Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8642 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2392 journals)            First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Showing 1201 - 1400 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Forensic Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Gandaki Medical College-Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Generic Medicines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Geographical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hand Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Head & Neck Physicians and Surgeons     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health & Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 61)
Journal of Health and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Economics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior     Open Access  
Journal of Health Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science and Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of health sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences / Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Surveillance System     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences Scholarship     Open Access  
Journal of Health Specialties     Open Access  
Journal of Health Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Healthcare Informatics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Helminthology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Herbs Spices & Medicinal Plants     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of HIV for Clinical and Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Hospital Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Human Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Human Rhythm     Open Access  
Journal of Human Transcriptome     Open Access  
Journal of Ideas in Health     Open Access  
Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inflammation Research     Open Access  
Journal of Injury and Violence Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Institute of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Insulin Resistance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Interactional Research in Communication Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of International Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Interventional Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Investigative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Islamabad Medical & Dental College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Karnali Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Kathmandu Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of King Abdulaziz University : Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Laryngology and Voice     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Limb Lengthening & Reconstruction     Open Access  
Journal of Lumbini Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Materials Science : Materials in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Maternal and Child Health     Open Access  
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Cases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Colleges of PLA     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Medical Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Ethics     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ideas     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Investigation and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Laboratory and Diagnosis     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Law and Ethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Medical Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medicinal Botany     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 199)
Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Medicine and the Person     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medicine in Scientific Research     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine in the Tropics     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine Research and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medicines Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Metabolomics & Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Movement Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Nanotheranostics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Natural Medicines     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nature and Science of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Journal of Nepalgunj Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Neurocritical Care     Open Access  
Journal of Neurodegenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Neurorestoratology     Open Access  
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Nobel Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Obesity and Bariatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Occupational Health     Open Access  
Journal of Occupational Therapy Education     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Ocular Biology, Diseases, and Informatics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Oral Health and Craniofacial Science     Open Access  
Journal of Orofacial Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, Hearing and Balance Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ovarian Research     Open Access  
Journal of Ozone Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Journal of Paramedical Sciences & Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Journal of Parkinsonism and Restless Legs Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parkinson’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Participatory Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Patan Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Pathogens     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Patient Experience     Open Access  
Journal of Patient Safety and Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Patient-Reported Outcomes     Open Access  
Journal of Periodontal Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physiobiochemical Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physiology-Paris     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pioneering Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Pregnancy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Prevention & Intervention Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health     Open Access  
Journal of Primary Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Prosthodontic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Prosthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Receptor, Ligand and Channel Research     Open Access  
Journal of Regenerative Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Scientific Innovation in Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Scientific Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Arthroplasty     Open Access  
Journal of Sleep Disorders : Treatment & Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of South American Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences : Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stem Cell Therapy and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stomal Therapy Australia     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Journal of Substance Use     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Surgical Academia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Surgical and Clinical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report     Open Access  
Journal of Systemic Therapies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of The Academy of Clinical Microbiologists     Open Access  
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the American College of Certified Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American College of Clinical Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Anatomical Society of India     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Anus, Rectum and Colon     Open Access  
Journal of The Arab Society for Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Australasian Society of Aerospace Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Ceylon College of Physicians     Open Access  
Journal of the Chinese Medical Association     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the College of Community Physicians of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of The Egyptian Public Health Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Georgia Public Health Association     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Ghana Science Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.366
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 75  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1064-8011 - ISSN (Online) 1533-4287
Published by LWW Wolters Kluwer Homepage  [299 journals]
  • Physiological and Perceptual Demands of Running on a Curved Nonmotorized
           Treadmill Compared With Running on a Motorized Treadmill Set at Different
           Grades
    • Authors: Schoenmakers; Patrick P.J.M.; Crisell, James J.; Reed, Kate E.
      Abstract: imageSchoenmakers, PPJM, Crisell, JJ, and Reed, KE. Physiological and perceptual demands of running on a curved nonmotorized treadmill compared with running on a motorized treadmill set at different grades. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1197–1200, 2020—The current study compared the physiological and perceptual demands of running on a commercially available curved nonmotorized treadmill (cNMT) with different incline grades on a motorized treadmill (MT). Ten male team-sport athletes completed, after a familiarization session, a 6-minute run at a target velocity of 2.78 m·s−1 on the cNMT (cNMTrun). The mean individual running velocity of cNMTrun was then used as warm-up and experimental running velocity in 3 subsequent visits, in which subjects ran for 6 minutes on the MT set at different grades (4, 6, or 8%). In all experimental trials (cNMTrun, 4MTrun, 6MTrun, and 8MTrun) and in the warm-up of the subjects' third visit (1MTrun), oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) and heart rate (HR) were monitored, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were obtained. The HR in cNMTrun was significantly higher compared with all MT trials. V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and RPE were significantly higher in cNMTrun compared with 1MTrun and 4MTrun, but not different from 6MTrun and 8MTrun. The relationship between V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and MT grades was highly linear (V[Combining Dot Above]O2 = 34.36 + 1.7 MT grade; r = 0.99), and using linear interpolation, the concave curved design of the cNMT was estimated to mimic a 6.9 ± 3% MT grade. On matched running velocities, V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and RPE responses while running on the cNMT are similar to a 6–8% MT grade. These findings can be used as a reference value by athletes and coaches in the planning of cNMT training sessions and amend running velocities accordingly. Future studies are needed to determine whether this estimate is similar for female runners, or those of a lower body mass.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • “Stronger Is Better”: Gale Gillingham, the Weight-Trained
