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Journal Cover Commonwealth Youth and Development
  [3 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1727-7140
   Published by Sabinet Online Ltd Homepage  [223 journals]
  • Commonwealth Youth and Development: Youth wellbeing in South Africa : what
           dimensions should we measure?
    • Authors: Mac-Ikemenjima; Dabesaki
      Abstract: There is growing interest in the development of measures and indexes of youth wellbeing. However, there has been a limited discussion on indicators to measure and select them. This paper reports on the results of a qualitative study on the selection of indicators to measure the wellbeing of young people in South Africa, and reflects on the relevance of the content of their values in choosing indicators for measuring their wellbeing. The data used in this analysis is based on telephone (9) and email (6) interviews conducted with 15 young people (male=5, female=10) aged 22 to 32 from five South African cities during July 2010. In the interviews, participants were asked to identify five issues they considered important to their lives, after which they were asked to rank them in order of importance. The issues indicated by the participants are described and discussed in six dimensions: economic, relationships, spiritual and health, education, time use and material. The indicators developed from this study are discussed in terms of their relevance for use in a measure of youth wellbeing in South Africa.
      PubDate: 2015-11-30T09:21:41Z
  • Commonwealth Youth and Development: Young entrepreneurs' experiences of
           navigating their success
    • Authors: Booyens; Margie G., Galvaan, Roshan
      Abstract: One of the pathways out of youth unemployment is purported to be youth initiated business development. While the range of difficulties related to establishing small businesses has been widely documented, less is known about the ordinary experiences of young people who have successfully transitioned into work through small business development. We undertook a pilot instrumental case study to find out how the agency of young people is activated and supported to advance successful enterprises. Purposive sampling was applied to select three young business owners in three rural towns in the Western Cape. Two semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with each business owner and one interview with a key mentor chosen by each young person. The findings focus on the relationship between the personal and social factors that contributed to opportunities for these young people. We also highlight key achievements, from the perspective of the young business owners, which do not point to financial success but to the value the owners place on their increased social standing and the social wellbeing their business has promoted in their home communities. Recommendations are made for the consideration of researchers, policy makers and providers of support for young business owners.
      PubDate: 2015-11-30T09:21:40Z
  • Commonwealth Youth and Development: Beacons of hope : youths and their
           contribution to the development of the theatre industry in Zimbabwe
    • Authors: Rwafa; Urther
      Abstract: Since independence (attained in 1980), the theatre industry in Zimbabwe has experienced some tremendous changes due to the involvement of youths who have the capacity to experiment with different genres, such as theatre in the park, street theatre, forum theatre, proscenium theatre and community theatre. All these forms of theatre continue to explore different themes and perspectives that affect Zimbabwean youths in both positive and negative ways. This article explores factors that affect the productive life of theatrical productions in Zimbabwe paying particular attention to the extent to which youths were/are involved in contributing to the growth of the theatre industry in Zimbabwe. In this endeavour, the article will focus on education and training aspects, networking, collaborations, funding, research, theatre impact and advocacy. A better understanding of how the above-mentioned factors affect the developmental skills of youths and the growth of Zimbabwean theatre industry will create awareness among youths, who should make informed decisions if they are to survive 'cut-throat' competition in Zimbabwe's theatre industry.
