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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2415 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
4 open     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AAS Open Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AboutOpen     Open Access  
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Acta Bio Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access  
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Científica Estudiantil     Open Access  
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Herediana     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)     Open Access  
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta Medica International     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Marisiensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Médica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Medica Saliniana     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acupuncture and Natural Medicine     Open Access  
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / Health Sciences Journal of Adıyaman University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Cell and Gene Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Clinical Radiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Advances in Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Molecular Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Skeletal Muscle Function Assessment     Open Access  
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Thoracic and Critical Care Medicine     Open Access  
African Journal of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AJOB Empirical Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AJSP: Reviews & Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Al-Qadisiah Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alerta : Revista Científica del Instituto Nacional de Salud     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription  
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Althea Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Anatomica Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ankara Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası     Open Access  
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Clinical Hypertension     Open Access  
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery Protocols     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Musculoskeletal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of the RussianAacademy of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antibody Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arabian Journal of Scientific Research / المجلة العربية للبحث العلمي     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives Medical Review Journal / Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi     Open Access  
Archives of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology     Open Access  
Archives of Clinical Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Organ Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Pulmonology and Respiratory Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Renal Diseases and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archivos de Medicina (Manizales)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ArgoSpine News & Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASHA Leader     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

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Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.518
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0004-2749 - ISSN (Online) 1678-2925
Published by SciELO Homepage  [911 journals]
  • Survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier curves): a method to predict the future

    •  
  • Biomechanics in DALK: Big bubble vs manual lamellar dissection

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Purpose: The present study’s aim was to compare the biomechanical properties of corneal tissue in patients who underwent deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) surgery, with successful big bubble formation and manual lamellar dissection, during failed big bubble formation. Methods: This retrospective comparative study included 60 eyes from 60 keratoconus patients who previously underwent DALK surgery. These patients were categorized as big bubble (+) or big bubble (−) based on the success or failure of big bubble formation during the surgery. The big bubble (+) group included 42 eyes, while the big bubble (−) group had 18 eyes. Moreover, the patients were regrouped as 0.25 mm and 0.50 mm to evaluate the effects of the disparity between donor and trephine punches on the biomechanical properties of the cornea. These biomechanical properties, characterized by corneal hysteresis and the corneal resistance factor, were measured using the Ocular Response Analyzer 12 months after the surgery. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the big bubble (+) and big bubble (−) groups in the biomechanical properties of the cornea (corneal hysteresis: 10.06, 10.25; p=0.716/corneal resistance factor: 10.15, 10.07; p=0.805, respectively). In addition, pachymetry results were not statistically different between the two groups. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor were positively associated with central corneal thickness (p<0.001/r2=0.506; p<0.001/r2=0.561, respectively). However, the study did not demonstrate a relationship between any of the punch sizes and corneal hysteresis or between the punch sizes (p=0.673) and the corneal resistance factor (p=0.643). Conclusions: The corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor values were similar in big bubble and manual lamellar dissection after DALK. Thus, manual lamellar dissection was not a disadvantage considering the cornea’s biomechanical properties.RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo do estudo foi comparar pa râmetros biomecânicos corneanos de pacientes com cirurgia de ceratoplastia lamelar anterior profunda com formação bem-sucedida de bolha e dissecção lamelar manual, frente à falha de formação da grande bolha. Métodos: Este estudo comparativo retrospectivo incluiu 60 olhos de 60 pacientes com ceratocone submetidos à cirurgia de ceratoplastia lamelar anterior profunda. Os pacientes foram agrupados como grande bolha (+) e grande bolha (-) de acordo com o sucesso da formação da grande bolha durante a cirurgia. O grupo grande bolha (+) incluiu 42 olhos, enquanto o grupo grande bolha (-) tinha 18 olhos. Além disso, para a avaliação dos efeitos da disparidade entre alterações individuais nas propriedades biomecânicas da córnea, reagrupamos os pacientes em 0,25 mm e 0,50 mm. Parâmetros biomecânicos da córnea, caracterizados por histerese corneana e fator de resistência corneana foram medidos com o ORA 12 meses após a cirurgia. Resultados: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos grande bolha (+) e grande bolha (-) em relação aos parâmetros biomecânicos da córnea (histerese corneana: 10,06, 10,25, p=0,716/fator de resistência da córnea: 10,15, 10,07, p=0,805, respectivamente). Além disso, os resultados de paquimetria não diferiram estatisticamente entre os dois grupos. A análise de regressão multivariada demonstrou que a histerese da córnea e o fator de resistência corneana estavam associados positivamente com a espessura corneana central (p<0,001/r2=0,506, p<0,001/r2=0,561 respectivamente). No entanto, o estudo não revelou associação entre qualquer um dos tamanhos de punção e histerese corneana, bem como entre os tamanhos de punção e o fator de resistência corneano (p=0,673, p=0,643). Conclusões: A histerese da córnea e os valores do fator de resistência da córnea foram comparáveis com formação de grande bolha e dissecção manual lamelar na ceratoplastia lamelar anterior profunda. Assim, a dissecção manual lamelar não foi uma desvantagem, considerando os fatores biomecânicos da córnea.
       
