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Publisher: Sabinet Online Ltd   (Total: 188 journals)

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Showing 1 - 188 of 188 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACCORD Occasional Paper     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.13, h-index: 4)
Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 2)
Acta Criminologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Germanica : German Studies in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Juridica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Patristica et Byzantina     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AFFRIKA J. of Politics, Economics and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Africa Conflict Monitor     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Africa Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Africa Institute Occasional Paper     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Africa J. of Nursing and Midwifery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 4)
AfricaGrowth Agenda     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 21)
African Finance J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 2)
African J. for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African J. of Business and Economic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African J. of Democracy and Governance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
African J. of Herpetology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.327, h-index: 10)
African J. of Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
African J. of Rhetoric     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African J. of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
African Plant Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Renaissance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African Safety Promotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
African Yearbook of Rhetoric     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Africanus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agriprobe     Open Access  
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annals of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Survey of South African Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Ars Nova     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Article 40     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BER : Architects and Quantity Surveyors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Capital Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Consumer Confidence Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Consumer Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Economic Prospects : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Economic Prospects : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Intermediate Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Trends : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Wholesale Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of Statistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Business Tax and Company Law Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cabo     Full-text available via subscription  
Cardiovascular J. of Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.414, h-index: 22)
Cardiovascular J. of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Clean Air J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Clean Air J. = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug     Full-text available via subscription  
Climate Summary of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Commonwealth Youth and Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communicare : J. for Communication Sciences in Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Comparative and Intl. Law J. of Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Conflict Trends     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Conspectus : The J. of the South African Theological Seminary     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Allergy & Clinical Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.127, h-index: 6)
De Arte     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
De Rebus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Die Kerkblad     Full-text available via subscription  
Educare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
English in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ergonomics SA : J. of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ESR Review : Economic and Social Rights in South Africa     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Evidence Based Summaries in Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
FarmBiz     Full-text available via subscription  
Farmer’s Weekly     Full-text available via subscription  
Farmlink Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Food Manufacturing Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
French Studies in Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Fundamina : A J. of Legal History     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gender and Behaviour     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Gender Questions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ghanaian J. of Economics     Full-text available via subscription  
HR Future     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
IFE Psychologia : An Intl. J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Image & Text : a J. for Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
IMFO : Official J. of the Institute of Municipal Finance Officers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
IMIESA     Full-text available via subscription  
Indilinga African J. of Indigenous Knowledge Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Inside Mining     Full-text available via subscription  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Interim : Interdisciplinary J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. for Religious Freedom     Full-text available via subscription  
J. for Christian Scholarship = Tydskrif vir Christelike Wetenskap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
J. for Contemporary History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
J. for Islamic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
J. for Juridical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
J. for Language Teaching = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
J. for New Generation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
J. of African Elections     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of African Foreign Affairs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
J. of African Union Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Contemporary Management     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Gender, Information and Development in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
J. of Minimum Intervention in Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Public Administration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
J. of Somali Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Strategic Studies : A J. of the Southern Bureau of Strategic Studies Trust     Full-text available via subscription  
Kleio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Learning and Teaching Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Litnet Akademies : 'n Joernaal vir die Geesteswetenskappe, Natuurwetenskappe, Regte en Godsdienswetenskappe     Open Access  
Management Dynamics : J. of the Southern African Institute for Management Scientists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Medical Technology SA     Full-text available via subscription  
Meditari : Research J. of the School of Accounting Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
MNASSA : Monthly Notes of the Astronomical Society of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Monographs of the Transvaal Museum     Full-text available via subscription  
Musicus     Full-text available via subscription  
Neotestamentica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.212, h-index: 6)
New Coin Poetry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
New Voices in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Obiter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.106, h-index: 2)
Occupational Health Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Old Testament Essays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Personal Finance Newsletter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Perspectives in Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.228, h-index: 13)
Politeia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Professional Accountant     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Professional Nursing Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Progressio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Psycho-analytic Psychotherapy in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Quest     Open Access  
ReSource     Full-text available via subscription  
Retail and Marketing Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Rostrum : Newsletter of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SA Irrigation = SA Besproeiing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SA Mercantile Law J. = SA Tydskrif vir Handelsreg     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SABI Magazine - Tydskrif     Full-text available via subscription  
Scriptura : Intl. J. of Bible, Religion and Theology in Southern Africa     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Scrutiny2     Full-text available via subscription  
Servamus Community-based Safety and Security Magazine     Full-text available via subscription  
Shakespeare in Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
South African Actuarial J.     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Computer J.     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Food Review     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Gastroenterology Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 1)
South African Health Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
South African J. for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 7)
South African J. of Art History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
South African J. of Business Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 8)
South African J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, h-index: 14)
South African J. of Criminal Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South African J. of Cultural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South African J. of Diabetes and Vascular Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South African J. of Economic History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
South African J. of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.335, h-index: 14)
South African J. of Higher Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
South African J. of Labour Relations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
South African J. of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
South African J. of Wildlife Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.583, h-index: 24)
South African J. on Human Rights     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
South African Music Studies : SAMUS     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
South African Ophthalmology J.     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Review     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Radiographer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Southern African Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Southern African Forestry J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Southern African Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 11)
Southern African J. of Accountability and Auditing Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Southern African Review of Education with Education with Production     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Stilet : Tydskrif van die Afrikaanse Letterkundevereniging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Studies in Economics and Econometrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Natuurwetenskap en Tegnologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tax Breaks Newsletter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
TAXtalk     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
TD : The J. for Transdisciplinary Research in Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Transport World Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Unisa Latin American Report     Full-text available via subscription  
Veld & Flora     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Water & Sanitation Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Without Prejudice     Full-text available via subscription  
Word and Action = Woord en Daad     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover South African Journal of Chemistry
  [SJR: 0.193]   [H-I: 14]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0379-4350
   Published by Sabinet Online Ltd Homepage  [188 journals]
  • Lack of co-crystal formation with cyclotriphosphazenes : a cautionary
           tale, South African Journal of Chemistry, 69, pp. 35-43 : erratum

