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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2415 journals)            First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Showing 1201 - 1400 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Family and Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Forensic Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Gandaki Medical College-Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Generic Medicines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Geographical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hand Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Head & Neck Physicians and Surgeons     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health & Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Journal of Health and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Economics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior     Open Access  
Journal of Health Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science and Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of health sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences / Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Health Sciences and Surveillance System     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences Scholarship     Open Access  
Journal of Health Specialties     Open Access  
Journal of Health Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Healthcare Informatics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Helminthology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Herbs Spices & Medicinal Plants     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of HIV for Clinical and Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Hospital Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Human Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Human Rhythm     Open Access  
Journal of Human Transcriptome     Open Access  
Journal of Ideas in Health     Open Access  
Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inflammation Research     Open Access  
Journal of Injury and Violence Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Institute of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Insulin Resistance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Interactional Research in Communication Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of International Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Interventional Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Investigative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Islamabad Medical & Dental College     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Karnali Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Kathmandu Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of King Abdulaziz University : Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Laryngology and Voice     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Limb Lengthening & Reconstruction     Open Access  
Journal of Lumbini Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Materials Science : Materials in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Maternal and Child Health     Open Access  
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Cases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Colleges of PLA     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Medical Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Ethics     Partially Free   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ideas     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Investigation and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Laboratory and Diagnosis     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Law and Ethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Medical Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medicinal Botany     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207)
Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Medicine and the Person     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medicine in Scientific Research     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine in the Tropics     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine Research and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medicines Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Metabolomics & Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Movement Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Multidisciplinary Research in Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Nanotheranostics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Natural Medicines     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nature and Science of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Journal of Nepalgunj Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Neurocritical Care     Open Access  
Journal of Neurodegenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Neurorestoratology     Open Access  
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Nobel Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Obesity and Bariatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Occupational Health     Open Access  
Journal of Occupational Therapy Education     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Ocular Biology, Diseases, and Informatics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Oral Health and Craniofacial Science     Open Access  
Journal of Orofacial Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, Hearing and Balance Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ovarian Research     Open Access  
Journal of Ozone Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Journal of Paramedical Sciences & Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Journal of Parkinsonism and Restless Legs Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parkinson’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Participatory Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Patan Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Pathogens     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Patient Experience     Open Access  
Journal of Patient Safety and Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Patient-Reported Outcomes     Open Access  
Journal of Periodontal Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physiobiochemical Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physiology-Paris     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pioneering Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Pregnancy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Prevention & Intervention Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health     Open Access  
Journal of Primary Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Prosthodontic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Prosthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Receptor, Ligand and Channel Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Regenerative Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Scientific Innovation in Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Scientific Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Arthroplasty     Open Access  
Journal of Sleep Disorders : Treatment & Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of South American Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences : Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stem Cell Therapy and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stomal Therapy Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Journal of Substance Use     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Surgical Academia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Surgical and Clinical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report     Open Access  
Journal of Systemic Therapies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of The Academy of Clinical Microbiologists     Open Access  
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the American College of Certified Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American College of Clinical Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Anatomical Society of India     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Anus, Rectum and Colon     Open Access  
Journal of The Arab Society for Medical Research     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Medical Screening
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.209
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 6  
 
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 2 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 0969-1413 - ISSN (Online) 1475-5793
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1092 journals]
  • James Edward Haddow, MD 1934–2020
    • Authors: Nicholas Wald
      Pages: 113 - 114
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Volume 27, Issue 3, Page 113-114, September 2020.

      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-09-11T08:48:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320953244
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Sociodemographic changes in the population frequency of colonoscopy
           following the implementation of organised bowel cancer screening: An
           analysis of data from Swedish registers, 2006–2015
    • Authors: Torbjörn Thulin, Ulf Strömberg, Anders Holmén, Rolf Hultcrantz, Anna Forsberg
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo assess sociodemographic changes in the population frequency of colonoscopy (PFC; number of colonoscopies per 1000 inhabitants per year) among people aged 50–74 in relation to the implementation of a regional colorectal cancer screening programme for people aged 60–69 in the Stockholm-Gotland region (RSG) in 2008.MethodThe PFC was estimated by year (2006–2015), pre- and post-implementation of colorectal cancer screening programme (2006–2007 vs. 2014–2015), age, sex, residential region, immigrant status and educational level. The data were obtained from Swedish patient and population registers.ResultsThe PFC largely increased during 2006–2015 in all six Swedish regions. The estimated increase in the pre- vs. post period PFC (ΔPFC) within the RSG was (i) greater for men than for women (5.8 vs. 4.5) and (ii) smaller for people aged 70–74 than for those aged 60–69 (5.5 vs. 9.0), while the corresponding ΔPFCs within each of the other regions were (i) not greater, or even smaller, for men and (ii) not smaller, or even larger, for elderly people aged 70–74.ConclusionA regional implementation of an organised colorectal cancer screening programme did not lead to a higher PFC increase in the screening relevant age group 50–74 years. Nevertheless, changes in the PFC were more pronounced for men and less pronounced for people aged 70–74 than those invited to participate in the screening programme (60–69 years), as compared with the rest of Sweden (without organised colorectal cancer screening).
      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-09-22T07:10:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320957708
       
  • Morbidity and mortality following major large bowel resection for
           colorectal cancer detected by a population-based screening program
    • Authors: Lawrence F Paszat, Rinku Sutradhar, Elyse Corn, Jin Luo, Nancy N Baxter, Jill Tinmouth, Linda Rabeneck
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.
      Background and aimsIn 2008, Ontario initiated a population-based colorectal screening program using guaiac fecal occult blood testing. This work was undertaken to fill a major gap in knowledge by estimating serious post-operative complications and mortality following major large bowel resection of colorectal cancer detected by a population-based screening program.MethodsWe identified persons with a first positive fecal occult blood result between 2008 and 2016, at the age of 50–74 years, who underwent a colonoscopy within 6 months, and proceeded to major large bowel resection for colon cancer within 6 months or rectosigmoid/rectal cancer within 12 months, and identified an unscreened cohort of resected cases diagnosed during the same years at the age of 50–74 years. We identified serious postoperative complications and readmissions ≤30 days following resection, and postoperative mortality ≤30 days, and between 31 and 90 days among the screen-detected and the unscreened cohorts.ResultsSerious post-operative complications or readmissions within 30 days were observed among 1476/4999 (29.5%) cases in the screen-detected cohort, and among 3060/8848 (34.6%) unscreened cases. Mortality within 30 days was 43/4999 (0.9%) among the screen-detected cohort, and 208/8848 (2.4%) among the unscreened cohort. Among 30 day survivors, mortality between 31 and 90 days was 28/4956 (0.6%) and 111/8640 (1.3%), respectively.ConclusionSerious post-operative complications, readmissions, and mortality may be more common following major large bowel resection for colorectal cancer between the ages of 50 and 74 among unscreened compared to screen-detected cases.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-09-21T06:45:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320957361
       