  • Corneal differences between healthy and subclinical patients assessed
           using two diferente corneal tomographers

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Purpose: To analyze subclinical keratoconus topography indexes using Pentacam and Orbscan-II measurements to identify evidences for seeking sensitive indexes to screen and diagnose subclinical keratoconus. Methods: Fifty healthy participants (50 eyes) and 40 patients with subclinical keratoconus (40 eyes) were included. Seven common parameters including corneal thickness at the thinnest point; minimum curvature of the front surface (minimum simulated keratometry value, SimK’s Min); maximum curvature of the front surface (maximum simulated keratometry value, SimK’s Max); the frontal corneal surface best-fit spherical radius of the curvature; the back corneal surface best-fit spherical radius of curvature; the anterior corneal surface height (anterior Diff value); and the posterior corneal surface height (posterior Diff value) measured by Pentacam and Orbscan-II between normal and subclinical keratoconus eyes were compared. Results: Statistical differences between the healthy and subclinical keratoconus groups (p<0.01) were found in all corneal parameters measured using both devices. Differences in the minimum curvature of the front surface (SimK’s Min), thinnest point, anterior Diff value, and posterior Diff value were significant between Pentacam and Orbscan-II in the subclinical keratoconus group (p<0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this study identify the differences between normal and subclinical keratoconus eyes at the minimum curvature of the front surface, maximum curvature of the front surface, frontal corneal surface best-fit spherical radius of curvature, back corneal surface best-fit spherical radius of curvature, Anterior Diff value, and Posterior Diff value measures using Orbscan II and Pentacam that can help eye care practitioners clinically diagnose subclinical keratoconus.RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar os índices subclínicos de to pografia de ceratocone utilizando as medidas feitas com Pentacam e com Orbscan-II para identificar evidências para a busca de índices sensíveis para triagem e diagnóstico de ceratocone subclínico. Métodos: Cinquenta participantes saudáveis (50 olhos) e 40 pacientes com ceratocone subclínico (40 olhos) foram incluídos. Sete parâmetros comuns, incluindo a espessura da córnea no ponto mais fino; a curvatura mínima da superfície frontal (valor mínimo da ceratometria simulada, Min de SimK); a curvatura máxima da superfície frontal (valor máximo da ceratometria simulada, Max de SimK); a superfície frontal e a superfície posterior da córnea de melhor ajuste ao raio da curvatura, a altura da superfície anterior da córnea (valor Diff anterior) e a altura da superfície corneana posterior (valor Diff posterior) medidos pelo Pentacam e pelo Orbscan-II entre os olhos normais e com ceratocone subclínico foram comparados. Resultados: As diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos saudável e com ceratocone subclínico (p<0,01) foram encontradas em todos os parâmetros corneanos medidos usando ambos os dispositivos. Diferenças na curvatura mínima da superfície frontal (Min de SimK) no ponto mais fino, no valor Diff anterior e no valor Diff posterior foram significativas entre Pentacam e Orbscan-II no grupo com ceratocone subclínico (p<0,05). Conclusão: Os achados deste estudo identificam as diferenças entre olhos normais e com ceratocone subclínico para a curvatura mínima da superfície frontal, a curvatura máxima da superfície frontal, a superfície corneana frontal e a superfície corneana posterior de melhor ajuste ao raio esférico da curvatura e as medidas de Diff anterior e posterior usando Orbscan II e o Pentacam que podem auxiliar os profissionais de oftalmologia a diagnosticar clinicamente o ceratocone subclínico.
       
  • Causes of congenital corneal opacities and their management in a tertiary
           care center

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate causes and management of congenital corneal opacities (CCO) diagnosed in a tertiary care eye center and to compare the data with a previous study at the same institution. Methods: Computerized medical records in all patients with congenital corneal opacities diagnosed in the Cornea Service at Wills Eye Hospital (Philadelphia, PA) between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2015, were retrospectively reviewed. Children aged 12 years and younger at the first visit were included in the study. Patients’ demographics, ocular diagnosis, laterality, associated ocular abnormalities, other ocular surgery performed prior or subsequent to the first visit, and their treatment were extracted from the medical records. Results: A total of 77 eyes in 56 patients were examined. The mean age at presentation was 32.8 ± 44.2 months, with the mean follow-up period of 26.7 ± 30.1 months. The most frequent diagnosis was Peters anomaly (53.2%), followed by limbal dermoid (13.0%), aniridia with glaucoma and microphthalmos (6.5%), sclerocornea and congenital glaucoma (5.2%), idiopathic (3.9%), Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly and Hurler syndrome (2.6%), and microcornea (1.3%). Primary keratoplasty was performed in 26 eyes, with the outcome rate in the clear cornea of 76.0% during the follow-up. Conclusion: Peters anomaly is the most common cause of congenital corneal opacities encountered at our institution. Penetrating keratoplasty is the most frequent choice of corneal surgery to treat congenital corneal opacities. Additional interventions during penetrating keratoplasty were moderately positively correlated with graft failure. This study also shows the rates of some etiologies of that changed over the recent decades in our tertiary care Cornea Service. Although Peters anomaly remains the most common presenting reason for congenital corneal opacities, its rate appears to be increasing over the recent decade. Congenital corneal opacities due to birth trauma, which is one of the preventable causes, were observed in a previous study in our clinic; however, no new cases were noted in this study.RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar as causas e o controle das opa cidades corneanas congênitas diagnosticadas em um centro oftal mológico de atendimento terciário e comparar os dados com um estudo anterior realizado na mesma instituição. Métodos: Prontuários médicos informatizados de todos os pacientes com opacidade corneana congênita diagnosticada no Serviço de Córnea no Wills Eye Hospital (Filadélfia, PA) entre 1º de ja neiro de 2007 e 31 de dezembro de 2015 foram revisados retrospectivamente. Crianças com 12 anos ou menos na primeira consulta foram incluídas no estudo. A demografia dos pacientes, o diagnóstico ocular, a lateralidade, as anormalidades oculares associadas, outras cirurgias oculares realizadas antes ou após a primeira consulta e o tratamento foram extraídos dos prontuários médicos. Resultados: Um total de 77 olhos de 56 pacientes foi examinado. A idade média de apresentação foi de 32,8 ± 44,2 meses, com um tempo médio de acompanhamento de 26,7 ± 30,1 meses. O diagnóstico mais frequente foi anomalia de Peters (53,2%), seguido por dermóide límbico (13,0%), aniridia com glaucoma e microftalmia (6,5%), esclerocórnea e glaucoma congênito (5,2%), idiopático (3,9%), síndrome de Axenfeld-Rieger e síndrome de Hurler (2,6%) e microcórnea (1,3%). Ceratoplastia primária foi realizada em 26 olhos, com desfecho de córnea clara de 76,0% durante o acompanhamento. Conclusão: A anomalia de Peters é a causa mais comum de opacidade corneana congênita encontrada em nossa instituição. A ceratoplastia penetrante é a escolha mais frequente de cirurgia corneana para o tratamento de opacidades corneanas congênitas. Intervenções adicionais durante a ceratoplastia penetrante foram moderadamente correlacionadas positivamente com a falha do enxerto. Este estudo também mostra as taxas de algumas etiologias do que mudou ao longo faz últimas décadas em nosso serviço de córnea de atendimento terciário. Embora a anomalia de Peters continue a ser a causa mais comum das opacidades congênitas da córnea, sua taxa parece estar aumentando na última década. Opacidades congênitas da córnea devido a trauma no nascimento, que é uma das causas evitáveis, foram observadas em um estudo anterior em nossa clínica; no entanto, nenhum caso novo foi observado neste estudo.
       
