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Publisher: Sabinet Online Ltd   (Total: 188 journals)

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Showing 1 - 188 of 188 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACCORD Occasional Paper     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.13, h-index: 4)
Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 2)
Acta Criminologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Germanica : German Studies in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Juridica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Patristica et Byzantina     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AFFRIKA J. of Politics, Economics and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Africa Conflict Monitor     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Africa Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Africa Institute Occasional Paper     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Africa J. of Nursing and Midwifery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 4)
AfricaGrowth Agenda     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 21)
African Finance J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 2)
African J. for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African J. of Business and Economic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African J. of Democracy and Governance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
African J. of Herpetology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.327, h-index: 10)
African J. of Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
African J. of Rhetoric     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African J. of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
African Plant Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Renaissance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African Safety Promotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
African Yearbook of Rhetoric     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Africanus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agriprobe     Open Access  
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annals of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Survey of South African Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Ars Nova     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Article 40     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BER : Architects and Quantity Surveyors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Capital Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Consumer Confidence Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Consumer Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Economic Prospects : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Economic Prospects : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Intermediate Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Trends : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Wholesale Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of Statistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Business Tax and Company Law Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cabo     Full-text available via subscription  
Cardiovascular J. of Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.414, h-index: 22)
Cardiovascular J. of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Clean Air J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Clean Air J. = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug     Full-text available via subscription  
Climate Summary of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Commonwealth Youth and Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communicare : J. for Communication Sciences in Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Comparative and Intl. Law J. of Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Conflict Trends     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Conspectus : The J. of the South African Theological Seminary     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Allergy & Clinical Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.127, h-index: 6)
De Arte     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
De Rebus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Die Kerkblad     Full-text available via subscription  
Educare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
English in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ergonomics SA : J. of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ESR Review : Economic and Social Rights in South Africa     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Evidence Based Summaries in Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
FarmBiz     Full-text available via subscription  
Farmer’s Weekly     Full-text available via subscription  
Farmlink Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Food Manufacturing Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
French Studies in Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Fundamina : A J. of Legal History     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gender and Behaviour     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Gender Questions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ghanaian J. of Economics     Full-text available via subscription  
HR Future     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
IFE Psychologia : An Intl. J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Image & Text : a J. for Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
IMFO : Official J. of the Institute of Municipal Finance Officers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
IMIESA     Full-text available via subscription  
Indilinga African J. of Indigenous Knowledge Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Inside Mining     Full-text available via subscription  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Interim : Interdisciplinary J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. for Religious Freedom     Full-text available via subscription  
J. for Christian Scholarship = Tydskrif vir Christelike Wetenskap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
J. for Contemporary History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
J. for Islamic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
J. for Juridical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
J. for Language Teaching = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
J. for New Generation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
J. of African Elections     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of African Foreign Affairs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
J. of African Union Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Contemporary Management     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Gender, Information and Development in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
J. of Minimum Intervention in Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Public Administration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
J. of Somali Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Strategic Studies : A J. of the Southern Bureau of Strategic Studies Trust     Full-text available via subscription  
Kleio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Learning and Teaching Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Litnet Akademies : 'n Joernaal vir die Geesteswetenskappe, Natuurwetenskappe, Regte en Godsdienswetenskappe     Open Access  
Management Dynamics : J. of the Southern African Institute for Management Scientists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Medical Technology SA     Full-text available via subscription  
Meditari : Research J. of the School of Accounting Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
MNASSA : Monthly Notes of the Astronomical Society of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Monographs of the Transvaal Museum     Full-text available via subscription  
Musicus     Full-text available via subscription  
Neotestamentica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.212, h-index: 6)
New Coin Poetry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
New Voices in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Obiter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.106, h-index: 2)
Occupational Health Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Old Testament Essays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Personal Finance Newsletter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Perspectives in Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.228, h-index: 13)