           Green Bay Packer All-Pro
    • Authors: Shurley; Jason P.
      Abstract: imageShurley, JP. “Stronger is better”: Gale Gillingham, the weight-trained Green Bay Packer all-pro. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1201–1212, 2020—In the 1960s, many sport coaches advised their athletes not to lift weights, with some going so far as to threaten to dismiss or punish any who were caught engaging in such training. Their advice or threats were well intentioned as both were prompted by fears that weight training would make an athlete less flexible, slower, and less coordinated, known more colloquially as “muscle bound.” Nonetheless, some athletes took up barbells despite that conventional wisdom and helped play a vital role in dispelling the notion that weight training would hamper athletic performance. Gale Gillingham was one of those athletes. He began weight training as an adolescent and continued to train throughout his career in intercollegiate and professional football. The size, strength, and speed he developed through long-term strength training enabled him to become an all-conference player in college, first-round draft pick in the National Football League, and a 6-time All-Pro offensive lineman. In addition to his dedication to regular training, Gillingham was innovative in the way he lifted, incorporating very high intensity and partial lifts as regular components of his workouts. Despite his many accolades, Gillingham has not received the attention he deserves for his pioneering role in demonstrating the utility of long-term strength training to enhance athletic performance. This article seeks to correct that oversight and discusses his career, training, and contributions to the field of strength and conditioning.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Effect of Competition Frequency on Strength Performance of Powerlifting
           Athletes
    • Authors: Pearson; Joshua; Spathis, Jemima G.; van den Hoek, Daniel J.; Owen, Patrick J.; Weakley, Jonathon; Latella, Christopher
      Abstract: imagePearson, J, Spathis, JG, van den Hoek, DJ, Owen, PJ, Weakley, J, and Latella, C. Effect of competition frequency on strength performance of powerlifting athletes. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1213–1219, 2020—Powerlifting (PL) requires athletes to achieve the highest possible “total” weight lifted across squat, bench press, and deadlift. Athletes compete multiple times per year; however, it is not well understood how often PL athletes should compete to facilitate maximal strength performance. This study investigated the effect of competition frequency on strength (relative and absolute) in PL athletes over a 12-month period. Results across all male (n = 563, mean ± SD; age; 28 ± 10 years, body mass; 89.3 ± 19.3 kg) and female (n = 437, age; 31 ± 11 years, body mass; 70.1 ± 15.8 kg) PL athletes were collated. Total competition scores were used to calculate absolute and relative strength for each competition. Linear mixed models with random effects, and effect sizes ± 95% confidence intervals compared competition frequency and total score for (a) all, (b) male, and (c) female competition entries, respectively. The association between total score at each competition was assessed with Pearson's correlation coefficient for the same independent variables. Results demonstrate greater absolute strength at competition 2 for all athletes (5.1%: p = 0.043: d = 0.16) and males (2.9%: p = 0.049: d = 0.15). For females, absolute strength was greater at competition 5 compared to 1 (12.0%: p = 0.001: d = 0.65) and 2 (9.6%: p = 0.007: d = 0.50). Weak positive correlations for relative strength and number of times competed for males were evident between competitions 1 to 4 (r2 = 0.070–0.085, p = 0.003–0.043). For females, 3 competitions weakly correlated with absolute strength (r2 = 0.106, p = 0.016). PL athletes who compete multiple times per year are more likely to achieve higher totals; however, there is an upper limit to the number of competitions (4 per year) that seem to allow a performance increase.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Effects of Warming Up With Lower-Body Wearable Resistance on Physical
           Performance Measures in Soccer Players Over an 8-Week Training Cycle
    • Authors: Bustos; Aníbal; Metral, Gustavo; Cronin, John; Uthoff, Aaron; Dolcetti, Joseph
      Abstract: imageBustos, A, Metral, G, Cronin, J, Uthoff, A, and Dolcetti, J. Effects of warming up with lower-body wearable resistance on physical performance measures in soccer players over an 8-week training cycle. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1220–1226, 2020—Warm-ups provide an opportune time to integrate specific movements to improve performance. This study aimed to examine the effects of adding wearable resistance (WR) lower-limb loading to a warm-up on physical performance measures in soccer athletes. Thirty-one national-level soccer players (aged 16–18 years) were matched for speed and allocated to either a WR training (WRT = 15) or an unloaded (CON = 16) group. Both groups performed the same warm-up 2–3x·wk−1 for 8 weeks with the WRT group wearing 200- to 600-g loads on their calves. Pre-training, mid-training, and post-training data were collected for 10- and 20-m sprint times, repeated sprint ability, and vertical countermovement jump (CMJ) and horizontal countermovement jump (standing long jump [SLJ]) performance. Wearable resistance training improved pre-training to post-training 10- and 20-m sprint times more than the unloaded training (effect size [ES] = −1.06 to −0.96, respectively; 60.0–66.7 vs. 18.8–37.5%> smallest worthwhile change [SWC]). Both groups decreased CMJ over the first 4 weeks (ES ≥ 0.45) and increased CMJ performance over the second 4 weeks of training (ES ≥ 0.27). Both the WRT and CON groups improved SLJ performance after the 8-week training block (ES = 0.85 and 0.93, respectively; 86.7 and 62.5%> SWC, respectively), yet no differences were identified between groups. These findings indicate that 8 weeks (23 sessions) of WR training appears to elicit practically meaningful improvements in accelerated sprinting and horizontal jumping performance. Strength and conditioning practitioners should consider including WR in sports where sprinting and horizontal force production are critical performance indicators.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Lower-limb Dynamics of Muscle Oxygen Saturation During the Back-squat
           Exercise: Effects of Training Load and Effort Level
    • Authors: Gómez-Carmona; Carlos D.; Bastida-Castillo, Alejandro; Rojas-Valverde, Daniel; de la Cruz Sánchez, Ernesto; García-Rubio, Javier; Ibáñez, Sergio J.; Pino-Ortega, José
      Abstract: imageGómez-Carmona, CD, Bastida-Castillo, A, Rojas-Valverde, D, de la Cruz Sánchez, E, García-Rubio, J, Ibáñez, SJ, and Pino-Ortega, J. Lower-limb dynamics of muscle oxygen saturation during the back-squat exercise: effects of training load and effort level. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1227–1236, 2020—The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of strength training on lower limb muscle oxygenation. The sample consisted of 12 male subjects (22.4 ± 1.73 years; 1.81 ± 0.08 cm height and 77.76 ± 8.77 kg body mass). Six different strength training stimuli were analyzed, based on the training variables: load (60–75% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and level of effort (LE) (E1: 4 × 8 [20RM], E2: 4 × 12 [20RM], E3: 4 × 16 [20RM], E4: 4 × 4 [10RM], E5: 4 × 6 [10RM], and E6: 4 × 8 [10RM]) in the squat exercise up to 90° with a 2-second stop between repetitions to avoid the myotatic reflex. Oxygen saturation at the beginning of the series (SmO2start), oxygen saturation at the end of the series (SmO2stop), percentage of oxygen saturation loss (▽%SmO2), and reoxygenation time (SmO2recT) were assessed using a near-infrared spectroscopy device. In addition, the percentage of mean propulsive velocity loss (%MPVL) was recorded using a linear transducer. The results suggested an influence of LE and training load on muscle oxygenation. A greater LE was directly associated with SmO2recT (r = 0.864), ▽%SmO2 (r = 0.873), and %MPVL (r = 0.883) and inversely with SmO2stop (r = −0.871). When the same LE was used (E1 vs. E4, E2 vs. E5, and E3 vs. E6), it was found that the stimuli with a higher load had a lower SmO2recT, ▽%SmO2, and %MPVL and a higher SmO2stop. Muscle oxygen saturation was found to be minimal (%SmO2 = 0) in stimuli with a LE greater than 60% (E3 and E6). The SmO2 variables studied in the present research could be considered as an easier and more useful method for understanding skeletal muscle fatigue during resistance training.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Is Performing Repetitions to Failure Less Important Than Volume for Muscle
           Hypertrophy and Strength'
    • Authors: Lacerda; Lucas T.; Marra-Lopes, Rodrigo O.; Diniz, Rodrigo C.R.; Lima, Fernando V.; Rodrigues, Sara A.; Martins-Costa, Hugo C.; Bemben, Michael G.; Chagas, Mauro H.
      Abstract: imageLacerda, LT, Marra-Lopes, RO, Diniz, RCR, Lima, FV, Rodrigues, SA, Martins-Costa, HC, Bemben, MG, and Chagas, MH. Is performing repetitions to failure less important than volume for muscle hypertrophy and strength? J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1237–1248, 2020—The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle failure (MF) or not to MF (NMF) training on strength and muscle hypertrophy relative gains (average and individual data). Ten men untrained in resistance training participated in the study. Each leg was allocated in 1 of 2 unilateral training protocols (MF or NMF with equal volume) on knee extension exercise. Both protocols were performed with 3–4 sets, 3 minutes' rest, and 55–60% of one repetition maximum (1RM). Rectus femoris and vastus lateralis muscles cross-sectional area (CSA), maximal muscle strength (1RM and maximal voluntary isometric contraction), and muscular endurance (maximum number of repetition) were assessed before and after 14 weeks. In addition, neuromuscular activation by normalized root mean square of the electromyographic signal (EMGRMS) was measured in 2nd and 35th training sessions. The average results showed that both training protocols were similarly effective in inducing increases in strength and muscle hypertrophy gains. However, individual analysis data suggest that NMF protocol with equal volume may promote similar or even greater muscle hypertrophy (vastus lateralis) and muscular endurance performance when compared with MF protocol. Also, normalized EMGRMS responses analyzed during 2nd and 35th sessions were similar in MF and NMF protocols for rectus femoris and vastus lateralis muscles. In conclusion, MF and NMF protocol conducted with the same total repetition numbers produced similar maximal muscle strength performance and neuromuscular activation. Nevertheless, NMF training could be a more appropriate strategy to increase muscle hypertrophy (vastus lateralis) and muscular endurance performance in untrained individuals when compared with MF.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Barbell Squat Relative Strength as an Identifier for Lower Extremity
           Injury in Collegiate Athletes
    • Authors: Case; Marcus J.; Knudson, Duane V.; Downey, Darcy L.