  • Inter-eye osmolarity differences in patients with symptomatic and
           non-symptomatic dry eyes

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Purpose: To analyze whether inter-eye osmo larity differences were related to dry eye symptomatology. Methods: A total of 135 participants were randomly recruited from those who visited in the Optometry Clinic of the Optometry Faculty (Universidade de Santiago de Compostela). In a single scheduled session after the recruitment, Ocular Surface Disease Index was filled out following the standard instructions and TearLab measurements were made in both the participants’ eyes (10-15 min lapse). Osmolarity values were compared between the right and left eyes and the absolute inter-ocular difference ( OD-OS ) correlated with the Ocular Surface Disease Index score for the whole sample. Based on the Ocular Surface Disease Index score, the sample was divided into four symptomatic subgroups, and differences in the OD-OS values were calculated. Results: The whole sample showed a statistically significant inter-eye osmolarity difference (p=0.025; OD-OS = 9.2 ± 9.3 mOsm/l) and the correlation between Ocular Surface Disease Index and OD-OS (r=0.369; p<0.001). A statistically significant difference was found in the OD-OS value between symptomatic subgroups (Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.003). Mann-Whitney U test showed a significant difference between asymptomatic vs. moderate (p=0.006) vs. severe symp tomatic patients (p=0.001) and between mild vs. severe symptomatic patients (p=0.045), whereas no difference on OD-OS was found between participants with contiguous symptomatic subgroups (all p³0.174). Conclusion: Tear film inter-eye osmolarity differences are significantly higher in severe dry eye disease symptoms.RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar se as diferenças entre osmolaridade entre os olhos foram relacionadas à sintomatologia do olho seco. Métodos: Um total de 135 participantes foram recrutados aleatoriamente entre os indivíduos da Clínica de Optometria da Faculdade de Optometria (Universidade de Santiago de Compostela). Em uma única sessão agendada após o recrutamento, o Índice de Doenças da Superfície Ocular foi preenchido seguindo as instruções padrão e as mensurações do TearLab foram feitas em ambos os olhos dos participantes (lapso de 10 a 15 min). Os valores de osmolaridade foram com parados entre os olhos direito e o esquerdo e a diferença absoluta ocular ( OD-OS ) correlacionada com a pontuação do Índice de Doença da Superfície Ocular para toda a amostra. Com base na pontuação do Índice de Doença da Superfície Ocular, a amostra foi dividida em quatro subgrupos sintomáticos, e as diferenças nos OD-OS os valores foram calcula dos. Resultados: A amostra total mostrou uma diferença de osmolarida de entre os olhos estatisticamente significativa (p=0,025; OD-OS = 9,2 ± 9,3 mOsm/l) e a correlação entre o Índice de Doença da Superfície Ocular e OD-OS (r=0,369; p<0,001). Diferença estatisticamente significativa foi encontrada no valor OD-OS entre os subgrupos sintomáticos (Kruskal-Wallis, p=0,003). O teste U de Mann-Whitney mostrou uma diferença significativa entre pacientes assintomáticos versus moderados (p=0,006) versus sintomáticos graves (p=0,001) e entre pacientes sinto máticos leves e graves (p=0,045), enquanto que nenhuma di ferença de OD-OS foi encontrada entre os participantes de subgrupos sintomáticos contíguos (todos p³0,174). Conclusão: As diferenças entre osmolaridade inter-ocular do filme lacrimal são significativamente maiores nos sintomas graves da doença do olho seco.
       
  • Ocular surface changes in the treatment of rosacea: comparison between
           low-dose oral isotretinoin and doxycycline

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the impact of ocular changes between systemic treatment with doxycycline and low-dose oral isotretinoin in patients with moderate-to-severe papulopustular rosacea. Methods: Patients were randomized to receive either isotretinoin 0.3-0.4 mg/kg (group A) or doxycycline 100 mg/day (group B) for 16 weeks. Ocular symptoms were searched and evaluated, including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Schirmer test, breakup time, rose bengal staining score, and meibomian gland dysfunction grading. The patients were retested at the end of treatment. Results: The present study included 39 patients (30 females and 9 males). Best-corrected visual acuity was > 20/30 in >90% of patients in both groups and did not change after treatment. After treatment, improvement in ocular symptoms and meibomian gland dysfunction was more pronounced in group B (p<0.05); the other parameters did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: Doxycycline improved meibomian gland dysfunction, ocular symptoms, and ocular surface in patients with rosacea. Even though some patients experienced worsening meibomian gland dysfunction and symptoms, no subject experienced any serious complications after administration of low-dose isotretinoin.RESUMO Objetivos: Comparar o impacto das alterações oculares entre o tratamento sistêmico de doxiciclina e isotretinoína em baixa dosagem em pacientes com rosácea papulopustulosa moderada a grave. Métodos: Os pacientes form randomizados para receber isotretinoína 0,3 a 0,4 mg/kg (grupo A) ou doxiciclina 100mg/dia (grupo B) por 16 semanas. Os sintomas oculares foram pesquisados e avaliados, incluindo melhor acuidade visual corrigida, teste de Schirmer, tempo de ruptura do filme lacrimal, coloração de rosa bengala e graduação da disfunção de glândula de Meibomius. Os pacientes foram novamente testados no final do tratamento. Resultados: O presente estudo incluiu 39 pacientes (30 mulheres e 9 homens). A melhor acuidade visual corrigida foi >20/30 em >90% dos pacientes em ambos os grupos e não se alterou após o tratamento. A melhora dos sintomas oculares e da disfunção de glândula de Meibomius foi mais pronunciada no grupo B (p<0,05) após o tratamento; as demais variáveis não atingiram significância estatística. Conclusão: A doxiciclina melhorou a disfunção de glândula de Meibomius, os sintomas oculares e a superfície ocular de pa cientes com rosácea. Mesmo que alguns pacientes tenham piorado a disfunção e os sintomas da glândula de Meibomius, nenhum indivíduo apresentou complicações graves após a admi nistração de baixas doses de isotretinoína.
       
