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ACCORD Occasional Paper     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
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African Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.425, h-index: 17)
African Finance J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
African J. for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African J. of Farm Child and Youth Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African J. of Herpetology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 8)
African J. of Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.105, h-index: 0)
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African Markets Overview     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
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Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of Statistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cabo     Full-text available via subscription  
Cardiovascular J. of Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Clean Air J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
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Commonwealth Youth and Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
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Current Allergy & Clinical Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.106, h-index: 3)
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French Studies in Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
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Gender and Behaviour     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
HR Highway     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
IFE Psychologia : An Intl. J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
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IMIESA     Full-text available via subscription  
Indilinga African J. of Indigenous Knowledge Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Injury and Safety Monitor     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
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Juta's Business Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Kleio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Learning and Teaching Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance  
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   ISSN (Print) 1117-4315
   Published by Sabinet Online Ltd Homepage  [185 journals]
  • Factors that motivate nurses to provide quality patient care in a rural
           hospital in Vhembe district, Limpopo Province, South Africa : rural health
           and indigenous knowledge system
    • Abstract: Author: Luhalima, T.R. Mulaudzi, F.M. Phetlhu, D.R. Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 473-484 Abstract: Health services in rural areas are known to be under-resourced in several ways and working conditions are often described as unfavourable. Nurses working under such conditions are likely to be demotivated; however, it seems that not all nurses feel demotivated because of the number of nurses who remain and serve in those areas. This article describes factors that motivate nurses to render quality patient care in a rural hospital in Vhembe district of Limpopo Province in South Africa. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive research design guided by an Appreciative Inquiry approach was used. Individual semi-structured interviews with 20 participants were conducted and analysis was conducted according to Tesch's open-coding technique. The results indicated both intrinsic and extrinsic factors as motivators, which relate to the events in participants' personal and social life as well as those in the work environment. Passion for the job was identified as the key driver from the intrinsic space while open communication from the employer was raised by the majority of participants as an external driver. This study revealed that although nurses in a rural hospital have challenges that can negatively impact on their motivational levels, their internal drive to care overcomes any negative factors.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:25Z
  • Explanatory models of disease and its causes in a rural community in
           Limpopo Province, South Africa : implications for treatment : rural health
           and indigenous knowledge system
    • Abstract: Author: Rankoana, Sejabaledi Agnes Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 485-493 Abstract: Explanations of disease and its causes are formed from cultural symbols, experiences and expectations associated with categories of disease. The models reveal disease labelling and cultural idioms for expressing experiences of disease. The present study was conducted to examine explanations of disease and its causes from a sample of 100 respondents. Structured interviews produced four explanatory frameworks of disease and five factors responsible for disease based on the cultural orientation of the study sample. Explanations of disease and its causes influence the choice of treatment. The respondents' explanations of disease and its causes are influenced by their cultural orientation. The study recommends documentation of the local communities' explanations of disease and beliefs in the causes of disease, and the information made available to biomedical staff to have understanding of the patients' explanations of disease and treatment seeking behaviour.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:25Z
  • Self-medication through administration of indigenous plant medicine among
           the Northern Sotho people of Limpopo Province, South Africa : rural health
           and indigenous knowledge system
    • Abstract: Author: Rankoana, Sejabaledi Agnes Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 494-501 Abstract: Self-medication is an aspect of self-care. It is about responsible selection and use of non-prescription medicines to treat self-recognised illnesses and symptoms. Scientists assert that this method of health promotion evolved with human culture and was further developed into traditional healing or ethnomedicine. The objective of this study was to examine factors that encourage reliance on self-medication through administration of traditional plant medicine. Data were collected through interviews with 53 local community members and 10 traditional health practitioners purposively selected to participate in the study. From the study it is evident that self-medication is encouraged by participants' cultural orientation. Factors such as the need to treat minor ailments, self-diagnosis, family tradition and one's responsibility to maintain good health and well-being are culturally-based. Knowledge of indigenous plant-derived medicine is noticeable among the study participants. Ten indigenous plant-derived medicines known by the participants are administered for self-treatment of minor ailments.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:25Z
  • Significance of literature when constructing a theory : a selective
           literature review : theory development
    • Abstract: Author: Linda, Ntombizodwa S. Phetlhu, Deliwe R. Klopper, Hester C. Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 502-512 Abstract: The issues around use of literature in theory construction are often a source of confusion, especially for novice researchers. The very nature of the process of theory construction remains blurred due to lack of consensus among researchers. Novice researchers are often confronted with questions of whether or not a literature review should be conducted when constructing a theory. These questions seeking to justify what a credible methodology is when constructing a theory not only challenge novice researchers but also experienced researchers. This article explores different perspectives regarding the significance of literature review in theory construction. A selective literature review was used to access and interrogate selected arguments from published peer-reviewed work. Narrative analysis was used to analyse selected text. It is concluded that literature plays a pivotal role in theory construction, whether by active review in the case of novice researchers or being sensitised by virtue of discipline interest and prolonged exposure in experienced researchers. However, it is important not to disregard the view that it is not necessary to incorporate literature review in certain specific designs due to assumed influence on the outcome of the new theory.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:25Z
  • Application of Lazarus's Cognitive Transactional Model of
           stress-appraisal-coping in an undergraduate mental health nursing
           programme in the Western Cape, South Africa : theory development
    • Abstract: Author: Martin, P.D. Daniels, F.M. Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 513-522 Abstract: This article describes how the cognitive transactional model of stress-appraisal-coping can be applied in the sense making process for students working in the challenging mental health care environment. Primary and secondary literature was searched by means of computer-assisted data bases using key words. An overview of emotions, emotion functioning and regulation is alluded to, to give credence to the application of the transactional model of stress and coping as purported by Lazarus & Folkman. The model is cognitive because it is based on the assumption that students' thinking processes, memory and the meaning that those events have for the student experiencing them - will act to mediate in determining stress and coping resources. The definition of stress emphasises the subjective responses in the relationship between the student and the mental health care environment. Coping, on the other hand, refers to the cognitive and behavioural attempts made by students to manage the demands of the mental health care environment but are appraised as exceeding the resources they possess. The central assumption of this theory is that the interaction between an individual and the environment creates stress experienced by the individual. In order to contextualise the discussion theoretical perspectives on emotions are alluded to. A simplistic example is given to show how undergraduate mental health nursing students may appraise an encounter with a mentally ill person and the outcome of that appraisal within the students' sense making process.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:25Z
