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Journal Cover Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems
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   ISSN (Print) 1683-0296
   Published by Sabinet Online Ltd Homepage  [223 journals]
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Towards a
           cartography of indigenous knowledge systems in library and information
           science training and education in Anglophone eastern and southern Africa
    • Authors: Ngulube; Patrick, Dube, Luyanda, Mhlongo, Maned
      Abstract: The focus of this article is on mapping the inclusion of indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) content in the higher education curriculum of universities that offer library and information science (LIS) education in Anglophone eastern and southern Africa (AESA). As universities in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are being encouraged to "adapt" and to become more "societally relevant" in their production, transmission and acquisition of knowledge, they should include hitherto subjugated IKS. The main argument is that the inclusion of indigenous knowledge (IK), with its emphasis on context and the holistic nature of human experiences, in higher education may partly offer knowledge that resonates with Bernstein's (2000) horizontal discourses and Dewey's (2004) notion of education that addresses the disposition of the learner holistically. Although some studies on higher education curricula have focused on a diversity of issues, including improved pedagogy, assessment strategies, low achievement, student throughput, content, institutional autonomy and public accountability (Bester, 2011), the scope of this article is limited to the content aspect of the curriculum. Content is at the centre of the relevance of a curriculum in a specific context. A meaningful coverage of IK content in the curriculum may equip information and heritage management professionals with skills and knowledge to preserve the declining IK and elevate it to a respectable level in Africa. The results of this quantitative study confirm that the end of foreign domination in AESA did not bring about a new cartography in the LIS curricula of the universities, as colonial pedagogic practices that undervalued IK have continued to dominate the higher education landscape at the expense of the inclusion of IK.
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T12:38:38Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: An analysis of
           the depiction of indigenous people during the early colonial conquest in
           South African history textbooks
    • Authors: Seroto; Johannes
      Abstract: In this article, I examine the construction of knowledge about the representation of indigenous people in Grade 10 South African history textbooks. I illustrate and unearth the ways whereby power relations during the early colonial conquest were situated, maintained, reproduced and transmitted in specific social, historical and political contexts. To achieve this aim, the article focuses on the knowledge that is constructed by the authors of the history textbooks; the perspectives valued in the construction of the history textbooks; and the authors' location and understanding of power relations in the context of the early settlement at the Cape of Good Hope. Critical analysis discourse method is used to critique the selected textbooks.
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T12:38:37Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: The Lambas of
           the copper belt/Zambia's behaviours and taboos 'before colonisation and
           Christianisation' : a literature review to accommodate research in the
           indigenous realm
    • Authors: Kalenga; Rosemary
      Abstract: This article is a literature review of the Lambas' (AŴalamba) behaviours and taboos as documented before colonisation and Christianisation, from the diary of Joseph Doke, who died in Lambaland (IlamŴa) in 1913. The diary was published in 1931 by his son Clement Martyn Doke. The aim of this article is to examine the ways of living of the Lambas before colonisation and Christianisation, in order to promote mental liberation from a world where we study only Western knowledge. The analysis is done through the lens of theories of Sacralisation, 'umuchinshi' - Polite Behaviour and Indigenous Knowledge Systems. The concludes that mental liberation for Africans may only be achieved if we take deliberate steps to study and embrace the wisdom of our forefathers. The recommendations are that despite living in modern society, the knowledge of our forefathers should not be forgotten. Lessons of life originate from their generations of tested and proven ways of harmonious living, socially and environmentally sustainable.
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T12:38:36Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: The potential
           of crossbreeding indigenous chickens to improve rural food security and
           nutrition in southern Africa - a review
    • Authors: Odunitan-Wayas; Feyisayo Adeola, Kolanisi, Unathi, Chimonyo, Michael, Siwela, Muthulisi
      Abstract: The need to increase poultry production in southern Africa to meet the increasing protein requirement of the growing population is becoming a great concern. The quality of poultry meat and eggs produced in terms of taste, texture, flavour and leanness are of importance to consumers. Crossbreeding indigenous with exotic strains of chickens is one of the main factors that can improve food and nutrition security in southern Africa. In this article, ways in which the quality and quantity of poultry meat and eggs can be improved for sustainable food and nutrition security in southern Africa, with emphasis on crossbreeding as a prospective food security (protein) stability technique are discussed. This article is based on critical analysis of the literature and discusses and evaluates various crossbreeding methods of chickens that have been carried out in African countries. Comparative studies on the implementation, failures and successes of crossbreeding of chickens in African countries, such as Egypt, Botswana, Malawi and South Africa among others are reviewed. Crossbreeding, combined with selection, information dissemination, improved management and technology, is recommended for the geometric increase in poultry meat and egg production in southern Africa to improve food and nutrition security.
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T12:38:35Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: "Badimo ba
           fihlile mošomong" - is there a place for cultural ethos and
           practices at the workplace? African cultural practices and beliefs
           revisited
    • Authors: Ratiba; Matome M.
      Abstract: This article seeks to interrogate and explore whether African ethos and practices have a place at the workplace, more especially in the light of the recent decision in Kievits Kroon Country Estate (Pty) Ltd v Mmoledi and Others. Practices and/or beliefs having a bearing on only three contextual cultural issues or concepts are isolated for this purpose and dealt with in the context of absence from the workplace. The applicable cultural issues in question are cultural and spiritual ailments, family responsibilities and ancestral callings, all of which are reviewed within the broader milieu of culture in the workplace. The article conforms to the following set structural format. Following the introduction, the second part lays the theoretical framework or background to the discussion in which attempt is made in the definition, unpacking and explanation of common cultural practices under discussion. The third part will explain the relevance of those common cultural practices to the workplace. In the fourth part a summary of the current case of Kievits Kroon Country Estate (Pty) Ltd v Mmoledi and Others and the impact thereof are presented. The last part will be constituted by concluding remarks.
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T12:38:34Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Effect of
           indigenous knowledge system based sun drying on the microbiological
           quality and safety of egg powders
    • Authors: Mnyandu; Elizabeth, Kolanisi, Unathi, Siwela, Muthulisi
      Abstract: Although eggs have been successfully dried into powder at industrial level no evidence is available that sun drying or oven drying has been tried on eggs in the rural areas. This article is based on the study, which was conducted in the rural areas of Impendle in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa, determined the level of egg utilisation and the microbiological quality and safety of sun-dried eggs. A sample of eggs was oven-dried at 65°C over a period of three hours. Another sample was sun-dried over a period of 72 hours. The dried egg samples were subjected to microbiological analysis: Salmonella spp., E. coli, Coliforms, Listeria monocytogenes and Total Plate Count. A high percentage (87%) of the survey respondents owned egg laying chickens. About 81% of the respondents indicated that eggs were consumed by the whole family about three times per week. Microbiological analysis results indicated that both egg powder samples had acceptable total microbial load and pathogenic (harmful) micro-organisms were absent. When observed over a period of eight weeks, both sun-dried and oven-dried eggs developed a rancid flavour. The study demonstrated the potential for processing eggs into egg powder in rural areas to improve household food security.