  • Disparities in the use of regular pap smears among migrant and non-migrant
           women in Austria: A population-based survey of 7633 women
    • Authors: Patrick Brzoska, Tugba Aksakal, Yüce Yilmaz-Aslan
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.
      Objective: Regular pap smears are effective in reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality. Migrant women have been reported to utilize cervical cancer screening less often than non-migrant women. However, inconsistent results, e.g. from Germany, have also been reported. This study examines disparities in the use of annual pap smears among 20–69 year old migrant and non-migrant women in neighboring Austria.Method: Data from a nationwide population-based survey of 7633 women is used of whom 504 (6.6%) were migrants from European Union countries and 251 (3.3%) were migrants from non-European Union countries. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to account for socio economic and health differences between the three population groups.Results: The study shows that as compared to the non-migrant women, migrant women from European Union and non-European Union countries were at lower odds of having received a pap smear in the last 12 months (adjusted odds ratio  = 0.80, 95% confidence interval = 0.66–0.96 and adjusted odds ratio = 0.74, 95%-confidence interval = 0.57–0.97, respectively). Disparities were similar with respect to utilization in the last 36 months (adjusted odds ratio = 0.60, 95% confidence interval = 0.46–0.77 and adjusted odds ratio = 0.58, 95% confidence interval = 0.40–0.82, respectively).Conclusions: The findings are in agreement with research from the majority of other countries. They suggest barriers that migrants encounter in the health system and highlight the need for diversity-sensitive health care strategies.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-09-02T04:47:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320953450
       
  • The effectiveness of human papillomavirus load, reflected by cycle
           threshold values, for the triage of HPV-positive self-samples in cervical
           cancer screening
    • Authors: Fangbin Song, Hui Du, Chun Wang, Xia Huang, Xinfeng Qu, Lihui Wei, Jerome L Belinson, Ruifang Wu
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe performance of Cobas4800 cycle threshold value (Ct-value, reflecting viral load) combined with human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 genotyping was explored as a method of risk stratification to triage patients after primary HPV screening of self-collected samples.MethodsThe Chinese Multi-site Screening Trial database was reviewed, with focus on self-collected samples, using the results of Cobas4800 HPV assay. Quartiles of Ct-values of each genotype were used for grouping and developing screening algorithms. Diagnostic accuracy for paired comparisons between algorithms was obtained using McNemar’s test.ResultsA total of 10,498 women were included. The Ct-values of HPV16 and other high-risk HPV were inversely correlated with the severity of cervical lesions (p 
      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-09-01T09:51:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320943634
       
  • Impact of changes to cervical screening guidelines on age and interval at
           which women are tested: Population-based study
    • Authors: Alejandra Castanon, Shama Sheikh, Philippa Pearmain, Peter Sasieni
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundEnglish cervical screening programme guidelines changed between 2009 and 2012. We explore the impact on the age and intervals at which women receive a cytology test.MethodsEligible women were controls from a population-based case–control study in England. Tests taken between 1980 and 2017 were extracted from the call/recall database. Using the Kaplan–Meier estimator by birth cohort and age at (or time since) last test, we explore proportions tested since or prior to a given age, years since previous test, and interval following a negative test.ResultsScreening histories from 46,037 women were included. Proportion tested by age 26 has increased from 55% among birth cohorts 1978–1979 to 67% among those born 1990–1991, despite more recent cohorts only having received one invitation (instead of two) prior to age 26. The proportion of women tested at aged 28 with a test three years earlier increased by 20% (from 36% in 1997–2006 to 56% in 2012–2017) whereas the proportion tested at ages 23–27 without a prior test increased from 34% to 80%. The age at last test prior to exiting the programme has decreased: among those born 1928–1931 86% had a test aged 60–65, but only 71% of those born 1947–1951.ConclusionClear programme guidance alongside quality assurance has improved the cervical screening programme by standardising the age and intervals at which women are screened.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-08-31T05:02:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320953446
       
  • Time of day and mammographic reader performance in a population-based
           breast cancer screening programme
    • Authors: Heinrich A Backmann, Marthe Larsen, Anders S Danielsen, Solveig Hofvind
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesTo analyse how reader performance varied by time during the day in a population-based breast cancer screening programme.MethodsA total of 2,937,312 readings from 148 radiologists and 1,468,656 women were included in this study from Norway. Number and percentages of mammographic readings, positive scores, true and false positive readings, true and false negative readings, sensitivity and specificity were presented for categories of time of day and for each day of the week. Multilevel mixed effect logistic regression models with restricted cubic splines were fitted to the data, and used to predict the odds ratio of the different performance measures.ResultsThe following distribution was found for the performance measures during the study period: true positive: 12,463 (0.4%); false positive: 128,419 (4.4%); true negative: 2,794,636 (95.1%); and false negative: 1794 (0.06%). The percentage of positive readings (true positive and false positive) was highest before lunch and in the early afternoon (4.9%): false positive was highest in both periods (4.5%) and true positive was highest in the early afternoon (0.5%). The percentage of true negative was highest in the evening (95.6%), and of false negative was highest at lunchtime (0.07%). This corresponds to a gradually decreasing predicted sensitivity throughout the day. The opposite was observed for specificity.ConclusionsScreen-reading early versus late during the day resulted in higher sensitivity, although at the cost of specificity. Despite small differences in the performance measures during the day, the results may be important in the discussion of optimal management of screening programmes.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-08-31T05:01:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320953206
       
  • Estimating the natural progression of non-invasive ductal carcinoma in
           situ breast cancer lesions using screening data
    • Authors: Harald Weedon-Fekjær, Xiaoxue Li, Sandra Lee
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesIn addition to invasive breast cancer, mammography screening often detects preinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions. The natural progression of DCIS is largely unknown, leading to uncertainty regarding treatment. The natural history of invasive breast cancer has been studied using screening data. DCIS modeling is more complicated because lesions might progress to clinical DCIS, preclinical invasive cancer, or may also regress to a state undetectable by screening. We have here developed a Markov model for DCIS progression, building on the established invasive breast cancer model.MethodsWe present formulas for the probability of DCIS detection by time since last screening under a Markov model of DCIS progression. Progression rates were estimated by maximum likelihood estimation using BreastScreen Norway data from 1995–2002 for 336,533 women (including 399 DCIS cases) aged 50–69. As DCIS incidence varies by age, county, and mammography modality (digital vs. analog film), a Poisson regression approach was used to align the input data.ResultsEstimated mean sojourn time in preclinical, screening-detectable DCIS phase was 3.1 years (95% confidence interval: 1.3, 7.6) with a screening sensitivity of 60% (95% confidence interval: 32%, 93%). No DCIS was estimated to be non-progressive.ConclusionMost preclinical DCIS lesions progress or regress with a moderate sojourn time in the screening-detectable phase. While DCIS mean sojourn time could be deduced from DCIS data, any estimate of preclinical DCIS progressing to invasive breast cancer must include data on invasive cancers to avoid strong, probably unrealistic, assumptions.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-08-28T05:42:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320945736
       