  • Professional nurses' attitudes and perceptions towards mentally ill in an
           associated psychiatric hospital : quality of care
    • Abstract: Author: Basson, Marina Julie, Hester Adejumo, Oluyinka Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 523-537 Abstract: Research indicates that professional nurses with additional training in mental health nursing demonstrate more positive attitudes and perceptions towards mentally ill patients compared to those with less training. The aim of this study was to identify the factors which influence the attitudes and perceptions of professional nurses towards the mentally ill. A quantitative, exploratory, descriptive design was employed and cross-sectional survey was carried out among 60 professional nurses who were in permanent employment at a governmental associated psychiatric hospital in the Western Cape, South Africa. The findings indicated that nurses with post-registration diplomas in psychiatric nursing reported significantly higher role competency than those who only completed the basic four-year comprehensive nursing programme. The ethnicity of nurses played a role in the stereotyping of the mentally ill. No significant differences were evident between those professional nurses who had completed the advanced mental health course and those who had not. It is thus recommended that an introductory programme that addresses fallacies and negative attitudes towards the mentally ill should be made mandatory for all the students from the very early stages of their training.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:25Z
  • The perceptions and factors influencing the competency in newly qualified
           professional nurses working in private hospitals in the Western Cape,
           South Africa : quality of care
    • Abstract: Author: Hansen-Salie, N. Martin, P.D. Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 538-553 Abstract: In our constantly changing healthcare system and with large numbers of staff shortages in hospitals, newly qualified professional nurses (PNs) are expected to be competent and work unsupervised in leadership capacities soon after they have completed their nursing programmes. This study was aimed at determining the perceptions of newly qualified PNs competency as well as factors that influence competence. A quantitative approach using a descriptive survey design was employed, using 34 experienced PNs working in selected private hospitals in the Western Cape. Data were collected by means of a peer evaluation questionnaire, namely the Competency Inventory for Registered Nurses (CIRN). Data were analysed, using SPSS 19. The results of the 55-item CIRN indicate that newly qualified nurses were perceived as highly competent in clinical care, leadership, interpersonal relation, legal/ethical and professional development. Newly qualified nurses were perceived as low in competency in teaching/coaching and critical thinking/research aptitude. All of the factors identified using literature was perceived as having an influence on competence. Recommendations were made to the institutions to assist newly qualified nurses in competence development.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:25Z
  • Lymphoedema management therapists on service provision of secondary
           lymphoedema in South Africa : quality of care
    • Abstract: Author: Walker, Sonja L. Adejumo, Oluyinka Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 554-562 Abstract: A frequently occurring, problematic, and debilitating condition for people following cancer treatment is secondary lymphoedema, a chronic medical condition caused by lymphatic fluid accumulation, resulting in persistent and progressive swelling in one or more areas of the body. The current status of service provision for management and the magnitude of secondary lymphoedema in South Africa are not known. This study made use of a descriptive cross-sectional online survey to assess the management of and service provision for secondary lymphoedema as provided by lymphoedema management therapists from both the public and private sector in all provinces of South Africa. The preliminary analysed data include responses from 45 lymphoedema management therapists from five provinces in South Africa. Most of the respondents (46.7%) had a professional educational background in occupational therapy and 35.6% in physiotherapy. Most of the respondents (76.6%) were from the private sector and (24.4%) provided services in the public sector. There were no respondents from rural areas. Of the respondents 84.40% reported that they had completed a 135-hour training course on lymphoedema treatment and management. The most common treatment given to patients was complete decongestive therapy inclusive of manual lymphatic drainage, compression bandaging, compression garment fitting, and skin care. Preliminary results provide a picture of unequal distribution of services between the health sectors as well as between urban and rural areas.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:25Z
  • Health challenges of elderly people caring for children orphaned by AIDS
           in a community setting in South Africa : HIV/AIDS management and care
    • Abstract: Author: Mutemwa, Mebelo Adejumo, Oluyinka Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 336-347 Abstract: The HIV epidemic has resulted in the death of many people in their reproductive years, leaving behind orphans who are sometimes cared for by their elderly relatives despite the feebleness of their aging bodies. The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the health challenges of elderly people caring for children orphaned by AIDS. This research was conducted as a qualitative phenomenological exploratory, descriptive, and contextual study, conducted in the Mafikeng Municipality of North-West province in South Africa. Data were collected from December 2011 to February 2012 through individual face-to-face interviews and field notes. Elderly people's health challenges in caring for children orphaned by AIDS centred on physical, psycho-emotional, economic and, psychosocial constraints, linked to re-parenting at an old age or because of losing their own children and relatives to AIDS. They experienced physical exhaustion as a challenge of caring for the children orphaned by AIDS as the capacity of their bodies was now reduced and they also had to meet the physical, emotion and spiritual needs of the orphans as well as providing them with food, clothing and shelter. Lack of sleep, dizziness, elevated blood pressure, low glucose levels and asthmatic attacks were also aggravated by contemplating how to fend for these children or owing to the fact that the orphans were very stubborn and took the elderly for granted. This study afforded an understanding of the health challenges elderly people experience in caring for children orphaned by AIDS. The study also recommended some of the interventions that can assist elderly people in this role they play of caring. Based on the findings, it can be deduced that on top of health challenges they face, they are obliged to deal with the added burden of caring for orphaned children by AIDS.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:24Z
  • Perceptions and knowledge of elderly females of Ga-Rankuwa community of
           HIV risk : fallacies and myths : HIV/AIDS management and care
    • Abstract: Author: Lekalakala-Mokgele, Eucebious Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 325-335 Abstract: Literature pertaining to the elderly shows that HIV infection among this population is on the increase, suggesting that the elderly population engages in activities that put them at risk of HIV infection. There are indications that people aged 50 years and more may know less about HIV than younger people. This study was carried out in Ga-Rankuwa, a black township in Gauteng Province, South Africa, to explore and describe the understanding of these elderly people regarding their risky behaviour as well as their perceptions and knowledge of HIV infection and AIDS. Using a qualitative, exploratory design, three focus group interviews were conducted with 32 women aged more than 50 years. Findings revealed that although the majority of participants had knowledge of how HIV is transmitted, and issues that put them at risk of infection, a few had misconceptions about HIV due to lack of knowledge, and believed that poor nutrition and sharing facilities can transmit HIV infection. Other myths upheld by these participants were that HIV can be transmitted by sharing bathroom facilities and that the virus is airborne. These misconceptions and myths of how HIV is transmitted point to limited knowledge of the subject on the part of these elderly participants. The lack of knowledge underscores the importance of effective HIV prevention efforts among this population group. Education interventions which are age-appropriate must be designed for older adults, and must emphasise the behaviours that put them at risk.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:24Z
  • Challenges faced by grandparents caring for AIDS orphans in Koster, North
           West Province of South Africa : HIV/AIDS management and care
    • Abstract: Author: Phetlhu, Deliwe R. Watson, Mada Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 348-359 Abstract: Caring for orphans who have lost their parents due to AIDS, and some of whom are infected, is an enormous challenge. This immense responsibility often resides with the grandparents, who are in most cases sickly and not financially capable to undertake the task. The objectives of this study were to explore and describe challenges faced by such grandparents and their needs while caring for AIDS orphans in Koster, North West province, South Africa. Maslow's theory of human needs was used as a theoretical framework to guide the study. A qualitative approach with an explorative and descriptive design was used. Grandparents who cared for AIDS orphans and were assisted by non-governmental organisations were purposively selected. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 participants and thematic analysis was done to interpret the data. The findings revealed that the grandparents faced biophysical, socio-economic and psychosocial challenges and these impacted on their emotions; however, they indicated different coping strategies which were available to them. The participants highlighted that their main priority, as a need, was assistance with food supply for themselves and the orphans. The study concluded that the focus in attempting to meet the grandparents' needs should not only be the basic order needs in Maslow's hierarchy but all the other orders, as they have a great impact on both the grandparent and the AIDS orphan.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:24Z