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T12:38:33Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Pedi
           psychologists' perceptions of working with mental illness in the Pedi
           community in Limpopo, South Africa : the need to incorporate indigenous
           knowledge in diagnosis and treatment
    • Authors: Sehoana; Mahlodi Joslina, Laher, Sumaya
      Abstract: Mental illness is conceptualised differently across cultural and religious groups. Perceptions of mental illness that are held in communities play a role in the treatment sought and the response to treatment offered. Psychologists from these communities who work in the community are well positioned to provide insight into the perceptions of mental illness as well as the issues involved in working within their communities. A convenience sample of nine Pedi psychologists practising in the Sekhukhune and Capricorn districts of Limpopo, South Africa were interviewed about their work with members of the Pedi community as a means of exploring perceptions of mental illness and its' associated challenges and opportunities in the Pedi community. Semi structured interviews were conducted at the practitioners' rooms with each interview lasting approximately one hour. Thematic analysis of the results revealed four themes. These were: psychologists' perceptions of mental illness; conducting psychotherapy with clients who have spiritual or cultural beliefs of illness; perceptions of mental illness in the Pedi community; and the limited understanding of mental health services in the Pedi community. It is evident from the results that mental illness in the Pedi community is conceptualised differently to mainstream conceptualisations. There is therefore a need for culturally competent practitioners to work in communities holding cultural and religious beliefs in relation to mental illness in order for treatment to be successful. The perceptions of mental illness held by the Pedi community influences the type of treatment sought, with the choice of treatment often being traditional healing. Aside from cultural beliefs which makes traditional healing the first option for treatment, socio economic status and the cost of health care were also highlighted for the preference of traditional healing.
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T12:38:32Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Traditional
           medicine invigorated : an expanded response to HIV and Aids in South
           Africa
    • Authors: Mbatha; Blessing
      Abstract: The aim of this article is to shed light on patterns of, and major motives for the utilisation of traditional medicine to fight the spread of HIV and AIDS in South Africa. This study was conducted in Soshanguve township in Gauteng. A qualitative approach was adopted by conducting focus group interviews with fifty-seven traditional healers. Data was analysed using axial coding and open coding, where dominant themes from the discussions were identified and discussed in detail. The findings depict that traditional healing is a deep-seated practice. In addition, the study established that the foremost motives for choosing traditional healers over biomedical practitioners were affordability of the services rendered by traditional healers and the efficacy and safety of traditional medicines. It is worth noting that the African continent, as the worst-ravaged region in terms of HIV and AIDS and the poorest in terms of modern health care resources, is an obvious site for collaboration between traditional healers and biomedical health care providers.
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T12:38:30Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: A survey of
           farming practices and cassava pests and diseases : a case study for
           Mseleni Village, KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa
    • Authors: Buthelezi; Makhosi N., Ngobeni, Ntsako D.
      Abstract: Although cassava is one of the staple food crops in Africa, it is cultivated mainly by subsistence producers in South Africa. Production is constrained by a number of agronomic, biological, environmental and socio-economic factors responsible for yield reduction. A study was conducted from May to August 2006 to evaluate cultural practices applied in cassava production and to evaluate the prevalence of pests and diseases on cassava at Mseleni village. A semi-structured questionnaire was utilized to collect data. Almost 80% of the farmers, both male and female, were randomly selected to take part in the survey. Results from the survey revealed that there was no application of commercial inputs (fertilizers or pesticides) used in the production process of cassava. Other important production constraints in cassava production were pests and diseases. It was established that 91% of farmers in the village did not control pests in their cassava at all, while 9% indicated that they used household remedies. Generally, cultural practices which are fundamental and crucial in cassava production were not properly executed and these had a significant negative impact on cassava total yield. In order to improve cassava yield in the village, it is recommended that practices such as incorporating green manures in the soil, application of fertilizers and the use of disease-free planting material, be adopted.
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T12:38:30Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Some southern
           African views on interconnectedness with special reference to indigenous
           knowledge
    • Authors: Edwards; Steve
      Abstract: The Global Coherence Initiative (GCI) conducts pioneering research into interconnectedness in order to promote global coherence, consciousness and health through heart-focused care (Institute of HeartMath, 2013). A global network of ultrasensitive magnetic field detectors are being installed strategically around the planet, one of which is established on a private game reserve in KwaZulu-Natal, which provides various local research opportunities. Southern African indigenous knowledge themes on interconnectedness are discussed in order to provide a relevant, local and conceptual grounding for the initiative. As this knowledge is invested with human spirituality, communality, mutuality and other local meaning, the presentation speaks of relationships. Although certain themes have been singled out for instructional purposes in this presentation, as local indigenous knowledge represents a coherent whole that is continuously changing. These themes should be considered from an integrative and transformational perspective.
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T12:38:29Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Ubuntu as a
           foundation for researching African indigenous psychology
    • Authors: Mkabela; Queeneth N.
      Abstract: The question of how researchers work with and select research methods is complex. For researchers researching African indigenous culture, the complexity takes specific forms, usually forms that are embedded within the values and beliefs of research participants and their indigenous communities. In order to honour, indigenous methodologies, researchers need to approach cultural protocols, values and behaviours as an integral part of methodology. Methodological challenges that may be faced by researchers are those associated with acceptable scholarly psychological research, from within a specific discipline as well as from within the particular indigenous community. The article intends to highlight ubuntu (African philosophy of life) as a foundation for an African centred, indigenous psychology, research method carried out by indigenous researchers working from or within indigenous communities.
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T12:38:28Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Indigenous
           knowledge systems and deveopment : preface
    • Authors: Higgs; Phillip
      Abstract: Articles in this issue of the journal reveal a wide range of critical and practical concerns that are taken up in discourses concerned with Indigenous Knowledge Systems.
      PubDate: 2015-08-12T12:11:57Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Adjusting
           western research techniques to accommodate research in the indigenous
           realm
    • Authors: Kalenga; Rosemary Chimbala
      Abstract: This article seeks to adjust Western research techniques to accommodate research in the indigenous realm. Indigenous knowledge systems require a different approach from Western methodologies of collecting data. Indigenous people take pride in sharing their knowledge as they 'live it' because it cannot be contested anywhere in the world. Sharing it with a researcher does not change anything in their context. Indigenous research theory underpins this assertion. Data was collected through qualitative approaches that involved individual interviews and focus groups. The findings indicate that indigenous knowledge systems have their own ways of conducting research through ways that may not be palatable to Western methodology. This article recommends adjusting Western research methodologies to suit research in specific native settings. The 'one size fits all' is not a practical way of conducting indigenous research. As such, unless we embrace and respect the people and their culture, researchers may only prove hypotheses and not the realities of the phenomenon. Indigenous research methodologies will enhance finding new worthwhile knowledge.