Politeia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Professional Accountant     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Professional Nursing Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Progressio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Psycho-analytic Psychotherapy in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Quest     Open Access  
ReSource     Full-text available via subscription  
Retail and Marketing Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Rostrum : Newsletter of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SA Irrigation = SA Besproeiing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SA Mercantile Law J. = SA Tydskrif vir Handelsreg     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SABI Magazine - Tydskrif     Full-text available via subscription  
Scriptura : Intl. J. of Bible, Religion and Theology in Southern Africa     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Scrutiny2     Full-text available via subscription  
Servamus Community-based Safety and Security Magazine     Full-text available via subscription  
Shakespeare in Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
South African Actuarial J.     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Computer J.     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Food Review     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Gastroenterology Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 1)
South African Health Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
South African J. for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 7)
South African J. of Art History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
South African J. of Business Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 8)
South African J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, h-index: 14)
South African J. of Criminal Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South African J. of Cultural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South African J. of Diabetes and Vascular Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South African J. of Economic History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
South African J. of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.335, h-index: 14)
South African J. of Higher Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
South African J. of Labour Relations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
South African J. of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
South African J. of Wildlife Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.583, h-index: 24)
South African J. on Human Rights     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
South African Music Studies : SAMUS     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
South African Ophthalmology J.     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Review     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Radiographer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Southern African Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Southern African Forestry J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Southern African Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 11)
Southern African J. of Accountability and Auditing Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Southern African Review of Education with Education with Production     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Stilet : Tydskrif van die Afrikaanse Letterkundevereniging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Studies in Economics and Econometrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Natuurwetenskap en Tegnologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tax Breaks Newsletter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
TAXtalk     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
TD : The J. for Transdisciplinary Research in Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Transport World Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Unisa Latin American Report     Full-text available via subscription  
Veld & Flora     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Water & Sanitation Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Without Prejudice     Full-text available via subscription  
Word and Action = Woord en Daad     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Medical Technology SA
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   ISSN (Print) 1011-5528
   Published by Sabinet Online Ltd Homepage  [188 journals]
  • Pilot study of Intern Medical Technologists performances related to the
           National Board examinations : views from the laboratory trainers,
           supervisors, examiners and moderators for the period 2008-2012
    • Authors: W. Kruger; S. Eagleton W.J. Maule
      Abstract: This study investigated the possible reasons for the high failure rates of Interns in the Gauteng region related to the National Board examinations from 2008-2012. According to the SMLTSA database, for this five year period, a total of 2012 students wrote the Clinical Pathology examination. Of these only 854 passed. This 42% pass rate for the years under review has raised concerns as to the reasons for the high failure rates. Trainers and supervisors of two private sector laboratories and one government sector laboratory in Gauteng involved in the work integrated learning (WIL) and Internship training of Biomedical Technologists accepted the invitation to participate in the study. Examiners and moderators involved in the four main disciplines were asked to complete an electronic survey. The survey consisted of both structured and open-ended questions. A multiple response analysis with frequency counts and cross-tabulations was used to analyse the data based on a Likert scale. Coded data was transferred to a file and analysed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). It was clear that the quality of training and the preparation received by students and Interns was not always adequate. One of the findings highlighted, the insufficient number of laboratory training staff available for the evaluation, preparation and mentoring of both WIL students and Intern Biomedical Technologists. The study emphasised the necessity to implement improvement plans.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Heamoglobin response to routine iron and folate supplementation during
           pregnancy in an HIV-endemic rural area roma, Lesotho
    • Authors: E. Mugomeri; N.K. Musa P. Chatanga
      Abstract: Iron deficiency is the leading cause of anaemia during pregnancy in African settings. Pregnancy and HIV are important risk factors for iron deficiency anaemia. The study assessed the occurrence of anaemia during pregnancy, the response to iron and folate supplements and the associated factors. The assessment was based on quantitative retrospective data of 126 pregnant women who attended antenatal care (ANC) between February and April 2014 in Roma, Lesotho and had haemoglobin (Hb) values taken at first ANC visit (baseline) and at term of gestation. Forty (31.8%) women were HIV-positive and 23 (57.5%) of them were anaemic at baseline. In total, 50 (39.5%) women had anaemia at baseline. The mean Hb at term was significantly higher (p
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Bioethical considerations, the common good approach and some shortfalls of
           the Belmont Report
    • Authors: A. Nicolaides
      Abstract: The Belmont Report on Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research established ethical principles to shield human subjects in biomedical research from unjustifiable exploitation by researchers. This was a response to the "Tuskegee Study" in the United States, where the rights of participants were grossly violated. Today, researchers and physicians often make use of human beings as subjects in scientific investigations. One of the key issues is that of informed consent. The ethical principles stressed in the Belmont Report have significant implications for the matter of informed consent. Informed consent must be required for any legal research involving human subjects. Regulatory frameworks must ensure that human subjects in bioethical or other research are not exploited either physically or psychologically. The need for effective humanistic ethical guidelines for biomedical research is great, but how does this tie in with the Common Good Approach if at all?