      PubDate: 2015-11-30T09:21:40Z
  • Commonwealth Youth and Development: Promotion of school sports : a survey
           of the perception of primary and secondary school learners at public
           township schools in Tshwane, South Africa
    • Authors: Pule; Eric, Drotsky, Tonie, Toriola, Abel, Kubayi, Ntwanano Alliance
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate learners' views about sport promotion at public primary and secondary schools in Tshwane, the capital city of South Africa. A total of 773 school children aged 12-18 years volunteered to participate in the study. Data were collected using a validated structured questionnaire. Overall, the results showed that both primary and secondary school children indicated that quality of sport facilities, school sport bursaries, safety after school hours, competition and sport equipment should be made available to all children at schools. The implication of the findings for effective planning and delivery of sports programmes in schools are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-11-30T09:21:39Z
  • Commonwealth Youth and Development: Managing transition : teacher
           accommodation strategies in an English second language classroom
    • Authors: Makina; Blandina
      Abstract: The South African Language in Education Policy (LiEP) makes provision for learners to be taught in their first language in the first three years of schooling. In accordance with this language policy, in most public schools, learners are taught in their home language in the first three years of school. In grade 4, which is the beginning of the intermediate phase, English - the second language (L2) - becomes the language of learning and teaching (LoLT) across all subjects except the mother tongue. Contrary to expectations, by grade 4, learners in disadvantaged environments have barely developed sufficient reading and writing skills in their home language to make a successful transition and function effectively in the L2. This paper is based on insights from lesson observations and interviews of three Grade 4 teachers of English as a Second Language. It documents the accommodation strategies used to help learners manipulate the language of learning and teaching (LoLT). Findings indicate that the translanguaging processes involved in making English part of the learners' linguistic repertoire are heavily embedded in the home language, resulting in very slow development of the learners' language proficiency in English. Recommendations are made on how to enable teachers to assist their learners to bridge this transition gap.
      PubDate: 2015-11-30T09:21:38Z
  • Commonwealth Youth and Development: Youth development performance
           management in municipalities : a Nkangala District Municipality case study
    • Authors: Ngubeni; Steven P.
      Abstract: Municipalities by design are at the grassroots and the gateway for providing direct development interventions to the masses of the people of South Africa. There is, however, evidence that success in implementing youth development programmes is limited, owing mainly to the lack of performance management application at the local government level. Nkangala District Municipality (NDM) was used as a case to explore the extent to which municipalities apply the prescripts and principles of performance management to the youth development programmes. The study sought to establish whether municipalities have performance management frameworks and systems, and whether youth development matters are included in the same. Evidence from the study shows that there are still gaps to be addressed in NDM. Finally, the study suggests a Youth Development Performance Management Framework, which will also integrate youth participation, monitoring and evaluation.
      PubDate: 2015-11-30T09:21:37Z
  • Commonwealth Youth and Development: The role of SADC in boosting domestic,
           regional, continental and international trade
    • Authors: Essop; Ghazala Begum
      Abstract: The role of regional economic communities in the development of trade in Africa is widely recognised. Currently, intra-African trade stands at 10 per cent. This is in sharp contrast to other developing regions of the world. In Asia and Latin America, the levels of intra-trade are 50 and 26 per cent, respectively. There are a number of reasons accounting for the low level of intra-African trade, including the weak mandate given to regional economic communities to monitor and enforce the commitments assumed by countries under regional trade agreements. The lack of integration has negatively impacted on African countries and affected their ability to attract foreign direct investment commensurate with their development needs. Had African countries been less exposed to external markets, they would have been minimally affected by the global financial crisis. The importance of boosting intra-African trade was highlighted by Africa's Heads of State and Government when they devoted this year's summit to this theme. In the run-up to the summit, the African Union Commission released a study that underscored the importance of regional economic communities in the process of economic integration in Africa. Currently, SADC member states are in the process of implementing the SADC Trade Protocol, which would create a fully-fledged free trade area and later a customs union, and at the same time engaged in tripartite negotiations aimed at merging the three (SADC, COMESA and the EAC) regional configurations. They are also engaged in the EPA negotiations with the European Union, which would create a free trade area and also the Doha negotiations under the auspices of the WTO. The main objective of this article is to estimate SADC countries' bilateral trade potential, which may result in the improvements in trade facilitation.