      Abstract: imageCase, MJ, Knudson, DV, and Downey, DL. Barbell squat relative strength as an identifier for lower extremity injury in collegiate athletes. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1249–1253, 2020—The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of using the relative strength level of Division I athletes in One repetition maximum (1RM) barbell back squat as an identifier of seasonal lower extremity (LE) injury. One repetition maximum back squat (kg) and reported LE injuries were retrospectively collected for Division I male football (n = 46), female volleyball and softball athletes (n = 25). Maximum preseason relative (body mass normalized) back squat strength values were compared with 2 analyses of variance (p < 0.05) between injured and uninjured male (football) and female athletes (softball & volleyball). Relative back squat strength was significantly lower in injured athletes than uninjured athletes in both men (F = 6.03, p = 0.02) and women (F = 4.68, p = 0.04) with a moderate to large effect size (g = 0.86–0.85). These data indicate the potential of 1RM back squat relative strength serving as one tool in multi-factor preseason screening for LE injury risk in these sports. Male athletes with relative squat strength below 2.2 and female athletes below 1.6 in these sports could be more susceptible to LE injury over a season. Strength professionals should consider using body mass normalized 1RM back squats as a screening tool for seasonal LE injury risk in college athletes.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Varying the Order of Combinations of Single- and Multi-Joint Exercises
           Differentially Affects Resistance Training Adaptations
    • Authors: Brandão; Lucas; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Lasevicius, Thiago; Silva-Batista, Carla; Brendon, Helderson; Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Aihara, André Yui; Cardoso, Fabiano Nassar; de Almeida Peres, Bergson; Teixeira, Emerson Luiz
      Abstract: imageBrandão, L, de Salles Painelli, V, Lasevicius, T, Silva-Batista, C, Brendon, H, Schoenfeld, BJ, Aihara, AY, Cardoso, FN, de Almeida Peres, B, and Teixeira, EL. Varying the order of combinations of single- and multi-joint exercises differentially affects resistance training adaptations. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1254–1263, 2020—Our study aimed to compare the effects of multi-joint (MJ) and single-joint (SJ) exercises, either isolated or in combination, and in different orders, on cross-sectional area (CSA) of the pectoralis major (PM) and different heads of the triceps brachii (TB), as well as on the one-repetition maximum (1-RM) in the bench press and lying barbell triceps press. Forty-three young men were randomly assigned to one of 4 possible RT protocols: barbell bench press plus lying barbell triceps press (MJ + SJ, n = 12); lying barbell triceps press plus barbell bench press (SJ + MJ, n = 10); barbell bench press (MJ, n = 10); or lying barbell triceps press (SJ, n = 11). Results showed significant within-group increases in 1-RM bench press for MJ, MJ + SJ, and SJ + MJ but not for SJ. Conversely, significantly greater within-group increases in elbow extension 1-RM were noted for SJ, MJ + SJ, and SJ + MJ but not for MJ. Significantly greater increases in PM CSA were observed for MJ, MJ + SJ, and SJ + MJ compared with SJ. Significant increases in TB CSA were noted for SJ, MJ + SJ, and SJ + MJ, but not for MJ, without observed between-group differences. Individual analysis of TB heads showed significantly greater CSA increases in the lateral head for MJ, MJ + SJ, and SJ + MJ compared with SJ. Alternatively, significantly greater increases in the long head were observed for SJ, MJ + SJ, and SJ + MJ compared with MJ. CSA increases for the medial head were statistically similar between conditions. Our findings indicate that muscular adaptations are differentially affected by performance of MJ and SJ exercises.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • The Effect of Resistance Exercise Movement Tempo on Psychophysiological
           Responses in Novice Men
    • Authors: Tavares; Vagner Deuel de Oliveira; Agrícola, Pedro Moraes Dutra; Nascimento, Paulo Henrique Duarte; nidas de Oliveira Neto, Leô; Elsangedy, Hassan Mohamed; Machado, Daniel Gomes da Silva
      Abstract: imageTavares, VDdO, Agrícola, PMD, Nascimento, PHD, Oliveira Neto, L, Elsangedy, HM, and Machado, DGS. The effect of resistance exercise movement tempo on psychophysiological responses in novice men. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1264–1273, 2020—This study aimed to compare the effects of movement tempo in resistance exercise (RE) on psychophysiological responses in novice men. Seventeen novice men (24.5 ± 3.2 years; 79.3 ± 8.22 kg; 1.76 ± 0.06 m) performed the 10 repetition maximum (10RM) test for bench press and knee extension in 2 sessions (test-retest) and 2 RE training sessions with different movement tempos in a random and counterbalanced order (4 sets of 10 repetitions). The low tempo RE (LTRE) session was performed using 50% 10RM with 3-0-3-0 seconds (concentric, pause, eccentric, and pause, respectively). The moderate tempo RE (MTRE) session was performed using 80% 10RM with 1-0-1-0 seconds (concentric, pause, eccentric, and pause, respectively). Affective valence (Feeling Scale), perceived activation (FAS), attentional focus, and ratings of perceived exertion (Borg 6–20) were reported after each set. A two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures showed only a significant main effect of the set (all ps < 0.05), indicating changes between sets but not between LTRE and MTRE. In addition, a paired-samples t-test did not find significant differences between LTRE and MTRE, on average, in any psychophysiological responses (all ps> 0.16). Thus, for the protocol tested, there is no psychophysiological advantage to using either LTRE or MTRE in novice men. From a practical perspective, for psychophysiological responses, the present results suggest that it is up to the trainer/coach to decide which RE movement tempo to use, which will depend on the purpose of the training period, specificity, client tolerance of and preference for exercise intensity, and movement tempo.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Hyperventilation-Aided Recovery for Extra Repetitions on Bench Press and
           Leg Press
    • Authors: Sakamoto; Akihiro; Naito, Hisashi; Chow, Chin Moi
      Abstract: imageSakamoto, A, Naito, H, and Chow, CM. Hyperventilation-aided recovery for extra repetitions on bench press and leg press. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1274–1284, 2020—Hyperventilation (HV)-induced alkalosis, an ergogenic strategy, improved repeated pedaling sprint performance through enhanced H+ removal. However, it did not confer beneficial effects on other forms of exercises. This study investigated the benefits of HV-aided recovery on lifting repetitions and joint velocity during resistance training involving multiple joints and both concentric and eccentric contractions. Eleven power-trained men (mean ± SD age: 22.5 ± 4.3 years, training experience: 8.3 ± 3.6 years) performed 6 sets each of bench press and leg press at 80% 1 repetition maximum. Each set was continued until failure, with a 5-minute recovery between sets. In protocol A, HV was implemented for 30 seconds before the first, third, and fifth sets of each exercise (HV-aided recovery), whereas spontaneous breathing continued throughout the recovery before the second, fourth, and sixth sets (control recovery). In protocol B, the order of the HV and control recoveries was reversed. For both protocols, reductions in repetitions (range: −4.7% to −22.5%) and velocity (range: −23.1% to −37.7%) were consistently observed after control recovery (p < 0.05), whereas HV-aided recovery resulted in increased repetitions (range: +21.3% to +55.7%) and velocity (range: +6.3% to +15.3%) (p < 0.05) or no reductions in these measures from the previous set. The total repetitions performed across 6 sets (protocols A and B combined) were greater after the HV-aided than control recovery (p ≤ 0.001) in bench press (44 ± 10 vs. 36 ± 10 reps, increased by 27.1 ± 24.1%) and leg press (64 ± 9 vs. 50 ± 15 reps, increased by 35.2 ± 29.5%). Hyperventilation-aided recovery may boost the effectiveness of resistance training through increased training volume and lifting velocity.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Biomechanical Determinants of the Modified and Traditional 505 Change of
           Direction Speed Test
    • Authors: Dos'Santos; Thomas; McBurnie, Alistair; Thomas, Christopher; Comfort, Paul; Jones, Paul A.