    • Authors: H. Wahl; D.A. Haynes T. Le Roex
      Abstract: Lack of co-crystal formation with cyclotriphosphazenes : a cautionary tale, South African Journal of Chemistry, 69, 35-43 : erratum
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Partial oxidation of n-pentane over vanadium phosphorus oxide supported on
           hydroxyapatites : research article

    • Authors: Sooboo Singh
      Abstract: The selective oxidation of n-pentane to value-added products, maleic anhydride or phthallic anhydride by vanadium phosphorus oxide loaded on hydroxyapatites as catalysts and oxygen as oxidant was investigated. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) and cobalt-hydroxyapatite (Co-HAp) were prepared by the co-precipitation method and VPO with varying weight percentages (2.5-15.0 %) were loaded on the hydroxyapatite supports by the wet impregnation technique. The catalyst materials were characterized by surface area measurements, elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and temperature- programmed reduction (TPR). VPO is present in two phases, viz. (VO)2P2O7 and VOPO4. With increase in the VPO loading on the hydroxyapatites, the (VO)2P2O7 phase also increased. From catalytic results, a conversion of 75 % of n-pentane and selectivity towards maleic anhydride, about 50 % and phthalic anhydride, about 25 %, were consistently achieved with loadings of 5.0 and 7.5 wt. % VPO at 360 °C for GHSVs of 1900 and 2300 h-1. Under optimum conditions, product yields of up to 40 % maleic anhydride and 20 % phthalic anhydride were obtained. It is proposed that the products formed through the diene intermediate.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • A preliminary investigation into the stability of inorganic arsenic
           species in laboratory solutions simulating sediment pore water : research
           article

    • Authors: Letitia Pillay; Andrew Kindness
      Abstract: A simple method to preserve arsenic species in simulated pore water was investigated. Synthetic pore water containing high levels of Fe, Mn and S (as sulfide, S2-) were synthesized and spiked with different arsenic species. Arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)], dimethylarsinate [(CH3)2AsO2-, DMA], monomethylarsonate [(CH3)AsO32-, MMA], monothioarsenate(V) species (AsO3S3-, MTA) and tetrathioarsenate(v) species (AsS43-, TTA) in different combinations were used. Disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA) and temperature was used to preserve speciation. Solutions were analyzed at intervals of one day, week, month and 2 months after preparation. Samples were analyzed by HPLC-ICP-MS using an ion exchange column and ammonium carbonate buffer. Samples containing Fe and Mn spiked with As(III), As(V), DMA, MMA showed adequate species preservation for two months when EDTA was added. The total As in samples containing Fe, Mn and S2- was preserved over 60 days however, speciation was not preserved. Samples spiked with synthesized mono- and tetra-thioarsenate(V) species showed immediate degradation of the mono- and tetra-thioarsenic species into unidentified As-S species. The results show that while EDTA may be adequate to preserve As species containing high Fe and Mn concentrations, the combination of EDTA and temperature was not successful in preserving As speciation in samples containing sulfides.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • The synthesis of carbon nanomaterials using chlorinated hydrocarbons over
           a Fe-Co/CaCO3 catalyst : research article

