrations were significantly lower in athletes than in HC, but again similar to asthmatics. Significant positive correlations were seen between baseline concentrations of TNF-α in EBC and fall in FEV1 following exercise challenge in athletes during training period (R=0.74, p<0.01) and in asthmatics (R=0.64, p<0.05). In nasal secretions, baseline IL-1ra levels were significantly higher in athletes and asthmatics than in HC. Exercise caused a slight, yet significant, increase in EBC HSPA1 in athletes (p=0.02). The exercise challenge did not considerably influence TNF-α, IL-1ra, HSPA1 and sCD14 in EBC or nasal secretions. Conclusions Dysregulation of the TNF-α/IL-1ra balance in EBC and nasal secretions from athletes may reflect the presence of airway inflammation induced by repeated strenuous exercise.

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T21:15:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.07.004
  • Novel mutations and their genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with
           Noonan syndrome, using next-generation sequencing
    • Authors: Alireza Tafazoli; Peyman Eshraghi; Francesca Pantaleoni; Rahim Vakili; Morteza Moghaddassian; Martha Ghahraman; Valentina Muto; Stefano Paolacci; Fatemeh Fardi Golyan; Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan
      Pages: 87 - 93
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 63, Issue 1
      Author(s): Alireza Tafazoli, Peyman Eshraghi, Francesca Pantaleoni, Rahim Vakili, Morteza Moghaddassian, Martha Ghahraman, Valentina Muto, Stefano Paolacci, Fatemeh Fardi Golyan, Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan
      Purpose Noonan Syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with many variable and heterogeneous conditions. The genetic basis for 20–30% of cases is still unknown. This study evaluates Iranian Noonan patients both clinically and genetically for the first time. Materials/methods Mutational analysis of PTPN11 gene was performed in 15 Iranian patients, using PCR and Sanger sequencing at phase one. Then, as phase two, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) in the form of targeted resequencing was utilized for analysis of exons from other related genes. Homology modelling for the novel founded mutations was performed as well. The genotype, phenotype correlation was done according to the molecular findings and clinical features. Results Previously reported mutation (p.N308D) in some patients and a novel mutation (p.D155N) in one of the patients were identified in phase one. After applying NGS methods, known and new variants were found in four patients in other genes, including: CBL (p. V904I), KRAS (p. L53W), SOS1 (p. I1302V), and SOS1 (p. R552G). Structural studies of two deduced novel mutations in related genes revealed deficiencies in the mutated proteins. Following genotype, phenotype correlation, a new pattern of the presence of intellectual disability in two patients was registered. Conclusions NS shows strong variable expressivity along the high genetic heterogeneity especially in distinct populations and ethnic groups. Also possibly unknown other causative genes may be exist. Obviously, more comprehensive and new technologies like NGS methods are the best choice for detection of molecular defects in patients for genotype, phenotype correlation and disease management.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T16:22:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.07.001
  • Pediatric reference data on activity of urinary
           N-acetyl-β-D-hexosaminidase and its isoenzymes
    • Authors: B. Zalewska-Szajda; K. Taranta-Janusz; S. Chojnowska; N. Waszkiewicz; K. Zwierz; A. Wasilewska
      Pages: 94 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 63, Issue 1
      Author(s): B. Zalewska-Szajda, K. Taranta-Janusz, S. Chojnowska, N. Waszkiewicz, K. Zwierz, A. Wasilewska
      Purpose The objective of the study was to establish age − dependent values of the urinary lysosomal exoglycosidases activities: N-acetyl-β-D-hexosaminidase (HEX) and its isoenzyme A (HEX A) as well as isoenzyme B (HEX B) in healthy children and adolescents. Material and methods The study was performed using a random sample of 203 healthy children and adolescents (girls=99, boys=104), aged six months to 17.9 years. The activities of HEX, HEX A and HEX B were determined by a colorimetric method. The activities of the urinary HEX and its isoenzymes were expressed in pKat/μg of creatinine (pKat/μg Cr). Results Median concentrations of urinary HEX, and its HEX A, HEX B isoenzymes in particular age groups were analyzed using ANOVA. Urinary HEX, HEX A and HEX B activities (pKat/μg Cr) were the highest in children below 3 years, in comparison to remaining age groups. There were statistically significant negative correlations between urinary HEX, HEX A as well as HEX B and age (r=−0.24, p<0.001 (HEX); r=−0.20, p<0.01 (HEX A); r=−0.26, p<0.001 (HEX B), respectively. We constructed the reference values for urinary activity of HEX, HEX A and HEX B (pKat/μg Cr) in centiles according to age, in three-year intervals. Conclusions Reported data present, for the first time, reference values for urinary activities of HEX and its isoenzymes HEX A and HEX B in children and adolescent.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T00:04:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.06.007
  • Pharmacological thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke treatment: Gender
           differences in clinical risk factors
    • Authors: Michael J. Colello; Lauren E. Ivey; Jordan Gainey; Rakiya V. Faulkner; Ashleigh Johnson; Leanne Brechtel; Lee Madeline; Thomas I. Nathaniel
      Pages: 100 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 63, Issue 1
      Author(s): Michael J. Colello, Lauren E. Ivey, Jordan Gainey, Rakiya V. Faulkner, Ashleigh Johnson, Leanne Brechtel, Lee Madeline, Thomas I. Nathaniel
      Background In a stroke population, women have a worse outcome than men when untreated. In contrast, there is no significant difference in treated patients. In this study, we determined whether clinical variables represent a promising approach to assist in the evaluation of gender differences in a stroke population. Methods We analyzed data from ischemic stroke patients’ ≥18 years-old from the stroke registry on rtPA administration and identified gender differences in clinical factors within inclusion and exclusion criteria in a stroke population that received rtPA. Multivariate analysis was used to adjust for patient demographic and clinical variables. Results Of the 241 eligible stroke patients’ thrombolytic therapy, 49.4% were females and 50.6% were males. Of the 422 patients that did not receive rtPA, more women (235) were excluded from rtPA than men (187) (P<0.05). In the male population, exclusion from rtPA was associated with history of a previous stroke (P<0.05, OR=2.028), hypertension (P<0.05, OR=0.519), and NIH stroke score (P<0.0001, OR=0.893). In female stroke patients, exclusion from rtPA was associated with previous history of stroke (P<0.05, OR=2.332), diabetes (P<0.05, OR=1.88) and NIH stroke score (P<0.05, OR=0.916). Conclusions Despite similarities in different areas of stroke care for both men and women, more women with diabetes, previous history of stroke and higher NIH scores are more likely to be excluded from thrombolytic therapy. Men with a previous history of stroke, hypertension and higher NIH scores are more likely to be excluded rtPA even after adjustment for confounding variables.