  • Clinical forensic nursing skills and competencies for quality care to
           victims of crime and violence : gender and equity
    • Abstract: Author: Duma, Sinegugu E. De Villiers, Tania Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 360-375 Abstract: The victims of crime and violence present to the health system for management of their medico-legal needs in South Africa. The nurses, including the clinical forensic nurses are in the forefront of patient and the management of victims and survivors of crime in most health care settings in this country. The distinct clinical forensic nursing skills and competencies that are needed for quality care of the victims of crime and violence as patients have not been described in South Africa. The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the expectations of different stakeholders with regards to the clinical forensic nursing skills and competencies for quality care for victims of crime and violence in the health setting and the recognition of forensic nurses. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data from a sample of 9 participants. Thematic data analysis yielded 9 themes which described the expected and observed skills and competencies, desirable attributes and forms of recognition for provision of quality care for the victims of crime and violence. The findings underscore the importance of clinical forensic nurses and the need for formal recognition of forensic nursing as a specialty in this country. They are beneficial to the development and regulation of forensic nursing practice in this country.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:24Z
  • Voices of rape victims managed in an emergency department : gender and
    • Abstract: Author: Filmalter, Celia J. Gous, Marianne Heyns, Tanya Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 376-384 Abstract: Someone is raped every 35 seconds in South Africa. Rape victims seek healthcare from various facilities, including emergency departments. The management of rape victims is guideline driven and the way in which these victims perceive their initial management is not always taken into consideration. For healthcare providers to develop their practice, the voice of adult rape victims should be incorporated. Individual interviews were conducted with 10 participants in order to gain a deeper understanding of the rape victims' views of their initial management received in the emergency department. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. The participants voiced feelings such as; being left alone, the need for themselves to be involved during the management and the variant competencies of healthcare providers. These voiced views of the rape survivors should be incorporated in a practice development initiative to move current workplace culture in emergency departments towards a patient-centred culture.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:24Z
  • Transsexual women's journey towards a heteronormative health care system :
           gender and equity
    • Abstract: Author: Newman-Valentine, Douglas D. Duma, Sinegugu E. Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 385-394 Abstract: Realigning their physical embodiment is a challenge for Transsexual women because of dependence and power imbalance they experience within the heteronormative healthcare system which is designed for heterosexual men and women's health care needs. Negotiating trans-inclusive healthcare in such a context can pose challenges for transsexual women. This study used the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis approach to investigate transsexual women on the journey of sexual realignment in a heteronormative healthcare system in the Western Cape. In-depth interviews were conducted with ten participants who were sampled through purposive and snowball sampling. Data collection and analysis was a concurrent process after which a cross-case analysis was done. The data analysis was guided by the steps as set out for Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). This resulted in the emergence of the main theme "Facing the Giant in Order to Become" which was made of the following clusters: Practitioners with power preventing progress on the realignment journey, Fearing care, and fearing transphobia. This article highlights issues affecting the health and healthcare delivery for transsexual women to assist healthcare practitioners to reflect on their automatic heteronormative healthcare practices. It also has implications for promotion of inclusivity in the development of curriculum that shapes inclusive healthcare providers. The article will hopefully serve as a vehicle to mobilise researchers to investigate issues affecting the health and healthcare delivery for transsexual women within the African context.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:24Z
  • Factors influencing utilisation of female condom among healthcare
           providers in Tshwane, South Africa : gender and equity
    • Abstract: Author: Ngunyulu, R.N. Mogale, R.S. Mulaudzi, F.M. Peu, M.D. Mataboge, M.L.S. Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 395-408 Abstract: This article describes the factors influencing the utilisation of the female condom (FC2) among healthcare providers, which is part of a study that aimed at developing strategies to improve the utilisation by the patients of FC2 in prevention of STIs, HIV and AIDs and unplanned pregnancies. Like other women in the world, female healthcare providers are also biologically two to four times more vulnerable to STIs, HIV and AIDs infections than men. Women are also vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies. However, the utilisation of FC2 by healthcare providers is still inadequate. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive research approach was used in this study. Purposive sampling was used to select the participants, because only healthcare providers responsible for the provision of FC2 were selected. In-depth individual interviews were used during data collection. Data were analysed following the qualitative data analysis methods. Factors influencing the utilisation of FC2 were identified as the main category during data analysis. The study confirmed that the healthcare providers are unable to utilise the FC2 because of: the shape and size of the FC2; complexities of the female genital organs hindering procedure; partners' reaction to FC2; and cultural background around accepting FC2 use. The development of strategies to enable healthcare providers to use FC2 was recommended, in order to ensure protection and prevention of STIs, HIV and AIDs and unplanned pregnancies among healthcare providers.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:24Z
  • The influence of physical activity and sport on health status and
           wellbeing in rural communities : the case of Grabouw : community
    • Abstract: Author: Nsengiyumva, P. Keim, M. Laattoe, N. Cabral, J.F.A. Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 409-418 Abstract: This study explores the influence of physical activity and sport on health status among residents in the rural community of Grabouw. Survey data were collected under the auspices of the Interdisciplinary Centre of Excellence for Sport Science and Development, in collaboration with the Interdisciplinary Teaching and Learning Unit of the University of the Western Cape. This study involved 53 participants aged between 18 and 33 years of age residing in the community of Grabouw in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The study used a mixed method of quantitative and qualitative approaches and statistical analysis such as cross-tabulation to explore the relationship between the physical activity and health status of the participants. Thematic analysis was used to integrate qualitative findings. The study showed that rural community residents who were involved in physical activity or those who are active in sport had fewer health problems compared to those who were not involved in physical activity or sport. It is concluded that there is an association between physical activity, sport and good health. It is therefore recommended to run sport and recreation community outreach programmes with qualified staff and organise equipment for training to physically engage the community and further monitor and evaluate their health status.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:24Z
  • Experiences of caregivers of asthmatic children regarding implementation
           of an asthma education programme at a community health centre in Cape Town
           : community engagement
    • Abstract: Author: Van Rhyn, Gabieba Daniels, F. Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 419-430 Abstract: This study explored the experiences of caregivers of children with asthma regarding implementation of an asthma education programme at a community health centre in the Western Cape. The study explored the experiences of caregivers living with and helping the young asthmatic child when asthma symptoms first appear; their views and experiences on implementation of the asthma education programme; and their understanding of the expectations of them as caregivers, based on the guidelines provided to them. An exploratory, descriptive, contextual design was employed. Caregivers of children with asthma participated in semi-structured interviews which were guided by use of an interview schedule containing open-ended questions. The sample was derived through purposive sampling of caregivers who attended the health facility. Thematic analysis of the data was conducted. The results showed that caregivers found the education programme useful, and they reported that it was offered at a level that was easy for them to understand. Caregivers suggested that the programme should continue because they learned something new every time they attended the asthma clinic at the community health centre. Practical demonstrations were found to be particularly useful. It was clear that caregivers were aware of what was expected of them and that the education programme has assisted them in their caregiver role, despite the fact that they still experience moments of fear when the child has an asthma attack.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:24Z