    • Authors: Winny K. Maboya; Winny K. Maboya, Neil J. Coville, Sabelo D. Mhlanga Sabelo D. Mhlanga
      Abstract: The effect of chlorine on the morphology of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) prepared from a Fe-Co/CaCO3 catalyst was investigated using chlorobenzene (CB), dichlorobenzene (DCB), trichlorobenzene (TCB), dichloroethane (DCE), trichloroethane (TCE) and tetrachloroethane (TTCE) as chlorine sources using a catalytic chemical vapour deposition (CCVD) method. Toluene was used as a chlorine-free carbon source for comparison. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were successfully synthesized. The physicochemical properties of the CNTs were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. The inner and outer diameters of the MWCNTs increased with an increase in the number of chlorine atoms contained in the reactant. Chlorine incorporation into the MWCNTs was observed by EDS analysis for all reactants. Formation of 'bamboo-like' structures for the MWCNTs generated from TCE and TTCE was also observed, facilitated by the presence of the high percentage of chlorine in these reactants. Numerous MWCNTs revealed the presence of small carbon nanostructures that grew on top of the dominant CNTs, suggesting an unexpected secondary carbon growth mechanism.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Oxyhalogen-sulfur chemistry : kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of
           n-acetylthiourea by aqueous bromate and acidified bromate : research
           article

    • Authors: Kudzanai Chipiso; Wilbes Mbiya, Thai Tran, Reuben H. Simoyi Reuben H. Simoyi
      Abstract: The oxidation of N-acetylthiourea (ACTU) by acidic bromate has been studied by observing formation of bromine in excess bromate conditions. The reaction displays an induction period before formation of bromine. The stoichiometry of the reaction was determined to be 4:3: 4BrO3-+3(CH3CO)NH(NH2)C=S+3H2O → 4Br-+3(CH3CO)NH(NH2)C=O+3SO42-+6H+ (A) with a complete desulfurization of ACTU to its urea analogue. In excess bromate conditions the stoichiometry was 8:5: 8BrO3-+5(CH3CO)NH(NH2)C=S + H2O → 4Br2 + 5(CH3CO)NH(NH2)C=O + 5SO42- + 2H+ (B). Bromine is derived from an extraneous reaction in which bromide from stoichiometry (A) reacts with excess acidic bromate. The oxidation of ACTU by aqueous bromine gave stoichiometry (C): 4Br2(aq)+(CH3CO)NH(NH2)C=S+5H2O → 8Br-+(CH3CO)NH(NH2)C=O+SO42-+10H+. Reaction (C) is much faster than reactions (A) and (B), with a lower limit bimolecular rate constant of 2.1×105 M-1 s-1 such that appearance of bromine signals complete consumption of ACTU. We were unable to trap any intermediate sulfur oxo-acids of ACTU on its oxidation pathway to N-acetylurea. As opposed to other substituted thioureas, none of its intermediates were stable enough to be isolated and detected.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Lack of co-crystal formation with cyclotriphosphazenes : a cautionary tale
           : research article

    • Authors: Helene Wahl; Delia A. Haynes Tanya Le Roex
      Abstract: The attempted formation of co-crystals with a series of cyclotriphosphazene derivatives has been investigated. Despite numerous attempts, only one co-crystal was obtained. The crystal structure of this material, [hexakis(4-pyridyloxy)-cyclotriphosphazene][terephthalic acid]2.5, is presented here. The crystal structures of 2,2-bis(4-formylphenoxy)-4,4,6,6-bis[spiro(2',2"-dioxy-1',1"-biphenylyl]cyclo-triphosphazene and hexakis(4-cyanophenoxy)cyclotriphosphazene are also reported for the first time. The extremely low rate of co-crystal occurrence in these materials cannot be explained, despite the consideration of several possibilities. This serves as a cautionary tale - co-crystal formation is not necessarily straightforward.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • In vitro investigation of the antimicrobial activity of a series of
           lipophilic phenols and naphthols : research article

    • Authors: Thavendran Govender; Usha Govinden, Chunderik Mocktar, Hendrik G. Kruger, Jelena Veljkovic, Nikola Cindro, Damir Bobinac, Ivana Zabcic, Kata Mlinaric-Majerski Nikola Basaric
      Abstract: Five groups of phenols/naphthols (42 compounds in total) were synthesized and screened against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia, and the fungus Candida albicans. Whereas compounds were found inactive against Gram-negative bacteria, potent activities against Gram-positive bacteria were observed. The activities correlate with the ability of molecules to form quinone methides, suggesting potential new modes of action.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Synthesis, physical and antimicrobial studies of
           ferrocenyl-N-(pyridinylmethylene)anilines and
           ferrocenyl-N-(pyridinylmethyl)anilines : research article