      PubDate: 2017-10-09T18:49:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.08.003
  • A novel germline TP53 mutation p.Pro190Arg detected in a patient with lung
           and bilateral breast cancers
    • Authors: Małgorzata Krześniak; Dorota Butkiewicz; Jadwiga Rachtan; Iwona Matuszczyk; Ewa Grzybowska; Marek Rusin
      Pages: 207 - 210
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 2
      Author(s): Małgorzata Krześniak, Dorota Butkiewicz, Jadwiga Rachtan, Iwona Matuszczyk, Ewa Grzybowska, Marek Rusin
      Purpose Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a rare genetic disease with strong predispositions to multiple early-onset neoplasms, mostly sarcomas, breast cancers, brain tumors and adrenocortical carcinomas (LFS core cancers). In most LFS families the germline mutations of TP53 tumor suppressor gene were found. Lung cancer does not belong to the core cancers of LFS, however its higher incidence is observed in families with TP53 mutations. Our aim was to search for TP53 mutations in female lung cancer patients whose clinico-demographic characteristics suggested a probable genetic predisposition to the disease. Materials and methods The coding region of TP53 from blood DNA was sequenced using Sanger method. The functioning of detected mutation was tested by luciferase reporter assay. Results We found a nucleotide substitution c.569C>G, p.Pro190Arg, which was not described in the TP53 germline mutation database ( The mutation destroys the ability of p53 to transactivate BAX promoter and significantly reduces transactivation potential of p53 toward the promoter of MDM2 gen. Conclusion We identified novel germline mutation of TP53.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T07:03:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2016.12.002
  • Salivary protective factors in patients suffering from decompensated type
           2 diabetes
    • Authors: Marcin Chorzewski; Karolina Orywal; Teresa Sierpinska; Maria Golebiewska
      Pages: 211 - 215
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 2
      Author(s): Marcin Chorzewski, Karolina Orywal, Teresa Sierpinska, Maria Golebiewska
      Purpose Defining the level of protective factors in saliva of patients suffering from decompensated type 2 diabetes. Material and methods 50 Patients with diagnosis of decompensated type 2 diabetes, including 32 women and 18 men at the age of 57.9±9.2 years. The control group consisted of 50 people among whom there were 38 women and 12 men whose average age was estimated at 51.2±9.9 years. Results It was stated the increased concentration of total protein by 60% and decreased concentration of IgA by 70%, of lysozyme by 27% and of lactoferrin by 40% in resting saliva of patients with type 2 diabetes if compared to the control group. These outcomes were really statistically meaningful. The evaluation of dependences between the analyzed protective factors and the indicator of oral cavity condition proved the positive correlation between the concentration of total protein and the number of DMFT (i.e. the rate of caries intensity). The remaining coefficients of correlation being evaluated proved to be negative and statistically meaningless. Conclusion The obtained outcomes prove a high influence of proteins included in saliva on the prevalence and development of caries at patients with decompensated type 2 diabetes.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T07:03:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2016.06.005
  • Genetic alterations within TLR genes in development of Toxoplasma gondii
           infection among Polish pregnant women
    • Authors: Wioletta Wujcicka; Jan Wilczyński; Dorota Nowakowska
      Pages: 216 - 222
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 2
      Author(s): Wioletta Wujcicka, Jan Wilczyński, Dorota Nowakowska
      Purpose The research was conducted to evaluate the role of genotypes, haplotypes and multiple-SNP variants in the range of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the development of Toxoplasma gondii infection among Polish pregnant women. Material and methods The study was performed for 116 Polish pregnant women, including 51 patients infected with T. gondii, and 65 age-matched control pregnant individuals. Genotypes in TLR2 2258 G>A, TLR4 896 A>G, TLR4 1196 C>T and TLR9 2848 G>A SNPs were estimated by self-designed, nested PCR-RFLP assays. Randomly selected PCR products, representative for distinct genotypes in the studied polymorphisms, were confirmed by sequencing. All the genotypes were calculated for Hardy-Weinberg (H-W) equilibrium and TLR4 variants were tested for linkage disequilibrium. Relationships were assessed between alleles, genotypes, haplotypes or multiple-SNP variants in TLR polymorphisms and the occurrence of T. gondii infection in pregnant women, using a logistic regression model. Results All the analyzed genotypes preserved the H-W equilibrium among the studied groups of patients (P> 0.050). Similar distribution of distinct alleles and individual genotypes in TLR SNPs, as well as of haplotypes in TLR4 polymorphisms, were observed in T. gondii infected and control uninfected pregnant women. However, the GACG multiple-SNP variant, within the range of all the four studied polymorphisms, was correlated with a decreased risk of the parasitic infection (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.28-0.97; P ≤0.050). Conclusions The polymorphisms, located within TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 genes, may be involved together in occurrence of T. gondii infection among Polish pregnant women.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T07:03:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.02.002
  • The fact not to ignore: Mean blood pressure is the main predictor of
    • Authors: Alma Čypienė; Jolanta Dadonienė; Dalia Miltinienė; Egidija Rinkūnienė; Rita Rugienė; Sigita Stropuvienė; Jolita Badarienė; Aleksandras Laucevičius
      Pages: 223 - 229
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 2
      Author(s): Alma Čypienė, Jolanta Dadonienė, Dalia Miltinienė, Egidija Rinkūnienė, Rita Rugienė, Sigita Stropuvienė, Jolita Badarienė, Aleksandras Laucevičius
      Purpose We aimed to evaluate the association between carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AIx), and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery and factors potentially influencing them in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and systemic sclerosis (SSc). Material and methods 316 patients diagnosed with RA (32%), SLE (20%), SSc (16%) and 156 controls (32%) were included in the study. Parameters of arterial stiffness AIx and PWV were obtained using applanation tonometry. FMD reflecting endothelial function was measured by ultrasound. Results AIx was increased in all three diseases (p<0.0001), but no differences were found between rheumatic diseases. In most of the RA cases PWV values were abnormal (on average by 0.52m/sec higher than in controls), while in SSc patients FMD values were diminished (p=0.006). Mean blood pressure (MBP) was the most consistent predictive factor in all three diseases, influencing both PWV and AIx, although patient age was also important in variation of AIx. The disease activity score (DAS28) was relevant only in RA patients. Furthermore, SLE disease activity index in SLE or Rodnan skin thickness score had no statistical significance in SSc and inflammatory markers. Conclusions Both, PWV and AIx are dependent on MBP and age DAS28 may affect AIx in RA patients, while other disease or inflammatory markers are unlikely to have any effect. MBP is one of the main cardiovascular risk factors affecting the arterial stiffness in RA, SLE and SSc patients therefore controlling MBP in systemic rheumatic disease patients is mandatory.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T07:03:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.01.005
  • Hysteroscopy in the treatment of uterine cesarean section scar
           diverticulum: A systematic review
    • Authors: Anna Abacjew-Chmylko; Dariusz G. Wydra; Hanna Olszewska
      Pages: 230 - 239
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 2
      Author(s): Anna Abacjew-Chmylko, Dariusz G. Wydra, Hanna Olszewska
      The aim of this paper is to review and to analyze the results of previous studies dealing with hysteroscopic treatment of postcesarean scar defects. A systematic review of publications indexed in MEDLINE/PubMed database identified a total of 11 studies dealing with resectoscopic treatment of postcesarean scar defect. The review was conducted in line with the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines and the PRISMA statement. In only few studies, patients were qualified for hysteroscopic surgery based on the measurement of the defect depth and thickness of residual myometrium above the pouch. Two principal techniques were used for the hysteroscopic treatment: resection of one edge of the scar diverticulum, and resection of the inferior and superior edges of the defect. Additionally, most authors performed electrocauterization of the niche bottom. Resectoscopic treatment turned out to be highly effective in the case of women with AUB. No complications of the hysteroscopic procedure have been reported. Methodological value of the reviewed studies was relatively low due to non-unified selection/verification criteria and incomplete, non-systematic postoperative assessment. In conclusion, hysteroscopic treatment seems to be a promising option in the management of postcesarean scar defects, but still further research is needed on the problem in question.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T07:03:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.01.004
  • Spatial QRS-T angle in patients with newly diagnosed obstructive sleep