      Abstract: imageDos'Santos, T, McBurnie, A, Thomas, C, Comfort, P, and Jones, PA. Biomechanical determinants of the modified and traditional 505 change of direction speed test. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1285–1296, 2020—The aim of this study was to investigate the whole-body biomechanical determinants of 180° change of direction (COD) performance. Sixty-one male athletes (age: 20.7 ± 3.8 years, height: 1.77 ± 0.06 m, mass: 74.7 ± 10.0 kg) from multiple sports (soccer, rugby, and cricket) completed 6 trials of the modified and traditional 505 on their right leg, whereby 3D motion and ground reaction force data were collected during the COD. Pearson's and Spearman's correlations were used to explore the relationships between biomechanical variables and COD completion time. Independent t-tests and Hedges' g effect sizes were conducted between faster (top 20) and slower (bottom 20) performers to explore differences in biomechanical variables. Key kinetic and kinematic differences were demonstrated between faster and slower performers with statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) and meaningful differences (g = 0.56–2.70) observed. Faster COD performers displayed greater peak and mean horizontal propulsive forces (PF) in shorter ground contact times, more horizontally orientated peak resultant braking and PFs, greater horizontal to vertical mean and peak braking and PF ratios, greater approach velocities, and displayed greater reductions in velocity over key instances of the COD. In addition, faster performers displayed greater penultimate foot contact (PFC) hip, knee, and ankle dorsi-flexion angles, greater medial trunk lean, and greater internal pelvic and foot rotation. These aforementioned variables were also moderately to very largely (r or ρ = 0.317–0.795, p ≤ 0.013) associated with faster COD performance. Consequently, practitioners should focus not only on developing their athletes' ability to express force rapidly, but also develop their technical ability to apply force horizontally. In addition, practitioners should consider coaching a 180° turning strategy that emphasizes high PFC triple flexion for center of mass lowering while also encouraging whole-body rotation to effectively align the body toward the exit for faster performance.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Effect of Asymmetry on Biomechanical Characteristics During 180°
           Change of Direction
    • Authors: Thomas; Christopher; Dos'Santos, Thomas; Comfort, Paul; Jones, Paul A.
      Abstract: imageThomas, C, Dos'Santos, T, Comfort, P, and Jones, PA. Effect of asymmetry on biomechanical characteristics during 180° change of direction. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1297–1306, 2020—The aim of this study was to explore the effect of asymmetry on biomechanical characteristics during two 180° change of direction (CoD) tasks (505 and modified 505 [505mod]). Fifty-two male (n = 24; age = 22.1 ± 4.8 years; height = 1.78 ± 0.06 m; body mass = 76.9 ± 10.8 kg) and female (n = 28; age = 19.1 ± 1.7 years; height = 1.67 ± 0.06 m; body mass = 60.4 ± 7.4 kg) team-sport players were recruited for this investigation. Three-dimensional motion data using 10 Qualisys Oqus 7 infrared cameras (240 Hz) and ground reaction force (GRF) data from 2 AMTI force platforms (1,200 Hz) were collected to analyze penultimate contacts (PEN) and final foot contacts. A series of repeated-measures analysis of variance were used to examine for differences in each dependent variable. Significant differences existed between dominant (D) and nondominant (ND) limbs for knee abduction angle (KAA) during 505mod (p = 0.048), while significant differences existed for peak horizontal and vertical GRF (vGRF) (p < 0.001) during 505. For both tasks, the PEN involved significantly greater peak vGRF, hip flexion angles, hip extensor moments, knee flexion angles, and knee extensor moments, but lower average vGRF, horizontal GRF, and peak ankle extensor moments. For 505, the ND limb involved significantly greater peak vGRF, but the opposite was revealed for peak horizontal GRF. For 505mod, the D limb involved significantly greater KAAs. Finally, there was a significant interaction (group × limb) for peak horizontal GRF ratio during 505. For both tasks, there was no interaction or main effects for time to completion. Therefore, it appears asymmetry influences GRFs and KAAs, but not completion time during 180° CoD in team-sport players.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Acute Effect of High-Intensity Interval Versus Moderate-Intensity
           Continuous Exercise on Blood Pressure and Arterial Compliance in
           Middle-Aged and Older Hypertensive Women With Increased Arterial Stiffness
           
    • Authors: Costa; Eduardo C.; Kent, David E.; Boreskie, Kevin F.; Hay, Jacqueline L.; Kehler, Dustin S.; Edye-Mazowita, Alex; Nugent, Kristina; Papadopoulos, Josaphine; Stammers, Andrew N.; Oldfield, Chris; Arora, Rakesh C.; Browne, Rodrigo A.V.; Duhamel, Todd A.
      Abstract: imageCosta, EC, Kent, DE, Boreskie, KF, Hay, JL, Kehler, DS, Edye-Mazowita, A, Nugent, K, Papadopoulos, J, Stammers, AN, Oldfield, C, Arora, RC, Browne, RAV, and Duhamel, TA. Acute effect of high-intensity interval versus moderate-intensity continuous exercise on blood pressure and arterial compliance in middle-aged and older hypertensive women with increased arterial stiffness. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1307–1316, 2020—Hypertension and arterial stiffness are common in middle-aged and older women. This study compared the acute effect of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) on blood pressure (BP) and arterial compliance in middle-aged and older hypertensive women with increased arterial stiffness. Nineteen women (67.6 ± 4.7 years) participated in this randomized controlled crossover trial. Subjects completed a control, MICE (30 minutes at 50–55% of heart rate reserve [HRR]), and HIIE (10 × 1 minute at 80–85% of HRR, 2 minutes at 40–45% of HRR) session in random order. Blood pressure and large and small arterial compliance (radial artery pulse wave analysis) were measured at baseline and 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after sessions. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Systolic BP was reduced in ∼10 mm Hg after MICE at 30 minutes and after HIIE at all time points (30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes) after exercise compared with the control session (p < 0.05). Only HIIE showed lower systolic BP levels at 60, 90, and 120 minutes after exercise compared with the control session (∼10 mm Hg; p < 0.05). No changes were observed in diastolic BP, or in large and small arterial compliance (p> 0.05). High-intensity interval exercise elicited a longer systolic postexercise hypotension than MICE compared with the control condition, despite the absence of acute modifications in large and small arterial compliance.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • National Football League Scouting Combine Tests Correlated to National
           Football League Player Performance
    • Authors: LaPlaca; David A.; McCullick, Bryan A.