    • Authors: Eric M. Njogu; Bernard Omondi Vincent O. Nyamori
      Abstract: Ferrocenyl-N-(pyridinylmethylene)anilines Schiff bases were synthesized by reaction of 3- or 4-ferrocenylaniline with either2-, 3-, or 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde under solvent-free conditions via mechanochemistry technique. Products were obtained in excellent yields within 10 min of grinding. The reactions afforded a melt or gummy semi-solid that solidified to the desired Schiff bases within a short time. These Schiff bases were reduced to their corresponding amines, ferrocenyl-N-(pyridinylmethyl)anilines, with NaBH4 over neutral Al2O3 solid support via grinding. Amines were obtained in excellent yields after intermittent grinding for approximately 1 h. Herein, five novel ferrocenyl-N-(pyridinylmethylene)anilines (compounds 3, 4, 6-8) and six ferrocenyl- -(pyridinylmethyl)anilines (compounds 9-14) are reported. Compounds were characterized through FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HRMS and SC-XRD techniques. These compounds show visible solvatochromism, when UV-V is absorption was measured in polar and non-polar solvents. In changing solvent from polar to non-polar, the Schiff bases exhibited a blue shift while the amines portrayed a red shift. Electrochemical studies on these compounds reveal that redox behaviour of the iron centre is influenced by the position imine or amine groups. Antimicrobial properties of these compounds were studied for Escherichiacoli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimirium and Candida albicans. Highest activity was recorded against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Speciation of chromium and vanadium in medicinal plants : research article

    • Authors: Isiaka A. Owolabi; Khakhathi L. Mandiwana Nikolai Panichev
      Abstract: In this study, Cr(VI) and V(V) were determined in medicinal plants collected from the farm located between two smelters. Chromium(VI) and vanadium(V) were leached from medicinal plants with 0.1 M Na2CO3 prior their determination by ETAAS. The concentration of Cr(VI) in medicinal plants varied between 3.1 ± 0.5 µg g-1 and 9.4 ± 0.2 µg g-1 and that of V(V) ranged from 1.1 ± 0.08 µg g-1 to 17 ± 1.7 µg g-1. It was established that element species taken up by plants do not depend on metal content in soil but is a function of plant properties. Results of the determination of water-soluble (hot water) Cr(VI) and V(V) concentrations showed that consumption of three cups of tea prepared from medicinal plants from Zizameleni farm is safe since recommended maximum limits is not exceeded through normal consumption of tea infusion.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Organocatalyzed Mannich reactions on minocycline : towards novel
           tetracycline antibiotics : research article

    • Authors: Tirivashe E. Chiwunze; Rafiatu Azumah, Melissa Ramtahal, Anou M. Somboro, Hendrik G. Kruger, Thavendran Govender, Tricia Naicker Per I. Arvidsson
      Abstract: Herein, we report the development of a mild synthetic route towards novel minocycline derivatives using the proline-catalyzed three-component Mannich reaction. The reaction conditions were optimized and was then screened for its tolerance to the other popular organocatalysts as well as variation of the ketone and aldehyde substrates. The Mannich adducts were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial efficacies against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Anodized Edge-plane pyrolytic graphite for electroanalysis of pantoprazole
           in tablet dosage forms and human urine samples : research article

    • Authors: Mojtaba Hadi; Ali Ehsani
      Abstract: Electroanalytical parameters of different graphitic carbon-based electrode materials were compared to select the best one for the pantoprazole electroanalysis. Such parameters include sensitivity, repeatability, residual background current, and signal-to background current ratio of the analytical response and such electrodes include conventional carbon-based electrodes such as glassy carbon (GC), carbon paste, edge-plane pyrolytic graphite (EPPG), and basal-plane pyrolytic graphite electrodes and film-coated modified GC electrodes with graphitic carbon-based materials such as carbon nanotube, nanographene, carbon black and graphite powder. The EPPG electrode, after applying a simple electrochemical anodization, showed more acceptable analytical performances compared with the other electrodes. Raman spectroscopy was employed to study the surface structural changes that occurred dring the anodic activation. Calibration plot with a good linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 0.2-25 and 0.02-8.5 µM, and the detection limit was estimated to be 0.055 and 0.0041µM using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry techniques, respectively. Finally, the electrochemically activated EPPG electrode was used successfully for the determination of pantoprazole in tablet dosage forms and human urine samples with satisfactory results.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • A review of using spray pyrolysis through sol-gel materials in the
           