  • Factors affecting patient adherence to lung cancer screening: A multisite
           analysis
    • Authors: Justin T Stowell, Anand K Narayan, Gary X Wang, Florian J Fintelmann, Efren J Flores, Amita Sharma, Milena Petranovic, Jo-Anne O Shepard, Brent P Little
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo identify factors associated with delayed adherence to follow-up in lung cancer screening.MethodsUtilizing a data warehouse and lung cancer screening registry, variables were collected from a referred sample of 3110 unique participants with follow-up CT during the study period (1 January 2016 to 17 October 2018). Adherence was defined as undergoing chest CT within 90 days and 30 days of the recommended time for follow-up and was determined using proportions and multiple variable logistic regression models across the American College of Radiology Lung Imaging Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS®) categories.ResultsOf 1954 lung cancer screening participants (51.9% (1014/1954) males, 48.1% (940/1954) female; mean age 65.7 (range 45–87), smoking history median 40 pack-years, 60.2% and 44.5% did not follow-up within 30 and 90 days, respectively. Participants receiving Lung-RADS® category 1 or 2 presented later than those with Lung-RADS® category 3 at 90 days (coefficient −27.24, 95% CI −51.31, −3.16, p = 0.027). Participants with Lung-RADS® category 1 presented later than those with Lung-RADS® category 2 at both 90- and 30-days past due (OR 0.76 95% CI [0.59–0.97], p = 0.029 and OR 0.63 95% CI [0.48–0.83], p = 0.001, respectively).ConclusionsAdherence to follow-up was higher among participants receiving more suspicious Lung-RADS® results at index screening CT and among those who had undergone more non-lung cancer screening imaging examinations prior to index lung cancer screening CT. These observations may inform strategies aimed at prospectively identifying participants at risk for delayed or nonadherence to prevent potential morbidity and mortality from incident lung cancers.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-08-27T06:07:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320950783
       
  • Incidence of interval breast cancer among women aged 45–49 in an
           organised mammography screening setting
    • Authors: Lauro Bucchi, Alessandra Ravaioli, Flavia Baldacchini, Orietta Giuliani, Silvia Mancini, Rosa Vattiato, Priscilla Sassoli de Bianchi, Stefano Ferretti, Fabio Falcini
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo estimate the proportional incidence (PI) of first- and second-year interval breast cancer among women aged 45–49.MethodsIn the Emilia-Romagna Region (northern Italy), women aged 45–49 are invited to mammography screening annually, and women aged 50–74 biennially. For younger ones, the proportional incidence of interval cancer in the first and unique interval year was calculated using standard methods. For the second, hypothetical year, it was estimated using two different estimates of the ratio between the second- and the first-year proportional incidence observed among women aged 50–54. Overall, 567,151 negative mammography records were used.ResultsIn the first interval year, the observed proportional incidence of interval cancer among women aged 45–49 was 0.27 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.22–0.33), within the European limit considered desirable for women aged 50–69 (
      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-08-26T06:19:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320946059
       
  • Breast-cancer mortality in screened versus unscreened women: Long-term
           results from a population-based study in Queensland, Australia
    • Authors: Nathan Dunn, Philippa Youl, Julie Moore, Hazel Harden, Euan Walpole, Elizabeth Evans, Kate Taylor, Shoni Philpot, Colin Furnival
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveIn the context of a mature mammographic screening programme, the aim of this population-based study was to estimate rates of breast-cancer mortality among participants versus non-participants in Queensland, Australia.MethodsThe Queensland Electoral Roll was used to identify women aged 50–65  in the year 2000 (n = 269,198). Women with a prior history of invasive or in situ breast cancer were excluded (n = 6,848). The study population was then linked to mammography records from BreastScreen Queensland together with the Wesley Breast Screening Clinic (the largest provider of private screening in Queensland) to establish a screened cohort (n = 187,558) and an unscreened cohort (n = 74,792). Cohort members were matched and linked to cancer notifications and deaths through the state-based Queensland Oncology Repository. Differences in breast-cancer mortality between the two cohorts were measured using Cox proportional hazards regression.ResultsAfter 16 years of follow-up, women in the screened cohort showed a 39% reduction in breast-cancer mortality compared to the unscreened cohort (HR = 0.61, 95%CI = 0.55–0.68). Cumulative mortality over the same period was 0.47% and 0.77% in the screened and unscreened cohorts, respectively.ConclusionsThis study found a significant reduction in breast-cancer mortality for women who participated in mammographic screening compared to unscreened women. Our findings of a breast-cancer mortality benefit for women who have mammographic screening are in line with other observational studies.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-08-26T06:19:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320950776
       
  • Breast cancer overdiagnosis in stop-screen trials: More uncertainty than
           previously reported
    • Authors: Stuart G Baker, Philip C Prorok
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveAccording to the Independent UK Panel on Breast Cancer Screening, the most reliable estimates of overdiagnosis for breast cancer screening come from stop-screen trials Canada 1, Canada 2, and Malmo. The screen-interval overdiagnosis fraction is the fraction of cancers in a screening program that are overdiagnosed. We used the cumulative incidence method to estimate screen-interval overdiagnosis fraction. Our goal was to derive confidence intervals for estimated screen-interval overdiagnosis fraction and adjust for refusers in these trials.MethodsWe first show that the UK Panel’s use of a 95% binomial confidence interval for estimated screen-interval overdiagnosis fraction was incorrect. We then derive a correct 95% binomial-Poisson confidence interval. We also use the method of latent-class instrumental variables to adjust for refusers.ResultsFor the Canada 1 trial, the estimated screen-interval overdiagnosis fraction was 0.23 with a 95% binomial confidence interval of (0.18, 0.27) and a 95% binomial-Poisson confidence interval of (0.04, 0.41). For the Canada 2 trial, the estimated screen-interval overdiagnosis fraction was 0.16 with a 95% binomial confidence interval of (0.12, 0.19) and a 95% binomial-Poisson confidence interval of (−0.01, 0.32). For the Malmo trial, the estimated screen-interval overdiagnosis fraction was 0.19 with a 95% binomial confidence interval of (0.15, 0.22). Adjusting for refusers, the estimated screen-interval overdiagnosis fraction was 0.26 with a 95% binomial-Poisson confidence interval of (0.03, 0.50).ConclusionThe correct 95% binomial-Poisson confidence interval s for the estimated screen-interval overdiagnosis fraction based on the Canada 1, Canada 2, and Malmo stop-screen trials are much wider than the previously reported incorrect 95% binomial confidence intervals. The 95% binomial-Poisson confidence intervals widen as follow-up time increases, an unappreciated downside of longer follow-up in stop-screen trials.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-08-25T06:12:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320950784
       