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Androgen and metabolic changes after orchiectomy
    • Authors: A.J. Groenewald; S.W. Wentzel
      Abstract: Bilateral orchiectomy reduces serum testosterone, an androgen stimulating the growth and proliferation of both normal and malignant prostate cancer cells. Low testosterone concentrations are associated with obesity, insulin resistance and an adverse lipid profile in men. The aim of this study was to measure the influence of post-orchiectomy changes in serum androgen concentrations on markers for metabolic syndrome. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained at baseline, 3-hourly (1-12 hours) and weekly (1-4 weeks) intervals post-orchiectomy from 10 patients (mean age 73.45 ± 12.7 years) with prostate carcinoma and high serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations. Serum testosterone, free testosterone, PSA, insulin, luteinising hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and glucose concentrations were measured. Serum high molecular weight adiponectin (HMW-A) concentrations and insulin resistance were determined. Baseline waist circumference and weight were compared to values obtained after 4 weeks. For median difference of paired data, 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to measure the significance of differences between baseline and postorchiectomy results. Compared to baseline, serum concentrations of testoterone, free testosterone, PSA and DHEA-S decreased, and LH, FSH, insulin and insulin resistance increased significantly at different times post-orchiectomy. HMW-A was significantly decreased at 9 and 12 hours and then gradually increased. Serum glucose concentrations remained unchanged. Median weight and waist circumference increased by 3.5 kg and 5 cm, respectively, within 4 weeks. Post-orchiectomy hormonal changes resemble those found in metabolic syndrome.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Guidelines to minimise human error in South African laboratories with
           regard to therapeutic drug monitoring
    • Authors: F.P. Viljoen; M. Rheeders, L. Brand J.L. Du Preez
      Abstract: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) fulfils an important function in patient health in both the public and private healthcare systems. TDM is based on pharmacokinetic principles within the clinical laboratory and several health professionals, from different disciplines, take part in the management and implementation of the whole TDM process. Communication and collaboration between these professionals are extremely important to ensure beneficial TDM and patient care, however, human error plays a major role in the compromising of the TDM process. In this article, we discuss the most common human errors during the TDM process and give guidelines to prevent them. These guidelines must be implemented during all the TDM phases to ensure the patient receives optimal and reliable healthcare.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Exploratory study into the culturability and viability of three strains of
           Escherichia coli after exposure to simulated gastric fluid of sub-lethal
           pHs
    • Authors: J.A. Pienaar; A. Singh T.G. Barnard
      Abstract: It has long been established that the acidic nature of gastric juice constitutes an important line of defence against invasion of the gut by microorganisms. Survival of the gastric barrier was traditionally tested using microbiological techniques (culturability), however, advances in viability studies have highlighted the viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state. The purpose of this study was to assess culturability and viability in the survival response of strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli) exposed to simulated gastric fluid (SGF) of varying pH. Bacteria were subjected to acid-stress conditions by incubation in SGF at various pH over 180 minutes. Survival was evaluated by assessing culturability, and viability via membrane integrity. The results showed that all strains of E. coli studied were able to remain viable in an injured state after exposure to various acidic SGF environments for the duration of incubation. These viable cells persisted in either a live or injured state. The Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) strain was both viable and culturable at all pHs, showing a high level of acid tolerance. The Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strain was not culturable at the lower pH of 1.5 and 2.5, however, showed a high viability percentage. This could show that the bacteria had entered a VBNC state at these low pHs. This exploratory study indicates that certain strains of pathogenic E. coli are able to endure the stomach pH and may enter into a VBNC state. This might prove to be a major public health concern due to the fact that these organisms can survive the harshacidic environment of the stomach and may possibly return to the infectious state once in the favourable conditions of the intestines.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Trace metals in blood and urine of pregnant women practicing geophagia at
           Dr. George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa
    • Authors: L.R. Macheka; J.O. Olowoyo, L. Matsela A.A. Khine
      Abstract: Geophagia is a common practice among pregnant women in Africa. The present study investigated the haemoglobin levels and concentration of trace metals in blood and urine of those practicing geophagia at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa. Haemoglobin levels of both consumers and non-consumers were measured using the HemoCue Hb 201+ haemoglobinometer. Blood and urine samples were collected and analysed for trace metal contents using inductively coupled plasma membrane spectrophotometry (ICP-MS). The trace metal concentrations were compared to World Health Organisation (WHO) standards. The result showed that hemoglobin levels of consumers were found to be lower than those of non-consumers, with a mean of 10.7 ± 0.67g/dl. Levels of chromium, lead and manganese in the blood of consumers showed mean values of 5.78 ± 4.40 µg/l, 2.90 ± 1.40 µg/l and 22.42 ± 14.11 µg/l respectively. From the urine of those eating soil, the mean levels of lead, copper, nickel, arsenic, mercury and zinc were 8.88 ± 7.57 µg/g creatinine, 31.67 ± 12.95 µg/g creatinine, 3.58 ± 2.26 µg/g creatinine, 17.66 + 28.66 µg/g creatinine, 2.40 + 3.57 µg/g creatinine, 452.40 + 286.48 µg/g creatinine respectively. The levels of trace metals were found to be higher than recommended limits (WHO) from those practicing geophagia, indicating that should the practice be continued, cumulative effects of toxic metals and respective health complications may occur. Much education needs to be done in order to make consumers aware of the health dangers involved in the practice.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Efficacy of Phenotypic, PCR and MALDI -ToF Identification Methods for
           Campylobacter spp.