      PubDate: 2015-11-30T09:21:36Z
  • Commonwealth Youth and Development: Shona folktales as children's
           literature : the case of A.C. Hodza's Ngano Dzechinyakare (1980)
    • Authors: Khan; Khatija Bibi
      Abstract: Some scholars of the genre of the folktale have argued that since time immemorial, folktales have been children's literature created by adults for children's pleasure. The main attraction in so describing African folktale as children's literature was that this form afforded children entertainment as they listened to the stories narrated mostly by the adults, and some sometimes by the children, to other children. Other scholars agreed that folktale are stories of what can happen, but did not actually happen, also worked as a conduit for socialising African children into the cultural values of their society, which values were invariably created by the older generation. Both views are to some extent correct. However, in reducing the impact of folktales on children to entertainment and social conformity, a myth was also promoted that fails to appreciate that children listening to stories can decode certain meanings from the folktales. The aim of this article is to highlight the significance of folktales as sources of aesthetic pleasure for children and also as imaginative sources that aid socialisation of children to the community's mores. But the article complicates this instrumentalist approach of the role of folktales, whose meanings go beyond descriptions of them as an artistic force-field that merely secure the purchase of domesticating children for adult interests. Children are not passive listeners of stories, and as such can construct alternative worlds that provide useful critiques to society through its folktales.
      PubDate: 2015-11-30T09:21:34Z
  • Commonwealth Youth and Development: Combating social exclusion of the
           youth : challenges and opportunities of programmes and policies in three
           different contexts
    • Authors: Zeelen; Jacques
      Abstract: This paper reports and reflects on studies about the problems encountered in the implementation of education policies in several contexts in developed and developing countries. In these studies special attention is paid to the problems of the youth at risk between education and the labour market. In developing countries policies are in general framed by international policy initiatives such as those formulated in the Education for All Millennium Goals. However, in many cases there is an overproduction of such policies and extreme underperformance in the implementation. Obstacles are, for instance, problems concerning policy standards and their implementation; discontinuities between the national, provincial and district levels; lack of funding and at the same time corruption; lack of contextualisation; and, most prominently, lack of participation at grassroots level. In the case of the youth in sub-Saharan Africa, despite more access to education, poor implementation leads to problems such as high drop-out rates, low quality of education and too little attention paid to skills development. The existing dysfunctionality of the education system and the growing skills gap between what the youth can offer and what the labour market requires (especially in countries such as Uganda with a fast population growth) lead to a growing divide between the learning rich (minority) and the learning poor (majority). People are experiencing an alarming decrease in social cohesion. In many European countries the legitimacy of the welfare state is increasingly coming under pressure due to the recent economic crisis. The willingness to provide the tools for achieving an inclusive society is no longer self-evident. Here as well, the question is which policies respond to the demands of the labour market and at the same time avoid marginalisation of the unemployed, disabled, ethnic minorities and disadvantaged people - in other words, how to achieve, in this period of economic crisis, the goal of continuously creating equal opportunities and equal access to services for all citizens. In the past the educational policy strategies of many governments privileged technocratic efficiency over grassroots participation in decision making, such that the existing power patterns were reinforced. To break with this technocratic hindrance, bot-top-down approaches seem to be needed in policy development to improve the quality of implementation. This means that while honouring the central role the government or departments of education (the top) should play in policy development and implementation, policies must be founded on solid needs analysis (bottom) so that it is possible to address problems on the ground (down). This supports the relevance of participatory approaches, which help by identifying a range of complex economic and social issues at grassroots level, by empowering communities to identify problems, through the development of plans for comprehensive and long-term solutions and, finally, by taking action. Important partners could be universities, policy makers, practitioners, companies and civil society. These types of (public-private) partnerships could be further developed into learning partnerships to facilitate working on bot-top-down strategies and capacity building of practitioners in the educational field. To have policies that are grounded in relevant issues and to develop strategies that are intended to address those issues is one step in the right direction towards effective implementation.
      PubDate: 2015-11-25T13:38:40Z
  • Commonwealth Youth and Development: Botswana youth and health-related
           risks : reflections on some intervention strategies
    • Authors: Adekanmbi; Gbolagade, Maundeni, Tapologo
      Abstract: This paper explores the theme of health-related risks among the youth in Botswana. It examines a number of intervention strategies geared toward addressing the problems associated with these risks. The paper notes that Botswana has made considerable progress in the provision of social services, including services that aim to diminish health-related risks among the youth. The dimensions of these interventions have ranged from government policy initiatives to school-based programmes, deliberate development of youth action plans, the involvement of tertiary institutions, the activities of non-governmental organisations and the intervention of faith-based organisations. Despite these interventions, some challenges still exist. For some of the organisations, these challenges include a lack of capacity and shortage of funds. In tertiary institutions, the transitory nature of students' residence, the under-utilisation of services and human resource constraints are problematic. Adolescents remain exposed to sexually-transmitted diseases, and too little attention is given to youth with disabilities. The paper suggests that there is a need to employ social workers in schools, create greater awareness in tertiary institutions, engage in further research and documentation on the subject, and ensure an aggressive pursuit of the training of youth officers.