    • Authors: Charmelle D. Snyders; Ernst E. Ferg, Julian Schuelein, Holger Loewe Julian Schuelein
      Abstract: Over the years, new synthesis routes of the cathode electrochemical active material for lithium-ion batteries have improved remarkably to optimize their capacity and cycle life performance. This review study focused on the use of some techniques to synthesize the common cathode materials (LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, LiFePO4). The most common and simplest synthesis method was the mixing of powders in their solid-state form and heating them at relatively high temperatures over long periods. Other methods included the formation of sol-gel products that could be either heat-treated more or could be used directly by means of a spray pyrolysis method producing the desired active material. The spray pyrolysis method showed that suitable cathode oxide materials formed in shorter periods, resulting in small homogenous particles with narrow particle size distribution. The spray pyrolysis method allowed for making doped or coated cathode materials easily of the various base forms LiCoO2, LiMn2O4 and LiFePO4, with doping elements such as Zr, Mn, Ni, Co, B or Mg. Coating of the particles could also be done with materials such as glassy lithium boride oxide, TiO2 or carbon. These additives to the cathode material improved the active material's physical morphology and electrochemical properties.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • QuEChERS method development for bio-monitoring of low molecular weight
           polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in South African carp fish using
           HPLC-fluorescence : an initial assessment : research article

    • Authors: Afolake Olufunmilola Oduntan; Nikita Tawanda Tavengwa, Ewa Cukrowska, Luke Chimuka Sabelo Dalton Mhlanga
      Abstract: Matrix components in the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish require analytical methods with high selectivity and sensitivity. A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) sample treatment method was optimized and applied, using HPLC-fluorescence for quantification of five low molecular weight PAHs: naphthalene (Nap), acenaphthene (Ace), phenathrene (Phe), fluoranthene (Flu) and pyrene (Pyr) in muscle of carp fish. Important in this study was the testing of different sorbents for clean-up in QuEChERS and comparison with Soxhlet extraction. Polymers and magnetite modified with γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (γ-MPS) were equally as selective towards PAHs as primary secondary amine (PSA) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes were the least selective. The concentration of PAHs in carp fish from Hartebeespoort Dam using QuEChERS extraction method was comparable to Soxhlet extraction and ranged from 0.8-739 μg kg-1. In this study, the minimum concentration of PAHs in carp fish was 0.8 μg kg-1 for fluoranthene and the maximum was 739 μg kg-1 for Ace using QuEChERS method. The study revealed that polymers and magnetite modified with γ-MPS could be used as alternative clean-up sorbent in QuEChERs and that the concentration of PAHs in carp fish in the dam are a source of concern.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Graphene oxide/zinc oxide nanocomposite : a superior adsorbent for removal
           of methylene blue - statistical analysis by response surface methodology
           (RSM) : research article

    • Authors: Seyed A. Hosseini; Sepideh Mashaykhi Shabnam Babaei
      Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized from natural graphite using the Hummers method. Graphene oxide/zinc oxide nano composite were synthesized by mixing of GO and ZnO solutions and then freeze drying. The adsorptive performance of the nano composite was investigated in the removal of methylene blue. The statistical study of the adsorption process was carried out by response surface methodology (RSM). Experimental variables such as sample pH, adsorption time, dye concentration and adsorbent dosage were considered for the optimization process. The process was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) through Box-Benhken method. The optimum conditions, predicted by the RSM were obtained at pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage of 6, 8.5 min, 5 ppm, 0.02 g, respectively. The removal of methylene blue under optimum conditions was predicted to be 98.17%and resulted in 97% in practice. The Pareto analysis suggested that order of relative importance of the factors were as follows: adsorbent dosage > dye concentration > adsorption time > pH. Under optimized conditions, GO/ZnO nano composite showed a higher capacity than GO, carbon nanotube (CNT), ZnO and ZnO/CNT for adsorption of methylene blue. The study revealed that GO/ZnO could be a promising adsorbent for removal of industrial dyes from wastewaters.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Towards a mechanistic understanding of rheological behaviour of
           water-in-oil emulsion : roles of nanoparticles, water volume fraction and
           aging time

    • Authors: Amin Pajouhandeh; Ali Kavousi, Mahin Schaffie Mohammad Ranjbar
      Abstract: The viscosity of water-oil emulsions plays an important role in oil production and transportation. The objective of this study was to improve the basic understanding of the influence of nanoparticles on the viscosity of water-in-oil emulsions. Using crude oil and different industrial nanomaterials, the droplet size distribution, droplet mean size, and rheological models of emulsions were investigated. Experimental results show that the addition of nanoparticles increases the crude oil viscosity; however, the Newtonian flow behaviour of oil is not affected by nanoparticles. It is observed that the viscosity of crude oil increased from 36.5 to 49 cP when the nanoparticle concentration was elevated from0 to 0.1 wt%. From the results of rheological experiments, it can be concluded that the influence of nanoparticles on the emulsion viscosity is mainly affected by the type and amount of nanoparticles, water/oil-ratio and aging time. Mean droplet diameter decreased from 5.68 to 4.11 micrometre when 0.1 wt% nanoparticles were added to emulsion. The results also suggest that the properties of stabilized water-in-oil emulsions are significantly time-dependent, and the droplet size and viscosity of emulsions is reduced by time. Most of previously published correlations have huge errors and could not precisely predict the apparent viscosities of non-solid stabilized and solid-stabilized emulsions. None of the previously utilized equations did ever consider the effect of added solids to the emulsion.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Determination of mercury in selected polluted sediments using HPLC-ICP-MS
           in west bank area, Western Cape, South Africa : research article