  • Experiences of community nurses in management of a district-based mental
           health information system in the Western Cape, South Africa : health
    • Abstract: Author: Bimerew, Million Adejumo, Oluyinka Korpela, Mikko Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 431-444 Abstract: The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of community nurses in the management of a mental health information system (MHIS). A purposive convenient sampling method was employed to select 23 community mental health nurses from 23 community health facilities for the study. Individual semi-structured interviews were used, and the data were analysed for themes. The main findings of the study were categorised into the themes of information gathering tools and contents, information processing, and challenges of mental health information processing. Subthemes which emerged were information gathering tools, head count information content, knowledge and skills, computer technology, information flow and sharing, resources, and feedback in information processing. Information processing in terms of data gathering, compiling, analysing, getting feedback, and sharing information were the major concerns. There were inadequate knowledge and skills in information systems, no standard information collection tools designed for mental health, and lack of infrastructure, such as a mental health information network system across the health facilities and up to the higher level. Mental health requires a responsible person that deals with the MHIS in terms of reporting, analysing and getting feedback from the results of analysis back to the people at ground level for implementation. The amount of mental health information being collected and processed was inadequate and of poor quality. This has resulted in having few data available for the decision making process and/or planning mental health services.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:24Z
  • District facility managers' perspectives of mental health information
           processing and utilisation at primary care level in the Western Cape :
           health informatics
    • Abstract: Author: Bimerew, Million Korpela, Mikko Adejumo, Oluyinka Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 445-459 Abstract: District health facility managers play a significant role in provision of primary health care (PHC) services, particularly in integration of mental health services into the PHC level and developing a district health information system, which includes an integrated mental health information system (MHIS). The aim of the study was to explore the views and involvement of district health facility managers in the mental health information processing and utilization in improving mental health service delivery within the context of PHC. The study employed a qualitative research approach. Fourteen facility mangers were recruited using purposive sampling techniques, and interviews were conducted in 2012 and 2013. The interview data were analysed using thematic content analysis. The study identified that mental health information processing systems are fragmented and inadequate for decision making, and it was not known how to use mental health information. Lack of knowledge in information processing and utilization, as well as poor information infrastructure and networking was associated with poor understanding about mental health, not considering mental health as one of the priorities within the district health services, and lack of higher officials' interest in the mental health development programme. Also notable were the attitudes towards mental illness, which were a major problem. These findings have major implications, such as behavioral /attitudinal risk factors of higher officials, policy makers, and the community for MHIS development and interventions in the reduction of mental health problems in South Africa.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:24Z
  • Support for nurses dealing with rituals held in health care facilities :
           rural health and indigenous knowledge system
    • Abstract: Author: Jiyane, Priscilla Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 460-472 Abstract: Health facility management support remains a strong pillar and motivator for nurses during service delivery but, unfortunately, in most cases a lack of management support is experienced in hospitals in South Africa. Lack of management support exists in one health district in Mpumalanga Province. The problem was realised when families visited the health facility to fetch the spirit of deceased. These family members were dissatisfied about the care they received from the nurses. During a study which explored the nurses experiences regarding the ritual of fetching the spirit if the deceased, the study findings revealed the suggestions for possible consideration by the hospital management to support the nurses in dealing with the families. That triggered the researcher's intentions to identify the participants' suggestions which the health care management should use as support for the nurses dealing with rituals held in health care facilities. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive study was conducted using unstructured interviews. The data collection method used was one-one interviews. An interview schedule was used to collect data. Techs' method of data analysis was used for analysing the collected data. The findings of the study revealed ways that may effectively promote management's support for nurses during their daily encounter with families who fetch the spirit of the deceased. The findings were used as suggestions to support the nurses; for example, increased nursing staff coverage, formulating the standards of nursing care, advocating for the nurses, mentoring, bereavement debriefing sessions for the nurses, limitation of the non-nursing duties and creating a healthy environment for the nurses. Management support is a priority motivator for nurses. The researcher believes that the use of the suggestions of this research should lead to increased harmonious stakeholder interaction with resultant quality care in health facilities.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:24Z
  • Effects of uterine fundal massage on number of postpartum haemorrhage
           cases at a level 2 maternity hospital in the Western Cape, South Africa :
           training for mother and child health
    • Abstract: Author: Juul, Sonje Adejumo, Oluyinka Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 290-299 Abstract: Globally, as well as in South Africa, postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) due to uterine atony is the number one direct cause of maternal mortality associated with the postpartum period. Active management of the third stage of labour has been thought to prevent PPH in women. This study assesses uterine fundal massage in the postpartum period as part of active management of the third stage of labour (AMTSL) and its outcome on the number of PPH cases at a level 2 maternity hospital. A quasi-experimental approach was used to determine the effect of continuous uterine fundal massage, every 15 minutes for the first 2 hours after birth, on the number of PPH cases at a level 2 maternity hospital in the Western Cape. It was found that the number of PPH cases reduced from 33/426 cases in the comparison group to 23/431 cases in the experimental group, although this was not statistically significant (Chi-square test, p=0.14). There was also a reduction in the mean postpartum blood loss (not statistically significant). Potential risk factors were considered in a logistic regression model but did not change the final conclusion that the effect of the intervention did not result in a statistically significant decrease in occurrence of PPH (p=0.1039).There was insufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis of the study. It was concluded that more studies may be necessary to add to the outcome of AMTSL intervention in the maternity setting. A number of other recommendations were made for later implementation within the clinical setting for this study.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:23Z
  • Genetics knowledge of advanced midwifery learners : educators' perceptions
           : training for mother and child health
    • Abstract: Author: Phaladi-Digamela, Mauwane R. Mulaudzi, Fhumulani M. Maja, Todd M. Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 300-311 Abstract: Healthcare professionals require adequate knowledge of genetics to be able to assess, diagnose, manage and prevent in good time genetic-related diseases. Healthcare professionals empowered in this field are able to differentiate at an early stage between genetic and genomic components of diseases. Advanced midwifery learners are trained to provide specialist holistic care that includes genetics upon course completion. Their genetic knowledge is crucial for them to provide genetic services in clinical- and in primary health care (PHC) settings. This study explores perceptions of advanced midwifery educators regarding genetics knowledge of their learners. A qualitative, explorative and descriptive design was employed. A total of 19 participants took part in this study. Data were collected through focus group discussions, individual face-to-face and telephone interviews. Thematic analysis was used for data analysis. Genetic knowledge emerged as a major theme under which genetic concepts, genetic history taking, common genetic disorders, genetic counselling, identification and management of genetic disorders were identified as sub-themes. At present, genetics education is addressed at the discretion of the individual advanced midwifery educators during training. This random kind of teaching is attributed to the lack of a curriculum framework that standardises genetics education at nursing education institutions (NEIs) in South Africa. The importance of genetics education is underrated in advanced midwifery courses, contributing to learners lacking adequate knowledge of genetics. Advanced midwifery learners need a sufficient knowledge of genetics to provide holistic care in clinical and PHC settings upon course completion.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:23Z