  • Patterns of ocular trauma in elderly patients in an urban population-the
           Bronx experience

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the characteristics of ocular injuries among elderly patients admitted to an urban level I trauma center because of major trauma from 2008 to 2015. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients aged >65 years admitted with ocular injuries that were identified with ICD-9 codes. Tabulated data were analyzed using the Student’s paired t-test, the chi-squared test, and regression analysis using STATA/MP-12 software. Significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Of a total of 861 patients, 221 (25.7%) admitted for major trauma and ocular injuries were elderly. The mean age of these patients was 80.3 years (median =79.2 years; interquartile range=63.8-94.6 years). Of these patients, 40.7% were males and 59.3% were females. The males were younger than the females (mean age, 77.3 vs. 82.4 years, respectively, p<0.001). Race was documented as white (30.8%), black (13.6%), and “other” (54.3%), with 67.5% of the “other” group (36.7% overall) identified as Hispanic. The most frequent injuries were contusion of the eye/adnexa (68.2%), orbital wall fractures (22.2%), and an open wound of the ocular adnexa (18.1%). Males had a 2.64-fold greater risk of orbital wall fractures (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.38-5.05, p<0.003). Patients with orbital wall fractures had higher injury severity scores than those without (95% CI=14.1-20.9 vs. 6.8-8.6, respectively, p<0.001). The most common injuries were falls (77.8%) and pedestrian/motor vehicle accidents (6.8%). Falls occurred mostly at home (51.7%), on the street (13.9%), and in hospitals/nursing homes (12.2%). Those falling at home were older than those falling at other locations (95% CI=81.8-85.4 vs. 77.0-80.6 years, respectively, p<0.002). Conclusions: Ocular injuries in elderly Bronx patients most commonly occurred in females due to falls in the home/nursing home setting. Public health measures addressing identifiable individual and environmental risks in these common locations would be most beneficial in reducing the incidence of ocular injuries in this population.RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar as características das lesões oculares de idosos nas internações por grandes traumatismos em um centro urbano de trauma nível I de 2008 a 2015. Métodos: Realizou-se uma revisão retrospectiva de prontuários de pacientes com mais de 65 anos internados com lesões oculares identificados com os códigos CID-9. Os dados tabulados foram analisados com o teste t de Student, teste qui-quadrado e análise de regressão, utilizando o software STATA/MP-12. A significância estatística foi fixada em p<0,05. Resultados: Duzentos e vinte e um (25,7%) pacientes de um total de 861, admitidos por traumatismo craniano importante e lesões oculares, eram idosos. A idade média era de 80,3 anos (mediana=79,2; intervalo interquartil=63,8-94,6). 40,7% eram do sexo masculino e 59,3% do feminino. Os homens eram menos idosos (média=77,3) do que as mulheres (média=82,4), p<0,001. A raça foi documentada como branca (30,8%), negra (13,6%) e “outra” (54,3%); 67,5% dos “outros” (36,7% no geral) identificados como hispânicos. As lesões mais frequentes foram contusão do olho/anexos (68,2%), fraturas da parede orbital (22,2%) e ferida aberta dos anexos oculares (18,1%). Os homens tiveram 2,64 mais chances de fraturas da parede orbital (95% CI=1,38-5,05; p<0,003). Pacientes com fraturas da parede orbital tiveram maiores escores de gravidade da lesão (95% CI=14,1-20,9) do que aqueles sem fraturas (96% IC=6,8-8,6), p<0,001. Os mecanismos comuns foram quedas (77,8%) e acidentes a pé com veículos automotores (6,8%). As quedas ocorreram principal mente em casa (51,7%), na rua (13,9%) e em hospitais/lares de idosos (12,2%). Aqueles que caíram em casa eram mais velhos (IC 95%=81,8-85,4) do que os que tiveram quedas em outros locais (IC 95%=77,0-80,6), p<0,002. Conclusões: Lesões oculares em pacientes idosos de Bronx foram mais comuns no sexo feminino e devido a quedas que ocorreram em casa/lar de idosos. Medidas de saúde pública direcionadas a riscos individuais e ambientais identificáveis nesses locais comuns seriam mais benéficas na redução de lesões oculares nessa população.
       