      PubDate: 2015-08-12T12:11:57Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Challenges and
           opportunities for IKS in higher education institutions in South Africa :
           politics, ideological, institutional cultures and structural dimensions
    • Authors: Mekoa; Itumeleng
      Abstract: In 2004 the Department of Science and Technology in the Republic of South Africa adopted a policy on Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS). By doing so it moved IKS from just being a political and academic rhetoric into a political policy of government. The policy "affirms African cultural values in the face of globalization - a clear imperative given the need to promote a positive African identity" (IKS Policy, Chapter 5; page 9). The policy also provides for practical measures for the development of services provided by IK holders and practitioners. It also focuses on the contribution of the IKS to the economy. The policy further provides for the establishment of various legislative and institutional bodies. However despite this legislative initiative over a decade now, higher education institutions have not integrated IKS in their curriculum development. There are many reasons for this; some are historical, political, ideological, institutional and structural. The purpose of this article is to analyse how these challenges have hindered the development of IKS in higher education institutions and conclude with prospects for development.
      PubDate: 2015-08-12T12:11:56Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Integration of
           indigenous knowledge management into the university curriculum : a case
           for Makerere University
    • Authors: Magara; Elisam
      Abstract: Over the years, people have attempted at preservation of their indigenous knowledge (IK) in their day-to-day activities for socio-economic and community development. Preservation of IK systems would significantly contribute to food and health security, as well as environmental protection. Considering that most of the IK is not documented and is not easy to access, providing appropriate skills for managing IK becomes imperative. The challenge for universities is to orient their curriculum towards IK management. Strategies for identification, tapping/accessing, collection, documentation, organizing and processing, retrieval, disseminating and utilisation of IK are required. This article presents a strategy for integrating IK management into the university curriculum in Uganda. It attempts to identify the IK systems in Uganda, establishes the IK management curriculum needs universities, and the mechanism for integrating IK management into the university curriculum. In an exploratory qualitative research, data was collected from people believed to be knowledgeable and skilled in IK management from institutions and communities selected purposively. Physical visits and observations in institutions that keep information on IK, including the Uganda Museum, national archives, cultural centres and community/traditional institutions were also made. It is anticipated that, when appropriate mechanisms of mainstreaming IK values are developed and integrated into the university curriculum, there will be improved curriculum, appreciated and mainstreamed IK values, and an informed society for the enhancement of good governance.
      PubDate: 2015-08-12T12:11:54Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: The Traditional
           Health Practitioners Act 22 of 2007 : a perspective on some of the
           statute's strengths and weaknesses
    • Authors: Tshehla; Boyane
      Abstract: The Traditional Health Practitioners Act 22 of 2007 was enacted to regulate the traditional health sector in South Africa. With effect from 1 May 2014, a cluster of the Act's sections became effective by promulgation in the Government Gazette. This development made the majority of the sections of this statute binding after the last proclamation in 2008. The current article discusses the key provisions of the Act and the implications it has for the traditional health sector. After presenting these key provisions and highlighting their strengths and weaknesses, the article relates them to other legislative measures in the form of the Intellectual Property Laws Amendment Act 28 of 2013 and the Medicines and Related Substances Amendment Bill (B 6-2014). It then argues that the legislative measures introduced thus far fall short of providing a framework necessary for the protection of the traditional health practice. Thereafter, the article discusses the bias of the Act, evident in the more concern shown about the protection of the public against the practices of traditional health practitioners and less concern about the protection of the traditional health practitioners against the hegemony of Western health practitioners and low respect that the former have been accorded. The main argument is that there could have been more balance in the legislative measures effected to bring about justice in the health care system of South Africa.
      PubDate: 2015-08-12T12:11:54Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Documenting
           indigenous knowledge about Africa's traditional medicine : a myth or a
           reality?
    • Authors: Masango; Charles Akwe, Nyasse, Barthelemy
      Abstract: This article examines the global debates about indigenous knowledge and Africa's traditional medicine. It explores whether it is possible to document all the elements of indigenous knowledge about Africa's traditional medicine that is used for the treatment of diverse forms of sickness. Certain types of Africa's traditional medicines used for the treatment of different forms of sickness encompass associated knowledge in the form of spiritual rituals that may be considered mostly by religious leaders as devilish in nature. It may be difficult to document the spiritual elements of traditional medicine that is deemed devilish as traditional healers consider it top secret. The non-documentation of the spiritual rituals that form part of the traditional medicine is tantamount to documenting certain elements and not the entire process of a particular medicine. The raison d'être for documenting Africa's traditional medicine stem from the notion that there is an increasing extinction of medicinal plants due to environmental degradation, deforestation, agricultural encroachment, over harvesting and population growth that is associated with the loss of indigenous knowledge on plant use for medicine. Hence there is a need to document medicinal plants with their associated knowledge. The article explores Africa's traditional medicines that can and cannot be documented in its entirety and proposes measures within Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) in the form of patents through which certain types of traditional medicines used for the treatment of particular illnesses could be documented in their entirety.
      PubDate: 2015-08-12T12:11:53Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Nexus between
           culture and health : perceptions and management of malaria in rural
           Nigeria
    • Authors: Abdullahi; Ali Arazeem
      Abstract: Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Nigeria, especially in rural areas among children under the age of five years. This cannot be unconnected from the fact that malaria control programmes and strategies have not taken cognisance of the local perceptions of the causes and symptoms as well as management of malaria in rural communities of Nigeria. The article is based on the study that examined the nexus between culture and health with emphasis on the perceptions of the causes and symptoms as well as management of malaria in Okanle and Fajeromi communities in Kwara State, Nigeria. The study was guided by the constructionist paradigm through the use of semi-structured interviews, in-depth interviews and focus group discussion (FGD). The majority of the respondents were mothers of children below the age of five. Although the perceived threat and symptoms of malaria in children as reported by caregivers were in tandem with biomedical constructions, the perceived causes and management sharply contradicted biomedical knowledge. Such contradiction has significant implications on health seeking behaviour of caregivers as well as malaria control programmes in rural communities of Nigeria. While it is undisputable fact that caregivers in local communities require informed education about the aetiology and management of malaria in children, there is the need for intensification of scientific investigation into the efficacy or otherwise of indigenous knowledge medicine (IKM) in the management of malaria in indigenous communities of Nigeria.