  • The practice of self-leadership in personal and professional development
           of contract nursing staff in the environment of a higher education
           institution : leadership and management
    • Abstract: Author: Jooste, Karien Le Roux, Loretta Z. Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 275-285 Abstract: Self-leadership is a comprehensive self-influence perspective that concerns leading oneself toward the performance of naturally motivating tasks and managing oneself to do work that must be done but that is not naturally motivating. Contract employment is increasingly becoming a trend among higher education institutions to address nursing faculty shortages. Therefore, self-leadership may be challenging for contract employers to remain positive about their temporary employment status. Studies highlight that contract staff continue to feel under-valued and that job insecurity and fewer benefits may decrease their level of motivation and self-leadership in an organisation. Self-leadership, however, may assist contract staff to regulate their own actions, personally and professionally, because the motivation to lead may promote higher productivity and a more fulfilling career. A review of literature on self-leadership was conducted within the conceptual framework This paper provides a review of literature on self-leadership that was integrated into a conceptual framework of using power, authority and influence in the context of contract staff at an undergraduate nursing school. This concept paper therefore outlines a new framework on how self-leadership of contract workers can enhance their personal and professional development.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:23Z
  • Perceptions on the motivational practices of transformational leaders in
           implementing a cervical programme in primary health care clinics :
           leadership and management
    • Abstract: Author: Jooste, K. Kodisang, D. Magobe, N. Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 250-274 Abstract: Transformational leadership involves the creation of motivational practices that encourage behaviour based on a set of shared values. These practices enhance growth, development, commitment, goal achievement, and enjoyment. During support visits in the Ekurhuleni Health District, a lack of motivation was observed in transformational leadership among facility managers at Primary Health Care (PHC) Clinics to adapt the Cervical Cancer Screening Programme in accordance with relevant health care legislation. A comparative study design was followed in order to explore and describe the perceptions of professional nurses and facility managers on motivational practices in transformational leadership exercised by the facility managers while implementing the programme at PHC Clinics. Total sampling included facility managers (n = 34) while simple random sampling for professional nurses (n = 62) was followed. The method of data collection was a survey using a similar, self-administered, structured questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed. Validity and reliability were ensured and ethical considerations taken into account during the research process. The Cronbach's alpha test was applied to the full sample to test the reliability of the instrument (> 0.70). Facility managers had the highest mean scores and significant differences between the two groups indicated moderate to large effect sizes. Motivational aspects under scrutiny related to encouragement, provision of information, coaching and staff development, job creativity and allocation, quality improvement, performance appraisal, and adequate supplies of resources.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:23Z
  • The perceptions of undergraduate nurses on their motivation due to
           empowerment in unit management by operational nurse leaders while in
           clinical placement : leadership and management
    • Abstract: Author: Jooste, K. Ntamane, P. Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 225-249 Abstract: Empowerment is a process of increasing undergraduate nurses' access to independent thought and creating an environment to allow him or her to experience the autonomy of the effects of independent thought. In this study, the term empowerment refers to participative decision-making, power-sharing, and motivation of undergraduate nurses in unit management by the operational nurse leader. It has been observed that it is difficult for undergraduate undergraduate nurses to apply management principles without any empowerment in order to perform management activities in the unit. This paper describes the perceptions of the 3rd year undergraduate nurses on their motivation due to empowerment, at an academic hospital. A quantitative, exploratory and descriptive design was followed. An accessible population of 200 undergraduate nurses at a nursing college in the Johannesburg area served as the sample. A structured self-administered questionnaire was developed on the basis of a literature review. Pre-testing of the instrument was implemented and a survey conducted. Parametric and non-parametric tests of this phenomenon did not yield any significant differences with regard to age groups and home languages. A factor analysis identified six factors, extracted from 32 items in Section B of the questionnaire. Three of these factors were included in this paper: Motivational aspects of empowerment related to autonomy and self-determination, decision-making and problem-solving, and initiative and creativity. Validity and reliability principles were applied during the research process and Cronbach's alpha reliabilities for the six factors of empowerment were computed and all showed consistency > .70. The necessary permissions were obtained for the study and the researcher adhered to ethical principles. This study concluded that operational nurse leaders needed to take certain motivational actions that would enable undergraduate nurses to execute unit management activities.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:23Z
  • A conceptual framework of the resemblance in self-leadership and
           professional core values of nurses in the South African context :
           leadership and management
    • Abstract: Author: Bimray, Portia B. Jooste, Karien Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 197-216 Abstract: In a country such as South Africa with its widely diverse values and belief systems, it could be a challenge to bring about a common understanding of professionalism amongst nurses in a multicultural society. When novice nurses enter the profession, they are confronted by the core values in nursing professionalism in an environment that sometimes lacks leadership by senior nurse practitioners. It was thus decided to explore the resemblance in the concept of self-leadership and the professional values of nursing. Values influence professional practice and commitment and, therefore, principal leadership qualities and functions are to influence oneself to develop a shared service commitment, to nurture and foster the confidence in one's own capacity, and the ability to make a valuable contribution to nursing practice. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe a conceptual framework on self-leadership and the resemblance with inherent core professional values in nursing. Literature about self-leadership, professionalism, and professional values, in a global context, was explored. A conceptual framework emerged, since the researchers discovered that self-leadership qualities corresponded with professional core values required by novice nurses to be able to deliver quality nursing care. For the young nurse entering the nursing profession, the professional values are often tacit which prevent nurses from recognising their self-leadership qualities in order to act and behave accordingly. This review article could contribute to a common understanding, not previously explored, amongst nurse educators and nurse practitioners of the resemblance between self-leadership and core professional values to prepare novice nurses for professional nursing practice in a multicultural society.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:23Z
  • Exploring development of leadership capacities in undergraduate nursing
           students through transformative learning : a narrative review : leadership
           and management
    • Abstract: Author: Essa, Ilhaam Hoffman, Jeffrey C. Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 217-224 Abstract: Transformative learning (TL) is seen as an instructional reform in health professions education to develop leadership capacities and eventually produce change agents. This article explores the development of leadership capacities of nurse practitioners at an undergraduate level through TL practices. This exploration is based on an exploratory narrative review of literature on TL and leadership capacities. The potential contribution of this exploration of literature can be to raise consciousness among nursing academics about TL with the aim of engendering leadership capacities in their students. This article therefore poses the following question: What is TL and how can it be utilised in the development of leadership capacities in undergraduate nursing students? TL is an adult learning theory that involves an ongoing dialogical process towards self-actualisation and social empowerment of others. It proposes that human beings should expand their consciousness through critical reflection and discourse and, more importantly, act on the new assumptions and perspectives they attain. The preliminary review suggests that TL practices can be used to cultivate leadership capacities in undergraduate nursing students. It is proposed that application of the principles of TL theory be translated into an empirical study to provide evidence-based guidelines on developing leadership capacities in undergraduate nursing students.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:23Z