           apnea syndrome
    • Authors: Paweł Kiciński; Todd Schlegel; Andrzej Dybała; Maciej Zakrzewski; Sylwia Przybylska-Kuć; Wojciech Myśliński; Jerzy Mosiewicz; Stanisław Głuszek; Andrzej Jaroszyński
      Pages: 240 - 245
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 2
      Author(s): Paweł Kiciński, Todd Schlegel, Andrzej Dybała, Maciej Zakrzewski, Sylwia Przybylska-Kuć, Wojciech Myśliński, Jerzy Mosiewicz, Stanisław Głuszek, Andrzej Jaroszyński
      Purpose The aim of the study was to assess the spatial QRS-T angle (QRS-TA) in a group of newly diagnosed and untreated adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and to identify potential factors affecting this parameter. Patients and methods The study group (PSG-confirmed OSAS) included 62 individuals, aged 51.7±10.3 years. The control group consisted of 25 individuals, aged 46.6±16.6 years with no sleep-disordered breathing. The diagnosis of OSAS and assessment of its severity was based on unattended all-night screening polysomnography. The spatial QRS-TA was reconstructed from 12-lead ECG using Kors’ regression method. Results Significant differences of spatial QRS-TA values were found between patients with severe OSAS (36.9±18.9°) and the controls (20.3±13.4°; p <0.01) and between patients with mild or moderate OSAS (32.3±20.1°) and the controls (p =0.01). Statistically significant correlations were found between spatial QRS-TA and polysomnographic indices (i.e. AHI, AI, RDT and RDTI). Conlusions Spatial QRS-TA values are significantly higher in patients with OSAS than in controls, thus indicating increased heterogeneity of myocardial action potential. Further long-term prospective studies evaluating the prognostic value of spatial QRS-TA in OSAS patients are needed.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T07:03:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2016.11.008
  • Tangeretin alters neuronal apoptosis and ameliorates the severity of
           seizures in experimental epilepsy-induced rats by modulating apoptotic
           protein expressions, regulating matrix metalloproteinases, and activating
           the PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway
    • Authors: Xiao-qian Guo; Yu-ling Cao; Fang Hao; Zhong-rui Yan; Mei-ling Wang; Xue-wu Liu
      Pages: 246 - 253
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 2
      Author(s): Xiao-qian Guo, Yu-ling Cao, Fang Hao, Zhong-rui Yan, Mei-ling Wang, Xue-wu Liu
      Purpose Epilepsy is complex neural disarray categorized by recurring seizures. Despite recent advances in pharmacotherapies for epilepsy, its treatment remains a challenge due to the contrary effects of the drugs. As a result, the identification of novel anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) with neuroprotective properties and few side effects is of great value. Thus, the present study assessed the treatment effects of tangeretin using a rat model of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. Materials and Methods Separate groups of male Wistar rats received oral administrations of tangeretin at 50, 100, or 200mg/kg for 10 days and then, on the 10th day, they received an intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine (30mg/kg). Subsequently, neuronal degeneration and apoptosis were assessed using Nissl staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay procedures. Additionally, the expressions of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K/Akt) pathway proteins, cleaved caspase-3, Bad, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Bax were determined using Western blot analyses. Results Tangeretin reduced the seizure scores and latency to first seizure of the rats and effectively activated the pilocarpine-induced suppression of PI3K/Akt signaling. Additionally, tangeretin effectively regulated the levels of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) in mitochondria as well as the expressions of apoptotic pathway proteins. Seizure-induced elevations in the activities and expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2 and -9 were also modulated. Conclusion The present results indicate that tangeretin exerted potent neuroprotective effects against pilocarpine-induced seizures via the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling and the regulation of MMPs.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T07:03:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2016.11.011
  • Different manifestations of pulmonary embolism in younger compared to
           older patients: Clinical presentation, prediction rules and long-term
    • Authors: Izabela E. Kiluk; Agnieszka Krajewska; Urszula Kosacka; Agnieszka Tycińska; Robert Milewski; Włodzimierz Musiał; Bożena Sobkowicz
      Pages: 254 - 258
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 2
      Author(s): Izabela E. Kiluk, Agnieszka Krajewska, Urszula Kosacka, Agnieszka Tycińska, Robert Milewski, Włodzimierz Musiał, Bożena Sobkowicz
      Purpose Data concerning specific manifestations of pulmonary embolism (PE) among younger patients are scarce. We aimed to evaluate differences in clinical presentation, PE prediction rules, thrombolytic treatment use and PE outcomes in younger (<50 years of age) compared to older patients. Material/methods We studied 238 consecutive patients with proven PE who were retrospectively categorized into three PE probability subgroups according to the revised Geneva score (RGS) and Wells score (WS). Duration of follow-up was up to 115 months. Results Younger patients accounted for 19.7% of the study cohort. Obesity and smoking were significantly more common, while comorbidities were less common (P <0.05) in the younger patients. According to RGS and WS, younger patients were more often categorized into the low PE probability subgroup and rarely into the high probability subgroup (P <0.05). We found no differences in clinical signs, symptoms, and treatment between the two groups. In-hospital (2% vs. 13%) and long-term (12% vs. 36%) mortality rates were significantly lower in younger patients (P =0.003). Conclusions In younger PE patients, despite differences in predisposing factors and PE probability grading as assessed by RGS and WS, clinical features at admission and treatment were similar compared to the older group. Our findings confirmed lower mortality among younger compared to older patients.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T07:03:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.01.001
  • Osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells is impaired by bone
           morphogenetic protein 7
    • Authors: Paweena Wongwitwichot; Jasadee Kaewsrichan
      Pages: 266 - 272
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 2
      Author(s): Paweena Wongwitwichot, Jasadee Kaewsrichan
      Purpose Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells and present in practically all tissues but originally identified within the bone marrow (BM). The differentiation potential of these cells is generally impaired when culturing in vitro for cell expansion. The aim of this study is to speedily increase the numbers of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) with substantially maintaining their differentiation potential in vitro and improving bone formation in vivo. Materials and methods BM-MSCs isolated from rats were sequentially cultured in α-MEM containing basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) and/or insulin to stimulate proliferation and osteogenic commitment, and in the medium with the addition of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and/or bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) to arouse differentiation. The expression of genes markedly associating the commitment and differentiation were investigated in vitro using real-time PCR technique and mineralization assay, while the capacity of inducing bone formation by the established conditions was determined in vivo using a rat model. Results The BM-MSCs greatly proliferated with active transcription of runx2 and osterix genes when induced by FGF2 and insulin. The in vitro mineralization was enhanced by BMP2, but the extent was diminished when BMP2 was replaced or supplemented by BMP7. Formation of new small blood vessels was notably detected when the cells were respectively challenged by FGF2 plus insulin and BMP2. Conclusion These data are valuable in choosing growth factors for proper bone repair. However, optimization of the established system would be essential when the cells of human source are applied.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T07:03:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2016.12.001
  • Treatment of refractory epilepsy patients with autologous mesenchymal stem
           cells reduces seizure frequency: An open label study
    • Authors: Fedor Hlebokazov; Tatiana Dakukina; Svetlana Ihnatsenko; Svetlana Kosmacheva; Michael Potapnev; Antos Shakhbazau; Natalia Goncharova; Michael Makhrov; Pavel Korolevich; Nikolai Misyuk; Victoria Dakukina; Irina Shamruk; Elena Slobina; Sergei Marchuk
      Pages: 273 - 279
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 2
      Author(s): Fedor Hlebokazov, Tatiana Dakukina, Svetlana Ihnatsenko, Svetlana Kosmacheva, Michael Potapnev, Antos Shakhbazau, Natalia Goncharova, Michael Makhrov, Pavel Korolevich, Nikolai Misyuk, Victoria Dakukina, Irina Shamruk, Elena Slobina, Sergei Marchuk