      PubDate: 2015-08-12T12:11:52Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: An experiential
           investigation into the phenomenon of respect in Zulu culture
    • Authors: Mbele; Buyi, Makhaba, Luvuyo, Nzima, Dumisani, Hlongwane, Mandla, Thwala, Jabu, Edwards, David, Sibiya, Mbali, Edwards, Steve
      Abstract: The goal of this article was to explore the phenomenon of respect as experienced by South African psychologists with special reference to Zulu culture. The narrative experiences of six isiZulu speaking psychologists with regard to the isiZulu concept of respect (Ukuhlonipha) were thematically analysed and synthesized by two independent English speaking psychologists. Five main interrelated themes respectively emerged of Ukuhlonipha as: pillar of African humanity (Ubuntu); including ancestors, marriage, family, parents and children; special language, narrative, story and/or textual reality; harmony, order and discipline; and gratitude and appreciation. These findings reiterated the manner in which African people have always recognized respect, as a concept, experience and practice with spiritual and cultural dimensions of great breadth, depth and height. Such practice is recognized as crucial for the promotion of local, international and global health and wellbeing.
      PubDate: 2015-08-12T12:11:51Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Heritage
           resources as vehicles for Africa's rural economic development
    • Authors: Teffo; Lesiba Joseph
      Abstract: Some of the economies of the world are currently under severe strain. For their survival, these economies within nation states are therefore compelled to explore new avenues to generate revenue. It is in this context that I perceive and conceive of indigenous heritage as an economic resource essential for local rural development. Accordingly, it should be treated as an integral part of national development plans and strategies. The challenge though is to link heritage to practical, sustainable and mutually beneficial economic development programmes. To this end local communities and developers should work together in the pursuit of common goals and interests, enabled by indigenous knowledge systems and contemporary information and communication technologies (ICT). The argument in this article is that Africa has a major under development challenge and with 'nature based' tourism properly administered and developed there could be economic dividends and attendant social benefits. The article cites success stories from similar initiatives that have profoundly transformed some rural communities into economic hubs.
      PubDate: 2015-08-12T12:11:50Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Enlightened
           women and polygamy : voices and perspectives from within
    • Authors: Mkhize; Zamambo, Zondi, Nompumelelo B.
      Abstract: Within the prevalent patriarchal system, polygamy and ilobolo are deeply-rooted practices that still endure and are considered vital within African cultures. The customs, however, have gender and power implication at times, where polygamy causes anguish for women when men consider them 'paid for' or 'bought commodities', not deserving to be treated with respect. Traditional men have championed polygamy in terms of 'tradition and culture' but a cursory observation suggests that it is currently also being embraced by women who seem to marry into these unions freely. By extension, it would seem that some first wives do not find it a problem when their husbands inform them of their intention to take second and subsequent wives. Even in arranged marriages certain women seem content to enter into a polygamous union because they will be answering the call of duty (Mkhize, 2011). This article reports on a study that was conducted at a semi-urban township of Hammarsdale in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa between 2009 and 2011 using qualitative research methodology. The aim of the study was to explore why middle-class educated and employed women enter or even stay in these matrimonial arrangements. The study differed from any previous studies in that it focused on financially independent women; a crucial point which eliminated one of the main assumptions that women enter into such unions for financial and or material gain and/or support. Moreover previous studies had focused on rural women who were mainly housewives entirely dependent on their husbands for their livelihoods. The findings of the study revealed that women entered such unions for numerous reasons, amongst them, love, family, societal pressures as well as desperation to have a higher social standing in the community than being a single woman. It is concluded that most of these women were influenced by society into being married regardless of the type of marriage they wanted.
      PubDate: 2015-08-12T12:11:49Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Indigenous
           approaches to peacemaking and conflict resolution : the case of
           inter-clans and political conflict in Msinga villages in -Natal province
    • Authors: Joseph; Rudigi Rukema
      Abstract: This article is based on the study that examined communities' indigenous approaches to peacemaking and conflict resolution and seeks to determine whether the government's responses are concomitant with local knowledge of peacemaking and conflict resolution through a case study of Msinga villages in the North of the Natal Province. It focuses on inter-clan wars, which have a long history in the study areas; the scars of violence are still fresh in the minds of men and women living in these areas. In the qualitative study, face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with local traditional leaders, village elders, both men and women, and local government officials and the youth. The findings of the study demonstrate that there is still mistrust between members of these communities to the extent that any tension can lead to violence. The findings also show that, although there have been and still are many peacemaking and conflict resolution initiatives, these seem to be ineffective in bringing about peace and the sense of a united community. Furthermore, many local citizens and women believe that government imposed approaches have limited their effective participation in peacemaking and conflict resolution. The contestation and in fighting between the Inkatha Freedom Party and the African National Congress has further undermined ordinary citizens' full participation as they try to wrest control from the other group; this continues to deepen divisions in an already divided society.
      PubDate: 2015-08-12T12:11:48Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Information and
           Communication Technology (ICT) framework for African traditional
           governance
    • Authors: Coleman; Alfred
      Abstract: A high percentage of the South African population depends on the governance of traditional leaders for social, economic and development projects. However, the duties of traditional leaders towards their people, and the government in power, are always marred by fundamental problems such as the issue of record keeping, management, as well as packaging and dissemination of indigenous information. This article investigated the roles and functions of traditional leaders, and how ICT is applied in the North West Province of South Africa. A case study approach was used. Nine participants were drawn from an entire population of traditional leaders who are chiefs, tribal councillors and headmen.. Data was collected using semi-structured, open-ended interview questions, to inquire about their roles and functions as traditional leaders, types of ICT tools available to them as traditional leaders, and how these ICT tools are used to support their work processes.. The findings revealed that traditional leaders perform functions which include protection of the rural local communities' customs, cultural values, laws, and provision of leadership to the people. It was further noted that there were computers in most traditional or tribal offices but were being used to write official letters and read emails. The routine work activities of the traditional leaders, such as the issue of record keeping, management of cases, accessibility of information from municipal offices, as well as the appropriate coding, packaging and dissemination of indigenous knowledge, were not executed by the use of ICT, but by paper base.. These findings led to the proposal of an ICT Framework for African traditional governance which could assist traditional leaders to automate their work processes, and share information with municipal managers in district offices, to facilitate effective governance. In addition, the ICT framework is to provide a repository where all indigenous knowledge, rules and procedures are stored for future generations.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02T12:49:44Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: The role of
           social trust in social media and indigenous knowledge sharing
    • Authors: Mkhize; Peter L.