  • Perceptions of students and educators on the potential use of mobile
           devices in an undergraduate nursing module : teaching and learning
    • Abstract: Author: Willemse, J.J. Jooste, K. Bozalek, V. Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 179-196 Abstract: Higher education is in the midst of an electronic transformative change cycle attributable to advancements in mobile technology. This transformative process took us from stationary desktop computers to laptop computers and currently to mobile technology. Mobile technology brings a new dimension to the traditional face-to-face method of teaching with the availability of online resources. This study explored the perceptions of nursing students and educators on the potential use of mobile devices in an undergraduate nursing programme at a Higher Education Institution in the Western Cape Province. A quantitative, explanatory, descriptive research design method was utilised through an electronic survey. The sample of respondents included eighty four (n=84) third year undergraduate nursing students registered for the Primary Health Care Module and six (n=6) educators involved in the facilitation of this module. An instrument was developed after a literature review had been conducted and face and content validity had been verified by experts in the field of emerging technology. The electronic survey was implemented by using Google Drive to investigate the respondents' perceptions on the use of mobile devices. The rationale for that approach was to gain a general picture about the extent of the respondents' knowledge with regard to the use of mobile devices to provide a foundation for developing a mobile learning intervention that would enhance students' integration of theory and clinical practice. The descriptive data analysis was done using the IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), Version 22. Data was analysed to obtain descriptive statistics and means and standard deviations were summarised. The analysis revealed the perceptions of students and educators in relation to their knowledge on the use of mobile devices, including their preparedness to use their mobile devices for enhancing the integration of theory and clinical practice of the Primary Health Care Module. The discussion of the findings is supported by literature that contextualises the results to guide further engagement with mobile devices. The necessary ethical clearance and permissions were obtained for the study and the researcher adhered to ethical principles before and during the implementation of the survey.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:23Z
  • Assessing level of affective learning of undergraduate nursing students at
           a university in the Western Cape regarding rendering prevention of
           mother-to-child transmission services : teaching and learning
    • Abstract: Author: Van der Berg, L.S. Walker, S.L. Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 154-165 Abstract: Nursing assessment and teaching strategies focus mainly on the cognitive and psychomotor areas of learning. This is eminent in research studies that state that the cognitive approach is taken because of challenges in investigating the affective domain. This study assesses undergraduate nursing students' level of affective learning with regard to rendering prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services, which is key to working with at-risk populations. A qualitative exploratory descriptive and contextual design was utilised to assess the level of affective learning based on the students' reflective journaling. Ninety reflective journals were analysed by means of content analysis using Atlas.ti 7. Students were able to reflect at all the levels of the affective domain, and it was found that the use of reflective journaling is an appropriate teaching and assessment tool to enhance this learning domain. However, further research is needed on the interrelationship between the affective domain and the cognitive and psychomotor domains.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:23Z
  • Nurse educators' experiences and perspectives of incivility among nursing
           students in a South African school of nursing : teaching and learning
    • Abstract: Author: Vink, Hildeguard J. Adejumo, Oluyinka Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 166-178 Abstract: This study presents a synthesis of the experiences and perspectives of nurse educators regarding uncivil classroom behaviours of nursing students in a school of nursing. Using a descriptive, phenomenological design, 11 nurse educators were purposively sampled for their experiences and knowledge of the phenomenon under study. The participants provided data as individuals in face-to-face interviews until data were saturated. Participation was voluntary; discussions were confidential, with no names traceable to specific data. Data analysis indicated that the nurse educators had varying experiences with incivility among nursing students. Acts of incivility included coming to class late, cell phone use, noise making, sleeping in class, classroom attendance fraud, fraud in assignments, examinations and tests, direct and indirect physical aggression, intimidation and verbal aggression through disputes, confrontations, inappropriate language and verbal threats, with three resultant themes of disruptions, fraud and aggression. Discussions of the findings were on the basis of their implications for professional leadership imperatives for nursing. The described acts of incivility were believed to be affecting student-educator relationships, the quality of education and the professional future and leadership of nursing. Nurse educators or nurse leaders who may be dealing with issues of maintaining professional nursing ethics, or requiring understanding of uncivil behaviour among younger generations of nurses in schools or colleges of nursing, may significantly benefit from the information provided by the findings of this study.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:23Z
  • Nutritional knowledge, feeding practices and body mass index of primary
           caregivers : a cross-sectional study : HIV/AIDS management and care
    • Abstract: Author: Brown, Melissa Roman, Nicolette V. Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 312-324 Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine nutritional knowledge, feeding practices and BMI of primary caregivers of children younger than 18 years of age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a convenient sample of participants. The Comprehensive Child Feeding Practice Questionnaire and the General Nutritional Knowledge Questionnaire for adults were used to collect the data. Body mass index (BMI) scores were calculated based on self-reported height and weight measurements. An online mode of data collection was used, culminating in a final sample of 147 participants. The mean age of participants was 37.73 (SD = 8.10) years, and most of them (77.2%) were female. Three groups were created based on BMI scores. These groups were normal weight (30 BMI score). The results show that according to self-reported BMI, the majority of participants were overweight (46%). There were no significant differences between the three groups based on food choices and feeding practices. However, feeding practices (restrictions for weight (r = 0.29, p < 0.05) and teaching about nutrition (r = 0.24, p < 0.05) were significantly positively related to BMI levels of primary caregivers. Implications for healthier eating and feeding patterns are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:23Z
  • Perceptions of professional nurses regarding clinical competence of
           community service practitioners from degree and diploma programmes offered
           in the Western Cape : teaching and learning
    • Abstract: Author: Snell, L.A. Daniels, F.M. Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 142-153 Abstract: In compliance to the national requirements of producing competent learners, the South African Nursing Council requires community service practitioners to have the necessary knowledge, skills, attitudes and values which will enable them to render efficient professional service. The purpose of the study was to compare the perceptions of professional nurses about the clinical competence of community service practitioners (CSPs) who graduated from a nursing degree programme and those who completed a nursing diploma programme in the Western Cape. A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional design was adopted to make comparisons of how professional nurses' rated the clinical competence of the CSPs. Five regional hospitals were purposively selected based on them being designated health establishments for community service. Non-probability convenient sampling was employed to select a total of 52 professional nurses who were directly involved in the supervision of CSPs who graduated from degree and diploma programmes. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data, which were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Bivariate analysis was done using contingency tables to compare the associations of clinical competence between the two groups of CSPs as rated by the professional nurses who supervised them. A confidence level of 95% with a 5% level of significance was set, and a p-value of less than 0.05 was interpreted as significant. The results show that professional nurses perceived the CSPs who had completed a diploma nursing programme to be more competent than the nurses with degrees. It is recommended that a longitudinal study be conducted to see if the rating for clinical competence between the two groups and the professional nurses' ratings of the two groups change at all. In conclusion this study suggests that there is no significant difference in clinical competence related to knowledge and skills between the two groups of CSPs.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:23Z
  • Cost-benefit analysis of the common teaching platform for the
           undergraduate nursing degree programme in the Western Cape, South Africa :
           teaching and learning