  • Optical coherence tomography angiography findings in patients with branch
           retinal vein occlusion treated with Anti-VEGF

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate retinal microvasculature changes in patients treated with anti-VEGF for macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion. Methods: We examined 38 eyes of 19 patients for the study. We measured superficial and deep capillary plexus vessel densities (%), foveal avascular zone areas (mm2), and central macular thicknesses. Results: Parafoveal superficial and deep capillary plexus values were significantly lower in eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion than in fellow eyes (p<0.001). We found a significant increase in parafoveal deep capillary plexus values after the anti-VEGF treatment (p=0.032). The mean foveal avascular zone was larger in eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion than in control eyes (p<0.001). The mean central macular thickness was significantly higher in eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion than in controls, and we observed a significant decrease in central macular thickness after anti-VEGF treatment (<0.001). In addition, the cystic structures in the deep capillary plexus regressed. Conclusion: Optical coherence tomography angiography enables qualitative and quantitative evaluations during follow-up of patients treated for branch retinal vein occlusion.RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar as alterações na microvascu latura da retina em pacientes tratados com anti-VEGF para ede ma macular secundário à oclusão de ramo da veia retiniana. Métodos: Foram examinados 38 olhos de 19 pacientes para o estudo. Medimos as densidades dos vasos do plexo capilar superficial e profunda (%), áreas da zona avascular foveal (mm2) e espessura macular central. Resultados: Os valores do plexo capilar superficial e profundo parafoveal foram significativamente menores nos olhos com oclusão de ramo da veia retiniana do que nos outros olhos (p<0,001). Encontramos um aumento significativo nos valores de plexo capilar profundo parafoveal após o tratamento com anti-VEGF (p=0,032). A zona avascular foveal média foi maior nos olhos com oclusão de ramo da veia retiniana do que nos olhos controle (p<0,001). A espessura macular central média foi significativamente maior nos olhos com oclusão de ramo da veia retiniana do que nos controles, e observamos uma diminuição significativa na espessura macular central após o tratamento com anti-VEGF (< 0,001). Além disso, as estruturas císticas no plexo capilar profundo regrediram. Conclusão: A angiotomografia de coerência óptica permite avaliações qualitativas e quantitativas durante o acompanhamento de pacientes tratados por oclusão de ramo da veia retiniana.
       
  • Intra- and interobserver reliability of a modified distraction test based
           on digital images to assess lower eyelid horizontal tension

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Purpose: Inferior eyelid laxity is classically evaluated using “snap-back” and “distraction” tests. This study aimed to assess the reproducibility of the technique used to indirectly quantify the horizontal tension in the lower eyelids using digital image processing. Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted to assess the reproducibility of a new technique that quantifies the horizontal tension in the lower eyelid. The study was conducted at the Hospital das Clínicas of Porto Alegre. The protocol was established by two trained ophthalmologist examiners, allowing intra- and interobserver agreement analyses. Image acquisition was done in two stages: the first image was captured with the eyelid in primary gaze position and the second with the eyelid in traction position. All images and measurements were processed using Image J 1.33m software from the National Institute of Health. The Bland-Altman method, intraclass correlation coefficients, concordance correlation coefficients, and technical measurement error were used to evaluate reproducibility. Results: The study participants comprised healthy individuals with no ophthalmologic pathologies. The measurements obtained in the neutral position showed a slightly higher agreement than those obtained in the traction position. The mean difference between the measurements performed in the traction position was 0.028 ± 0.7 mm and 0.014 ± 0.9 mm in the intra- and interobserver analyses, respectively. The Bland-Altman method demonstrated adequate confidence limits for both measurements. Correlation coefficients for measurements varied between 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-0.95] and 0.91 (95% CI 0.77-0.97) in the neutral position and between 0.72 (95% CI 0.37-0.89) and 0.76 (95% CI 0.4-0.91) in the traction position. Conclusion: A high intra- and interobserver concordance was observed in the studied method to quantify lower eyelid tension. The proposed method is simple and easily reproducible, and to the best our knowledge, this is the first method that quantifies lower eyelid horizontal tension on the basis of digital image processing. This modified distraction test might be useful in studies quantifying lower eyelid horizontal tension.RESUMO Objetivo: A frouxidão palpebral inferior é avaliada classicamente por meio de testes de “snap-back” e “distraction test”. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a reprodutibilidade da técnica utilizada para quantificar indiretamente a tensão horizontal nas pálpebras inferiores através do processamento digital de imagens. Métodos: Este estudo longitudinal foi realizado para avaliar a reprodutibilidade de uma nova técnica que quantifica a tensão horizontal na pálpebra inferior. O estudo foi realizado no Hospital das Clínicas de Porto Alegre. O protocolo foi estabelecido por dois examinadores oftalmologistas treinados, permitindo análises de concordância intra e interavaliador. A aquisição de imagens foi feita em duas etapas: a primeira imagem foi capturada com a pálpebra na posição primária do olhar e a segunda com pálpebra tracionada. Todas as imagens e medições foram processadas usando o software Image J 1.33m do National Institute of Health. O método de Bland-Altman, os coeficientes de correlação intraclasses, os coeficientes de correlação de concordância e o erro técnico da medida foram utilizados para avaliar a reprodutibilidade. Resultados: Os participantes do estudo foram indivíduos saudáveis e sem patologias oftalmológicas. As medidas obtidas na posição neutra mostraram concordância levemente maior do que as obtidas na posição tracionada. A diferença média entre as medidas realizadas na posição tracionada foi de 0,028 ± 0,7mm e 0,014 ± 0,9mm nas análises intra e interobservadores, respectivamente. O método de Bland-Altman demonstrou limites de confiança adequados para ambas as medidas. Os coeficientes de correlação para as medidas variaram entre 0,87 [intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC) 0,68-0,95) e 0,91 (IC 95% 0,77-0,97) na posição neutra e entre 0,72 (IC 95% 0,37-0,89) e 0,76 (IC 95% 0,46-0,91) na posição tracionada. Conclusão: Observou-se elevada concordância intra e interobservador no método estudado para quantificar a tensão palpebral inferior. O método proposto é simples e facilmente reproduzível, e, do melhor modo possível, este é o primeiro método que quantifica a tensão horizontal da pálpebra inferior com base no processamento digital de imagens. Este teste de distração modificado pode ser útil em estudos que quantifiquem a tensão horizontal da pálpebra inferior.
       