      Abstract: In the Information Age, knowledge is so important that it can be likened to a form of currency; hence most organisations now invest in technology-based knowledge-sharing platforms. Rather different knowledge-sharing platforms, such as imbizo and stokvels, exist in indigenous communities, and support community development. The purpose of this article is to improve knowledge sharing using social media, by learning from indigenous knowledge sharing - thereby building social capital. Grounded theory analysis was used to extract contextual themes from interview transcripts collected from public sector employees who are involved in open source migration. The results reveal that social trust derived from competence, benevolence and integrity, emerges within communities of practice (CoP) in the same way as it does in indigenous knowledge sharing.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02T12:49:44Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: The ethics of
           anonymity and confidentiality : reading from the University of South
           Africa Policy on Research Ethics
    • Authors: Dube; Luyanda, Mhlongo, Maned, Ngulube, Patrick
      Abstract: Orthodox research is guided by renowned ethical principles which are rooted in the philosophy of positivism. The positivist paradigm assumes that the researched are vulnerable and need to be protected from harm by disabling their identity. Adherence to these orthodox ethical norms is regarded as the litmus test of a virtuous research practice. Any deviance from these ethical norms is viewed as a serious violation of the research ethical code. However, whilst the significance of these ethical principles is renowned, there is a differing agenda driven by ethicists and some researchers that seek to question their ethicalness and universal appropriateness. This is based on the conviction that these principles are not attuned to other unique systems such as indigeneity. This article looks specifically at the ethicalness of the principles of anonymity and confidentiality as embodied in the Unisa Policy on Research Ethics (2007). This was a qualitative study informed by an interpretive philosophical paradigm that used document analysis as a method for assessing the ethicalness of anonymity and confidentiality as espoused in the University of South Africa (Unisa) Unisa Research Policy. This article concludes that although there is a discernible good intent from the institution detected from the Unisa Policy on Research Ethics (2007) stipulations, there is a lack of clarity or distinct direction towards the ethicalness of ethical codes. It recommends that Unisa needs to relook its' research ethical principles and align them with socio-political realities of the African indigenous milieu.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02T12:49:43Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Ethical
           considerations surrounding the application of runyoka/lunyoka (fidelity
           charm) in Zimbabwe
    • Authors: Dewah; Peterson, Mutula, Stephen
      Abstract: Cases of infidelity and cheating among married couples have characterised African traditional marriages. Consequently, indigenous intervention methods have been used to address issues related to immorality. One method that has been used in Zimbabwe to deal with men who prey upon other men's wives by seducing them is runyoka/lunyoka. Runyoka is an indigenous way of 'fencing' or 'locking' a spouse, usually wives, to prevent them from committing adultery. This is done without the knowledge of the victim.. The article is based on a study that sought to explore ethical issues related to the use of runyoka/lunyoka. Using literature review and interviews the study identified more than 16 types of runyoka that are common among the Zimbabwean communities. Data were gathered from the internet and eight interviews held with some married women in urban Gweru. The major findings were that women detested the invasion of their privacy through constant surveillance by their husbands. Runyoka victims suffer swelling or continuous growth of private parts, in some cases male culprits experience perpetual erection or shrinking of manhood while females endure vagina disappearance. In other situations victims die a slow and painful death. There is also a breakdown of marriage among other social dislocations. The study concluded that spouses did not trust each other. However, the study recommends that married couples should give each other space for their privacy and in this way it builds trust.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02T12:49:43Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: The role of
           rural subsistence farming cooperatives in contributing to rural household
           food and social connectivity : the case of Mwendo Sector, Ruhango District
           in Rwanda
    • Authors: Mbanza; Sylvester, Thamaga-Chitja, Joyce
      Abstract: Subsistence agricultural cooperatives play an important role in improving household food security among rural households. In Rwanda, as in many African communities, traditional systems encompassing the concept of Ubuntu including ideas related to co-operation, solidarity, mutuality, reciprocity are evident in both the society and subsistence farming ideologies. The majority of the population resides in rural areas; mainly rely on subsistence farming in their smallholdings and participate in subsistence farming cooperatives. The main purpose of this article is to determine the rural subsistence farming cooperative success factors; highlight the benefits of participating in farming cooperatives and find out why some people do not participate in any farming cooperatives. This article focuses on maize, pineapple and peas cooperatives in the Mwendo Sector in Rwanda. A random sampling was used to select cooperatives and questionnaires were administered to 150 cooperative members in the study. Both key informant interviews and focus group discussions were used for data collection. Data was analyzed using cross-tabulation and content analysis. The results revealed that the factors influencing productivity of cooperative and household food security are the availability of agricultural equipment, agricultural inputs, age and level of education of cooperative members, training of cooperative members, cooperative organization government assistance and provision of extension services. The research also shows that cooperative members have an increased agricultural production, income, government assistance, easy market access and agricultural training. Increased agricultural production and income are both important to access dimensions of food security. Agricultural cooperatives also promote culture and unity in the locality through social and religious activities among cooperative members. Findings show that the unwillingness to be part of cooperative mismanagement; punitive measures and fear of seasonal hunger lead to non-participation in agricultural cooperatives. This is significant as it indicates departure from Ubuntu and co-operating principles that often characterize rural communities. Therefore, improving above-stated factors would improve participation in farming cooperatives.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02T12:49:42Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Indigenous
           knowledge systems and agricultural rural development in South Africa :
           past and present perspectives
    • Authors: Buthelezi; N.N., Hughes, J.C.