      PubDate: 2015-11-25T13:38:39Z
  • Commonwealth Youth and Development: The challenges and coping resources of
           youth heading households in South Africa
    • Authors: Botha; Petro
      Abstract: There is a large number of youth-headed households in South Africa. This is linked to the HIV/AIDS pandemic in the country. Various studies have been undertaken on child-headed households, but there is a lack of research on the personal experiences of youth heading households. The assumption has been made that youth are older and able to cope with their situation. Youth heading households have not been defined as a separate group, but have been included in Orphans, Vulnerable Children and Youth (OVCY). The aim of this study is to gain an in-depth understanding of the challenges and coping resources of youth heading households. A qualitative approach and a descriptive and contextual design were used. It is important that governments and NGOs clearly define a youth-headed household and include youth heading households in research evaluating current services to OVCY, and that they plan services focusing specifically on the needs of this group.
      PubDate: 2015-11-25T13:38:38Z
  • Commonwealth Youth and Development: The effectiveness of external
           whole-school evaluation on underperforming secondary schools in the
           Mpumalanga province
    • Authors: Mathaba; Richard Siphamandla Ryan, Dorasamy, Nirmala, Parker, Kudayja Mohammed
      Abstract: The study was conducted in the Mpumalanga province and focused on a sample of 18 externally evaluated underperforming secondary schools across all four districts of the province. The schools obtained an average pass rate of less than 30% in the 2011 Grade 12 examinations. The main objectives of the study were to analyse the purpose of whole-school evaluation (WSE) from a quality assurance perspective; to investigate the significance of a key component of WSE, namely assessing the quality of teaching, learning and educator development; to analyse the Grade 12 results of externally evaluated underperforming secondary schools pre- and post-evaluation; to analyse monitoring and evaluation reports for changes in teaching, learning and teacher development, as well as to identify factors impeding teaching, learning and teacher development in underperforming secondary schools. WSE is a system of evaluating the performance of schools as a whole. Corporate contribution to improve performance is measured, rather than simply the performance of individual staff members. Furthermore, WSE is one intervention to move schools that are in a critical situation along the path to becoming effective schools. Guidelines for quality assurance in education, especially at school level, are underpinned by the nine areas for evaluation (AFEs), namely basic functionality of the school (AFE1), leadership, management and communication (AFE2), governance and relationships (AFE3), quality of teaching and learning, and educator development (AFE4), curriculum provisioning and resources (AFE5), learner achievement (AFE6), school safety, security and discipline (AFE7), school infrastructure (AFE8), and parents and the community (AFE9). The mixed methods approach was used. This approach made it easy to reconcile findings through triangulation and complementing qualitative and quantitative data (both primary and secondary). The study relied on secondary data (external WSE reports and Grade 12 results), as well as primary data obtained from questionnaires administered to school management teams (SMTs) of the sampled underperforming secondary schools. The study revealed the great level of acceptance of the external WSE process by SMTs in Mpumalanga province's underperforming secondary schools, as a means of quality assurance in order to achieve improvement. Furthermore, it revealed the extent to which improvement and development in the underperforming schools occurred as a result of the external WSE process. It was found that the results of seventeen of the 18 schools (94.4%) had improved. Furthermore, the study confirmed that what was revealed in the external WSE as areas for development came as a revelation to SMTs. As a result, the manner in which teaching, learning and teacher development (AFE4) as a key component of WSE is viewed by teachers and SMTs, has been positively influenced.