    • Authors: Shirley Le Roux; Priscilla Baker Andrew Crouch
      Abstract: High selectivity, excellent linearity and reproducibility were achieved using HPLC-ICP-MS method for mercury in sediments. The HPLC-ICP-MS method reported previously for mercury in biota analysis was adapted in terms of operational consumables and optimized for the efficient mercury determination in riverbed sediments; a first for South Africa. Results obtained for real environmental samples, were verified by Direct Mercury Analysis (DMA) by an accredited laboratory. The determination of inorganic and organic mercury compounds in sediments was based on the complexation of mercury compounds with cysteine. The separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 column (15 cm×4.6mm id) using aqueous 0.1% w/v L-cysteine•HCl+0.1% w/v L-cysteine mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL min-1 at ambient temperature. The method was found to be suitable for the routine analysis of Hg compounds in sediments as well as aqueous media and was developed to determine the influence of humic substances on the bioavailability of mercury species. The results were comparable and consistent with those determined with a Direct Mercury Analyzer. The detection limit for methylmercury, ethylmercury and inorganic mercury were lower than 10 ng L-1 and recoveries for spiked samples was >90 % . The accuracy of the method was assessed by the analysis of certified reference material (European Reference Material ERMCC580 and Tort-2) and found to be in good agreement. Mercury concentration was determined in sediments collected from the Eerste Kuils River, Westbank area, Kuilsriver, Western Cape, South Africa. Mercury concentration was determined to vary from 2-14 ng g-1 (w.wt).
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Determination of metformin at metal-organic framework (Cu-BTC)
           nanocrystals/multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon
           electrode : research article

    • Authors: Mojtaba Hadi; Haniyeh Poorgholi Hossein Mostaanzadeh
      Abstract: Glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with Cu-based metal-organic frameworks (Cu-BTC, BTC=1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composites was developed. The Cu-BTCs were synthesized by two methods, traditional hydrothermal and ultrasonic irradiation methods. It was found that the Cu-BTC that was synthesized by the latter method, with mean crystallite sizes in the nanometers range, showed a higher impact on enhancing the electrocatalytic activity of the modified electrode toward the electro-oxidation of metformin compared to that synthesized with the former method with a larger crystallite size of micrometer-scale. The morphological characteristics of Cu-BTCs and Cu-BTC nanocrystals/CNTs modified GC electrode surface were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The modified electrode showed excellent response of oxidation current for the determination of metformin. Under optimum conditions, the peak current showed good linearity with concentrations in the range of 0.5 μM to 25 μM and a detection limit of 0.12 μM, as well as good repeatability. The Cu-BTC nanocrystals/CNTs modified GC electrode was applied successfully to determine metformin in pharmaceutical samples with good accuracy.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Characterization and speciation modelling of cyanide in effluent from an
           active slimes dam : research article