      Abstract: Indigenous knowledge (IK) has formed the backbone of rural livelihoods for centuries. It preserved biodiversity and ensured long-term sustainability of natural resources. In South Africa and elsewhere, its survival was threatened by the arrival of Europeans and colonialism. The status and role of IK in South Africa with special emphasis on agricultural rural development are discussed. The article shows how colonialism and, more recently, apartheid impacted the IK of South African rural communities. The essential aspects critical to understanding IK for agricultural rural development, particularly in research, are considered. Lastly, the emergence of IK within the research and political domains in South Africa is explored. Although the South African government has made substantial progress towards promoting and protecting IK for the betterment of rural communities, there are still gaps and challenges. Politically these include the need for further legislation on intellectual property and general implementation of existing IK systems policies. In research, although many studies have been carried out on culture and ethnomedicine, other IK categories, notably soil and agriculture, have received insufficient attention. If maximisation of the contribution of IK is to be realised these need to be addressed as they are central to agricultural innovation and agricultural development.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02T12:49:42Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Ubuntu as an
           axiological framework for human rights education
    • Authors: Mkabela; Queeneth Nokulunga
      Abstract: Increasing awareness has been drawn, in recent years, to the flaws of culturally irrelevant human rights education. Several factors, including a general lack of a culturally appropriate approach, a lack of integration of indigenous values, and the failure to provide human rights education that is responsive to community perspectives, have created a gap between the conceptualisation and practice of human rights by indigenous communities. So widespread is this feeling that parents are beginning to abdicate their roles of instilling values to their children and are blaming the system of education for introducing human rights education in schools which encourages unacceptable behaviour in communities.. This article is concerned with a critical discussion and analysis of the key tenets of ubuntu and attempts to show how these can be utilised as an axiological framework for human rights education in South Africa.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02T12:49:41Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Contribution of
           indigenous knowledge practices to household food security : a case study
           of rural households in KwaZulu-Natal
    • Authors: Ndwandwe; Sthembile, Mudhara, Maxwell
      Abstract: The use of indigenous knowledge is a viable livelihood strategy for poor rural households. A binomial logistic regression model was used to demonstrate the effect of Indigenous knowledge practices (IKPs) on food security. Food availability at household level was used as a measure of food security using as a proxy the maize produced in 100 randomly selected households from five villages in KwaZulu-Natal. The IKPs were identified in pest management, fertility management, weeding, land preparation, seed and post-harvest storage. Households were able to secure food for an average of three to six months, and the significant effect of IKPs on food security was observed. Indigenous Knowledge feeds households in rural areas and focusing policy efforts on finding ways of enhancing and encouraging a perspective shift to that of approaching IKPs as a local source of resilience when it comes to food availability and access, could bring about one of the options for creating food-secure households in South Africa.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02T12:49:41Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Perceptions of
           cremation as an alternative burial system among the Zulu people living in
           KwaZulu-Natal
    • Authors: Zondi; Nompumelelo. B., Zwane, Maria
      Abstract: Africa is going through a tremendous and rapid change in every respect of human life; some of these changes being more circumstantial than otherwise. People are becoming increasingly detached from the corpus of their tribal traditional beliefs and practices. One of the changes pertains to cremation, an act of disposing of a deceased person's body by burning its remains. Zulu people, a major population group in the province of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa and a progeny of King Shaka Zulu are known to unwaveringly hold onto their cultural beliefs especially those that touch on the 'idlozi', living dead. HIV and AIDS pandemic in particular, have resulted in several deaths in the province calling for unconventional ways of disposing of dead bodies. A current debate on cremation as an alternative burial system at a time when municipal burial sites are increasingly becoming a scarcity thus becomes valid and critical. Municipalities are encouraging people to seriously consider cremation as an option to burial systems (Madlala, 2010: 1). In light of the circumstances highlighted above, we recently undertook a study whose aim was to explore the societal views on cremation amongst people of African descent in general and with special reference to the Zulu people living in KwaZulu-Natal and who was represented by Durban's largely populated areas (Zwane, 2011). This study was conducted in two areas; a semi-urban area represented by uMlazi and a rural area exemplified by Zwelibomvu. The researchers believed that this study was necessary as it would contribute in influencing society to review cremation for future decisions without feelings of coercion. Even though Umlazi residents are the most directly affected by burial land shortage, we thought including a rural area would also enhance the study so as to arrive at a balanced conclusion. This article, therefore reports on the findings of the study with reference to cremation as an alternative burial system amongst Zulu people.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02T12:49:40Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Perceptions of
           traditional healers on the treatment of diarrhoea in Vhembe District
           Municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa
    • Authors: Netshivhulana; Tshivhangwaho Austin, Masevhe, Ndivhaleni Anox, Tshisikhawe, Milingoni Peter, Samie, Amidou
      Abstract: Diarrhoea illness has long been recognised as the cause of death of millions of people worldwide especially in developing countries (Nkwi, 1994). The disease is treated using western as well as traditional remedies. The knowledge of traditional healers and their practices can play an important role in building capacity to promote the appropriate home management of diarrhoea (Anokbonggo et al., 1990). Traditional healers around the world have different beliefs and understanding of diarrhoeal disease and its treatment. The aim of the project was to investigate the perception and concept of traditional healers on the treatment of diarrhoea in Vhembe district. Twenty traditional healers from two municipalities (Mutale and Thulamela) around Vhembe district were interviewed. Data was collected through interviews using questionnaires. Interviews were conducted with individuals in their own languages and later translated into English. According to Vhembe traditional healers, diarhoea is described as a disease which can lead to death as a result of excessive loss of water in a patient's body through vomiting and frequent visits to a toilet. Symptoms of diarrhoea include vomiting, loss of weight, and change in appearance of skin, face and eyes. Traditional healers of Vhembe district have a better understanding of diarrhoeal diseases. They mention different categories of diarrhoeal diseases. There is a lack of information when it comes to the description of diarrhoeal illness's on infants and children.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02T12:49:40Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: The marketing
           of isiZulu within the realm of multilingualism
    • Authors: Pillay; Rama, Zungu, P.J.
      Abstract: Although isiZulu has been accorded its rightful place by the constitution of the country, its elevation has been fraught with difficulties. One of the main forces that have stifled the promotion of isiZulu have been market forces. A language can be marketed if it has the potential to meet people's material needs. An important purpose of this article is to determine whether or not Zulu speakers are in favour of the greater use of isiZulu in society. The input of Zulu speakers is important in determining whether isiZulu is a viable linguistic product that could be marketed in a multilingual society. An empirical investigation which produced descriptive statistical data was undertaken. Data was collected by means of questionnaires from a random sample of Zulu speakers in selected private and public sector institutions. The findings indicate that isiZulu has the potential to be marketed in a multilingual society.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02T12:49:39Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: African
           Indigenous Knowledge Systems and development : foreword
    • Authors: Castiano; Jose P., Mkabela, Queeneth N.
      Abstract: This thirteenth volume of Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems continues to adhere to its legacy of critical analysis of indigenous knowledge systems. When looking for the golden thread for this current issue it became clear that indigenous knowledge systems is life itself - the issue covers articles that discuss love, courtship and romance to education, entrepreneurship, food, health, tourism, social networks, skills development and agriculture.
      PubDate: 2015-02-20T13:44:17Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Successful
           access at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa through ubuntu :
           the student voice
    • Authors: Govender; Suria
      Abstract: This article assesses whether access programmes are a productive method of identifying potentially successful students in the Higher Education sector in South Africa. It presents the voices of successful students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, who did not go directly into the mainstream programme but had to commence university education through an access programme. The interest of this investigation lies in the area of the broader academic and social discourses that they, as successful access students, inhabit and through which they produce and perform their success in undergraduate studies. The philosophy of Ubuntu and its relationship to epistemological access, the role of agency and self-regulation and student-institution reciprocity are examined using an adaptation of Tinto's student integration model as a starting point.