      Purpose Existing anti-epileptic drugs (AED) have limited efficiency in many patients, necessitating the search for alternative approaches such as stem cell therapy. We report the use of autologous patient-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) as a therapeutic agent in symptomatic drug-resistant epilepsy in a Phase I open label clinical trial (registered as NCT02497443). Patients and methods The patients received either standard treatment with AED (control group), or AED supplemented with single intravenous administration of undifferentiated autologous MSC (target dose of 1×106 cells/kg), followed by a single intrathecal injection of neurally induced autologous MSC (target dose of 0.1×106 cells/kg). Results MSC injections were well tolerated and did not cause any severe adverse effects. Seizure frequency was designated as the main outcome and evaluated at 1 year time point. 3 out of 10 patients in MSC therapy group achieved remission (no seizures for one year and more), and 5 additional patients became responders to AEDs, while only 2 out of 12 patients became responders in control group (difference significant, P =0.0135). Conclusions MSC possess unique immunomodulatory properties and are a safe and promising candidate for cell therapy in AED resistant epilepsy patients.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T07:03:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2016.12.004
  • Methods to evaluate arterial structure and function in children –
           State-of-the art knowledge
    • Authors: Piotr Skrzypczyk; Małgorzata Pańczyk-Tomaszewska
      Pages: 280 - 294
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 2
      Author(s): Piotr Skrzypczyk, Małgorzata Pańczyk-Tomaszewska
      Background With increasing rates of hypertension, obesity, and diabetes in the pediatric population, wide available, and reproducible methods are necessary to evaluate arterial structure and function in children and adolescents. Methods MEDLINE/Pubmed was searched for articles published in years 2012–2017 on methodology of, current knowledge on, and limitations of the most commonly used methods to evaluate central, proximal and coronary arteries, as well as endothelial function in pediatric patients. Results Among 1528 records screened (including 1475 records from years 2012 to 2017) 139 papers were found suitable for the review. Following methods were discussed in this review article: ultrasound measurements of the intima-media thickness, coronary calcium scoring using computed tomography, arterial stiffness measurements (pulse wave velocity and pulse wave analysis, carotid artery distensibility, pulse pressure, and ambulatory arterial stiffness index), ankle-brachial index, and methods to evaluate vascular endothelial function (flow-mediated vasodilation, peripheral arterial tonometry, Doppler laser flowmetry, and cellular and soluble markers of endothelial dysfunction). Conclusions Ultrasonographic measurement of carotid intima-media thickness and measurement of pulse wave velocity (by oscillometry or applanation tonometry) are highly reproducible methods applicable for both research and clinical practice with proved applicability for children aged ≥6 years or with height ≥120cm. Evaluation of ambulatory arterial stiffness index by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is another promising option in pediatric high-risk patients. Clearly, further studies are necessary to evaluate usefulness of these and other methods for the detection of subclinical arterial damage in children.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T07:03:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.03.001
  • Effects of fine air particulates on gene expression in non-small-cell lung
    • Authors: Biao Yang; Xinming Li; Dongmei Chen; Chunling Xiao
      Pages: 295 - 301
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 2
      Author(s): Biao Yang, Xinming Li, Dongmei Chen, Chunling Xiao
      Purpose Airborne particulate matter smaller than 2.5μm (PM2.5) has been shown to induce adverse health effects through various mechanisms. However, its effects on gene expression in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain undefined. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression profile of PM2.5-induced adverse health effects on human. Materials and methods We performed RNA sequencing to elucidate key molecular effects of PM2.5 collected from Shenyang China, to identify potential diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets, and further validated these differences in gene expression by using quantitative PCR in A549 and H1299 human non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. To investigate the functional changes on PM2.5 exposed cells, we carried out the viability assay for the cell counting, and the Boyden chamber assay for invasion. Results We found 143 genes that were expressed at least twice as much, or no more than half as much, in NSCLC cells exposed to PM2.5 than in unexposed cells. Results showed deregulated genes confronted PM2.5 exposure were significantly expressed, but commonly expressed in NSCLC cells. In addition, according to the viability assay and the Boyden chamber assay, PM2.5 exposed cells which have more competent on proliferation and invasion can keep the line with the results in RNA-Seq. Conclusion Our data may provide a more specific understanding of the signaling patterns associated with pathogenesis, and lead to novel markers and therapeutic targets for NSCLC.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T07:03:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2016.12.003
  • Mulberry leaf extract decreases digestion and absorption of starch in
           healthy subjects—A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study
    • Authors: Jan Józefczuk; Klaudia Malikowska; Aleksandra Glapa; Barbara Stawińska-Witoszyńska; Jan Krzysztof Nowak; Joanna Bajerska; Aleksandra Lisowska; Jarosław Walkowiak
      Pages: 302 - 306
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 2
      Author(s): Jan Józefczuk, Klaudia Malikowska, Aleksandra Glapa, Barbara Stawińska-Witoszyńska, Jan Krzysztof Nowak, Joanna Bajerska, Aleksandra Lisowska, Jarosław Walkowiak
      Purpose Mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaf tea has recently received much attention as a dietary supplement due to the wide range of putative health benefits, such as antidiabetic effects. Nevertheless, data evaluating its influence on carbohydrate metabolism in humans are scarce. The present study aims to investigate the effect of mulberry leaf extract supplementation on starch digestion and absorption in humans. Materials and methods The study comprised of 25 healthy subjects, aged 19–27 years. In all subjects, a starch 13C breath test was performed twice in a crossover and single blind design. Subjects were initially randomized to ingest naturally 13C-abundant cornflakes (50g cornflakes+100ml low fat milk) either with the mulberry leaf extract (36mg of active component-1-deoxynojirimycin) or the placebo and each subject received the opposite preparation one week later. Results The cumulative percentage dose recovery was lower for the mulberry leaf extract test than for the placebo test (median [quartile distribution]: 13.9% [9.9–17.4] vs. 17.2% [13.3–20.6]; p=0.015). A significant decrease was detectable from minute 120 after the ingestion. Conclusions A single dose of mulberry leaf extract taken with a test meal decreases starch digestion and absorption. These findings could possibly be translated into everyday practice for improvement of postprandial glycemic control.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T07:03:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.03.002
  • Ischaemic preconditioning – Current knowledge and potential future
           applications after 30 years of experience
    • Authors: Karolina Stokfisz; Anna Ledakowicz-Polak; Maciej Zagorski; Marzenna Zielinska
      Pages: 307 - 316
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 2
      Author(s): Karolina Stokfisz, Anna Ledakowicz-Polak, Maciej Zagorski, Marzenna Zielinska
      Ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) phenomenon has been known for thirty years. During that time several studies showed that IPC provided by brief ischaemic and reperfusion episodes prior to longer ischaemia can bestow a protective effect to both preconditioned and also remote organs. IPC affecting remote organs is called remote ischaemic preconditioning. Initially, most IPC studies were focused on enhancing myocardial resistance to subsequent ischaemia and reperfusion injury. However, preconditioning was found to be a universal phenomenon and was observed in various organs and tissues including the heart, liver, brain, retina, kidney, skeletal muscles and intestine. Currently, there are a lot of simultaneous studies are underway aiming at finding out whether IPC can be helpful in protecting these organs. The mechanism of local and remote IPC is complex and not well known. Several triggers, intracellular pathways and effectors, humoral, neural and induced by genetic changes may be considered potential pathways in the protective activity of local and remote IPC. Local and remote IPC mechanism may potentially serve as heart protection during cardiac surgery and may limit the infarct size of the myocardium, can be a strategy for preventing the development of acute kidney injury development and liver damage during transplantation, may protect the brain against ischaemic injury. In addition, the method is safe, non-invasive, cheap and easily applicable. The main purpose of this review article is to present new advances which would help to understand the potential mechanism of IPC. It also discusses both its potential applications and utility in clinical settings.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T07:47:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2016.11.006
  • Impact of exaggerated blood pressure response in normotensive individuals
           on future hypertension and prognosis: Systematic review according to
           PRISMA guideline
    • Authors: Karsten Keller; Kathrin Stelzer; Mir Abolfazl Ostad; Felix Post
      Pages: 317 - 329