      PubDate: 2015-11-25T13:38:37Z
  • Commonwealth Youth and Development: Empowering Muslim children through
           Qur'an stories : the case of 'The Camel and the Evil People' (2010) and
           Stories of the Sahabah for Youth (2011)
    • Authors: Aessop; Ghazala
      Abstract: The aim of this article is to explore how literary stories are used to teach Muslim children to respect the commands of Allah and the values that undergird Islamic religion. Using biblical allusions drawn from the Koran/Qur'an, stories for young readers such as The Camel and the Evil People (2010) and Stories of the Sahabah for Youth (2011) entertain as well as teach young Muslim readers to appreciate the divine messages of Allah. The lessons that children get from Qur'an stories help them to build character and stick to Muslim principles. They shape personality, test moral uprightness and provide children with a guide to follow the will of Allah. A critical analysis of the stories in the above-mentioned literary texts reveals the multiple layers of themes and perspectives that the texts explore to demonstrate the greatness of Allah and the submissiveness that he expects from his subjects. Through reading Qur'an stories, it is hoped that Muslim children would be empowered to defend Islamic principles, and to distinguish what is right from what is wrong.
      PubDate: 2015-11-25T13:38:36Z
  • Commonwealth Youth and Development: Perceptions of South African youth of
           leadership development programmes : a case in the Lepelle-Nkumpi municipal
    • Authors: Kanjere; Matshidiso
      Abstract: The South African youth faces multiple challenges that range from illiteracy, drug and alcohol abuse, crime and HIV/AIDS, to unemployment. These challenges and many other ills in society have led to interventions by government, and private and other civil societies. The government has established and initiated a number of programmes that aim at building capacity and helping the youth to cope with these multiple challenges. Some of the programmes are aimed at building leadership capacity among the impoverished youth in rural communities. A lot of money is being invested in these programmes, which are meant to develop young South Africans. However, there are some young people who do not participate in these programmes. They are also not in the formal education system, self-employed or employed elsewhere. And they are despondent. The government, private sector and non-governmental organisations are trying hard to bring these youths and others into the developmental arena, so that they can be active participants in the economy of the country in the near future. However, little research has been conducted to assess the broad impact of the various programmes in the country. The contribution that these programmes are making toward improving the livelihoods of young people has to be determined on a larger scale. Nevertheless, this article reports on an investigation that was conducted on a smaller scale, at the Lepelle-Nkumpi Local Municipality. The aim of the research was to explore the perceptions young South Africans have of the leadership development programmes that they have participated in. A mixed research approach was used to collect data and the key findings indicated that knowledge accumulated through participation in the programmes does not always translate into practical applications. However, the programmes were deemed to be valuable in instilling a positive life-view. The study recommends that support systems be established in the rural areas to assist young people with life challenges.
      PubDate: 2015-11-25T13:38:35Z
  • Commonwealth Youth and Development: Investing in young academic staff at
           an HEI : a participant's experiences of the Unisa research development
    • Authors: Shandu; Thulile Pearl
      Abstract: This article is based on the views and experiences of one participant who was part of the Young Academics Programme (YAP) for staff members at the University of South Africa (Unisa) in 2011. In the article, the author presents the scope of the programme, including its contents; her experiences of the programme; as well as the contributions of the programme to personal and career development. While previous research on YAP is acknowledged, the thrust of the article is on one participant's experiences and how the programme contributed specifically to the particular participant's development, especially in research. The article, therefore, highlights and validates some of the previous findings on YAP, while presenting new insights based on the 2011 YAP group. At the end of the article, recommendations are presented with reference to the programme, Unisa as an institution as well as other higher education institutions (HEIs).