    • Abstract: Author: Adejumo, Oluyinka Titi, Neziswa Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 1-27 Abstract: Post-1994, the South African higher education sector underwent a number of reforms to address issues of inequalities, inefficiencies and fragmentation. Reform in the Western Cape Province included pooling the resources of three universities to form a common teaching platform (CTP). Henceforth training and education of undergraduate nursing students took place at a university in the Western Cape as the main enrolling higher education institution (HEI) for the undergraduate nursing degree. This study examines monetary and non-monetary costs and benefits derived from the CTP compared to the previous teaching platform (PTP), where the universities offered the degree programme in nursing independently of each other. PTP and CTP expenditure reports were the source of data for a monetary cost-benefit analysis (CBA). This was a Medias Res CBA study with some ex-ante and ex-post CBA elements. Non-monetary cost-benefit data were obtained through in-depth semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions and programme review reports. Researchers used qualitative and quantitative methods for analysis of the data. The study concluded that while monetary benefits accrued to sister institutions, this was at the expense of the sole enrolling HEI, and that it was more expensive to produce a nurse graduate with the CTP than with the PTP. Non-monetary findings indicate that the CTP was perceived to have led to a more inefficient system and task duplication, with unsatisfactory psychosocial effects on both students and staff. However, respondents mentioned that the CTP might have led to gradual improvement in nursing student diversity at the enrolling HEI. The analysed data mostly negated the assumption that collaboration through the CTP would improve undergraduate nursing training through sharing expertise between partner institutions, and reduce nursing education and training operating costs. Some recommendations are made to remedy the situation, including possible termination of the CTP in its current form, reviewing the partners' reimbursement strategy, creating a new platform which is equally owned by all partners, or allowing interested partner institutions to offer their own nursing degrees.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:22Z
  • Student nurses' experiences in the clinical psychiatric learning
           environment : the use of drawings and na&#239;ve sketches in
           qualitative health research : teaching and learning
    • Abstract: Author: Moagi, Miriam M. Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 132-141 Abstract: The use of drawings and naïve sketches in qualitative health research is particularly relevant in investigating personal experiences, attitudes and feelings, as well as narrating experiences and perceptions. In the case of drawings, participants use projection for inferring underlying motives, urges or intentions that cannot be secured through direct questioning, as participants either resist revealing them or are unable to discover the experiences themselves. The purpose of this paper was to describe the use of drawings and naïve sketches in conducting qualitative research on the transition of beliefs and aspirations of student nurses working in a psychiatric ward. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research design was used. The participants for the study were (27 female and 2 male) fourth-year student nurses from a purposefully selected nursing education institution who work in psychiatric wards. Data were collected by means of three focus group interviews, as well as drawings and naïve sketches of the participants' and the researcher's field notes. Tesch's method of open coding was used to analyse data. Ethical principles were observed and trustworthiness was ensured. The results show that student nurses experience a range of challenges in the clinical psychiatric learning environment. However, through the use of drawings and naïve sketches they come to an emancipated understanding of their growth and development capacity. It was suggested that the support needs of student nurses in the clinical psychiatric learning environment cannot be ignored. Drawings and naïve sketches are recommended for use by advanced psychiatric nurse educators and other mental health care practitioners to assist student nurses to realise their potential in the clinical psychiatric learning environment.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:22Z
  • The experiences of undergraduate nursing students working in mental health
           care settings in the Western Cape, South Africa : teaching and learning
    • Abstract: Author: Martin, P.D. Daniels, F.M. Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 122-131 Abstract: The mental health care environment is perceived to be a stressful clinical learning environment for nursing students to work in due to a myriad of factors. These factors include amongst other, the physical environment, the patient population, perceived student unpreparedness and the emotional demands placed on the students which are inherent in the nature of the work. The use of the self as a therapeutic tool in caring for mentally ill patients may also present a challenge for students. The aim of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of student nurses working in this challenging environment. A qualitative approach using an exploratory, descriptive design was used. Purposive sampling was employed to select sample of 36 student participants who met the eligibility criteria. Data collection was by means of focus group interviews. Data were analysed by means of Tesch's method of content analysis. Lazarus's cognitive transactional model of stress-appraisal-coping was used to structure the themes. The main themes were organisational, sociological, physiological and psychological emotional responses. Each main theme had sub-themes namely: effect of the organisational climate and organisational culture; socio-cultural background and youthful age a detriment; bodily responses and lastly, the compromised self and the self in growth. In conclusion, students' mental health experience was perceived as mostly negative and coping was problem-focused. A quantitative study to measure student stress, anxiety and depression among student nurses working in mental health care settings and also from other diverse student populations should be conducted.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:22Z
  • Perceived improvement of postgraduate students' fundamental human virtues
           through a research proposal refinement course : teaching and learning
    • Abstract: Author: Maree, C.M. Wolvaardt, L. Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 96-104 Abstract: An authentic learning opportunity was presented to twelve postgraduate students in the format of a well-planned course over five days by experts to refine their research proposals for submission to various committees at the university. The purpose of the authentic learning opportunity was to improve the students' fundamental human virtues, which in turn was expected to contribute to personal and professional development of the postgraduate students in terms of their research progress and research output. The perceived improvement of fundamental human virtues was described through Zuber-Skerrit's CRASP model of action research. The students used a Likert-scale to indicate their perception of improvement in fundamental human virtues, and reflective notes on their experiences of the course. The researcher kept a reflective diary to note observations during the facilitation of the course. The results indicated that all the students perceived their fundamental human virtues to have improved, especially motivation, perseverance, common sense and responsibility, and that they found the course beneficial to their research progress. It was concluded that the research proposal refinement course contributed to the students' perceived fundamental human virtues. A follow-up study needs to be done to describe the association between the results of this study and the actual research progress and output.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:22Z
  • Identification of HIV and AIDS-related competencies for nurse graduates in
           South Africa : teaching and learning
    • Abstract: Author: Modeste, Rugira R. Marie Adejumo, Oluyinka Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 105-121 Abstract: Three decades after the discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the global community has not been able to halt the epidemic of HIV infection. Various organisations have devised a number of policies and guidelines to guide efforts to deal with the epidemic. As nurses make up the bulk of healthcare workers in South Africa, as in many other countries, nurses are crucial in the management of HIV infection. The training of nurses must therefore be in line with such guidelines and policies, so that upon graduation they are able to serve the community. Using a qualitative approach and systematic research synthesis, this study identified core competencies related to HIV and AIDS for nurse graduates. Nominal group technique was used to collect data from nurse educators from various universities in South Africa. Individual interviews were also conducted with registered nurses in clinical practice, representatives from the South African Nursing Council, recent graduates, nurse educators and persons living with HIV infection. Three categories of competencies and seven core competencies were identified. The first category was the foundation that comprises knowledge competency, the second category comprises the supporting pillars of ethics, policies, interdisciplinary approach, personal and professional development, and performance was identified as the third category, comprising holistic safe practice and health education. This article provides an explanation of how each identified competency fits into the nurses' practice in providing care and management for persons with HIV infection. The identified core competencies will further be integrated into the nursing undergraduate programme at one university in South Africa.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:22Z
  • Blogging to enhance reflective and collaborative learning : teaching and