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 2
      Author(s): Karsten Keller, Kathrin Stelzer, Mir Abolfazl Ostad, Felix Post
      Purpose Arterial hypertension (aHT) is the leading risk factor for morbidity and mortality worldwide. Blood pressure (BP) deviation at rest is well defined and accompanies risk for cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality. A growing body of evidence emphasises that an exaggerated blood pressure response (EBPR) in cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) could help to identify seemingly cardiovascular healthy and normotensive subjects, who have an increased risk of developing aHT and cardiovascular events in the future. Materials and methods The PubMed online database was searched for published studies reporting exercise-related BP and both the risk of aHT and cardiovascular events in the future. Results We identified 18 original studies about EBPR in CPET, which included a total of 35,151 normotensive individuals for prediction of new onset of aHT in the future and 11 original studies with 43,012 enrolled subjects with the endpoint of cardiovascular events in the future. Although an EBPR under CPET is not well defined, a large number of studies emphasise that EBPR in CPET is associated with both new-onset aHT and cardiovascular events in the future. Conclusions A growing number of studies support the hypothesis that EBPR in CPET may be a diagnostic tool to identify subjects with an elevated risk of developing aHT and cardiovascular events in the future.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T07:47:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2016.11.010
  • Effects of γ-radiation on cell growth, cell cycle and promoter
           methylation of 22 cell cycle genes in the 1321NI astrocytoma cell line
    • Authors: Yaman Alghamian; Ghalia Abou Alchamat; Hossam Murad; Ammar Madania
      Pages: 330 - 337
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 2
      Author(s): Yaman Alghamian, Ghalia Abou Alchamat, Hossam Murad, Ammar Madania
      Purpose DNA damage caused by radiation initiates biological responses affecting cell fate. DNA methylation regulates gene expression and modulates DNA damage pathways. Alterations in the methylation profiles of cell cycle regulating genes may control cell response to radiation. In this study we investigated the effect of ionizing radiation on the methylation levels of 22 cell cycle regulating genes in correlation with gene expression in 1321NI astrocytoma cell line. Methods 1321NI cells were irradiated with 2, 5 or 10Gy doses then analyzed after 24, 48 and 72h for cell viability using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliu bromide) assay. Flow cytometry were used to study the effect of 10Gy irradiation on cell cycle. EpiTect Methyl II PCR Array was used to identify differentially methylated genes in irradiated cells. Changes in gene expression was determined by qPCR. Azacytidine treatment was used to determine whether DNA methylation affectes gene expression. Results Our results showed that irradiation decreased cell viability and caused cell cycle arrest at G2/M. Out of 22 genes tested, only CCNF and RAD9A showed some increase in DNA methylation (3.59% and 3.62%, respectively) after 10Gy irradiation, and this increase coincided with downregulation of both genes (by 4 and 2 fold, respectively). Treatment with azacytidine confirmed that expression of CCNF and RAD9A genes was regulated by methylation. Conclusions 1321NI cell line is highly radioresistant and that irradiation of these cells with a 10Gy dose increases DNA methylation of CCNF and RAD9A genes. This dose down-regulates these genes, favoring G2/M arrest.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T07:47:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.03.004
  • Pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with clinical severity of dry eye
           disease of patients with depression
    • Authors: Małgorzata Mrugacz; Lucyna Ostrowska; Anna Bryl; Agata Szulc; Beata Zelazowska-Rutkowska; Grzegorz Mrugacz
      Pages: 338 - 344
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 2
      Author(s): Małgorzata Mrugacz, Lucyna Ostrowska, Anna Bryl, Agata Szulc, Beata Zelazowska-Rutkowska, Grzegorz Mrugacz
      Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the correlation of inflammatory cytokines levels in tears with severity of dry eye disease in a cohort of patients with depression. Material and methods Tear fluid samples were collected from 32 patients with depression treated with antidepressants, and 34 healthy subjects. Cytokines were assessed by ELISA. All the subjects completed the Beck Depression Inventory and performed the ophthalmic examination, including dry eye tests. Results The tear fluid levels of IL-6, IL-17 and TNF-α in depressive patients were higher than in controls. The clinical severity of dry eye disease correlated significantly with the IL-17 and TNF-α levels. Conclusions Our results suggest a crucial role of inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-17 and TNF-α, in the development of severe dry eye disease in patients with depression. Clarification of the role pro-inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of ocular findings in depressive patients may be useful in establishing immunotherapeutic strategies for this disease.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T07:47:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.03.003
  • Bacterial infections and hepatic encephalopathy in liver
           cirrhosis–prophylaxis and treatment
    • Authors: Damian Piotrowski; Anna Boroń-Kaczmarska
      Pages: 345 - 356
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 2
      Author(s): Damian Piotrowski, Anna Boroń-Kaczmarska
      Infections are common among patients with liver cirrhosis. They occur more often in cirrhotic patient groups than in the general population and result in higher mortality. One reason for this phenomenon is bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen that occurs as a consequence of intestinal bacterial overgrowth, increased permeability and decreased motility. The most common infections in cirrhotic patients are spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and urinary tract infections, followed by pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections. Intestinal bacterial overgrowth is also responsible for hyperammonemia, which leads to hepatic encephalopathy. All of these complications make this group of patients at high risk for mortality. The role of antibiotics in liver cirrhosis is to treat and in some cases to prevent the development of infectious complications. Based on our current knowledge, antibiotic prophylaxis should be administered to patients with gastrointestinal hemorrhage, low ascitic fluid protein concentration combined with liver or renal failure, and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis as a secondary prophylaxis, as well as after hepatic encephalopathy episodes (also as a secondary prophylaxis). In some cases, the use of non-antibiotic prophylaxis can also be considered. Current knowledge of the treatment of infections allows the choice of a preferred antibiotic for empiric therapy depending on the infection location and whether the source of the disease is nosocomial or community-acquired.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T07:47:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2016.11.009
  • Clinical usefulness of videocapillaroscopy and selected endothelial cell
           activation markers in people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus complicated by
    • Authors: Anna Kuryliszyn-Moskal; Wieslaw Zarzycki; Artur Dubicki; Diana Moskal; Bozena Kosztyła-Hojna; Anna Hryniewicz
      Pages: 368 - 373
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 2
      Author(s): Anna Kuryliszyn-Moskal, Wieslaw Zarzycki, Artur Dubicki, Diana Moskal, Bozena Kosztyła-Hojna, Anna Hryniewicz
      Purpose Microvascular abnormalities are one of the most important causes of persistent diabetic complications. The aim of our study was to compare microvascular changes examined by nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) examination with serum concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), soluble thrombomodulin (sTM) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in people with Type 1 diabetes with and without microangiopathy. Material/methods The study included 106 people with Type 1 diabetes and 40 healthy controls. All participants were evaluated by extensive clinical, laboratory and capillaroscopic studies. NVC was performed using a stereomicroscope SZ 4045 (Olympus, Germany). The intensity of morphological changes was graded from 0 to 3. Serum levels of VEGF, sTM and ET-1 were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Morphological changes were observed by NVC in 86 out of 106 (81%) people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Severe capillaroscopic changes (score 3) were seen in 32 out of 54 (59%) people with microangiopathy, but in only seven out of 52 (13%) individuals without microangiopathy. Higher serum concentration of VEGF (p <0.001), ET-1 (p <0.001) and sTM (p <0.05) were demonstrated in people with diabetes complicated with microangiopathy compared to healthy controls. Moreover, comparison between people with and without microangiopathic complications showed a significantly higher capillaroscopic score and sTM serum concentration in the group with retinopathy (p <0.001) nephropathy (p <0.001) and neuropathy (p <0.01). Conclusions Our results suggest that abnormalities in NVC may reflect the extent of microvascular involvement and associated with higher VEGF, sTM and ET-1 serum levels, as well as with microangiopathic complications in diabetic people.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T08:59:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2016.11.007