      PubDate: 2015-11-25T13:38:35Z
  • Commonwealth Youth and Development: An analysis of literary depictions of
           youth employment and socio-economic development against the backdrop of
           Land Redistribution in post-2000 Zimbabwe
    • Authors: Magosvongwe; Ruby, Mguni, Zifikile, Nyamende, Abner
      Abstract: The article discusses literary depictions of youth employment opportunities and sustainable socioeconomic development in post-2000 Zimbabwe in Lawrence Hoba and Petina Gappah's short story collections, The Trek and Other Stories (2009) and An Elegy for Easterly (2009), respectively. The article views youth employment from an unorthodox/unscientific perspective, considering the informal self-employment strategies that Zimbabwean society has adopted, as depicted in the selected short story collections. It defies the singular approach in the manner that employment is generally viewed and quantified, especially in the context of the vilified Zimbabwean land redistribution processes that the short story collections dwell on. To this end, the article challenges readers and critics of the Zimbabwean youth employment situation and Zimbabwean sustainable socio-economic development from the perspective of the tight rope that the country walks on as Zimbabweans adopt strategies and mechanisms to self-regenerate and transform the livelihoods of the greater majority. The article concludes that real and sustainable youth employment and greater socio-economic development can only be attained through genuine ownership of land as the major economic resource, and through internal accountability for the more equitable distribution and benefitting the same. Self-serving modes that see development as an end in itself, without taking into account the quality of human lives, are self-defeating.
      PubDate: 2015-11-25T13:38:33Z
  • Commonwealth Youth and Development: Youth sentiments about 'others',
           epistemological change, and belonging at a South African university
    • Authors: Naidoo; Kammila, Uys, Tina
      Abstract: Young South Africans today face a multitude of critical and demanding challenges - the literature highlights identity conundrums; stresses implicit in academic environments; and numerous and contradictory messages on race, nationality and citizenship in a transforming, post-apartheid context. This article focuses on one key controversy in present-day South Africa - namely, young people's sentiments towards and perceptions of foreign nationals and their place in a democratic South Africa. The attitudes expressed are explained, first, through reference to anomic conditions in South Africa, in which levels of trust have been debilitated and in which negative public discourses of foreigners have been allowed to become hegemonic; and second, through students' suggestions that problematic perceptions of black foreigners stem largely from a lack of substantive knowledge of Africa, its history, and its inhabitants. It is argued that universities need to take seriously the Soudien Report's (2008) position on the necessity for epistemological change in order to better equip students to deal with rapidly diversifying student populations. The article is concluded with two central recommendations for institutional interventions at South African universities.
      PubDate: 2015-11-25T12:56:39Z
  • Commonwealth Youth and Development: Elimination of child forced labour in
    • Authors: Vambe; Beauty
      Abstract: This article suggests ways on how to eliminate child forced labour in Zimbabwe. Such an aim necessarily focuses research attention on and critically reviews the legal framework containing the instruments that Zimbabwe presently uses to deal with child labour. The questions that the article raises are: (1) to what extent do current laws on child labour as contained in Zimbabwe's Labour Relations Act of 1985, protect or undermine children's rights? (2) what remedies are offered by the government's policies in trying to reduce child exploitation? and (3) to what extent is Zimbabwe working towards harmonising its labour laws for them to be at par with the world trends? The article demonstrates that the concepts 'forced labour' and 'child labour' are legally recognised by the International Labour organisation (ILO), United Nations (UN), African Union (AU) and Southern African Development Community (SADC). The article draws from the legal opinion, statements and official pronouncements on the issue of forced labour in general, and child labour in particular from the above organisations in order to measure whether or not the Zimbabwe labour laws are adequately responsive to the problem of child forced labour. Therefore, the article dwells more on the critical re-assessment of the country's legal framework on child labour in comparison to international perspectives than on an analysis of actual instances of child forced labour in Zimbabwe.
      PubDate: 2015-11-25T12:56:38Z
  • Commonwealth Youth and Development: Youth leadership styles in South
    • Authors: Essop; Ghazala Begum
      Abstract: The purpose of this article is to ascertain the importance of young managers, especially middle managers as leaders. The article gives insight into the relevance of young people in middle management possessing the character traits and ingenuity of the traditional leader. Leadership styles are bracketed according to traits and tactics demonstrated by famous or infamous leaders across the globe, both past and present. Thus, the aim of the article is to show that young middle managers need to have the qualities of a good leader in order to be effective in an organisation. The article will demonstrate the various styles of leadership and the change in the role of young middle managers, clearly depicting the need for a change in the competencies of middle managers. This is a theoretical article and it will highlight the importance of the middle manager, which has previously been understated.