    • Authors: L.A. Bester; N. Khan, S.Y. Essack A. Phulukdaree
      Abstract: This study compared phenotypic and genotypic identification methods of Campylobacter spp. against the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value and negative-predictive value. Thermophilic Campylobacter isolates were identified using conventional biochemical tests, specifically hippurate hydrolysis, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization- time of flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry and PCR with primers unique to C. jejuni and C. coli. MALDI-ToF was shown to be superior to biochemical tests for identification of C. coli but equivalent to biochemical tests for C. jejuni.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Bioethical principles and professionalism for South African medical
           laboratory technologists
    • Authors: H.D. Miniggio
      Abstract: As allied healthcare professionals, medical laboratory technologists are an integral part of the healthcare team, tasked with carrying out essential technical and scientific services in the laboratory. These key technical and scientific resources aid the pathologist and/or clinician in attaining an accurate diagnosis and hence providing the appropriate treatment. In South Africa, pathology services represent an integral part of the clinical consultation and most healthcare diagnosis and treatment involves these services, which are thus fundamental to current healthcare practices. Medical laboratory technologists practice their profession guided by ethical codes and high ethical standards are expected of them. This manuscript explains the four principles of bioethics as they apply to the profession of medical laboratory technology and describes the principles of professionalism for medical laboratory technologists in regard to the social responsibility and the importance of the professional and also the moral contract between society and the profession.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Important information regarding the two issues of December 2014 (Vol 28 No
           2 (2014)) and June 2015 (Vol 29 No 1 (2015))
    • Abstract: The SMLTSA apologises to all who have eagerly awaited the two issues of December 2014 (Vol 28 No 2 (2014)) and June 2015 (Vol 29 No 1 (2015)). We also thank the authors, who submitted articles for peer review and publication for their patience and understanding. Therefore please note that these issues will not be published.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Determinants of CD4+ counts on babies from HIV+ mothers : a
           semi-parametric modelling approach
    • Authors: S. Moodley; O. Ngesa
      Abstract: Background: The variability in CD4+ cell counts within mothers and babies at birth, in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive mothers, has not been explained adequately. As one of the predictors of HIV, the CD4+ cell count plots the course of HIV progression. The important implication has to be understood, in relation to HIV-related opportunistic infections. Therefore, this study proposes to evaluate factors that determine CD4+ cell count in infants born to women infected with HIV and to determine the relationship between CD4+ cell counts in maternal viraemia and CD4+ cell counts of babies at birth.Methods: A semi-parametric approach was used in modeling CD4+ cell counts in the newly born babies to HIV-positive women. Gestational age of the mothers was including in the model using a smooth function to cater for non-linearity. Analysis was restricted to antiretroviral therapy (ART) - naive, HIV-infected pregnant women. At enrollment, maternal median age was 26 years (interquartile range (IQR): 5) and median CD4+ counts was 459 cells/mm3 (IQR: 566). The mean (SD) CD4+ cell counts of HIV-seropositive women were 691 cells/mm3 (803 cells/mm3). Results: Maternal CD4+ counts and gestational age were found to be the significant determinants of CD4+ counts in the new born babies. Maternal CD4+ was positively associated with CD4+ counts in babies (0.239; p=0.004). We noted a non-linear trend in CD4+ cell activity with gestational age, the optimum value at occurs at 37 weeks of pregnancy. Conclusions: The model provides a flexible way to estimate the changing distribution of CD4+ cell counts in babies with weeks of pregnancy. Results obtained from the semi-parametric modeling could substantially improve the planning of health services, including the need for antiretroviral therapy.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Biomedical applications and toxicity of nanosilver : a review : review
    • Authors: K.S.B. Naidu; J.K. Adam P. Govender