  • Prior treatment with non anti-TB antibiotics, and the duration of symptoms
           have no effect on diagnostics of tuberculous meningitis
    • Authors: Marcin Paciorek; Andrzej Pihowicz; Dominik Bursa; Joanna Schöntaler Humięcka; Justyna D. Kowalska; Mateusz Antosiewicz; Magda E. Thompson; Agata Skrzat-Wojdacz; Agnieszka Bednarska; Andrzej Horban
      Pages: 374 - 377
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 2
      Author(s): Marcin Paciorek, Andrzej Pihowicz, Dominik Bursa, Joanna Schöntaler Humięcka, Justyna D. Kowalska, Mateusz Antosiewicz, Magda E. Thompson, Agata Skrzat-Wojdacz, Agnieszka Bednarska, Andrzej Horban
      Purpose Our objective was to investigate whether diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) with microbiological and molecular analysis was affected by prior empirical non anti tuberculosis antibiotics or by duration of symptoms before lumbar puncture. Materials and methods We retrospectively evaluated medical records of patients with TBM confirmed by positive culture, nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs) or Ehrlich–Ziehl–Neelsen staining (EZNs) from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or by characteristic results of biochemical analysis of CSF combined with a typical clinical manifestation. Results 68 adult patients were analyzed. The isolation rates for NAATs, Lowenstein–Jensen (LJ) culture, BACTEC and EZNs were 70.6%, 69.1%, 67.6% and 26.5%, respectively. Biochemical analysis of CSF samples revealed: pleocytosis (median 224 [range 78–380]cells/mm3) with lymphocyte predominance (76 [45–90]%), elevated levels of protein (2.43 [1.50–3.84]g/l) and lactic acid (5.0 [3.9–7.2]mmol/l). Forty (65%) patients received no anti-tuberculosis antibiotic treatment before the diagnostic lumbar puncture. The were no significant differences in the microbiological and biochemical CSF analyses, between the patients who received and those who did not receive non anti-TB empirical antibiotic treatment. The median duration of symptoms before the diagnostic lumbar puncture was 24 (range 11–61) days. No significant differences in microbiological and biochemical analysis of CSF where found when comparing patients with duration of symptoms lasting above and less than the median time. Conclusions Neither prior non anti-TB antibiotic therapy, nor the duration of symptoms before diagnostic lumbar puncture have any effect on confirmation of TBM by microbiological and biochemical CSF analysis.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T08:59:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2016.11.003
  • Thrombocytopenia associated with TAVI—The summary of possible causes
    • Authors: Maciej Mitrosz; Malgorzata Chlabicz; Katarzyna Hapaniuk; Karol A. Kaminski; Bozena Sobkowicz; Jaroslaw Piszcz; Slawomir Dobrzycki; Wlodzimierz J. Musial; Tomasz Hirnle; Agnieszka M. Tycinska
      Pages: 378 - 382
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 2
      Author(s): Maciej Mitrosz, Malgorzata Chlabicz, Katarzyna Hapaniuk, Karol A. Kaminski, Bozena Sobkowicz, Jaroslaw Piszcz, Slawomir Dobrzycki, Wlodzimierz J. Musial, Tomasz Hirnle, Agnieszka M. Tycinska
      Thrombocytopenia (TP) following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) procedure is a common phenomenon but the underlying mechanisms are neither well known nor described. Postinterventional severe TP is related to worse early and late outcome. Moreover, the statement of enhanced platelet and coagulation activation might justify even stronger antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapy following TAVI procedure. Thus, the examination of the pathomechanisms responsible for TP post TAVI seems to be crucial. Several hypotheses have been raised. TP can be caused by insufficient production or impaired platelet renewal. On the other hand, increased platelet activation, consumption and destruction might also be responsible for TP. These findings, mostly related to the procedure alone, need further investigation. Here, we summarize the potential multifactorial causes of post TAVI thrombocytopenia.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T11:16:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.04.003
  • Serum chemerin in children with excess body weight may be associated with
           ongoing metabolic complications – A pilot study
    • Authors: Marta Sledzińska; Agnieszka Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz; Michał Brzezinski; Katarzyna Kaźmierska; Tomasz Sledziński; Barbara Kamińska
      Pages: 383 - 386
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 2
      Author(s): Marta Sledzińska, Agnieszka Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Michał Brzezinski, Katarzyna Kaźmierska, Tomasz Sledziński, Barbara Kamińska
      Purpose The aim of this study was to verify if serum chemerin in children correlates with body weight, fat mass, selected inflammatory markers, parameters of liver function, lipid and glucose metabolism. Materials and methods The study included children aged 5–17 years with normal body weight (<85th BMI percentile, n=43) or overweight (≥85th BMI percentile, n=58). Serum concentrations of chemerin were determined with ELISA. Results Children with excess body weight presented with significantly higher serum concentrations of chemerin. Serum chemerin correlated positively with body weight, absolute BMI and its percentile, fat mass, systolic blood pressure, CRP, ALT, insulin and HOMA-IR. Conclusions Serum level of chemerin may serve as a measure of ongoing obesity-related inflammation, early marker of subclinical liver dysfunction and metabolic syndrome in overweight pediatric patients.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T11:16:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.04.002
  • Effectiveness and safety of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir±ribavirin in the
           treatment of HCV infection: The real-world HARVEST study
    • Authors: Robert Flisiak; Mariusz Łucejko; Włodzimierz Mazur; Ewa Janczewska; Hanna Berak; Krzysztof Tomasiewicz; Iwona Mozer-Lisewska; Dorota Kozielewicz; Andrzej Gietka; Katarzyna Sikorska; Marta Wawrzynowicz-Syczewska; Krzysztof Nowak; Dorota Zarębska-Michaluk; Joanna Musialik; Krzysztof Simon; Aleksander Garlicki; Robert Pleśniak; Barbara Baka-Ćwierz; Iwona Olszok; Krystyna Augustyniak; Wojciech Stolarz; Jolanta Białkowska; Anna Badurek; Anna Piekarska
      Pages: 387 - 392
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 2
      Author(s): Robert Flisiak, Mariusz Łucejko, Włodzimierz Mazur, Ewa Janczewska, Hanna Berak, Krzysztof Tomasiewicz, Iwona Mozer-Lisewska, Dorota Kozielewicz, Andrzej Gietka, Katarzyna Sikorska, Marta Wawrzynowicz-Syczewska, Krzysztof Nowak, Dorota Zarębska-Michaluk, Joanna Musialik, Krzysztof Simon, Aleksander Garlicki, Robert Pleśniak, Barbara Baka-Ćwierz, Iwona Olszok, Krystyna Augustyniak, Wojciech Stolarz, Jolanta Białkowska, Anna Badurek, Anna Piekarska
      Background To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF)±ribavirin (RBV) regimen in a real-world setting. Methods Patients received a fixed-dose combination tablet containing LDV and SOF with or without RBV, for 8, 12 or 24 weeks. Patients were assessed at baseline, end of treatment, and 12 weeks after the end of treatment. The primary effectiveness endpoint was sustained virologic response 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12). Results Of the 86 patients, aged 20–80 years, 82.6% were HCV genotype 1b-infected and 50.0% were cirrhotic. More than half (52.3%) had previously followed pegylated interferon-containing (PEG-IFN) treatment regimens, and 38.5% were null-responders. SVR12 was achieved by 94.2% of patients. All non-responders were cirrhotic: two demonstrated virologic breakthrough and the remaining three relapsed. All patients treated with an 8-week regimen achieved SVR12 despite having high viral load at baseline (HCV RNA of >1 million IU/mL in 8/10 patients, including one with a viral load of >6 million IU/mL). Adverse events were generally mild and transient. Most frequently, fatigue (22.1%), headache (15.1%), and arthralgia (7.0%) were observed. Laboratory abnormalities included anemia and hyperbilirubinemia. Conclusions Treatment with LDV/SOF±RBV is an effective and safe option for patients with HCV, including those with advanced liver disease or a history of non-response to PEG-IFN-based therapy.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T11:16:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.04.004
  • Clinical features of IgG4-related rhinosinusitis
    • Authors: Machiko Hanaoka; Terumi Kammisawa; Satomi Koizumi; Sawako Kuruma; Kazuro Chiba; Masataka Kikuyama; Satoshi Shirakura; Taro Sugimoto; Tsunekazu Hishima
      Pages: 393 - 397
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 2
      Author(s): Machiko Hanaoka, Terumi Kammisawa, Satomi Koizumi, Sawako Kuruma, Kazuro Chiba, Masataka Kikuyama, Satoshi Shirakura, Taro Sugimoto, Tsunekazu Hishima