      Abstract: imageLaPlaca, DA and McCullick, BA. National Football League scouting combine tests correlated to National Football League player performance. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1317–1329, 2020—The National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine has been used since 1982 to collect performance information on the top-rated NFL prospects including physical test results from the vertical jump, broad jump, 3 cone drill, shuttle run, 40-yd dash, and bench press. The correlation between NFL Scouting Combine test results and NFL player performance is frequently questioned, and thus this study endeavored to identify significant relationships between NFL Scouting Combine test results and NFL player performance indicators for all offensive and defensive positions, including quarterback (n = 107), fullback (n = 31), running back (n = 228), wide receiver (n = 336), tight end (n = 137), offensive tackle (n = 204), guard (n = 128), center (n = 66), cornerback (n = 276), free safety (n = 92), strong safety (n = 96), outside linebacker (n = 215), inside linebacker (n = 116), defensive end (n = 212), and defensive tackle (n = 223). A Spearman rank-order correlation analysis set at a p of ≤0.01 and p of ≤ 0.05 level of significance indicated that every offensive and defensive positions had at least 1 NFL Scouting Combine test result that correlated with NFL player performance. These results can be useful for those in charge of making player personnel decisions in the NFL, such as general managers, draft analysts, and scouts by helping them select NFL prospects. Furthermore, these results could inform strength and conditioning coaches in preparing athletes to excel in the NFL.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • A Structured E-Investigation Into the Prevalence and Acceptance of
           Smartphone Applications by Exercise Professionals
    • Authors: Bromilow; Liam; Stanton, Robert; Humphries, Brendan
      Abstract: imageBromilow, L, Stanton, R, and Humphries, B. A structured e-investigation into the prevalence and acceptance of smartphone applications by exercise professionals. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1330–1339, 2020—The primary purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and acceptance of smartphone applications by exercise professionals when interacting with clients and patients. A 29-item anonymous online survey was designed, containing separate sections on demographics, smartphone proficiency, benefits and barriers to using smartphones, and use of smartphones in a professional setting. Accredited members of the Australian Strength and Conditioning Association, and Exercise and Sports Science Australia received an information sheet through organizational communication channels, inviting them to participate. Two hundred forty-nine exercise professionals completed the survey, with men (71%; n = 176) accounting for most of the respondents. Proficiency using smartphone applications is predominantly-advanced (37%; n = 92), intermediate (33%; n = 82), or expert (14%; n = 35). Identified strategies to find smartphone applications included personal searches (67%; n = 167) and colleague recommendations (55%; n = 137). Reported benefits include fast access to information (67%; n = 167), saves time for record keeping (56%; n = 141), and allows performance tracking (55%; n = 138). Almost all respondents (92%; n = 229) identified barriers, such as inexperience with using particular applications (42%; n = 105). Almost all respondents (96%; n = 239) reported they would recommend smartphone applications to clients and patients, primarily for self-tracking (53%; n = 132). Smartphone use among exercise professionals is prevalent; however, application and sensor technology are reluctantly underused. Increasing acceptance requires embedding within educational curricula, recognition from professional organizations, and collaboration with, to maximize the potential capabilities of smartphone technology within working environments.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Ratings of Perceived Exertion During Walking Predicts Endurance
           Independent of Physiological Effort in Older Women
    • Authors: Hunter; Gary R.; Neumeier, William H.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Carter, Stephen J.; Borges, Juliano H.; Hornbuckle, Lyndsey M.; Plaisance, Eric P.; Fisher, Gordon
      Abstract: imageHunter, GR, Neumeier, WH, Chandler-Laney, PC, Carter, SJ, Borges, JH, Hornbuckle, LM, Plaisance, EP, and Fisher, G. Ratings of perceived exertion during walking predicts endurance independent of physiological effort in older women. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1340–1344, 2020—This study aimed to determine whether ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and physiological effort at different exercise intensities relate to exercise endurance. Ninety-eight sedentary women (older than 60 years) completed 3 submaximal locomotion tasks: (a) stair climbing, (b) flat walking at 2 mph, and (c) grade walking at 2 mph. Maximal treadmill endurance was measured at least 3 days before the submaximal tests. Oxygen uptake was measured during all tests, and RPE were collected for the submaximal tasks. Ratings of perceived exertion during moderate-intensity exercise (walking on the flat at 43% V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, partial R = −0.35, p < 0.01), but not higher intensity exercise (grade walk at 59% V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, p = 0.49, and stair climbing at 67% V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, p = 0.17), were related to endurance even after adjusting for aerobic capacity and physiological effort (composite of maximal heart rate, ventilation, and respiratory exchange ratio). However, physiological effort was significantly related to endurance for the higher intensity exercise (both grade walk and stair climbing partial R>−0.24, p < 0.02). Similar to previous findings that subjective ratings of fatigue at rest were related to RPE during low/moderate-intensity exercise, but not higher intensity exercise, these data further support Ekkekakis's dual-mode hypothesis that cognitive factors influence RPE during low/moderate-intensity exercise. A practical application is that the coach and personal trainer should know that physiological effort seems to play a greater role in influencing endurance than RPE as intensity of exercise increases.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Comparison of Linear and Reverse Linear Periodized Programs With Equated
           Volume and Intensity for Endurance Running Performance
    • Authors: Bradbury; Duncan G.; Landers, Grant J.; Benjanuvatra, Nat; Goods, Paul S.R.
      Abstract: imageBradbury, DG, Landers, GJ, Benjanuvatra, N, and Goods, PS. Comparison of linear and reverse linear periodized programs with equated volume and intensity for endurance running performance. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1345–1353, 2020—This investigation examined the effectiveness of 2 periodization methods on endurance running performance. Thirty recreational runners (25.2 ± 7.4 years; 175.4 ± 8.1 cm; 69.0 ± 9.8 kg) were assigned to 3 groups based on preintervention test results: linear periodization group (LPG, n = 10), reverse linear periodization group (RPG, n = 10), and control group (CG, n = 10). The LPG and RPG completed 3 training sessions (2 supervised and 1 unsupervised) per week in two 6-week blocks. The LPG went through a high-volume training program while the RPG performed higher intensity, lower volume training in the initial block. Training volume and intensity was reversed in the second 6-week training block. All subjects completed pre-training (week 0), midpoint (week 7), and post-training (week 14) testing, which included anthropometric measurements (body mass and sum of 8 skinfolds), treadmill tests for running economy (RE) and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and a 5,000-m time trial (TT) on a 400-m grass track. Greater improvements in the 5,000-m TT were observed in the LPG (76.8 ± 55.8 seconds, p = 0.009, d = 1.27) and the RPG (112.8 ± 83.4 seconds, p = 0.002, d = 1.51) than the CG (3.6 ± 59 seconds). No significant differences were found between the LPG and RPG (p = 0.321, d = 0.51). No group differences were found for V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak (p = 0.955) or RE at 9 km·h−1 (p = 0.329) or 11 km·h−1 (p = 0.558), respectively. However, significant improvements were seen in these variables after training: V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak (p = 0.010), RE 9 km·h−1 (p < 0.001), and RE 11 km·h−1 (p = 0.004). These results do not support linear periodization or reverse linear periodization as a superior method; however, periodized training elicited greater improvements in endurance performance than nonperiodized training, highlighting the importance of planned training structure.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Adding Whole-Body Vibration to Preconditioning Squat Exercise Increases
           Cycling Sprint Performance
    • Authors: Duc; Sébastien; Rønnestad, Bent R.; Bertucci, William
      Abstract: imageDuc, S, Rønnestad, BR, and Bertucci, W. Adding whole-body vibration to preconditioning squat exercise increases cycling sprint performance. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1354–1361, 2020—This study investigated the effect of performing a preconditioning exercise with or without whole-body vibration (WBV) on a subsequent cycling sprint performance. Fourteen trained subjects performed 2 separate test sessions in randomized order. After a warm-up, the preconditioning exercise (body-loaded half-squats) was applied: 30 seconds of half-squats with WBV (40 Hz, 2 mm) or 30 seconds of half-squats without WBV with a 10-second all-out sprint performed after 1 minute. Surface electromyography (EMG) was measured from the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and gastrocnemius medialis during the sprints. Blood lactate level (BL), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were determined immediately after the 10-second sprint. Performing preconditioning exercise with WBV resulted in superior peak (1,693 ± 356 vs. 1,637 ± 349 W, p ≤ 0.05) and mean power output (1,121 ± 174 vs. 1,085 ± 175 W, p ≤ 0.05) compared with preconditioning exercise without WBV. Effect sizes showed a moderate and large practical effect of WBV vs. no WBV on peak and mean power output, respectively. No differences were observed between the conditions for BL, HR, and RPE after the sprints and in EMG activity during the sprints. In conclusion, it is plausible to suggest that body-loaded half-squats with WBV acutely induce higher power output levels. The practical application of the current study is that body-loaded squats with WBV can be incorporated into preparations for specific sprint training to improve the quality of the sprint training and also to improve sprint performance in relevant competitions.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Comparing the Immediate Effects of a Total Motion Release Warm-up and a
           Dynamic Warm-up Protocol on the Dominant Shoulder in Baseball Athletes
    • Authors: Gamma; Stephen C.; Baker, Russell; May, James; Seegmiller, Jeff G.; Nasypany, Alan; Iorio, Steven M.