  • Relationships between corneal biomechanics and the structural and
           functional parameters of glaucoma damage

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the relationships between (i) thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer, optic nerve head topography, and visual field parameters and (ii) corneal biomechanical properties in normal controls and patients with ocular hypertension and primary open-angle glaucoma. Methods: This observational, cross-sectional study included 68 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma, 99 eyes with ocular hypertension and 133 control eyes. Corneal biomechanical properties, optic nerve head topographic features, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, and visual fields were assessed in all cases. Corneal biomechanical properties, retinal nerve fiber layer thicknesses, and optic nerve head topographic features were compared among the groups. The associations between structural and functional measures of glaucomatous damage and corneal biomechanical factors were also evaluated. Results: Significantly lower corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor values were observed in the primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension groups as compared with the control group, but there were no significant differences between the primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension groups. In the ocular hypertension group, no associations were observed between the corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor with values and the structural and functional parameters. In the primary open-angle glaucoma group, positive correlations were observed between the corneal hysteresis values and the global retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (p<0.01, r=0.27), mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (p<0.01, r=0.33), and mean deviation (p<0.01, r=0.26), and negative correlations were observed between the corneal resistance factor values, and the cup area (p<0.01, r=-0.39), cup-to-disk ratio (p=0.02, r=-0.28), linear cup-to-disk ratio (p=0.02, r=-0.28), and cup shape (p=0.03, r=-0.26). In the control group, weak correlations were detected between the corneal hysteresis and the cup area (p=0.03, r=0.19), cup-to-disk ratio (p=0.01, r=0.21), and linear cup-to-disk ratio (p=0.01, r=0.22). Conclusions: Distinct correlations were identified between the corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor values and the functional and structural parameters in the primary open-angle glaucoma and control groups. Corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor may have different roles in the pathophysiology of glaucoma.RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar as relações entre (i) espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina, topografia do nervo óptico e parâmetros do campo visual e (ii) propriedades biomecânicas da córnea, em controles normais e pacientes com hiperten são ocular e glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto. Métodos: Este estudo observacional, transversal, incluiu 68 olhos com glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto, 99 olhos com hipertensão ocular e 133 olhos controle. As propriedades biomecânicas da córnea, as características topográficas da cabeça do nervo óptico, a espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina e os campos visuais foram avaliados em todos os casos. As propriedades biomecânicas da córnea, a espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina e as características topográficas da cabeça do nervo óptico foram comparadas entre os grupos. As associações entre medidas estruturais e funcionais de danos glaucomatosos e fatores biomecânicos da córnea também foram avaliadas. Resultados: Valores de histerese corneana e da resistência corneana foram significativamente menores nos grupos com glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto e hipertensão ocular em com paração ao grupo controle, mas não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos de glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto e hipertensão ocular. No grupo com hipertensão ocular, não foram observadas associações entre histerese da córnea e o fator de resistência corneana com os valores e os parâmetros estruturais e funcionais. No grupo com glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto foram observadas correlações positivas entre os valores de histerese corneana e a espessura a camada de fibras nervosas da retina (p<0,01, r=0,27), espessura média da camada de fibras nervosas da retina (p<0,01, r=0,33) e desvio médio (p<0,01, r=0,26), e correlações negativas entre o os valores do fator de resistência da córnea e a área de escavação (p<0,01, r=-0,39), a relação escavação/disco (p=0,02, r=-0,28), a relação copo-para-disco linear (p=0,02, r=-0,28) e a forma da escavação (p=0,03, r=-0,26). No grupo controle, correlações foram detectadas entre a histerese da córnea e área de escavação (p=0,03, r=0,19), relação escavação/disco (p=0,01, r=0,21) e relação copo-para-disco linear (p=0,01, r=0,22). Conclusões: Correlações distintas foram identificadas entre histerese da córnea e os valores de resistência da córnea e os parâmetros funcionais e estruturais nos grupos de glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto e controle. A histerese da córnea e o fator de resistência da córnea podem ter diferentes papéis na fisiopatologia do glaucoma.
       
  • Comparing the postoperative refractive predictability of Pentacam HR and
           IOLMaster 500 after a multifocal intraocular lens implantation