      Purpose IgG4-related disease is a systemic disease that affects various organs of the body. Aim of this study is to elucidate the clinical characteristics of IgG4-related rhinosinusitis. Material and methods Clinical features, laboratory findings, radiological and endoscopic findings, associated disease, treatment and prognosis were retrospectively examined in 10 patients with IgG4-related rhinosinusitis. Results The age was 59.1±11.3 years old and male-to-female ratio was 1:1. The chief nasal complaints were hyposmia (n=4), nasal obstruction (n=3), and nothing (n=3). Serum IgG4 levels were elevated in all patients and the value was 740.4±472.4mg/dl. Other IgG4-related diseases were associated in all 10 patients, including IgG4-related sialadenitis (n=6), IgG4-related dacryoadenitis (n=5), and autoimmune pancreatitis (n=5). Imaging findings on CT/MRI were obstruction of the way of elimination (n=10), thickening of the sinus mucous membrane (n=10), and fluid in the sinus (n=6). All of the cases had bilateral findings. Nasal endoscopic findings were chiefly deviated nasal septum (n=5), polyps (n=4), edema of the mucous membrane (n=3). Histologically, abundant infiltration of IgG4 positive plasma cell and lymphocyte and an elevated IgG4+/IgG+ cell ration was detected in all 8 patients and 5 patients, respectively. Endoscopic sinus surgery was performed in 8 patients. Eight patients were treated with steroid therapy for other associated IgG4-related diseases. Symptoms improved in all 6 patients after an initial treatment (endoscopic surgery (n=5) and steroids (n=1)), but one patient suffered relapse. Conclusions IgG4-related rhinosinusitis is a distinct entity of IgG4-related disease, and is associated in patients with multiple IgG4-related diseases.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T14:03:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.04.001
  • Improvements in self-curing composites
    • Authors: Zbigniew Raszewski; Marek Jałbrzykowski
      Pages: 398 - 404
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 2
      Author(s): Zbigniew Raszewski, Marek Jałbrzykowski
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to test the influence of a barbituric acid derivative acting as a catalyst and small amounts of pyrolytic silica in acrylic resins on color stability, solubility and sorption of a composite. Materials and methods A series of two-component powder/liquid resin systems were prepared. Monomer-like mixtures (bis-GMA, TEGDMA, tertiary amine 60/40) and a quartz powder with additions of various silica and barbituric acid derivatives were used. Temperature of the material during polymerization was measured with the use of a thermometer. In addition, the material’s flexural and compressive strength, sorption and solubility were tested pursuant to ISO4049:2009. Results The powder-based acrylic composition in a liquid mixed immediately before use, after an addition of a 0.5% barbituric acid derivative, has a lower temperature during the polymerization process (a reduction from 43°C to 37°C), whereas color stability over time is improved, with ΔE=1.81 for samples of powder mixtures containing between 0.45% of BPO and 0.15% of barbituric acid derivatives. For silanized quartz powder with 0.55% BPO and 0.1% BA+0.5% Aerosil R711, the obtained sorption value was 4.57±0.22μg/mm3, whereas solubility was 1.60±0.32μg/mm3. Conclusions New catalytic system with barbituric acid derivative, improves color stability for samples stored at room condition and under light of high intensity. A two-phase composite (bis GMA TEGDMA/Quartz), with a new catalytic system with barbituric acid derivatives, has a lower self-cured temperature. Adding a small quantity of hydrophobic silica (0.5%) has a significant influence, with reduced sorption and solubility of the material.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T20:08:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.04.006
  • Systematic biobanking, novel imaging techniques, and advanced molecular
           analysis for precise tumor diagnosis and therapy: The Polish MOBIT project
    • Authors: Jacek Niklinski; Adam Kretowski; Marcin Moniuszko; Joanna Reszec; Anna Michalska-Falkowska; Magdalena Niemira; Michal Ciborowski; Radoslaw Charkiewicz; Dorota Jurgilewicz; Miroslaw Kozlowski; Rodryg Ramlau; Cezary Piwkowski; Miroslaw Kwasniewski; Monika Kaczmarek; Andrzej Ciereszko; Tomasz Wasniewski; Robert Mroz; Wojciech Naumnik; Ewa Sierko; Magdalena Paczkowska; Joanna Kisluk; Anetta Sulewska; Adam Cybulski; Zenon Mariak; Boguslaw Kedra; Jacek Szamatowicz; Paweł Kurzawa; Lukasz Minarowski; Angelika Edyta Charkiewicz; Barbara Mroczko; Jolanta Malyszko; Christian Manegold; Lothar Pilz; Heike Allgayer; Mohammed L. Abba; Hartmut Juhl; Frauke Koch
      Pages: 405 - 413
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 2
      Author(s): Jacek Niklinski, Adam Kretowski, Marcin Moniuszko, Joanna Reszec, Anna Michalska-Falkowska, Magdalena Niemira, Michal Ciborowski, Radoslaw Charkiewicz, Dorota Jurgilewicz, Miroslaw Kozlowski, Rodryg Ramlau, Cezary Piwkowski, Miroslaw Kwasniewski, Monika Kaczmarek, Andrzej Ciereszko, Tomasz Wasniewski, Robert Mroz, Wojciech Naumnik, Ewa Sierko, Magdalena Paczkowska, Joanna Kisluk, Anetta Sulewska, Adam Cybulski, Zenon Mariak, Boguslaw Kedra, Jacek Szamatowicz, Paweł Kurzawa, Lukasz Minarowski, Angelika Edyta Charkiewicz, Barbara Mroczko, Jolanta Malyszko, Christian Manegold, Lothar Pilz, Heike Allgayer, Mohammed L. Abba, Hartmut Juhl, Frauke Koch
      Personalized and precision medicine is gaining recognition due to the limitations by standard diagnosis and treatment; many areas of medicine, from cancer to psychiatry, are moving towards tailored and individualized treatment for patients based on their clinical characteristics and genetic signatures as well as novel imaging techniques. Advances in whole genome sequencing have led to identification of genes involved in a variety of diseases. Moreover, biomarkers indicating severity of disease or susceptibility to treatment are increasingly being characterized. The continued identification of new genes and biomarkers specific to disease subtypes and individual patients is essential and inevitable for translation into personalized medicine, in estimating both, disease risk and response to therapy. Taking into consideration the mostly unsolved necessity of tailored therapy in oncology the innovative project MOBIT (molecular biomarkers for individualized therapy) was designed. The aims of the project are: (i) establishing integrative management of precise tumor diagnosis and therapy including systematic biobanking, novel imaging techniques, and advanced molecular analysis by collecting comprehensive tumor tissues, liquid biopsies (whole blood, serum, plasma), and urine specimens (supernatant; sediment) as well as (ii) developing personalized lung cancer diagnostics based on tumor heterogeneity and integrated genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, and radiomics PET/MRI analysis. It will consist of 5 work packages. In this paper the rationale of the Polish MOBIT project as well as its design is presented. (iii) The project is to draw interest in and to invite national and international, private and public, preclinical and clinical initiatives to establish individualized and precise procedures for integrating novel targeted therapies and advanced imaging techniques.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T22:19:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.05.002
  • The human microbiome
    • Authors: Hubert E. Blum
      Pages: 414 - 420
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 2
      Author(s): Hubert E. Blum
      Until recently, human microbiology was based on the identification of single microbes, such as bacteria, fungi and viruses, frequently isolated from patients with acute or chronic infections. Novel culture-independent molecular biochemical analyses (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) allow today to detect and classify the diverse microorganisms in a given ecosystem (microbiota), such as the gastrointestinal tract, the skin, the airway system, the urogenital tract and others, and to assess all genomes in these ecosystems (microbiome) as well as their gene products. These analyses revealed that each individual has its own microbiota that plays a role in health and disease. In addition, they greatly contributed to the recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of a wide range of human diseases. It is to be expected that these new insights will translate into diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive measures in the context of personalized/precision medicine.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T07:18:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.04.005
  • Cells of the innate and adaptive immunity and their interactions in
           inflammatory bowel disease
    • Authors: Zbigniew Kmieć; Marta Cyman; Tomasz Jerzy Ślebioda
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 1
      Author(s): Zbigniew Kmieć, Marta Cyman, Tomasz Jerzy Ślebioda
      Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract that includes two major phenotypes, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis that are characterized by different clinical features and different course of the immune response. The exact aetiology of IBD still remains unknown, although it is thought that the diseases result from an excessive immune response directed against microbial or environmentally derived antigens which can be triggered by the disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier integrity. In this review we present immune mechanisms and interactions between cells of the immune system and tissue environment that contribute to the development and progression of IBD in humans. Since dysregulation of the intestinal immune response is a hallmark of chronic inflammatory conditions, we characterize cells of the innate and adaptive immunity involved in the pathogenesis of IBD and their cross-talks. We describe various subclasses of recently discovered innate lymphoid cells, as well as dendritic cells, macrophages and T cells, including Th17, Th22 and T regulatory cells, present in the intestinal lamina propria and cytokine-mediated regulation of the immune response in IBD, highlighting the role of IL-22 and IL-17A/IL-23 axis. Insights into novel therapeutic modalities targeting certain elements of the immune pathways important for the pathogenesis of IBD have been also shortly presented.