  • Evaluation of human papillomavirus self-collection offered by community
           health workers at home visits among under-screened women in Brazil
    • Authors: Naitielle de Paula Pantano, José H Fregnani, Júlio CP Resende, Luiz C Zeferino, Bruno de Oliveira Fonseca, Márcio Antoniazzi, Cristina M de Oliveira, Gisele da Rocha Sant’ana, Adhemar Longatto-Filho
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo explore the acceptability of high-risk human papillomavirus self-testing, involving community health workers, for never/under-screened Brazilian women. Cervical cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death among adult women in a large number of low-income and lower-middle-income countries, where it remains a major public health problem. High-risk human papillomavirus persistence is required for the development of cervical neoplasia.MethodsThe target population was all women aged 30+ from the list of families available in healthcare centre data, who had never been screened or were not screened in the previous 3 years (under-screened women), and who were living in the 17 cities included in this study.ResultsOf the 377 women included, 16.9% (n = 64) had never had a pap smear. Of all samples included in the study, 97.1% (n = 366) were considered adequate for evaluation, as 2.9% (n = 11) were considered invalid for all high-risk human papillomavirus types. Analysing these 366 samples, 9.6% (n = 35) of the women were infected by at least one high-risk human papillomavirus type and 90.4% (n = 331) had no infection with any high-risk type of the virus.ConclusionsVaginal self-sampling is an adequate strategy to improve the effectiveness of the cervical cancer program by increasing screening in a high-risk group.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-07-24T05:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320941056
       
  • The National Patient Notification Exercise: How well did local breast
           screening services cope with the additional workload'
    • Authors: Christiane Zelenyanszki, Rita McAvinchey, Sue Hudson
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo describe how three English breast screening services responded to the 2018 Patient Notification Exercise, a national intervention whereby women who had potentially missed their final screening invitation were offered new appointments. To compare key performance indicators for women thus invited with key performance indicators for women invited routinely in the same period.MethodsUptake, assessment and cancer detection for 9439 women aged over 70 in the Patient Notification Exercise were compared with key performance indicators for 14,824 women, of similar age, who were routinely invited in the same period, using chi squared (χ2) tests. Invitation cancellation and attendance levels were also compared.ResultsUptake was significantly lower among Patient Notification Exercise women sent a new, timed appointment than for women who were routinely invited (67.3% and 70.8%, respectively, p = 0.001). Assessment rates were higher for Patient Notification Exercise women (5.2% vs. 4.4%, p = 0.192) as were cancer detection rates (1.87% vs. 1.28%, p = 0.080). Services achieved national round-length standards for routine invitations during and after the Patient Notification Exercise but screen-to-assessment standards were breached (80%) in the smallest service. More Patient Notification Exercise women than routinely invited women rebooked appointments (43.6% and 33.2%, respectively); they were also slightly more likely to miss their appointments (24.5% vs. 21.2%).ConclusionsScreening invitation performance can be maintained whilst responding to an additional demand of ∼5%. Larger services that cover a compact geographical area may find it easier to respond. Women affected by the incident are not more likely to attend but may require relatively more assessment capacity in incidents where invitations have been delayed.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-07-23T06:22:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320942782
       
  • Perceived susceptibility to developing cancer and screening for colorectal
           and prostate cancer: A longitudinal analysis of Alberta’s Tomorrow
           Project
    • Authors: Meghan Gilfoyle, Ashok Chaurasia, John Garcia, Mark Oremus
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.
      IntroductionTo assess the association between perceived susceptibility of developing cancer and being screened via sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy and prostate-specific antigen, respectively.MethodsParticipants aged 35–69, who resided in Alberta, Canada, were enrolled into the study between 2000 and 2008. We used general linear mixed models, adjusted for age, marital status, work status, education, family history and place of residence, to explore the association.ResultsPerceived susceptibility of developing cancer was associated with both screening tests at baseline and a maximum of 14-year follow-up: (i) colorectal cancer screening – adjusted odds ratios were 1.97 (95% CI = 1.52–2.55) per one-unit increase in participants' personal belief in susceptibility to cancer, and 1.03 (95% CI = 1.00–1.04) per one-percent increase in participants’ estimate of their own chance of developing cancer; (ii) prostate cancer screening – adjusted odds ratios were 1.36 times greater (95% CI = 1.07–1.72), and 1.02 times higher (95% CI = 1.01–1.03), for each respective perceived susceptibility measure.ConclusionHealth promotion can focus on targeting and heightening personal perceived susceptibility of developing cancer in jurisdictions with low screening rates for colorectal or prostate cancer.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-07-23T06:22:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320941900
       
  • The feasibility and necessity of cancer screening events in the community
           during the COVID-19 pandemic in Taiwan
    • Authors: Hui-Ju Tsai, Yu-Ling Chang, Fang-Ming Chen
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-07-16T08:31:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320941055
       