      PubDate: 2015-02-20T13:44:16Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: The traditional
           'Zulu Valentine'
    • Authors: Biyela; Ntandoni G.
      Abstract: In traditional Zulu society, the national ukweshwama (annual ceremony of the first fresh produce) was celebrated in January. The izinsizwa (unmarried young men) had to abstain from sexual relationships in order to prepare with undivided hearts and minds for this ritual, in which they had to take lead roles, such as offering the sacrificial bull. During the festival, the king would grant courtship freedom to the youth regiments of both genders of marriageable age. This article associates the celebration of giving 'love-beads' to loved ones with uNhlolanja (February) in the beginning of what is, traditionally a month of relaxation and abundant fresh produce. Beaded messages in red and white colours also dominated the February courtship milieu, which this article calls a traditional 'Zulu Valentine'. The Zulu name of February is also traditionally linked to the mating of dogs, suggesting that, in traditional Zulu society, February was a 'love in the air' month not only for humans. Based on first-hand interviews with local informants of KwaZulu-Natal, the present investigation attempted to examine the as yet insufficiently explored deeper meaning of indigenous beads called imibambanhliziyo (heart-holders) through which Zulu girls of yesteryear communicated their experiences, anxieties and attitudes to promote better relationships with their romantic partners, after ukweshwama abstinences.
      PubDate: 2015-02-20T13:44:16Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Some
           reflections on two rural potter's cooperatives in the Port St Johns region
           of the Eastern Cape, South Africa
    • Authors: Steele; John
      Abstract: Two potters in the Port St Johns region of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa have been founder members of different visual arts producer's cooperatives during the 1980s as part of development initiatives aimed at sustainable economic empowerment. These potters are Debora Nomathamsanqa Ntloya of Qhaka village in the Caguba area and Alice Gqa Nongebeza of Nkonxeni village in the Tombo area. They both engaged in zero electricity, using ceramics praxis and used variants of open bonfiring techniques to finish off their works. This article looks at aspects of formation and administration of such potter's cooperatives, as well as at types of ceramics technology used and resulting works, and also at some marketing strategies and outcomes. It will be seen that these are factors that impact directly on why some such cooperatives are successful for long stretches of time, and others become defunct or dormant. Furthermore, Debora Nomathamsanqa Ntloya is now largely retired from clayworking, and Alice Gqa Nongebeza passed away in 2012, so a question arises as to whether their ceramic traditions will be continued in the years to come.
      PubDate: 2015-02-20T13:44:15Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Towards an
           argumentative dialogue between local knowledge and official school
           curriculum : a case of local curriculum in Mozambique
    • Authors: Castiano; Jose P., Mkabela, Queeneth
      Abstract: The article explores to which extent, through the inclusion of the local knowledge in Mozambican curriculum, a space of an argumentative dialogue between local and modern knowledge was institutionalized. It is argued that the local curriculum is not only a space for the integration of both kinds of knowledge, values and practices, but potentially it is a space of negotiation, evaluation and validation of both. In other words the article explores the hypothesis of the local curriculum being a space for the appropriation and reappropriation of both kinds of knowledge, that is, the space where the "silent coexistence" will be transformed into an "argumentative dialogue" between local and modern knowledge.
      PubDate: 2015-02-20T13:44:15Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: An
           ethnobotanical survey of wild vegetables in the Amathole District, Eastern
           Cape Province, South Africa
    • Authors: Kwinana-Mandindi; T.N.
      Abstract: As the world population is increasing, there is a need to diversify food plant resource in order to fulfil the growing demand for both nutritional and health care needs. This includes diversification of crops and crop varieties. Sustenance, genetic resource management and use of agrobiodiversity depend intensely on the extensive indigenous knowledge systems. This article, therefore, presents an inventory of the wild plants used as food as well as their socio-cultural profile, namely: vernacular names, their utility by the local communities with respect to the part of the plant consumed, frequency of consumption, mode of preparation, form of consumption and seasonal abundance.. An ethnobotanical survey of indigenous wild leafy vegetables (IWLV) was carried out in ten villages and five peri-urban settlements in the Amathole District within the Eastern Cape of South Africa. Samples of these plants were identified and collected in the presence of the informants. During a workshop with key informants application of triangulation-validation technique was done to ensure validation and verification of the data.. A total of 25 different IWLV species belonging to 16 families were identified and recorded. Nine edible plants were identified as frequently consumed. While it was evident in some communities that edible plants still play an important role, however, in other communities only few utilise the wild vegetables. Knowledge impartation of the plants to the youth tends to be lacking yet, the freely available resource is generally essential for all communities, particularly the growing and poorly resourced ones.
      PubDate: 2015-02-20T13:44:14Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Poverty
           eradication project on indigenous agro food processing in Molemole Local
           Municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa
    • Authors: Masipa; Makgoshi P., Jideani, Afam I.O.
      Abstract: This article highlights the importance of skills development and training for empowering the unemployed men, women and youth in entrepreneurial activities, based on experience gained from the Molemole Indigenous Food Processing Cooperative (MIFPC), established in 2006 in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. The establishment of this cooperative was propelled by the high abundance of indigenous prickly pears and marula wild fruits which are utilised for commercial purposes. The objective is to improve people's livelihood in the area which is characterised by high rates of unemployment, semiskilled labourers, especially among the youth and young parents. The MIFPC establishment is also in accordance with the policy on recognition and promotion of indigenous knowledge systems launched by the Department of Science and Technology in South Africa. The policy emphasizes the use of people centred pedagogy as it maximises locally available skills, and empower the poor to learn by themselves. The MIFPC consists of eight women and two men and produces marula jelly, prickly pear jam, juice and peanut butter. The participants have high commitment for self enhancement to an extent that they get orders from government, private sector and local community members for their products. The project's establishment has encouraged entrepreneurial skills development which is seen as the creator of wealth, capital and large organisational empires for poverty eradication in the area.
      PubDate: 2015-02-20T13:44:14Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Tourism-related
           skills development practices for the disadvantaged indigenous communities
           in the Umhlathuze Municipal area
    • Authors: Magi; Lindisizwe M.