      Abstract: Nanotechnology is a promising arena for generating new applications in medicine. It is advancing rapidly due to the great progress achieved in various fileds including electronics, mechanics, cosmetics, food, etc. In order to successfully bifunctionalise nanoparticles for a given biomedical application, a wide range of chemical, physical and biological factors have to be taken into account. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) exhibit strong antibacterial activity owing to their large surface to volume ratios and crystallographic surface structure. Nanosilver particles have been widely used in a range of biomedical applications including diagnosis, treatment, medical device coatings, drug delivery and personal health care products. With the growing application of nanosilver particles in medical contexts, it is becoming necessary for a better understanding the mechanisms of action, biological interactions and their potential toxicity on exposure. This review aims to provide critical assessment of the current understanding of antibacterial activity, biomedical applications and toxicity of silver nanoparticles.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • A review of the photodynamic application of 5-aminolevulinic acid,
           Hypericin and phthalocyanines in dermatology : review
    • Authors: I.M. Ndhundhuma; H. Abrahamse
      Abstract: Ultraviolet radiation can damage human skin leading to photo-aging and cancer. Treatment options for skin cancers are available. Amongst them, there is photodynamic therapy (PDT), the treatment modality that involves a photochemical reaction between a light sensitive compound, visible light and tissue oxygen. In PDT, a photosensitive compound also called photosensitizer (PS) is administered and allowed to accumulate in the cancerous tissue then irradiated with light corresponding to absorption wavelength of the PS, in the presence of molecular oxygen, to produce cytotoxic species that kill the cancerous tissue. PDT is increasingly used and studied globally for the treatment of different classes of cancers because of its selective destruction of diseased tissue or cancer. Newly developed non-invasive imaging technologies including photodynamic diagnosis, may assist with early identification of skin cancer to reduce the rates of morbidity and mortality following treatment. Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) is a diagnostic modality defined from the PDT principle. It utilizes light and fluorescent PS to highlight tumour cells from normal cells. Excitation of PS by appropriate light source causes them to fluoresce over well-defined spectral regions. Therefore, the fluorescent properties of PSs can serve as an important diagnostic tool to highlight cancer at an early stage of development. In this review, our knowledge about PDT and PDD of skin cancers using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), Hypericin and phthalocyanines as photosensitizers is presented.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Evaluation of a chromogenic factor VIII assay on the Sysmex CS 2100i
           instrument
    • Authors: J.F. Kloppers; W.J. J. van Rensburg
      Abstract: Background: The one-stage factor VIII (FVIII) assay is the most widely used assay for the quantification of FVIII. Several disadvantages of the one-stage assay have been described. The two-stage- and chromogenic FVIII assays purportedly overcame these disadvantages. The chromogenic method is easier to automate and the reagents are readily available. In this evaluation we evaluated the chromogenic FVIII assay on the Sysmex CS 2100i instrument.Methods: We compared the FVIII levels of healthy individuals and haemophilia A patients, as determined by the one-stage and chromogenic FVIII assays, respectively. Results: FVIII levels differed significantly between assays. The lower FVIII detection limit of both assays did not allow the quantification of FVIII for the haemophilia A patients. The addition of heparin led to a decrease in FVIII levels detected by the one-stage FVIII assay, but did not affect the chromogenic assay results. Conclusion: The chromogenic FVIII assay can be introduced into the diagnostic laboratory as part of haemophilia A diagnosis and monitoring. However, the one-stage FVIII assay is still recommended as the first-line screening test as it had a lower FVIII detection limit and was more cost effective.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • A comparison of animal haemoglobins using high-performance liquid
           chromatography (HPL C) : scientific report
    • Authors: B. Gray; D. Welgemoed, J. Strotton, A. Kotze W. Maule
      Abstract: Automated cation-exchange HPLC is now considered the cornerstone diagnostic method in many laboratories for two reasons.Firstly, unlike other methodologies it detects variant haemoglobins and measures haemoglobin's A, A2 and F percentages in a single procedure. Secondly it is suitable for larger workloads in that it is now fully automated. Haemoglobin is most generally characterised as consisting of two α and two non-α dimers that couple to form a tetramer in certain physiological conditions. This with its own haem group in a 'pocket' is then formed to make up a haemoglobin molecule. This study was undertaken in order to document these different animal haemoglobins using HPLC in samples obtained from animal species in both the Kruger National Park and the Pretoria Zoo, with the proviso of setting up a