  • Determination of methylmalonic acid, 2-methylcitric acid, and total
           homocysteine in dried blood spots by liquid chromatography–tandem mass
           spectrometry: A reliable follow-up method for propionylcarnitine-related
           disorders in newborn screening
    • Authors: Zhenzhen Hu, Jianbin Yang, Yiming Lin, Junjuan Wang, Lingwei Hu, Chao Zhang, Yu Zhang, Xinwen Huang
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesDetermination of methylmalonic acid, 2-methylcitric acid, and total homocysteine in dried blood spots by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry has usually been used as a second-tier test to improve performance of newborn screening for propionylcarnitine-related disorders. However, factors that potentially affect its detection results have not been investigated, and we aimed to evaluate these influencing factors and explore their potential utility in newborn screening and initial follow-up for propionylcarnitine-related disorders.MethodsThis study comprised a prospective group (1998 healthy infants, to establish cutoff values and investigate the influencing factors) and a retrospective group (804 suspected positive cases screened from 381, 399 newborns for propionylcarnitine-related disorders by tandem mass spectrometry, to evaluate the performance of newborn screening and initial follow-up).ResultsCutoff values for methylmalonic acid, 2-methylcitric acid, and total homocysteine were 2.12, 0.70, and 10.05 µmol/l, respectively. Concentration of methylmalonic acid, 2-methylcitric acid, and total homocysteine in dried blood spots is not impacted by sex, age, birth weight, gestational age, or dried blood spot storage time. A total of 75 of 804 cases were screened positive by combined tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, thus eliminating 90% of the false positives without compromising sensitivity. Eighteen propionylcarnitine-related disorders were successfully identified, including one CblX case missed in the initial follow-up by tandem mass spectrometry.ConclusionsMethylmalonic acid, 2-methylcitric acid, and total homocysteine detected in dried blood spots by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry is a reliable, specific, and sensitive approach for identifying propionylcarnitine-related disorders. We recommend this assay should be performed rather than tandem mass spectrometry in follow-up for propionylcarnitine-related disorders besides second-tier tests in newborn screening.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-07-03T05:59:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320937725
       
  • Antenatal screening for Down’s syndrome: Revised nuchal translucency
           upper truncation limit due to improved precision of measurement
    • Authors: Stephen H Vale, Wayne J Huttly, Nicholas J Wald
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo determine whether the improved precision of nuchal translucency (NT) measurement used in antenatal screening for Down’s syndrome observed over time as evidenced by a decrease in the multiple of the median (MoM) standard deviation requires a modification to the NT MoM truncation limits to maintain accurate risk estimation.MethodsProbability plots were derived from the measurements of NT MoM values used in a 2018 audit of 22,362 unaffected pregnancies. The plots were used to determine whether the NT MoM upper truncation limit should be lowered. Validation plots were used to assess the screening accuracy of Down’s syndrome risk estimates calculated from observed NT MoM values in the 22,362 unaffected pregnancies and 69 Down’s syndrome pregnancies for original and revised NT MoM truncation limits.ResultsProbability plots indicated that with improved precision of NT measurements, there was deviation from a Gaussian distribution at less high MoM values than with less precise measurements. Validation plots showed that using the current NT MoM upper truncation limit of 2.5 MoM with improved precision NT measurements overestimates the Down’s syndrome risk (median risk in highest risk category expressed as an odds was 53.3:1 and observed prevalence was 1:1.1). The large discrepancy was corrected by changing the NT upper truncation limit to 2.0 MoM (median risk in highest risk category expressed as an odds was 1:1.78 and observed prevalence 1:2.7).ConclusionThe NT MoM upper truncation limit should be reduced from 2.5 to 2.0 MoM.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-07-02T06:13:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320937321
       
  • Practice, clinician, and patient factors associated with the adoption of
           lung cancer screening
    • Authors: Camille J Hochheimer, Roy T Sabo, Sebastian T Tong, Matthew Westfall, Susan E Wolver, Stacie Carney, Teresa Day, Alex H Krist
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesLung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. In 2013, the US Preventive Services Task Force recommended annual screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography in adults meeting certain criteria. This study seeks to assess lung cancer screening uptake in three health systems.SettingThis study was part of a randomized controlled trial to engage underserved populations in preventive care and includes 45 primary care practices in eight states.MethodsPractice and clinician characteristics were manually collected. Lung cancer was measured from electronic health record data. A generalized linear mixed model was used to assess characteristics associated with screening.ResultsPatient records between 2012 and 2016 were examined. Lung cancer screening uptake overall increased only slightly after the guideline change (2.8–5.6%, p 
      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-07-01T06:13:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320937326
       
  • Factors associated with attendance and attendance patterns in a
           population-based mammographic screening program
    • Authors: Marthe Larsen, Nataliia Moshina, Silje Sagstad, Solveig Hofvind
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo explore the factors associated with attendance and attendance pattern in BreastScreen Norway.MethodsWe evaluated the number of invitations (n = 1,253,995) and attendances, 2015–2019, stratified by age, invitation method, screening unit and time of appointment. Attendance pattern was analysed for women invited 10 times (n = 47,979), 1996–2019. The association of education level, body mass index, physical activity and smoking status with attendance was analysed for a sub-sample of women (n = 37,930). Descriptive statistics were used to analyse attendance, and negative binomial regression was used to analyse the association between the total number of attendances and education level and lifestyle factors.ResultsThe attendance rate was 76.0%, 2015–2019. The rate was 78.0% for women aged>64 and 73.9% for those 64, those who received digital invitations and those having appointments in late afternoon. The differences in predicted number of attendances between the investigated factors were minor. Overall, BreastScreen Norway has a high attendance rate. However, efforts aimed at increasing the attendance in specific groups should be considered.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-06-17T12:08:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320932945
       
  • Systematic reviews as a “lens of evidence”: Determinants of
           participation in breast cancer screening
    • Authors: O Mandrik, E Tolma, N Zielonke, F Meheus, C Ordóñez-Reyes, JL Severens, R Murillo
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo assess the determinants of the participation rate in breast cancer screening programs by conducting a systematic review of reviews.MethodsWe conducted a systematic search in PubMed via Medline, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane identifying the literature up to April 2019. Out of 2258 revealed unique abstracts, we included 31 reviews, from which 25 were considered as systematic. We applied the Walsh & McPhee Systems Model of Clinical Preventive Care to systematize the determinants of screening participation.ResultsThe reviews, mainly in high-income settings, reported a wide range for breast cancer screening participation rate: 16–90%. The determinants of breast cancer screening participation were simple low-cost interventions such as invitation letters, basic information on screening, multiple reminders, fixed appointments, prompts from healthcare professionals, and healthcare organizational factors (e.g. close proximity to screening facility). More complex interventions (such as face-to-face counselling or home visits), mass media or improved access to transport should not be encouraged by policy makers unless other information appears. The repeated participation in mammography screening was consistently high, above 62%. Previous positive experience with screening influenced the repeated participation in screening programs. The reviews were inconsistent in the use of terminology related to breast cancer screening participation, which may have contributed to the heterogeneity in the reported outcomes.ConclusionsThis study shows that consistent findings of systematic reviews bring more certainty into the conclusions on the effects of simple invitation techniques, fixed appointments and prompts, as well as healthcare organizational factors on promoting participation rate in screening mammography.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-06-10T05:14:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320930743
       