      Abstract: The South African tourism industry has been previously seen as a field of human activity dominated by the elite and affluent in South Africa. The previously disadvantaged indigenous communities (PDICs) have not benefited significantly from this industry and have even designated it as the "white man's activity" (DEAT, 1996: 14). In an attempt to reverse this situation, the government has designed a variety of new tourism policies and strategies that seek to redress the imbalances of the past. The notion of skills development and related practices was specifically seen as a potential area within which participation in tourism as a human activity could be improved for the PDICs. This article seeks to report on the theoretical framework, analysis of data and related findings pertaining to the status of tourism skills development practices for the PDICs in the uMhlathuze Local Municipality. The main objectives of this article are to: explore how stakeholders understand the importance of tourism skills development practices; show how the uMhlathuze authorities attempt to facilitate tourism skills development practices; reveal respondents' perceptions of the implementation of the tourism skills development policies and practices; establish whether there are any tourism skills development practice-benefits for the PDICs in the area. The article advocates, that in order for tourism strategies to succeed, there is need for local indigenous communities be empowered with tourism skills and practices they can relate to.. The findings of the article suggest that the majority of respondents understand the meaning and importance of tourism and tourism skills development practices within the uMhlathuze municipal area. The respondents also felt that the skills development opportunities were inaccessible in the area, as well as that the provision of tourism skills was inadequate. The findings also show that the implementation of tourism skills development practices were poorly executed as well as not adequately benefiting the local indigenous communities.
      PubDate: 2015-02-20T13:44:12Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Prevalence of
           use of indigenous social networks among women and girl children in a rural
           community in KwaZulu-Natal
    • Authors: Jiyane; Veli, Ngulube, Patrick
      Abstract: Women and girl children regard indigenous social networks as important in their lives as they facilitate speedy awareness and announcements of urgent issues and sharing and transfer of information, knowledge and skills. In other words, they may also assist people to be conversant with what is happening around them. The article is based on the study that is informed by the feminist theory to establish the use of indigenous social networks among women and girl children in the Mfekayi community, KwaZulu-Natal. The focus of the study was on indigenous social networks' practices, tools, effects and relevance. Face-to-face interviews and observations were used to collect qualitative data from a purposive sample of 63 participants. The findings indicate that although the modern social networks are extensively used for information and knowledge sharing and transfer, due to the advancements brought by the modern information and communication technologies, indigenous social networks remain rooted and highly regarded in some indigenous communities such as Mfekayi, especially among women and girl children. However, it is also noted that modern social networks are making aggressive inroads forcing the indigenous social networks to take a back seat. It is recommended that indigenous social networks should be extensively promoted among women and girl children as they revive the spirit of communalism and togetherness, transfer information, knowledge and skills, sharpen the minds, and support physical training and fitness, as opposed to modern social networks which promote individualism and isolation.
      PubDate: 2015-02-20T13:44:11Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Integration of
           indigenous knowledge and skills for the development of rural women in
           KwaZulu-Natal
    • Authors: Shange; Jean
      Abstract: The improved participation of rural women in development opportunities continues to be a challenge facing many rural communities in KwaZulu-Natal. This has led researchers to probe into elements within the rural social structure that may or may not possibly be influential with regard to rural socio-economic development. Recent writings on indigenous knowledge systems question the value of framing development planning in terms of the traditional knowledge and skills of indigenous people. Such thinking has brought about the notion of using indigenous knowledge as a significant resource, which could contribute to the increased participation of indigenous communities in the development process. While this article supports the integration of indigenous knowledge and skills for development, it proposes that a deeper understanding of indigenous culture and history of indigenous people is an integral component, which could improve and aid effective development. Specifically, this article suggests that an in-depth understanding and integration of culture, gender and HIV/AIDS issues in development efforts to empower rural women, could be a possible alternative development method, primarily in engaging with the economic marketplace.
      PubDate: 2015-02-20T13:44:11Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Potential for
           
    • Authors: Kunene-Ngubane; Phumelele, Chimonyo, Michael, Kolanisi, Unathi
      Abstract: Southern African countries have similar climatic and agricultural conditions, with 70% of agricultural land suitable for extensive livestock farming. The article is based on the review that assesses the potential for organic beef production for communal farming systems. The findings reveal that consumers' perceptions of organic beef are based on the production processes. The literature shows a growing concern and controversy regarding the health, safety and environmental benefits of conventional and organic beef production. Communal farmers rear almost 50% of indigenous and adaptable breeds such as the Nguni which have proven their hardiness and adaptability through heat tolerance, improved calving rates, efficient utilization of feed resources, disease and parasite tolerance. Nguni cattle have a lower sero-prevalence for A. marginale and B. bigemina in both the cool-dry and hot-wet seasons. Consumers perceive organic beef as healthier and safer than conventional beef, and are willing to pay a premium. Civic engagement amongst all stakeholders through efficient management of indigenous knowledge systems and science is required for establishing organic beef niche market.
      PubDate: 2015-02-20T13:44:10Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Indigenous
           social capital in women-led small businesses in rural Zimbabwe
    • Authors: Miruka; Collins O., Zonge, Patience
      Abstract: By taking into account gender differences through which social capital is formed and operates, the article is based on the study that examines how indigenous social capital influences and impacts on women led businesses in rural Zimbabwe. It revealed that in indigenous settings, the notion of social capital is a gendered concept with critical implications on women led businesses in rural Zimbabwe. The study recognized social capital as generated and expressed through indigenous knowledge and values, network and associational life and hence indigenous knowledge. It acknowledged that social capital does take gender differentiated forms while exerting gender specific expectations on the network participation of men and women. In exploring the outcomes of social capital for the women led businesses, the study looked into the ways that gender ideologies run through, are reinforced and perpetuated through social network activity and supported through circumscribed indigenous knowledge. The emphasis made in this study on social capital does not downplay the importance of other factors like human, financial, physical and natural capital on women owned rural small businesses. Social capital is in fact seen as an essential compliment to these factors. The advantage of addressing the subject of women led rural based businesses from a social capital perspective largely stems from the ability of social capital to account for indigenous knowledge in development discourse.
      PubDate: 2015-02-20T13:44:10Z
       
  • Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: The rural-urban
           linkage in the use of traditional foods by peri-urban households in
           Nompumelelo community in East London, Eastern Cape
    • Authors: Majova; Vikelwa Judith
      Abstract: The article is based on the study that explored ways of reducing malnutrition amongst the inhabitants of South Africa through traditional foods. Traditional foods have been identified as one of the strategies that can be employed to lessen the problem in the community of Nompumelelo, in the Eastern Cape Province, and the research involved the availability of traditional foods in the area. It is common practice for most rural people in South Africa to include traditional foods in their diets and Nompumelelo is no exception. Hence, the study also explored the rural-urban linkage of the use of traditional foods by peri-urban households in the Xhosa community of Nompumelelo. From the empirical results it was established that the traditional foods, mainly leafy vegetables, produced in this community are accessible to the whole community, resulting in greater food sustainability. It is a fact that many communities are of the opinion that food is not readily available, not realising that traditional foods are locally available.
      PubDate: 2015-02-20T13:44:09Z
       
 
 
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