      PubDate: 2015-11-25T12:56:37Z
  • Commonwealth Youth and Development: RPL as a pathway towards the
           professionalisation of youth work in South Africa
    • Authors: Arko-Achemfuor; Akwasi
      Abstract: South African youth is facing a lot of challenges such as unemployment, crime, drug abuse, poverty, lack of relevant education and skills, to name a few. There are a number of organisations and individuals that are involved in youth work across the country. There have been calls by the state and development practitioners for youth work to be professionalised just like other professions such as teaching, social work, nursing, and so on. There is a lot of people who are already employed as youth workers by government and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) across the country who are already practising as youth workers. The author argues that all professions require a certain level of educational training and experience for admission into the profession. It is therefore important for the educational backgrounds and the experiences of youth workers to be assessed in order to determine the training and experience they have undergone to enable them to assist the youth in dealing with their challenges. This article explores the inclusion of recognition of prior learning (RPL) as one of the pathways which higher education providers can use for accrediting the work experiences of youth workers in South Africa and elsewhere and suggesting other relevant criteria and requirements for awarding the requisite academic qualifications towards the recognition of youth work qualifications.
      PubDate: 2015-11-25T12:56:37Z
  • Commonwealth Youth and Development: Youth empowerment and indigenisation
           in Zimbabwe
    • Authors: Makanda; Pascal T., Mutasa, Davie, Vambe, Maurice Taonezvi
      Abstract: Youth empowerment has become topical and most countries have realised the need to attend to youth issues in a more vigorous way. Generally countries have agreed that youths refer to persons between the ages of 14 and 35 years. The United Nations (UN) regards any person between the ages of 14 and 35 years as a youth. Previous youth issues were discussed by policy makers without involving the youths themselves. Owing to growing pressure, groups of youths in all continents of the world, policy makers and world leaders have come to realise that youths must be involved in planning issues that relate to their daily activities.
      PubDate: 2015-11-25T12:56:36Z
  • Commonwealth Youth and Development: Claude Maredza's The blackness of
           black and the race question in Zimbabwe and Brazil
    • Authors: Chitando; Anna
      Abstract: The race question has persisted, even when different projects aimed at stamping it out have been instigated. It continues to manifest in contexts that have diverse races, such as the United States of America, South Africa, Zimbabwe and Brazil. In all these contexts, the plight of black people continues to be a burning issue. Black people find themselves on the periphery of society. They are excluded from the education system. They therefore struggle to make an impact in key areas such as economics and politics. Claude Maredza is one Zimbabwean author who is angry and impatient when it comes to the race question. He is quite blunt when he challenges blacks to continue to struggle for their total freedom. He is equally sarcastic in his attacks on whites for their privileges and for refusing to accept the full humanity of blacks. This article explores the significance of his work, The blackness of black (2000), to the race question in Zimbabwe and Brazil. It argues that there is a need to explode the myth that Brazil is a racial democracy and to apply some of the insights that Maredza brings to the race question.
      PubDate: 2015-11-25T12:56:34Z
  • Commonwealth Youth and Development: The architectural fulcrum for the
           School Governing Bodies : a financial functional analysis in Limpopo
    • Authors: Semenya; Isrom Mamloko, Phago, Kedibone
      Abstract: The question of quality basic education in South Africa is critical to many poor households as this improves their future development and job prospects. The School Governing Bodies were established to govern schools and to ensure that quality basic education as a right is offered to those in need. This article considers the financial functional analysis of the School Governing Bodies (SGBs) in administering school funds, especially through its sub-committee on finance. The Limpopo Department of Education has published the prescripts for the management of school funds in the public schools for 2009 and 2011 respectively, in an attempt to empower the SGBs to improve the management of school funds. For the purpose of this article, schools in the rural areas of the Limpopo Province are focal point. The Primary data was collected by way of semi-structured interviews. A key finding in this investigation is that most of the SGB members are not adept with public financial management principles relevant for the schools, so that they could undertake their school financial oversight responsibilities. This lack of public finance literacy impedes the effective functioning of the SGBs in fulfilling their legislative mandate.
      PubDate: 2015-11-25T12:56:33Z
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