  • The effect of using fecal testing after a negative sigmoidoscopy on the
           risk of death from colorectal cancer
    • Authors: Chyke A Doubeni, Douglas A Corley, Christopher D Jensen, Joanne E Schottinger, Jeffery K Lee, Nirupa R Ghai, Theodore R Levin, Wei K Zhao, Chelsea A Saia, Jocelyn V Wainwright, Shivan J Mehta, Kevin Selby, V. Paul Doria-Rose, Ann G Zauber, Robert H Fletcher, Noel S Weiss
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo examine whether receiving a fecal occult blood test after a negative sigmoidoscopy reduced mortality from colorectal cancer.MethodsWe used a nested case–control design with incidence-density matching in historical cohorts of 1,877,740 50–90-year-old persons during 2006–2012, in an integrated health-system setting. We selected 1758 average risk patients who died from colorectal cancer and 3503 matched colorectal cancer-free persons. Colorectal cancer-specific death was ascertained from cancer and mortality registries. Screening histories were determined from electronic and chart–audit clinical data in the 5- to 10-year period prior to the reference date. We evaluated receipt of subsequent fecal occult blood test within five years of the reference date among patients with negative sigmoidoscopy two to six years before the reference date.ResultsOf the 5261 patients, 831 patients (204 colorectal cancer deaths/627 controls) had either negative sigmoidoscopy only (n = 592) or negative sigmoidoscopy with subsequent screening fecal occult blood test (n = 239). Fifty-six (27.5%) of the 204 patients dying of colorectal cancer and 183 (29.2%) of the 627 colorectal cancer-free patients received fecal occult blood test following a negative sigmoidoscopy. Conditional regressions found no significant association between fecal occult blood test receipt and colorectal cancer death risk, overall (adjusted odds ratio = 0.93, confidence interval: 0.65–1.33), or for right (odds ratio = 1.02, confidence interval: 0.65–1.60) or left-colon/rectum (odds ratio = 0.77, confidence interval: 0.39–1.52) cancers. Similar results were obtained in sensitivity analyses with alternative exposure ascertainment windows or timing of fecal occult blood test.ConclusionsOur results suggest that receipt of at least one fecal occult blood test during the several years after a negative sigmoidoscopy did not substantially reduce mortality from colorectal cancer.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-05-22T05:03:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320921427
       
  • Afterthoughts on colonoscopy. Was it that bad'
    • Authors: Glenn M Decruz, Cheng H Ng, Kia T Lim, M K Devi, Frances Lim, Chia H Tai, Choon S Chong
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesColorectal cancer is among the top three most common cancers globally. In order to reduce the health burden, it is important to improve the uptake of colorectal cancer screening by understanding the barriers and facilitators encountered. There are numerous reports in the literature on the views of the general public on cancer screening. However, the experiences of colonoscopy patients are not as well studied. This paper maps their perceptions.MethodsKeyword searches for terms such as ‘colorectal’, ‘colonoscopy’ and ‘qualitative’ were conducted on 3 December 2019 in five databases: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Web of Science Core Collection. Qualitative articles that quoted colonoscopy-experienced patients with no prior history of colorectal cancer were included for the thematic analysis. The systematic review was then synthesized according to PRISMA guidelines.ResultsThe major themes were distilled into three categories: pre-procedure, during and post-procedure. The factors identified in the pre-procedure phase include the troublesome bowel preparation, poor quality of information provided and the dynamics within a support network. Perceptions of pain, emotional discomfort and the role of providers mark the experience during the procedure. The receipt of results, opportunities given for discussion and finances relating to colonoscopy are important post-procedure events.ConclusionUnderstanding colorectal cancer screening behaviour is fundamental for healthcare providers and authorities to develop system and personal level changes for the improvement of colorectal cancer screening services. The key areas include patient comfort, the use of clearer instructional aids and graphics, establishing good patient rapport, and the availability of individualized options for sedation and the procedure.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-05-22T05:03:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320923381
       
  • Prognostic selection and long-term survival analysis to assess
           overdiagnosis risk in lung cancer screening randomized trials
    • Authors: Eugenio Paci, Donella Puliti, Francesca Maria Carozzi, Laura Carrozzi, Fabio Falaschi, Andrea Lopes Pegna, Mario Mascalchi, Giulia Picozzi, Francesco Pistelli, Marco Zappa
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesOverdiagnosis in low-dose computed tomography randomized screening trials varies from 0 to 67%. The National Lung Screening Trial (extended follow-up) and ITALUNG (Italian Lung Cancer Screening Trial) have reported cumulative incidence estimates at long-term follow-up showing low or no overdiagnosis. The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial attributed the high overdiagnosis estimate to a likely selection for risk of the active arm. Here, we applied a method already used in benefit and overdiagnosis assessments to compute the long-term survival rates in the ITALUNG arms in order to confirm incidence-excess method assessment.MethodsSubjects in the active arm were invited for four screening rounds, while controls were in usual care. Follow-up was extended to 11.3 years. Kaplan-Meyer 5- and 10-year survivals of “resected and early” (stage I or II and resected) and “unresected or late” (stage III or IV or not resected or unclassified) lung cancer cases were compared between arms.ResultsThe updated ITALUNG control arm cumulative incidence rate was lower than in the active arm, but this was not statistically significant (RR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.67–1.18). A compensatory drop of late cases was observed after baseline screening. The proportion of “resected and early” cases was 38% and 19%, in the active and control arms, respectively. The 10-year survival rates were 64% and 60% in the active and control arms, respectively (p = 0.689). The five-year survival rates for “unresected or late” cases were 10% and 7% in the active and control arms, respectively (p = 0.679).ConclusionsThis long-term survival analysis, by prognostic categories, concluded against the long-term risk of overdiagnosis and contributed to revealing how screening works.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T04:34:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320923030
       
  • Breast cancer screening with mammography in women aged 40–49 years:
           Impact of length of screening interval on effectiveness of the program
    • Authors: Zheng Mao, Lennarth Nyström, Håkan Jonsson
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesTo estimate the impact on the effectiveness of Swedish breast cancer screening program in women aged 40–49 years of shortening the screening interval from 21 months to 18 or 12 months.MethodsThe reduction in breast cancer mortality among participants in screening with mammography was previously estimated in the Swedish SCReening of Young women (SCRY) study to be 29%. The expected increased effectiveness with a hypothetical shorter screening interval than the average of 21 months in SCRY was calculated using data about the women who died from breast cancer even though they participated in the SCRY program.ResultsDuring the study period, 547 women who participated in the index screening round died from breast cancer. Shortening the screening interval to 18 months led to an improved effectiveness of 0.7–3.9% considering interval cancers only and of 1.3–7.6% considering screening-detected cancers only, and for both interval and screening-detected cancers the improvement was 1.9–11.5% when the assumed mortality reduction for the deceased cases varied from 5% to 30%. Shortening the screening interval to 12 months increased the effectiveness by 1.6–9.8% for interval cancers and by 2.9–17.4% for both interval and screening-detected cancers.ConclusionShortening the screening interval for women aged 40–49 years to 18 or 12 months might further reduce the breast cancer mortality rate.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-05-14T04:55:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320918283
       