    • Authors: Elisee N. Bakatula; Hlanganani Tutu
      Abstract: The utilization of cyanide in the process of gold extraction is an environmental concern as this pollutant is discharged with the tailings. The distribution and fate of cyanide in the environment upon release from the tailings dumps depends on its physical-chemical speciation. The present study was conducted to assess the presence of cyanide species in drainage water from an active slimes dam that receives effluent from a gold reprocessing plant in the Central Rand goldfield (south of Johannesburg, South Africa). Water samples were collected from decant pipes draining water from the top of the slimes dam as well as from a solution trench constructed around the dam. Efflorescent salt crusts and algae were also sampled along the solution trench to assess the extent of cyanide contamination and its promulgation from the slimes. Water samples presented varying chemistry with samples collected from the pipes recording low pH (between 2 and 4) with concentrations of weak acid dissociable cyanide (CNWAD) varying between 5.635 mg L-1 and 8.525 mg L-1. Water samples from the trench were less acidic (pH ranged between 5 and 7) with an average concentration of CNWAD of 21.72 mg L-1. These values are far greater than the limit of 0.50 mg L-1 set by the authorities through the 'Best Practice guidelines' for any effluent exiting a metallurgical treatment facility. Copper and iron cyanide complexes were the most abundant cyanide complexes in the water samples. The pH and conductivity of the solution prepared by the dissolution of the salt crusts (10 g in 50 mL of deionized water) were 3.44 and 1.611 mScm-1, respectively. High concentrations (198.4mg kg-1) of CNT were obtained in the crusts and these were predominantly strong acid dissociable cyanides (CNSAD) of Fe and Co. The presence of iron cyanides was evident from the bluish-green crusts (Prussian blue) observed around the site, indicating the extent of cyanide contamination. A very low pH (2.39) was recorded for the algae, with elevated concentrations of SCN- and OCN- that are byproducts of chemical conversion of cyanide. The Visual MINTEQ geochemical modelling code was used to complement the analytical methods in characterizing the speciation of cyanide. The simulations predicted the presence of the following metal-cyanide complexes in water samples as well as in the solid materials: Fe(CN)63-, Fe(CN)6(aq), NaFe(CN)62-, KFe(CN)62-, Ni(CN)42-, Zn(CN)42-, CaFe(CN)6-, NiH(CN)4- and NiH3(CN)4+. This study revealed that cyanide remains persistent in its immediate environment following its release from slimes dams, an issue of concern as some residential areas have developed in the proximity of such facilities. The major highlight of this work has been the comprehensive characterization of cyanide speciation by using geochemical modelling to complement analytical techniques. This is important in understanding the potential risk posed by this pollutant.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Subsequent separation and selective extraction of thorium (IV), iron
           (III), zirconium (IV) and cerium (III) from aqueous sulfate medium :
           research article

    • Authors: E.H. Borai; A.M. Shahr El-Din, E.M. El Afifi, R.F. Aglan M.M. Abo-Aly
      Abstract: Regarding to their presence as an important constituent in some ores such as monazite, this work aims for selective solvent extraction of thorium (IV), zirconium (IV), iron (III) and cerium (III) from aqueous sulfate medium using different basic and acidic extractants. To elucidate the extractability of these elements, different effective parameters were studied such as contact time, pH value, extractant concentration and the diluents type. In a single element system, Th (IV) was extracted by the primary amines (octylamine and tert.octylamine) and the acidic extractnts [di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and (bis(2,4,4-trimethyl pentyl) phosphinic acid (Cyanex 272))]. Moreover, secondary amine (N-methylaniline) is effective for Fe (III) extraction while, the primary amines are suitable for Zr (IV) extraction. Ce (III) can be extracted with the primary amines and D2EHPA. In a mixed elements system, Th (IV) was extracted firstly with Cyanex 272 (65 %) atpH1 followed by the extraction of Fe(III) with N-methylaniline (95 %), then Zr (IV) was precipitated atpH2.5 (84 %) whileCe(III) remains in the final aqueous phase.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • 4-(4'-Nitrobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole, a new
           chromogenic reagent for extractive spectrophotometric determination of
           copper (II) in pharmaceutical and alloy samples : research article

    • Authors: Abdul B. Shaikh; Umesh B. Barache, Shashikant H. Gaikwad Mansing A. Anuse
      Abstract: A simple, selective and rapid extractive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the extraction and determination of Cu (II) with 4-(4'-nitrobenzylidene imino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole, (NBIMMT). The reagent (NBIMMT) instantly forms stable orange-red coloured complex with Cu (II) at room temperature and quantitatively extracted in chloroformat pH6.2. The extracted species exhibits absorption maximum at 470 nm against reagent blank. The Beer's law was followed in concentration range 4.75 to 16.13 ppm of Cu (II) and optimum concentration range obtained from Ringbom's plot was found to be 5 to 17.5 ppm. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of Cu (II)-NBIMMT in chloroform was 2.825×103 L mol-1cm-1 and 0.0224 μg cm-2, respectively. The optimum extraction conditions were evaluated by studying various parameters such as effect of pH, reagent concentration, solvents, shaking time and foreign ions. The use of masking agents enhances the selectivity of method. The composition of the extracted species was determined by Job's method, mole ratio method and verified by log-log plot. The ratio of Cu (II):NBIMMT was found to be 1:2. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of Cu (II) in synthetic mixtures, pharmaceutical samples and alloys.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Regression analysis in analytical chemistry. Determination and validation
           of linear and quadratic regression dependencies : research article