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the postoperative refractive predictability of IOLMaster 500 and Pentacam HR on the basis of keratometry and anterior chamber depth values in eyes with an indication for multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted on 118 eyes treated with phacoemulsification and multifocal intraocular lens implantation. Only the eyes that achieved emmetropia in the dynamic refraction performed on postoperative day 30 were included. Haigis’ formula was used in each case to calculate the intraocular lens power, and the intraocular lens with the target refraction closest to emmetropia was implanted. Four lens calculation scenarios were tested by combining keratometry and anterior chamber depth measurements obtained using the two devices. Results: IOLMaster 500 and Pentacam HR differed with regard to mean keratometry (D 0.07 ± 0.03 D; p=0.0065) and anterior chamber depth (D 0.08 ± 0.01 mm; p<0.001). In the analysis of covariance, the following differences were obtained using the Haigis’ formula when confronted with the biometric values obtained by inserting keratometry and anterior chamber depth values, respectively: Penta/IOL x IOL/Penta (0.13 ± 0.03; p<0.0001); Penta/Penta × IOL/Penta (0.13 ± 0.03; p<0.0001); Penta/IOL × IOL/IOL (0.11 ± 0.03; p=0.001); Penta/Penta × IOL/IOL (0.11 ± 0.03; p=0.002); IOL/IOL × IOL/Penta (0.02 ± 0.03; p=0.865); and Penta/IOL × Penta/Penta (0.002 ± 0.03; p=0.99). The difference was smaller when measuring the anterior chamber depth using the IOLMaster 500, regardless of which device was used to measure keratometry. Conclusions: Pentacam HR significantly differed from IOLMaster 500 when calculating keratometry. As regards the anterior chamber depth, the two devices were equally accurate.RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar a previsibilidade refrativa pós-operatória do IOLMaster 500 e Pentacam HR com base nos valores de ceratometria e profundidade de câmara anterior nos olhos com indicação de implante de lentes intraoculares multifocais. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo realizado em 118 olhos tratados com facoemulsificação e implante de lentes intraoculares multifocal. Apenas os olhos que atingiram a emetropia na refração dinâmica no 30º dia pós-operatório foram incluídos. A fórmula de Haigis foi usada em cada caso para calcular o poder das lentes intraoculares, e a lente intraocular com a refração alvo mais próxima da emetropia foi implantada. Cenários de cálculo de quatro lentes foram testados pela combinação de medidas de ceratometria e profundidade de câmara anterior obtidas usando os dois dispositivos. Resultados: IOLMaster 500 e Pentacam HR diferiram quanto à média de ceratometria (D 0,07 ± 0,03 D; p=0,0065) e profundidade de câmara anterior (D 0,08 ± 0,01 mm; p<0,001). Na análise da covariância, as seguintes diferenças foram obtidas usando a fórmula de Haigis quando confrontadas com os valores biométricos obtidos pela inserção dos valores de ceratometria e profundidade de câmara anterior, respectivamente: Penta/IOL x IOL/Penta (0,13 ± 0,03; p<0,0001); Penta/Penta x IOL/Penta (0,13 ± 0,03; p<0,0001); Penta/IOL x IOL/IOL (0,11 ± 0,03; p=0,001); Penta/Penta x IOL/IOL (0,11 ± 0,03; p=0,002); IOL/IOL x IOL/Penta (0,02 ± 0,03; p=0,865); Penta/IOL x Penta/Penta (0,002 ± 0,03; p=0,99). A diferença foi menor ao medir a profundidade da câmara anterior usando o IOLMaster 500, independentemente de qual dispositivo foi usado para medir a ceratometria. Conclusões: O Pentacam HR diferiu significativamente do IOLMaster 500 no cálculo de ceratometria. Quanto à profundidade da câmara anterior, os dois dispositivos foram igualmente precisos.
       
  • Evidence of autophagic vesicles in a patient with Lisch corneal dystrophy

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Lisch corneal dystrophy is a rare corneal disease characterized by the distinctive feature of highly vacuolated cells. Although this feature is important, the nature of these vacuoles within corneal cells remains unknown. Here, we sought to analyze corneal cells from a patient diagnosed with Lisch dystrophy to characterize the vacuoles within these cells. Analyses using histopathology examination, confocal microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were all consistent with previous descriptions of Lisch cells. Importantly, the vacuoles within these cells appeared to be autophagosomes and autolysosomes, and could be stained with an anti-microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3) antibody. Taken together, these findings indicate that the vacuoles we observed within superficial corneal cells of a patient with Lisch corneal dystrophy constituted autophagosomes and autolysosomes; this finding has not been previously reported and suggests a need for further analyses to define the role of autophagy in this ocular disease.RESUMO A distrofia corneana de Lisch é uma doença rara, caracterizada principalmente pela presença de células altamente vacuoladas. Embora esta característica seja importante, a natureza desses vacúolos dentro das células da córnea permanece des conhecida. Aqui, procuramos analisar as células da córnea de um paciente diagnosticado com distrofia de Lisch para caracte rizar os vacúolos dentro dessas células. Análises utilizando exame histopatológico, microscopia confocal e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão foram todas consistentes com descrições previas de células de Lisch. Importante, os vacúolos dentro dessas células pareciam ser autofagossomos e autolisossomos, e po deriam ser corados com um anticorpo proteico 1A/1B-cadeia leve 3 (LC3) da proteína anti-microtúbulo associado a microtúbulos. Em conjunto, esses achados indicam que os vacúolos observados nas células superficiais da córnea de um paciente com distrofia corneana de Lisch constituíram autofagossomos e autolisossomos. Esse achado não foi relatado anteriormente e sugere a necessidade de mais análises para definir o papel da autofagia nessa doença ocular.
       
  • Regression of macular edema with topical brinzolamide and nepafenac alone
           and identification of a novel gyrate atrophy mutation

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Gyrate atrophy is a rare metabolic autosomal recessive disorder caused by ornithine aminotransferase enzyme deficiency that leads to characteristic progressive, degenerative chorioretinal findings. Patients complain mostly of low vision, night blindness, and peripheral vision loss. Posterior subcapsular cataract, myopia, choroid neovascularization, and intraretinal cysts may be accompanying factors related to vision loss. We encountered a patient with vision loss secondary to posterior subcapsular cataract and intraretinal cysts. After treatment with topical brinzolamide and nepafenac (and without any diet mo dification and/or supplementation), we observed 143- and 117-mm macular thickness resolutions with 2 and 1 Snellen lines of visual gain in his right and left eyes, respectively. Also, we detected a novel homozygous mutation in the ornithine aminotransferase gene: c.1253T>C (p.Leu418Pro). Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and/or non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs can control macular edema in patients with gyrate atrophy-associated intraretinal cysts. The genetic variants may also be a determinant in the responsiveness to the therapy type.RESUMO A atrofia girata é um distúrbio autossômico recessivo metabólico raro causado pela deficiência da enzima ornitina ami notransferase, que leva a achados degenerativos coriorretinianos progressivos característicos. Os pacientes queixam-se principalmente de baixa visão, cegueira noturna e perda de vi são periférica. A catarata subcapsular posterior, a miopia, a neovascularização da coróide e os cistos intrarretinianos podem ser fatores associados à perda da visão. Encontramos um paciente com perda de visão secundária à catarata subcapsular posterior e cistos intrarretinianos. Após o tratamento com brinzolamida tópica e nepafenaco (e sem modificação e/ou suplementação da dieta), observamos resoluções de espessura macular de 143 e 117 mm e com 2 e 1 linhas de Snellen de ganho visual nos olhos direito e esquerdo, respectivamente. Além disso, detectamos uma nova mutação homozigótica no gene da ornitina aminotransfera se: c.1253T>C (p.Leu418Pro). Inibidores da anidrase carbônica e/ou drogas anti-inflamatórias não esteróides podem controlar o edema macular em pacientes com cistos intrarretinianos associados à atrofia girata. As variantes genéticas também podem ser determinantes na responsividade ao tipo de terapia.
       