  • Interval colorectal cancers after negative faecal immunochemical test in a
           13-year screening programme
    • Authors: Manuel Zorzi, Cesare Hassan, Carlo Senore, Giulia Capodaglio, Anna Turrin, Elena Narne, Alessio Mussato, Silvia Rizzato, Enrico Chinellato, Sara Zamberlan, Alessandro Repici, Massimo Rugge
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo assess faecal immunochemical test sensitivity for cancer in a very large population-based cohort followed up for six rounds with biennial faecal immunochemical test repetition.MethodsThis study is based on interval colorectal cancers diagnosed in a cohort of subjects aged 50–69 undergoing repeated faecal immunochemical test screening (six rounds) from 2002 to 2015. Test sensitivity was calculated using both the Proportional Interval Cancer Rate and the Interval Cancer Proportion method.ResultsAmong 441,647 faecal immunochemical tests (123,347 individuals), 150 interval colorectal cancers were detected after a negative faecal immunochemical test. Interval colorectal cancer incidence rate was 1.87 per 10,000 person-years (95%CI: 1.60–2.20), and it was higher during the second interval year (rate ratio: 1.78; 95%CI: 1.28–2.47), for proximal locations (rate ratio: 3.00; 95%CI: 1.92–4.68), and among 60–71 year old subjects (rate ratio: 2.37; 95%CI: 1.61–3.50). The Proportional Interval Cancer Rate was 13.1%, with an overall faecal immunochemical test sensitivity of 86.9% (95%CI: 84.7–89.0). Sensitivity was lowest at the first round (81.5%; 95%CI: 75.6–86.2), and increased to 91.9% (95%CI: 83.9–96.5) for subsequent rounds. Applying the Interval Cancer Proportion method, sensitivity was 83.9% (95%CI: 81.3–86.2), and it was highest at the first round (89.0%; 95%CI: 85.7–91.6), ranging between 73% and 83.1% at subsequent rounds.ConclusionsA faecal immunochemical test sensitivity for cancer higher than 80% resulted in a low incidence of interval colorectal cancers, representing an accurate estimate of one of the major limits of screening programmes. Due to intrinsic biases, the Proportional Interval Cancer Rate and the Interval Cancer Proportion methods generated different trends in faecal immunochemical test sensitivity by screening round.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-05-12T05:36:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320918613
       
  • The ties that bind: Cancer history, communication, and screening intention
           associations among diverse families
    • Authors: Timiya S Nolan, Alai Tan, Karen Patricia Williams
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveBreast and cervical cancers are screen-detectable; yet, challenges exist with ensuring uptake of mammography and Pap smear. Family, a central factor in developing knowledge to carry out health promotion behaviors, may be an asset to improving intention to screen among non-adherent women from underrepresented minority groups. We explored familial cancer; communication; and breast and cervical screening intention among non-adherent Black, Latina, and Arab women in the United States who participated in a randomized controlled trial of the Kin KeeperSM Cancer Prevention Intervention study. The intervention was a culturally-targeted breast and cervical cancer literacy tool for Black, Latina, and Arab women, consisting of two family-focused education sessions on the cancers, their screening guidelines, and risk-reducing health-related behaviors.MethodsFor this secondary analysis, we assessed family cancer history, family communication, and screening intention for breast and cervical cancer in age-eligible, non-adherent participants. Descriptive statistics examined sample characteristics of the intervention and control groups. Odds ratios were estimated from logistic regression modeling to assess the intervention and sample characteristic effects on screening intention.ResultsOf the 516 participants, 123 and 98 were non-adherent to breast and cervical cancer screening, respectively. The intervention (OR = 1.95 for mammography; OR = 1.62 for Pap smear) and highly communicative (OR = 2.57 for mammography; OR = 3.68 for Pap smear) families reported greater screening intention. Family history of cancer only increased screening intention for mammography (OR = 2.25).ConclusionFamily-focused approaches supporting communication may increase breast and cervical cancer screening intention among non-adherent, underrepresented minority groups.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-05-12T05:36:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320920900
       
  • Chloroquine and the potential adverse outcome in undiagnosed
           G6PD-deficient cases infected with COVID-19
    • Authors: Issam Khneisser, Chantal Farra
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-05-08T03:02:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320924452
       
  • Impact of an organised population screening programme for colorectal
           cancer: Measurement after first and second rounds
    • Authors: Javier Mar, Arantzazu Arrospide, Igor Larrañaga, Maria Luisa Iruretagoiena, Liher Imaz, Ania Gorostiza, Oliver Ibarrondo
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe first and second rounds of the Basque programme for organised colorectal cancer screening were implemented between 2009 and 2014. Our objective was to measure the changes in incidence, tumour, node, metastasis staging distribution and tumour, node, metastasis-adjusted survival of patients with colorectal cancer from 2003 to 2014.MethodColorectal cancer cases with screening (patients
      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-05-08T03:02:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320921893
       
  • Early detection of breast cancer rectifies inequality of breast cancer
           outcomes
    • Authors: László Tabár, Tony Hsiu-Hsi Chen, Amy Ming-Fang Yen, Peter B Dean, Robert A Smith, Håkan Jonsson, Sven Törnberg, Sam Li-Sheng Chen, Sherry Yueh-Hsia Chiu, Jean Ching-Yuan Fann, May Mei-Sheng Ku, Wendy Yi-Ying Wu, Chen-Yang Hsu, Yu-Ching Chen, Gunilla Svane, Edward Azavedo, Helene Grundström, Per Sundén, Karin Leifland, Ewa Frodis, Joakim Ramos, Birgitta Epstein, Anders Åkerlund, Ann Sundbom, Pál Bordás, Hans Wallin, Leena Starck, Annika Björkgren, Stina Carlson, Irma Fredriksson, Johan Ahlgren, Daniel Öhman, Lars Holmberg, Stephen W Duffy
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesTo explain apparent differences among mammography screening services in Sweden using individual data on participation in screening and with breast cancer–specific survival as an outcome.MethodsWe analysed breast cancer survival data from the Swedish Cancer Register on breast cancer cases from nine Swedish counties diagnosed in women eligible for screening. Data were available on 38,278 breast cancers diagnosed and 4312 breast cancer deaths. Survival to death from breast cancer was estimated using the Kaplan–Meier estimate, for all cases in each county, and separately for cases of women participating and not participating in their last invitation to screening. Formal statistical comparisons of survival were made using proportional hazards regression.ResultsAll counties showed a reduction in the hazard of breast cancer death with participation in screening, but the reductions for individual counties varied substantially, ranging from 51% (95% confidence interval 46–55%) to 81% (95% confidence interval 74–85%). Survival rates in nonparticipating women ranged from 53% (95% confidence interval 40–65%) to 74% (95% confidence interval 72–77%), while the corresponding survival in women participating in screening varied from 80% (95% confidence interval 77–84%) to 86% (95% confidence interval 83–88%), a considerably narrower range.ConclusionsDifferences among counties in the effect of screening on breast cancer outcomes were mainly due to variation in survival in women not participating in screening. Screening conferred similarly high survival rates in all counties. This indicates that the performance of screening services was similar across counties and that detection and treatment of breast cancer in early-stage reduces inequalities in breast cancer outcome.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-05-06T02:38:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320921210
       