    • Abstract: Author: Fakude, Lorraine P. Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 61-68 Abstract: This study explored the educational benefit and value of blogging by postgraduate nursing students registered for Masters in Nursing Education in order to become professional nurse educators. The researcher assumed that blogging could improve collaborative learning among postgraduate students and enhance reflective practice skills. Critical reflection on experiences is envisaged to allow lecturers and students to develop a deeper understanding of themselves. Salmon's five-stage model of online learning was used as it can provide valuable insight into how blogs can be utilised in online learning. The whole class was trained to set up group blogs by colleagues from the Centre for Innovative Educational and Communication Technologies at the university. Within their blogs they engaged with issues relating to curriculum development, also giving own reflections on these issues. Students were assessed on how well they reflected and commented on specific topics, concepts and principles. The students were initially challenged by this activity and seemed frustrated by low levels of engagement with colleagues within their blogs. The facilitator noticed adequate engagement in two of the three group blogs, where the students exchanged thoughts and ideas and shared experiences. On reflection, they expressed very positive attitudes toward use of blogs as a platform to reflect on their learning and teaching. The blog of the third group of students was dormant, with very limited activity. It is important that facilitators carefully select appropriate technological tools or strategies for teaching and learning, and do not assume that students will be comfortable with the technology even after training and preparation.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:22Z
  • Students' experiences of the case-based teaching and learning approach at
           a school of nursing in the Western Cape, South Africa : teaching and
    • Abstract: Author: Linda, Ntombizodwa S. Daniels, Felicity M. Fakude, Lorraine P. Modeste, Rugira R. Marie Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 84-95 Abstract: With the increase in nursing students' enrolments in the first year of the Bachelor of Nursing programme at the University of the Western Cape (UWC) from 150 in 2003 to 300 in 2005, case-based education (CBE) was introduced as one of the innovative teaching strategies and methods more relevant for teaching and learning in large student classes. The CBE was identified and selected as an overarching teaching strategy as it was believed that it would ensure that students were adequately prepared for nursing practice. After more than six years of CBE being implemented at the School of Nursing (SoN) at UWC, its inherent value to teaching and learning had not been established. Answers to whether nursing students, as users, value the CBE approach and whether or not CBE meets the purpose for which it was adopted were sought. This study describes the views of nursing students with regard to implementation of the case-based teaching and learning methodology in large classes to establish whether or not CBE is viewed as beneficial. Qualitative document analysis and a case study design were used. Inclusion criteria were nursing module evaluations and learning portfolios of students registered in first and second year of the Bachelor of Nursing programme at the SoN. The sample consisted of purposefully selected students' documents. Data were analysed using Tesch's thematic analysis method. The students had mixed views about their learning experiences, and it was noted that with time they started appreciating CBE.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:22Z
  • Evaluating blogging as a reflective strategy in a service-learning module
           for undergraduate nursing students : teaching and learning
    • Abstract: Author: Boltman-Binkowski, Haaritha Julie, Hester Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 41-49 Abstract: Literature suggests that blogging has the potential to be a transformational technology for teaching and learning. It is claimed that blogging is a useful practice for development of higher-order learning skills, active, learner-centred pedagogy, authentic learning, associative thinking, and interactive learning communities. At a school of nursing students are expected to be active participants in constructing knowledge and to build upon constructive learning principles through the use of e-tools such as forums, chat rooms and blogs. Hence an online module was designed for the fourth-year undergraduate nursing programme that requires students to engage in and reflect on a service learning community project. The reflection activities were accomplished through blogging and were expected to be completed according to the allocated structure. The main pedagogic objective was to reflect upon and discuss module content and/or issues that arose out of their learning experiences. Quantitative methods were used for this study. The purpose was to evaluate whether blogging could enhance reflective learning and the depth of the reflection that arose as a result of blogging. Results showed that students engage in both reflective and non-reflective thinking through blogging, with varying levels of depth of reflection.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:22Z
  • Challenges in ICT experienced by nurse educators in tertiary institutions
           in Edo State, Nigeria : teaching and learning
    • Abstract: Author: Esewe, Roselynd E. Adejumo, Oluyinka Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 50-60 Abstract: Global acclamation of the benefits derived from the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in all facets of life has made its application in nursing education invaluable to both students and educators. This study explored challenges faced by nurse educators in the use of ICTs in tertiary institutions in Edo State, Nigeria. A descriptive survey design using a self-administered questionnaire was employed. The population and sample comprised all 36 nurse educators in the three universities that offer Bachelor's in Nursing Science degrees, but 34 participants completed and returned their questionnaires giving a response rate of 94.3%. Results of the study showed that although nurse educators are ICT literate, they are confronted with challenges such as erratic power supply and inadequate facilities which affect their use of technology for teaching and learning. The study recommends internet connectivity for the offices of nurse educators among other steps to enable the universities to reap the benefits to be gained from using ICTs in education.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:22Z
  • Adequacy and sustainability of undergraduate midwifery programmes training
           course materials : teaching and learning
    • Abstract: Author: Bimerew, Million Mbombo, Nomafrench Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: 28-40 Abstract: The purpose of the study was to determine the adequacy and sustainability of Undergraduate midwifery programmes training course materials. A quantitative survey method was employed to collect sustainability data from lecturers and clinical supervisors (N=33) and data on adequacy of the training course materials from graduated professional nurses doing their community service (N=34). The data was analyzed using SPSS programme for frequency distributions and percentages. More than 90% of the participants stated that the integrated PMTCT training course materials were sustainable. Participants stated that they were unlikely or very unlikely to exclude PMTCT competencies from the undergraduate midwifery programme: PICT (provider-initiated counselling and testing)/HCT (HIV counselling and testing) course unlikely (60.61%) and very unlikely (30.3%); antiretroviral therapy (ART) course unlikely (33.33%) and very unlikely (60.61%); PCR testing course unlikely (48.48%) and very unlikely (39.39%); and infant-feeding management course unlikely (27.27%) and very unlikely (66.67%). The course was regarded as very adequate or fairly adequate: PICT/HCT very (59%) and fairly adequate (49.2%); antiretrovirals/ART very (64.7%) and fairly adequate (32.4%); polymerase chain reaction training very (52.9%) and fairly adequate (41.2%); and infant-feeding options very (73.5%) and fairly adequate (26.5%). The results of this study show that PMTCT competency-based course materials were adequately provided to undergraduate midwifery students to equip them with necessary knowledge and skills in management of the PMTCT client. The PMTCT course was regarded as sustainable, which influences its continuation in the midwifery programme after the end of the PMTCT project.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:22Z
  • Contemporary issues in health professionals' education and research in
           South Africa : editorial
    • Abstract: Vol 20 Publication: 2014 Page: i-ii Abstract: Contemporary issues in the education of health professionals today are so multi-faceted that one journal edition or even one journal cannot do justice to the competing issues with compelling discussions that deserve attention in this era of globalisation of health, knowledge explosion, increasing number of learners, with decreasing number of people willing to take up careers in academic. We are in the era of electronic and computer internet age. There is the changing profile of illnesses, emergence of overwhelming diseases of lifestyle, inequity in access to health care, non-abating problems of communicable diseases, emergence of new and more devastating health problems, shortage of health care personnel, but above all, the need to educate the future health professionals in the best possible way to enable them take up the challenges of health care wherever they may find themselves. These issues can be overwhelming, but like the analogous mountain, we can start to climb this, a little distance at a time until we reach the top of it. Hence the attempt in this edition is to bring into focus some of the issues that the teacher and students in some Universities in South Africa are focusing on at this time for dissemination and to elicit possible responses either in terms of further studies or to stimulate actions suggested by the studies presented in this edition of AJPHERD.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T12:53:22Z
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