  • Pilomatrix carcinoma of the lacrimal caruncle: a case report

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT A 45-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of a mass located in the caruncle of his right eye. An incisional biopsy had been performed one month prior by another specialist, and the histopathology report showed basal cell carcinoma. The mass was completely excised with a 2 mm safety margin, and the large conjunctival defect was reconstructed with one sheet of amniotic membrane allograft. A histological diagnosis of pilomatrix carcinoma was established. To prevent recurrence after surgery, we added bevacizumab (25 mg/mL, 1.25 mg/mL per drop) eye drops four times per day for three months. At the one-year follow-up, the patient showed no evidence of local recurrence or distant metastasis after initial excision and remains under close follow-up. Pilomatrix carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a caruncular mass.RESUMO Um homem de 45 anos apresentou história de massa na carúncula no olho direito durante 3 meses. Uma biópsia incisional foi realizada 1 mês antes por outro especialista e o laudo histopatológico mostrava carcinoma basocelular. A massa foi completamente excisada, com uma margem de segurança de 2 mm, e a grande lesão conjuntival foi reconstruída com uma folha de aloenxerto de membrana amniótica. Foi estabelecido um diagnóstico histológico de carcinoma pilomatricial. Para evitar a recorrência após a cirurgia, adicionamos colírio de bevacizumabe (25 mg/mL, 1,25 mg/mL por gota) quatro vezes ao dia durante três meses. No seguimento de 1 ano, o paciente não apresentou evidência de recidiva local ou metástase distante após a excisão inicial e continua sob acompanhamento próximo. O carcinoma pilomatricial deve ser considerado no diagnóstico diferencial de uma massa caruncular.
       
  • Coexistence of papilledema and pseudopapilledema after remission of
           idiopathic intracranial hypertension by bariatric surgery

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT A 37-year-old woman complained of headaches following bilateral visual loss in the past two years. She was obese and had undergone bariatric surgery three months earlier, followed by a considerable weight loss. Neuro-ophthalmic examination revealed a bilateral swollen optic disk. After a computerized analysis of the visual fields and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and orbits, a diagnosis of idiopathic intracranial hypertension was made. At six months after the bariatric surgery, the patient reported no further headaches and exhibited better findings on computerized analysis of visual fields. However, fundus examination revealed persistent mild papilledema in both eyes. Ocular B-scan ultrasonography showed bilateral optic disk drusen. This report highlights the coexistence of true papilledema and pseudopapilledema due to optic disk drusen, following remission of idiopathic intracranial hypertension after a bariatric surgery.RESUMO Uma mulher de 37 anos queixou-se de cefaleia após perda visual bilateral nos últimos dois anos. Apresentava história de obesidade e havia sido submetida à cirurgia bariátrica três meses antes, seguida de considerável perda de peso. O exame neuro-oftálmico revelou um disco óptico inchado bilateral. Após uma análise computadorizada dos campos visuais e ressonância magnética do crânio e órbitas, foi feito um diagnóstico de hiper tensão intracraniana idiopática. Após seis meses da cirurgia bariátrica, a paciente não relatou mais cefaleia e foram descobertas melhoras na análise computadorizada dos campos visuais. No entanto, o exame de fundo de olho revelou papiledema leve persistente em ambos os olhos. A ultrassonografia ocular B-scan mostrou drusas do disco óptico bilateralmente. Este relato destaca a coexistência de papiledema verdadeiro e pseudopapiledema devido à drusa de disco óptico após remissão da hipertensão intracraniana idiopática após uma cirurgia bariátrica.
       
  • Clinical studies using stem cells for treatment of retinal diseases: state
           of the art

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Degenerative retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa, Stargardt’s macular dystrophy, and age-related macular degeneration are characterized by irreversible loss of vision due to direct or indirect photoreceptor damage. No effective treatments exist, but stem cell studies have shown promising results. Our aim with this review was to describe the types of stem cells that are under study, their effects, and the main clinical trials involving them.RESUMO As doenças degenerativas da retina, como retinose pigmentar, distrofia macular de Stargardt e degeneração macular relaciona à idade, são caracterizadas por perda irre versível da visão devido a danos diretos ou indiretos aos fotorreceptores. Não existem tratamentos eficazes, porém os estudos com células-tronco mostraram resultados promissores. Nosso objetivo com esta revisão foi descrever os tipos de células-tronco em estudo, seus efeitos e os principais ensaios clínicos que as envolvem.
       
  • Blindness from bilateral pseudomonas endophthalmitis following bilateral
           simultaneous cataract surgery: Primum non nocere

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Degenerative retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa, Stargardt’s macular dystrophy, and age-related macular degeneration are characterized by irreversible loss of vision due to direct or indirect photoreceptor damage. No effective treatments exist, but stem cell studies have shown promising results. Our aim with this review was to describe the types of stem cells that are under study, their effects, and the main clinical trials involving them.RESUMO As doenças degenerativas da retina, como retinose pigmentar, distrofia macular de Stargardt e degeneração macular relaciona à idade, são caracterizadas por perda irre versível da visão devido a danos diretos ou indiretos aos fotorreceptores. Não existem tratamentos eficazes, porém os estudos com células-tronco mostraram resultados promissores. Nosso objetivo com esta revisão foi descrever os tipos de células-tronco em estudo, seus efeitos e os principais ensaios clínicos que as envolvem.
       
 
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