  • Adherence to national guidelines for colorectal cancer screening in
           Israel: Comprehensive multi-year assessment based on electronic medical
           records
    • Authors: Ora Paltiel, Aravah Keidar Tirosh, Orit Paz Stostky, Ronit Calderon-Margalit, Arnon D Cohen, Einat Elran, Liora Valinsky, Eran Matz, Michal Krieger, Arye Ben Yehuda, Dena H Jaffe, Orly Manor
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesTo assess time trends in colorectal cancer screening uptake, time-to-colonoscopy completion following a positive fecal occult blood test and associated patient factors, and the extent and predictors of longitudinal screening adherence in Israel.SettingNation-wide population-based study using data collected from four health maintenance organizations for the Quality Indicators in Community Healthcare Program.MethodsScreening uptake for the eligible population (aged 50–74) was recorded 2003–2018 using aggregate data. For a subcohort (2008–2012, N = 1,342,617), time-to-colonoscopy following a positive fecal occult blood test and longitudinal adherence to screening guidelines were measured using individual-level data, and associated factors assessed in multivariate models.ResultsThe annual proportion screened rose for both sexes from 11 to 65%, increasing five-fold for age group 60–74 and>six-fold for 50–59 year olds, respectively. From 2008 to 2012, 67,314 adults had a positive fecal occult blood test, of whom 71% eventually performed a colonoscopy after a median interval of 122 (95% confidence interval 110.2–113.7) days. Factors associated with time-to-colonoscopy included age, socioeconomic status, and comorbidities. Only 25.5% of the population demonstrated full longitudinal screening adherence, mainly attributable to colonoscopy in the past 10 years rather than annual fecal occult blood test performance (83% versus 17%, respectively). Smoking, diabetes, lower socioeconomic status, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension were associated with decreased adherence. Performance of other cancer screening tests and frequent primary care visits were strongly associated with adherence.ConclusionsDespite substantial improvement in colorectal cancer screening uptake on a population level, individual-level data uncovered gaps in colonoscopy completion after a positive fecal occult blood test and in longitudinal adherence to screening, which should be addressed using focused interventions.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-05-01T12:52:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320919152
       
  • Technological advances: Have they improved standards' Review of
           outcomes from the Welsh cervical screening programme
    • Authors: Alejandra Castanon
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-04-17T02:40:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320918270
       
  • The impact of socioeconomic deprivation on the uptake of colorectal cancer
           screening in London
    • Authors: Nikhil Lal, Harpreet KSI Singh, Azeem Majeed, Nikhil Pawa
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-04-16T09:01:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320916206
       
  • Patterns of gynaecological check-up and their association with body mass
           index within the CONSTANCES cohort
    • Authors: Jeanna-eve Franck, Virginie Ringa, Laurent Rigal, Jeanne Sassenou, Mireille Cœuret-Pellicer, Pierre Chauvin, Gwenn Menvielle
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-04-13T07:39:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320914323
       
  • Decentralising atrial fibrillation screening to overcome socio-demographic
           inequalities in uptake in STROKESTOP II

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Katrin Kemp Gudmundsdottir, Anders Holmen, Tove Fredriksson, Emma Svennberg, Faris Al-Khalili, Johan Engdahl, Ulf Strömberg
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T06:30:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320908316
       
  • HPV screening performance indicators in women who previously tested
           HPV-negative: The second round of Vallecamonica screening programme,
           Northern Italy
    • Authors: Luigi Pasquale, Paolo G Rossi, Francesca Carozzi, Serena Domenighini, Cristina Ruggeri, Lorella Cecconami, Corrado Morana, Margherita Chiaramonte, Daniela Chiudinelli, Manuela Piccolomini, Roberta Marchione, Massimo Confortini
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-02-27T05:51:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320905325
       
  • Cross-sectional adherence with the multi-target stool DNA test for
           colorectal cancer screening: Real-world data from a large cohort of older
           adults

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Emily Weiser, Philip D Parks, Rebecca K Swartz, Jack Van Thomme, Philip T Lavin, Paul Limburg, Barry M Berger
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-02-14T05:16:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320903756
       
  • Interventions to ensure follow-up of positive fecal immunochemical tests:
           An international survey of screening programs
    • Authors: Kevin Selby, Carlo Senore, Martin Wong, Folasade P May, Samir Gupta, Peter S Liang
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-02-14T05:16:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320904977
       
  • Occupation as a predictor of prostate cancer screening behaviour in Canada
    • Authors: Cheryl E Peters, Paul J Villeneuve, Marie-Élise Parent
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-01-31T05:41:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320902485
       
  • Cervical cancer screening and prevention in Kazakhstan and Central Asia
    • Authors: Gulzhanat Aimagambetova, Chee Kai Chan, Talshyn Ukybassova, Balkenzhe Imankulova, Askhat Balykov, Kuralay Kongrtay, Azliyati Azizan
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-01-25T04:35:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141320902482
       
  • Economic evaluation of colorectal cancer screening programs: Affordability
           for the health service
    • Authors: Silvia Coretti, Matteo Ruggeri, Rossella Dibidino, Lara Gitto, Andrea Marcellusi, Francesco Saverio Mennini, Americo Cicchetti
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-01-17T07:11:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141319898732
       
  • Attitudes towards HPV self-sampling among women in Chengdu, China: A
           cross-sectional survey
    • Authors: Lixia He, Junyong He
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Screening, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Medical Screening
      PubDate: 2020-01-03T06:16:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0969141319895543
       
 
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