comprehensive atlas of these particular animal haemoglobins, which could be used in a clinical diagnostic setting. HPLC analysis was carried out on the following adult species: Gorilla, chimpanzee, chacma baboon, vervet monkey, lion, leopard, white rhino, giraffe, wild dog, buffalo, blue and black wildebeest, Nile crocodile, eland, pigmy hippopotamus and cheetah. The findings indicated that each species had its own unique chromatogram when compared to that of humans, with regards to:Retention times (i.e. the time from application to elution from the column), their characteristic percentage and in some cases, in the shape of the peak or curve produced. Analysis of these animal haemoglobins produced chromatograms with three or more significant peaks. Mostly these peaks corresponded to the α-globin chain, the β-globin chain and the haem unit. As confirmed in previous studies there were some species that had as many as four distinct chromatographic peaks. The retention times produced from the 17 animal species examined in this study can then serve as profiles, which could be used to compile a comprehensive atlas of their unique haemoglobin chromatograms. It could also be used to identify each species where each has its own unique chromatogram. This atlas, similar to that compiled for the human haemoglobins could then be used in a clinical setting where abnormalities in the HPLC retention times may be detected if the animal is in any way compromised.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • The National Development Plan (NDP) and research : editorial
    • Abstract: Various strategies and national plans including the NDP that was finalised in 2012 have contributed to identify and set out a vision for the strategic imperatives for South Africa for 2030.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Medical laboratory professionals congress
    • Authors: Carol Massyn
      Abstract: I am pleased to announce that the Medical Laboratory Professionals Congress 2015 (MLP 2015) will take place at the Boardwalk Convention Centre, Port Elizabeth, from 15 - 17 May 2014. This will be the 23rd Society of Medical Laboratory Technologists of South Africa (SMLTSA) National Congress.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Reducing unnecessary blood smear examinations : can Sysmex blood cell
           analysers help? : peer reviewed original article
    • Authors: J. Joubert; R. Weyers J. Raubenheimer
      Abstract: Background The microscopic assessment of a peripheral blood smear is an essential diagnostic tool. Many haematology laboratories currently assess smears microscopically for every full blood count request, many of which may however be assessed unnecessarily - an important consideration in resource-constrained settings. Modern blood cell analysers are increasing in sophistication and can flag abnormal specimens that may require microscopy. Objectives To evaluate the flagging efficiency of the Sysmex haematology analysers and to determine whether this potentially labour-saving technology could assist in safely reducing the number of unnecessary microscopic blood smear assessments.Methods A total of 427 full blood count specimens collected consecutively over a 24-hour period at NHLS Pelonomi and NHLS Kimberley, were evaluated microscopically and compared with the instruments' abilities to flag potential morphological abnormalities.Results The Sysmex blood cell analysers flagged 63.7% of specimens as "positive" and 36.3% as "negative". After microscopy, false positive flags were found to constitute 18.5% and false negative flags 5.4% of the total number of smears reviewed, giving a total of 23.9% incorrect assessments. No false negative flag was clinically critical.Conclusion False negative results occurring with the Sysmex instruments' flagging systems in our settings are relevant, although not critical. The potential time and monetary savings of a flagging-based smear review policy may weigh heavier than occasional false negatives. In the African milieu, where laboratories are faced with the challenges posed by staff- and other shortages, relying on instrumentation flagging to guide smear review policy should be considered.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Waldenström macroglobulinaemia : a brief review : peer reviewed
           review
    • Authors: W.J. Maule