    • Authors: Rafal I. Rawski; Przemyslaw T. Sanecki, Klaudia M. Kijowska, Piotr M. Skital Dorota E. Saletnik
      Abstract: The theory and practice of the extended statistical evaluation for linear and quadratic regression models used for calibration were presented. Two complete examples, solved step by step were presented as a short guide. The validation of regression dependences was based on classic F-Snedecor, Lack of Fit, FIUPAC and Mandel tests.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Development and validation of an ecofriendly HPLC-UV method for
           determination of capecitabine in human plasma : application to
           pharmacokinetic studies : research article

    • Authors: Sepideh Hassanlou; Mehdi Rajabi, Abdol Ali Shahrasbi Minoo Afshar
      Abstract: A simple, rapid, cost-effective and green high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for determination of capecitabine in human plasma using a C18 reversed-phase analytical column was developed and validated. The separation was conducted by means of a mobile phase composed of formic acid solution (pH=3): ethanol (55:45) running at a flow-rate of 1.0mLmin-1 with UV detection at 310 nm. The column temperature was set at 50 °C. Sample preparation involved protein precipitation by zinc sulfate-ethanol solution. This method is consistent with a high recovery of capecitabine in human plasma ranging from 95.98 to 102.50 %. The calibration curves were linear over concentration range of 0.05-10.00 μg mL-1 (r2 > 0.9999). Between- and within-day variability was less than 15 % and the bias was within ±15 %. This validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study enrolling seven Iranian cancer patients after administration of a morning oral dose of 1500 mg.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Application of quaternized activated carbon derived from Macadamia
           nutshells for the removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions :
           research article

    • Authors: Vusumzi E. Pakade; Londolani C. Maremeni, Themba D. Ntuli Nikita T. Tavengwa
      Abstract: In this paper, the feasibility of quaternized activated carbon derived from Macadamia nutshells was explored in the removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from aqueous solutions. The amino-modified activated carbon was achieved by cross-linking native Macadamia activated carbon (MAC) with epichlorohydrin and grafting diethylenetriamine and triethylamine (EDT) on the surface and the product was labelled as MAC-EDT. The adsorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Bruemer-Emmett-Teller (BET), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the CHNS analyzer. The optimum parameters for Cr(VI) removal found were pH(5), contact time (120 min) and sorbent mass (0.10 g) where removal efficiencies were >90% in all cases. Langmuir model fitted the data best and the adsorption capacity was 145.5 mg g-1 after surface modification with EDT. The Cr(VI) ion was found to be adsorbed more as compared to other anions, and the sorption order was: SO42-
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Comparative study of different column types for the separation of polar
           basic hallucinogenic alkaloids : research article

    • Authors: Somandla Ncube; Ewa Cukrowska, Luke Chimuka, Anna Poliwoda Piotr Wieczorek
      Abstract: The number of hallucinogenic compounds that have been separated simultaneously by liquid chromatography is limited. This research aimed to identify a column(s) that can allow for separation of several hallucinogens. The extent of separation of seven polar hallucinogenic tryptamine and phenethylamine derived alkaloids containing a basic N atom that becomes protonated at low pH values were investigated on five reverse-based columns and one hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) column. AnRP-phenyl and a negatively charged fused core HILIC were identified and recommended as effective columns in this regard. This research is the first to introduce a HILIC column in separation of hallucinogenic alkaloids and to simultaneously study the separation of the two principal psychoactive agents, muscimol and psilocin. The results of this study showed that better separation in HILIC columns can be achieved if an aprotic diluent of relatively lower polarity is used to introduce analytes into a mobile phase of higher polarity. Tetrahydrofuran was recommended where acetonitrile is used as the organic component of the mobile phase.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Quantitative studies of Co(II)-thymoquinone complex using cyclic
           voltammetry : research article

    • Authors: Farah Kishwar
      Abstract: In this research quantitative studies of Co(II)-thymoquinone complex was performed using cyclic voltammetry. The electrodes used were glassy carbon as working, saturated calomel as reference and platinum as auxiliary electrode. All the work was done at standard temperature (25 ± 1 °C) in aqueous medium using NaCl as supporting electrolyte. Effects of different parameters, i.e. concentration and metal-ligand ratios on complex formation were investigated. Observations obtained by varying the metal-ligand ratio suggested a quasi-reversible electron transfer process in the complex. The effect of concentration followed the Randles-Sevcik equation. Values of the standard electrode potential (E°), diffusion coefficient (D), transfer coefficients (α and β) and different electrochemical parameters were also calculated. The E° for the complex was found to be 0.288 ± 0.01V. The α values ranged between 0.676 ± 0.02 - 1.00 ± 0.02 whereas the values of β were found to be 0.758 ± 0.01 - 1.20 ± 0.01 respectively. Linear regression showed that cyclic voltammetry could be useful for the quantification of Co(II)-thymoquinone complex in pharmaceutical analysis.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
 
 
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