      Abstract: imageGamma, SC, Baker, R, May, J, Seegmiller, JG, Nasypany, A, and Iorio, SM. Comparing the immediate effects of a total motion release warm-up and a dynamic warm-up protocol on the dominant shoulder in baseball athletes. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1362–1368, 2020—A decrease in total range of motion (ROM) of the dominant shoulder may predispose baseball athletes to increased shoulder injury risk; the most effective technique for improving ROM is unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare the immediate effects of Total Motion Release (TMR) to a generic dynamic warm-up program in baseball athletes. Baseball athletes (n = 20) were randomly assigned to an intervention group: TMR group (TMRG; n = 10) or traditional warm-up group (TWG; n = 10). Shoulder ROM measurements were recorded for internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER), the intervention was applied, and postmeasurements were recorded. Each group then received the other intervention and postmeasurements were again recorded. The time main effect (p ≤ 0.001) and the time × group interaction effect were significant (p ≤ 0.001) for IR and ER. Post hoc analysis revealed that TMR produced significant increases in mean IR (p ≤ 0.005, d = 1.52) and ER (p ≤ 0.018, d = 1.22) of the dominant shoulder initially. When groups crossed-over, the TMRG experienced a decrease in mean IR and ER after the dynamic warm-up, whereas the TWG experienced a significant increase in mean IR (p ≤ 0.001, d = 3.08) and ER (p ≤ 0.001, d = 2.56) after TMR intervention. Total Motion Release increased IR and ER of the dominant shoulder more than a dynamic warm-up. Dynamic warm-up after TMR also resulted in decreased IR and ER; however, TMR after dynamic warm-up significantly improved IR and ER. Based on these results, TMR is more effective than a generic dynamic warm-up for improving dominant shoulder ROM in baseball players.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation Delays Neuromuscular Fatigue Without
           Changes in Performance Outcomes During a Basketball Match Simulation
           Protocol
    • Authors: Ansdell; Paul; Dekerle, Jeanne
      Abstract: imageAnsdell, P and Dekerle, J. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation delays neuromuscular fatigue without changes in performance outcomes during a basketball match simulation protocol. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1369–1375, 2020—To investigate the development of neuromuscular fatigue during a basketball game simulation and to ascertain whether sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation attenuates any neuromuscular fatigue that persists. Ten participants ingested 0.2 g·kg−1 of NaHCO3 (or an equimolar placebo dosage of sodium chloride [NaCl]) 90 and 60 minutes before commencing a basketball game simulation (ALK-T vs. PLA-T). Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs) of the knee extensors and potentiated high- (100 Hz) and low- (10 Hz) frequency doublet twitches were recorded before and after each match quarter for both trials. In addition, 15-m sprint times and layup completion (%) were recorded during each quarter. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction, 100- and 10-Hz twitch forces declined progressively in both trials (p ≤ 0.05) with a less pronounced decrease in MVIC during ALK-T (p < 0.01). Both 100- and 10-Hz twitch forces were also significantly greater in ALK-T (p ≤ 0.05). Fifteen-meter sprint time increased over the course of both trials (∼2%, p < 0.01); however, no significant condition or time effect was found for layup completion (p> 0.05). A basketball simulation protocol induces a substantial amount of neuromuscular (reduction in knee extensor MVICs) and peripheral fatigue with a concomitant increase in 15-m sprint time over the protocol. NaHCO3 supplementation attenuated the rate of fatigue development by protecting contractile elements of the muscle fibers. This study provides coaches with information about the magnitude of fatigue induced by a simulated basketball game and provides evidence of the efficacy of NaHCO3 in attenuating fatigue.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Reliability and Validity of the 6-Minute Step Test for Clinical Assessment
           of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in People at Risk of Cardiovascular Disease
    • Authors: Giacomantonio; Nicholas; Morrison, Paul; Rasmussen, Roy; MacKay-Lyons, Marilyn J.
      Abstract: imageGiacomantonio, N, Morrison, P, Rasmussen, R, and MacKay-Lyons, MJ. Reliability and validity of the 6-minute step test for clinical assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness in people at risk of cardiovascular disease. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1376–1382, 2020—The purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability and validity of the 6-minute step test (6MST) as a potential assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of people at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A prospective, cross-sectional, correlational study design was used. A single cohort of 30 adults with 2 or more risk factors for CVD was recruited. Exercise tests were scheduled on 2 days, separated by 1 week. Validity was determined by comparing 6MST results with those obtained in a symptom-limited treadmill test and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Main outcome variables were peak heart rate (HRpeak) and peak oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) measured during the 6MST, treadmill test, and 6MWT. Test-retest reliability of HRpeak and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak during the 6MST was very strong (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83–0.97 and ICC, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.84–0.97, respectively). Correlations were also very strong between 6MST and treadmill test HRpeak (r = 0.81) and between 6MST and treadmill test V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak (r = 0.88). Correlations were moderate between 6MST HRpeak and 6MWT steady-state HR (r = 0.57) and strong between 6MST V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak and 6MWT steady-state V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (r = 0.70). The 6MST seems to be a reliable, valid option for assessing CRF of people at risk of CVD in a broad range of clinical settings. Providing practical, accessible tests will help facilitate the goal of establishing CRF as a clinical vital sign. The next step in the development of the 6MST should be to identify the most appropriate 6MST predictor variables to estimate V[Combining Dot Above]O2max.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Examination of Coach and Player Perceptions of Recovery and Exertion
    • Authors: Kraft; Justin A.; Laurent, Matthew C.; Green, James M.; Helm, Jessica; Roberts, Cooper; Holt, Swan
      Abstract: imageKraft, JA, Laurent, ML, Green, JM, Helm, J, Roberts, C, and Holt, S. Examination of coach and player perceptions of recovery and exertion. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1383–1391, 2020—Monitoring training and recovery are essential for exercise programming. Athletes can validly assess training load (TL) via the session rating of perceived exertion (SRPE) technique. However, it is unclear if coaches can successfully use this model. This study compared coach and athlete perceptions of effort and recovery, and it evaluated the efficacy of perceptually based TL monitoring. Participants included 56 athletes (Women's volleyball, soccer, and basketball and Men's basketball) and their coaches (n = 4). Perceived recovery was estimated via the Perceived Recovery Status scale. Scores of TL were calculated using the Edward's heart rate (HR) method and by multiplying SRPE by duration. Coaches provided an intended SRPE (SRPE-CI) before practice. Also, SRPE was independently estimated by coaches (SRPE-CO) and athletes (SRPE-A) ∼15–20 minutes after practice. Paired t-tests and Pearson’s correlations were applied to make comparisons (α ≤ 0.05). Values of SRPE-CI, SRPE-CO, SRPE-A TLs were strongly correlated with Edwards' HR-based TLs (R = 0.74, 0.73, and 0.76, respectively). However, SRPE-CI (5.5 ± 1.9) and SRPE-CO (5.0 ± 1.9) was higher than SRPE-A (4.5 ± 1.9). Coaches estimated recovery higher than athletes (7.1 ± 1.3 vs. 5.8 ± 1.6). Estimates of TL strongly correlated with Edwards' TL regardless of information source (coach or athlete) or time point (SRPE-CI TL or SRPE-CO TL). Results suggest that coaches' perceptions validly indicated TL. Coaches' perceptions provide parallel information (correlated strongly with Edwards TL) but not identical information (demonstrated by differences in SRPE) as athlete perceptions. Differences in perceived recovery indicate that coaches overestimate recovery when compared with athletes' perceptions.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Strength and Conditioning Habits of Competitive Distance Runners
    • Authors: Blagrove; Richard C.; Brown, Nicola; Howatson, Glyn; Hayes, Philip R.