      PubDate: 2017-01-27T21:26:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2016.09.001
  • New insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of irritable bowel
    • Authors: Joanna Oświęcimska; Agnieszka Szymlak; Wojciech Roczniak; Katarzyna Girczys-Połedniok; Jarosław Kwiecień
      Pages: 17 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 1
      Author(s): Joanna Oświęcimska, Agnieszka Szymlak, Wojciech Roczniak, Katarzyna Girczys-Połedniok, Jarosław Kwiecień
      Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), characterized by abdominal pain and a change in stool form that cannot be explained by structural abnormalities. Its prevalence ranges from 9 to 23% of the worldwide population. The pathophysiology of IBS is diverse and not well understood. Biopsychosocial concept assumes that the disease is a product of psychosocial factors and altered at multiple levels of gut physiology interactions. Some aetiological factors have been identified, yet. One of the most important is the disruption of brain-gut mutual communication that leads to visceral hypersensitivity. Also genetic and epigenetic factors are involved. Chronic stress may predispose to IBS as well as exacerbate its symptoms. Both quantitative and qualitative disorders of the gut microbiota are observed. There is also a relationship between the IBS symptoms and the intake of a specific type of food products. In the diarrhoea type of IBS the role of previous gastrointestinal infection is demonstrated. Recent studies have suggested that visceral hypersensitivity in patients with IBS may be secondary to the activation of the immune cells and low-grade inflammation. Clinical symptoms of IBS include abdominal pain and change in bowel habits as well as somatic and psychiatric comorbidities. IBS is diagnosed on the basis of Rome Diagnostic Criteria. Recently, their newest version (Rome IV) has been presented. The aim of this review is to summarize the past decade progress in IBS diagnosis, main pathophysiological aspects and therapeutic management strategy.

      PubDate: 2017-01-27T21:26:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2016.11.001
  • Amyloidosis: A cancer-derived paraproteinemia and kidney involvement
    • Authors: Jolanta Małyszko; Klaudia Kozłowska; Jacek Stanisław Małyszko
      Pages: 31 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 1
      Author(s): Jolanta Małyszko, Klaudia Kozłowska, Jacek Stanisław Małyszko
      Amyloidosis is the general term describing the extracellular tissue deposition of fibrils composed of low molecular weight subunits of a variety of proteins. There are multiple different human protein precursors of amyloid fibrils. Amyloid deposits are stained using Congo Red and show typical apple-green birefringence in polarized microscopy. Nowadays, a novel technique LMD/MS technique or laser microdissection combined with mass spectrometry help to diagnose amyloidosis. Amyloidosis of the kidney is typically classified as being either one of two types: AL or AA. Less common is the hereditary amyloidosis. Clinical manifestations are usually determined by the type of precursor protein, the tissue distribution, and the amount of amyloid deposition. Renal manifestation is usually present as asymptomatic proteinuria or clinically apparent nephrotic syndrome. In some patients clinical presentation include impaired kidney function with no or mild proteinuria. Patients with renal amyloidosis who progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) can be treated with either dialysis or renal transplantation. Diagnosis of amyloidosis is prerequisite to consider treatment options to avoid unnecessary chemotherapy. Treatment of amyloidosis is aimed at decreasing the precursors of fibrillary proteins and/or decrease in synthesis/deposition of amyloid fibrils. It depends upon the type of amyloidosis and cause of excess fibril production.

      PubDate: 2017-02-03T21:55:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2016.06.004
  • Does the OPG/RANKL system contribute to the bone-vascular axis in chronic
           kidney disease' A systematic review
    • Authors: Beata Znorko; Ewa Oksztulska-Kolanek; Małgorzata Michałowska; Tomasz Kamiński; Krystyna Pawlak
      Pages: 52 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 1
      Author(s): Beata Znorko, Ewa Oksztulska-Kolanek, Małgorzata Michałowska, Tomasz Kamiński, Krystyna Pawlak
      Vascular calcification (VC) is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is strongly associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Accumulating evidence over the past decade has challenged the hypothesis of close interaction between bone and VC what raises the possibility of a common underlying pathophysiological mechanism. Lately, bone regulatory proteins such as: osteoprotegerin (OPG) and Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor κB Ligand (RANKL) has attracted attention of researchers as a possible key mediators of bone-vascular calcification imbalance. The literature search was carried out using the MEDLINE/PubMed database and a combination of keywords and MeSH terms, and only papers published since January 2005 to July 2016 were selected. The search resulted in 562 potential articles. After selection according to the eligibility criteria, 107 studies fulfilled were included (102 full texts and 5 was case reports). OPG and RANKL plays essential role in the regulation of bone metabolism and may be regarded as a possible link between VC, bone and mineral metabolism in CKD patients. Further studies are required to determine the diagnostic significance of these proteins in evaluation of progression and severity of VC process in CKD patients. Finally, the efficacy and safety, especially in regard to VC, of anti-RANKL therapy in CKD patients requires well-designed prospective, randomized trials.

      PubDate: 2017-10-13T21:12:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2016.08.001
  • A device for testing the durability and exploitation reliability of dental
    • Authors: Marek
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 2
      Author(s): Marek Jałbrzykowski
      Purpose The aim of this work was to develop the design of the construction of a stand for testing the operational stability of dental prostheses, designed on the basis of an own idea. There are no devices that would make it possible to test complete structures, including the actual kinematics of motion and the influence of the environment of the oral cavity. Materials and methods Presented were several devices used for testing both fixed and removable prostheses. Attention was paid to their limited possibilities in the area of the tested friction node, kinematics of motion, and the assessment of the influence of the environment of the oral cavity on the tested functional quality. The construction was based on the author's own ideas as well as on a review of the available literature. Results As the final result of the research, simplified images of the stand were presented along with their descriptions. Conclusions The experimental verification of the stand allowed concluding that the research aims have been achieved. First of all, the device allows testing prosthetic structures of different sizes and it is possible to load the tested prostheses in randomly chosen points.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T07:03:55Z
  • CS-PEG decorated PLGA nano-prototype for delivery of bioactive compounds:
           A novel approach for induction of apoptosis in HepG2 cell line
    • Authors: Ahmed A. Abd-Rabou; Hanaa H. Ahmed
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Medical Sciences
      Author(s): Ahmed A. Abd-Rabou, Hanaa H. Ahmed
      Purpose Polymer-based nanoparticles are used as vectors for cancer drug delivery. The bioactive compounds (quercetin, ellagic acid and gallic acid) are well known to be not only antioxidants but also chemopreventive candidates against various types of cancers. To circumvent the low bioavailability and the short half-life time obstacles, we hypothesized a novel PLGA nano-platform functionalized with CS and PEG to encapsulate these phytochemicals. This encapsulation will protect the compounds from the phagocytic uptake and deliver PLGA-CS-PEG nano-prototype with high biodegradability and biosafety. Materials and methods Three consequent types of PLGA-based nanocomposites were prepared and characterized. Furthermore, we investigated the newly synthesized nano-formulations against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) and colorectal cancer (HCT 116) cell lines using cell growth inhibition assays, followed by apoptosis and necrosis assays using flow cytometry to detect the underlying mechanism of HepG2 cell death. Results Through Malvern Zeta Sizer, we recorded that the average diameters of the nano-prototypes ranged from 150 to 300nm. Regarding the cytotoxic activity of quercetin, ellagic acid, and gallic acid-encapsulated PLGA, PLGA-CS, and PLGA-CS-PEG nano-prototypes has been found that they reduce the IC50s of the HepG2 cells values by 2.2, 2.9, 2.8-folds, 1, 1.5, 2.7-folds, and 0.9, 0.7, 1.5-folds, respectively. Mechanistically, the nano-platforms of quercetin seem to be dependent on both apoptosis and necrosis, while those of ellagic acid and gallic acid are mainly dependent on apoptosis. Conclusions CS-PEG-blended PLGA nano-delivery system of quercetin, ellagic acid and gallic acid can potentiate apoptosis-mediated cell death in HepG2 cell line.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T17:39:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.01.003
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