      Abstract: First described in the 1940s, Waldenström Macroglobulinaemia (WM) over time has developed conceptually from a clinical syndrome to a definitive clinicopathological entity. Progress is being made in standardisation of the disease definition, the overall treatment response criteria and the role of the haematology laboratory in supporting the WM patient, although nosologic disputes persist. The World Health Organisation (WHO), for example, has defined WM as a lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy and bone marrow involvement. The latest guidelines from the British Committee for Standards in Haematology, Royal College of Pathologists (BCSH) define WM as an LPL which is a slowly progressive, clonal disorder of mature B cells, with features of plasma cell differentiation. Paraproteinaemia (usually IgM) is common and may give rise to hyperviscosity. The clonal expansions of these post-germinal centre lymphoid cells express a number of immunophenotypic markers that include: CD19, CD20 and surface IgM. These markers along with a number of others can be used to aid diagnosis. Disease symptoms are often divided into those related to tumour infiltration and those related to the effects of the monoclonal IgM. As with the other low-grade lymphomas, asymptomatic patients are observed only, with treatment reserved for those symptomatic patients. WM is a rare disorder that only comprises around 2% of all haematological malignancies. The haematology laboratory's role in diagnosis and monitoring the disease has grown over the years and this is best understood by examining the pathophysiology/biology, diagnosis and treatment of WM.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Physician satisfaction and emergency (stat) laboratory turnaround time
           during various developmental stages : peer reviewed original article
    • Authors: A.J. Groenewald; H.D. Potgieter
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare physicians' perceptions of turnaround time (TAT) with measured TATs for potassium and troponin T, (i) before installation of a pneumatic tube system (PTS), (ii) after installation of the PTS, and (iii) after installation of the automated chemistry analytical system (ACAS). Physicians were in general more satisfied with the TAT of the emergency (stat) laboratory after installation of the ACAS. This finding is in contrast with the TATs for potassium, which worsened significantly (p
      PubDate: 2014-06-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Prevalence of abnormal bloodflow patterns and effects of biochemistry and
           lifestyle factors on the major neck vessels in patients with Multiple
           Sclerosis in the Western Cape, South Africa : peer reviewed original
           article
    • Authors: M.C. Nelson; F. Isaacs, M.S. Hassan, M. Kidd, F.J. Cronje S.J. Van Rensburg
      Abstract: Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vascular dysfunction (chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency; CCSVI) and the effects of biochemical and lifestyle factors on carotid arteries and internal jugular veins (IJVs) in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS).Methods A B-Mode and Doppler ultrasound examination was done on 29 MS patients assessing the vasculature to identify patency, stenosis, occlusion and/or abnormal bloodflow patterns. Lifestyle (smoking, exercise and diet), Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and biochemistry (fibrinogen, plasma homocysteine and serum total cholesterol) data were available for 20 patients.Results No evidence was found for CCSVI or deep vein thrombosis. Smokers displayed significantly smaller cross-sectional diameters of the proximal (p=0.03) and mid left IJV (p=0.02) than non-smokers. There was an inverse association (p=0.03) between physical activity and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the left common carotid artery (CCA). The EDSS showed a direct association with the IMT (p
      PubDate: 2014-06-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • The effect of Tenofovir on renal function in HIV-positive patients in
           Lesotho : peer reviewed original article
    • Authors: E. Mugomeri; E. Mugomeri, D. Olivier W.M.J. Van den Heever
      Abstract: Lesotho introduced tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) for first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) in 2008. The use of TDF has been associated with renal toxicity. The study utilised an analytical design to compare retrospective creatinine clearance (CrCl) data of 312 antiretroviral treatment naïve adults exposed to TDF and 173 unexposed patients. Impaired renal function was defined as CrCl
      PubDate: 2014-06-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Case study : spurious elevation of sodium levels : peer reviewed case
           study
    • Authors: Y. Hayden; J.M. Kuyl
      Abstract: In hospitalized patients, plasma sodium disturbances remain common and can be associated with significant mortality and morbidity if not diagnosed and treated. A hypoproteinaemic, critically ill patient with discrepant blood gas analyzer and central laboratory analyzer sodium values presented as a case of possible spurious elevation of sodium or pseudohypernatraemia. The indirect ion selective electrode method yielded a persistently higher sodium value than the direct ion selective electrode method. A statistically significant difference between the sodium measured with the direct ISE and indirect ISE method was noted. The differences could not be explained by analytical variation alone, in most of the samples.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • CDP questions
    • Abstract: CDP questions
      PubDate: 2014-06-01T00:00:00Z
       
 
 
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