      Abstract: imageBlagrove, RC, Brown, N, Howatson, G, and Hayes, PR. Strength and conditioning habits of competitive distance runners. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1392–1399, 2020—Targeted strength and conditioning (S&C) programs can potentially improve performance and reduce injury risk factors in competitive runners. However, S&C practices of distance runners are unknown. This study aimed to explore S&C practices of competitive middle- and long-distance runners and examined whether reported frequency of injuries was influenced by training behaviors. One thousand eight hundred eighty-three distance runners (≥15 years old) completed an online survey. All runners who raced competitively were included in data analysis (n = 667). Distance runners mainly engaged with S&C activities to lower risk of injury (63.1%) and improve performance (53.8%). The most common activities used were stretching (86.2%) and core stability exercises (70.2%). Resistance training (RT) and plyometric training (PT) were used by 62.5 and 35.1% of runners, respectively. Junior (under-20) runners include PT, running drills, and circuit training more so than masters runners. Significantly more international standard runners engaged in RT, PT, and fundamental movement skills training compared with competitive club runners. Middle-distance (800–3,000 m) specialists were more likely to include RT, PT, running drills, circuit training, and barefoot exercises in their program than longer-distance runners. Injury frequency was associated with typical weekly running volume and run frequency. Strength and conditioning did not seem to confer a protection against the number of injuries the runners experienced. Practitioners working with distance runners should critically evaluate the current S&C practices of their athletes, to ensure that activities prescribed have a sound evidence-based rationale.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Polygenic Profile and Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage by a Competitive
           Half-Ironman
    • Authors: Del Coso; Juan; Salinero, Juan J.; Lara, Beatriz; Gallo-Salazar, César; Areces, Francisco; Herrero, David; Puente, Carlos
      Abstract: imageDel Coso, J, Salinero, JJ, Lara, B, Gallo-Salazar, C, Areces, F, Herrero, D, and Puente, C. Polygenic profile and exercise-induced muscle damage by a competitive half-ironman. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1400–1408, 2020—To date, it is still unknown why some individuals develop higher levels of muscle damage than other individuals, despite participating in exercise with comparable levels of physical intensity. The aim of this investigation was to analyze 7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are candidates to explain individual variations in the level of muscle damage attained during a half-ironman competition. Using the model of Williams and Folland (2, 1, and 0 points for optimal, intermediate, and suboptimal genotype), we determined the total genotype score from the accumulated combination of 7 SNPs (ACE = 287bp Ins/Del; ACTN3 = p.R577X; creatine kinase, muscle type = NcoI; insulin-like growth factor 2 = C13790G; interleukin-6 = 174G>C; myosin light chain kinase = C37885A; and tumor necrosis factor–α = 308G>A) in 22 experienced triathletes. Before and after the race, a sample of venous blood was obtained to measure serum markers of muscle damage. Two groups of triathletes were established according to their postcompetition serum CK concentration: low CK responders (n = 10; 377 ± 86 U·L−1) vs. high CK responders (n = 12; 709 ± 136 U·L−1). At the end of the race, low CK responders had lower serum myoglobin concentrations (384 ± 243 vs. 597 ± 293 ng·ml−1, p = 0.04). Although the groups were similar in age, anthropometric characteristics, and training habits, total genotype score was higher in low CK responders than in high CK responders (7.7 ± 1.1 vs. 5.5 ± 1.1 point, p < 0.01). A favorable polygenic profile can contribute to reducing the level of muscle damage developed during endurance exercise.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Performance in 100-km Ultramarathoners—At Which Age, It Reaches Its
           Peak'
    • Authors: Nikolaidis; Pantelis T.; Knechtle, Beat
      Abstract: imageNikolaidis, PT and Knechtle, B. Performance in 100-km ultramarathoners—At which age, it reaches its peak? J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1409–1415, 2020—The number of those participating in 100-km ultramarathon has increased over the past years; however, we have limited knowledge about performance trends in this sport, and particularly, the effect of age. The aim of this study was to analyze the age when women and men runners achieve their peak performance considering 1- and 5-year age group intervals, and examining all or the fastest (i.e., top 10) participants in each age group. We analyzed 370,051 athletes (i.e., 44,601 women and 325,450 men) who finished a 100-km ultramarathon between 1959 and 2016, and studied the age of peak performance using a second-order nonlinear regression analysis. The age of peak performance was 40–44 years in women and 45–49 years in men when all finishers were analyzed, whereas it was 30–34 years in women and 35–39 years in men when the top 10 finishers were considered in 5-year age groups. When we analyzed finishers in 1-year age groups, we found the age of peak performance at 41 years in women and 45 years in men considering all finishers, and at 39 years in women and 41 years in men considering the top 10 finishers. In conclusion, the age of peak performance was younger in women than in men, which might reflect the overall younger age of women participants than men. Compared with previous studies, we observed the peak performance at an age older by ∼10 years, which could be attributed to an increase of finishers' age across calendar years. Because the knowledge of the age of peak performance is unique for each sport, coaches and fitness trainers might benefit from the findings of this study in the long-term training of their athletes.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Sex Differences in Y-Balance Performance in Elite Figure Skaters
    • Authors: Slater; Lindsay V.; Vriner, Melissa; Schuyten, Kristen; Zapalo, Peter; Hart, Joseph M.
      Abstract: imageSlater, LV, Vriner, M, Schuyten, K, Zapalo, P, and Hart, JM. Sex differences in Y-balance performance in elite figure skaters. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1416–1421, 2020—Asymmetrical dynamic balance compared with normative populations have been associated with increased risk of injury in athletes; however, it is unclear if the current data are similar to balance performance in figure skaters. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare performance on the Y-balance test between sexes and disciplines in elite figure skaters. Thirty-two senior level figure skaters from 3 different disciplines (singles, dance, and pairs) completed the Y-balance test on the take-off and landing leg. Absolute differences between limbs (cm), normalized differences between limbs (% leg length), and composite scores (CSs; % leg length) were calculated for all skaters. A multivariate analysis of variance was used to identify differences in performance based on discipline and sex. Females had a greater absolute difference between limbs (mean difference = −3.62 cm) and a greater normalized difference between limbs on the posterolateral (PL) reach compared with males (mean difference = −4.26% leg length). Ice dancers had larger CSs on the take-off leg compared with pair skaters (mean difference = 6.42%). These results suggest that male and female figure skaters demonstrate differences in dynamic balance in the PL direction, with female skaters exhibiting decreased reach on the landing leg, which may suggest asymmetrical hip strength in female figure skaters and increase risk of lower extremity injury in the landing leg. Sport performance professionals should consider these sex differences when designing strength programs for elite figure skaters.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Positional Demands and Physical Activity Profiles of Netball
    • Authors: van Gogh; Mikah J.; Wallace, Lee K.; Coutts, Aaron J.
      Abstract: imagevan Gogh, MJ, Wallace, LK, and Coutts, AJ. Positional demands and physical activity profiles of netball. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1422–1430, 2020—The aim of this study was to examine the activity profiles and physiological demands of netball. Eleven representative youth netball players participated in this study. Global positioning system, heart rate, and accelerometer data were collected during 8 competitive matches. Sport-specific skills were analyzed using notational methods. The main findings were that players traveled less distance during a match than previously reported. The center covered significantly greater distances than the other positions (p < 0.001). The goal shooter and goal keeper covered the least distance and endured lower accelerometer loads than other positions (p < 0.001). Very low levels of very high-speed running and sprint efforts were observed across all positions. The proportion of time spent in the high (>85% maximum heart rate [HRmax]) HR zone ranged from 7.0 to 62.6%, highlighting a high variation in cardiovascular demands between each position. The center and goal attack had the greatest cardiovascular demands spending significantly more time in the high (>85% HRmax) HR zone (p < 0.001). The goal shooter and goal keeper spent significantly more time in the low (
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Seasonal Repeated Sprint Ability With Change of Direction Variations in
           U17 and U20 Elite Brazilian Soccer Players: A Comparative Study
    • Authors: Jorge; Gustavo; Garrafoli, Marcelo T.; Cal Abad, Cesar C.
      Abstract: imageJorge, G, Garrafoli, MT, and Cal Abad, CC. Seasonal repeated sprint ability with change of direction variations in U17 and U20 elite Brazilian soccer players: a comparative study. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1431–1439, 2020—This study aimed to describe seasonal variations of repeated sprint with change-of-direction ability in young elite Brazilian soccer players. The Bangsbo sprint test (BST) was performed by 21 under-17 (U17) (176.9 cm; 68.2 kg) and 22 under-20 (U20) athletes (178.7 cm, 74.4 kg) at the start, middle, and end of the season. The fatigue index (FI) was calculated in seconds and in percentage of decrease (%D) for comparisons. Both age categories showed higher BST performance in the middle and end compared with the start of the season (p ≤ 0.05). The U20 players performed better at the start than the U17 players. The U17 soccer players showed higher FI at the start and in the middle in comparison with the U20 players (p ≤ 0.05). They also showed lower FI at the end of the season in comparison with the start and middle of the season (p ≤ 0.05). The U20 players showed significant reductions in the FI in the middle and at the end in comparison with the start of the season (p ≤ 0.05). Only the U17 soccer players showed lower %D at the end in comparison with the start of the season (p ≤ 0.05). To summarize, both U17 and U20 players performed BST poorly at the start, increased the BST performance until the middle, and maintained the BST performance until the end of the season. A difference in the magnitude of enhancement was observed between U17 and U20 soccer players, which was found to be dependent on the initial values. Finally, the mathematical model to calculate the FI requires caution.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Sensitivity of the Footeval Test to Different Training Modes
    • Authors: Manouvrier; Christophe; Cassirame, Johan; Ahmaidi, Said
      Abstract: imageManouvrier, C, Cassirame, J, and Ahmaidi, S. Sensitivity of the footeval test to different training modes. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1440–1447, 2020—The aim of this study is to assess the impact of preseason training and more specifically about different training modality to Footeval test. This study also compares those sensibility with classic test, Vameval. A total of 36 young elite players' performance were split in 3 groups to perform 2 times a week a specific complements training: generic (GENERIC), small-sided game (SSG), and technical (TECH). After 4 weeks with training intervention, all players improved their performance to Footeval and Vameval tests. Regarding improvement, we noted that each training complement obtained different magnitude of modification. For all groups, Footeval increase was more important than Vameval. Small-sided game obtained highest improvement to Footeval (15 ± 1.8%) but lowest to Vameval (5 ± 0.9%). Oppositely, GENERIC and TECH groups obtained highest improvement to Vameval test (8 ± 1.4 and 8 ± 2.0%) but lower modification to Footeval (11 ± 2.2 and 16 ± 2.3%), respectively. Even if we removed the effect of maximum aerobic speed increase, SSG obtains better improvement than other training modality to Footeval.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Sex Differences in Resistance Training: A Systematic Review and
           Meta-Analysis
    • Authors: Roberts; Brandon M.; Nuckols, Greg; Krieger, James W.
      Abstract: imageRoberts, BM, Nuckols, G, and Krieger, JW. Sex differences in resistance training: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1448–1460, 2020—The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are different responses to resistance training for strength or hypertrophy in young to middle-aged males and females using the same resistance training protocol. The protocol was pre-registered with PROSPERO (CRD42018094276). Meta-analyses were performed using robust variance random effects modeling for multilevel data structures, with adjustments for small samples using package robumeta in R. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. The analysis of hypertrophy comprised 12 outcomes from 10 studies with no significant difference between males and females (effect size [ES] = 0.07 ± 0.06; P = 0.31; I2 = 0). The analysis of upper-body strength comprised 19 outcomes from 17 studies with a significant effect favoring females (ES = -0.60 ± 0.16; P = 0.002; I2 = 72.1). The analysis of lower-body strength comprised 23 outcomes from 23 studies with no significant difference between sexes (ES = −0.21 ± 0.16; P = 0.20; I2 = 74.7). We found that males and females adapted to resistance training with similar effect sizes for hypertrophy and lower-body strength, but females had a larger effect for relative upper-body strength. Given the moderate effect size favoring females in the upper-body strength analysis, it is possible that untrained females display a higher capacity to increase upper-body strength than males. Further research is required to clarify why this difference occurs only in the upper body and whether the differences are due to neural, muscular, motor learning, or are an artifact of the short duration of studies included.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Complex and Contrast Training: Does Strength and Power Training Sequence
           Affect Performance-Based Adaptations in Team Sports' A Systematic
           Review and Meta-analysis
    • Authors: Cormier; Patrick; Freitas, Tomás T.; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo Á.; Alcaraz, Pedro E.
      Abstract: imageCormier, P, Freitas, TT, Rubio-Arias, JÁ, and Alcaraz, PE. Complex and contrast training: Does strength and power training sequence affect performance-based adaptations in team sports? A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1461–1479, 2020—The aims of this meta-analysis were to examine the effects of 2 different strength and power training sequences (complex: CPX; and contrast: CNT, training) on performance-based adaptations in team sports {lower-body strength (1 repetition maximum [1RM]), vertical jump (VJ), sprinting, and change of direction (COD) ability}, as well as identify factors potentially affecting said adaptations (i.e., athlete level, type of sport, intensity, and duration). CPX is the combination training that alternates biomechanically similar high load weight training exercises with lighter load power exercises, set for set (e.g., squats followed by countermovement jumps). CNT is the combination training where all high load strength exercises are performed at the beginning of the session and all lighter load power exercises at the end. After an electronic database search (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and WoS), a total of 27 articles were included in the meta-analysis. The effects on outcomes were expressed as standardized mean differences (SMDs). Baseline to postintervention overall results for the studied variables: (a) 1RM: large effects for CPX (SMD = 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18–2.84) and CNT (SMD = 1.29, 95% CI 0.61–1.98); (b) VJ: large effects for CPX (SMD = 0.88, 95% CI 0.42–1.34) and medium effects for CNT (SMD = 0.55, 95% CI 0.29–0.81); (c) sprint: large effects for CPX (SMD = −0.94, 95% CI −1.33 to −0.54) and small effects for CNT (SMD = −0.27, 95% CI −0.92 to 0.39); and (d) COD: large effects for CPX (SMD = −1.17, 95% CI −1.43 to −0.90) and medium effects for CNT (SMD = −0.68, 95% CI −1.20 to −0.15). Regarding the studies that contained a control group: (a) 1RM: large effects for CPX (SMD = 1.61, 95% CI 1.12–2.10) and CNT (SMD = 1.38, 95% CI 0.30–2.46); (b) VJ: large effects for CPX (SMD = 0.85, 95% CI 0.45–1.25) and medium for CNT (SMD = 0.50, 95% CI 0.19–0.81); (c) sprint: medium effects for CPX (SMD = −0.69, 95% CI −1.02 to −0.36) and CNT (SMD = −0.51, 95% CI −0.90 to −0.11); and (d) COD: large effects for CPX (SMD = −0.83, 95% CI −1.08 to −0.59), and there were no control groups for CNT. In conclusion, both training interventions may lead to positive performance-based adaptations in team-sports with CPX interventions potentially leading to slightly greater effects.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Effects of Citrulline Supplementation on Exercise Performance in Humans: A
           Review of the Current Literature
    • Authors: Gonzalez; Adam M.; Trexler, Eric T.
      Abstract: imageGonzalez, AM and Trexler, ET. Effects of citrulline supplementation on exercise performance in humans: A review of the current literature. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1480–1495, 2020—L-citrulline, a nonessential amino acid found primarily in watermelon, has recently garnered much attention for its potential to augment L-arginine bioavailability, nitric oxide production, and exercise performance. Over the past decade, L-citrulline has received considerable scientific attention examining potentially ergogenic properties for both aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance. Thus, the purpose of this article is to summarize the theoretical rationale behind L-citrulline supplementation and to comprehensively review the available scientific evidence assessing the potential ergogenic value of L-citrulline supplementation on vascular function and exercise performance in humans. In addition, research that has investigated the potential synergistic effects of L-citrulline with other dietary ingredients (e.g., arginine, antioxidants, nitrates, and branched-chain amino acids) is reviewed. Oral L-citrulline and citrulline malate supplementation have shown to increase plasma citrulline and arginine concentrations, along with total nitrate and nitrite concentrations. Although blood flow enhancement is a proposed mechanism for the ergogenic potential of L-citrulline, evidence supporting acute improvements in vasodilation and skeletal muscle tissue perfusion after supplementation is scarce and inconsistent. Nevertheless, several studies have reported that L-citrulline supplementation can enhance exercise performance and recovery. Given the positive effects observed from some investigations, future studies should continue to investigate the effects of both acute and chronic supplementation with L-citrulline and citrulline malate on markers of blood flow and exercise performance and should seek to elucidate the mechanism underlying such effects.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
 
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