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Publisher: Sabinet Online Ltd   (Total: 222 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 222 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACCORD Occasional Paper     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 3)
Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.14, h-index: 1)
Acta Criminologica     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Germanica : German Studies in Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Juridica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Acta Patristica et Byzantina     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AFFRIKA J. of Politics, Economics and Society     Full-text available via subscription  
Africa Conflict Monitor     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Africa Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Africa Institute Occasional Paper     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Africa J. of Nursing and Midwifery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 3)
AfricaGrowth Agenda     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 18)
African Finance J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
African J. for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
African J. of Business and Economic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African J. of Democracy and Governance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African J. of Farm Child and Youth Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African J. of Herpetology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.51, h-index: 9)
African J. of Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 1)
African J. of Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
African J. of Rhetoric     Full-text available via subscription  
African J. of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Markets Overview     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African Plant Protection     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African Renaissance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Safety Promotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
African Yearbook of Rhetoric     Full-text available via subscription  
Africanus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agriprobe     Full-text available via subscription  
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History     Full-text available via subscription  
Annual Survey of South African Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Arms Control : Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ars Nova     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Article 40     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Architects and Quantity Surveyors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Capital Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Consumer Confidence Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Consumer Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Economic Prospects : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Economic Prospects : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Intermediate Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Trends : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Wholesale Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of Statistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Business Tax and Company Law Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cabo     Full-text available via subscription  
Cardiovascular J. of Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.3, h-index: 19)
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Clean Air J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Clean Air J. = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug     Full-text available via subscription  
Climate Summary of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
CME : Your SA J. of CPD     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Codicillus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Commonwealth Youth and Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Communicare : J. for Communication Sciences in Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Comparative and Intl. Law J. of Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Conflict Trends     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Conspectus : The J. of the South African Theological Seminary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Crime Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Current Allergy & Clinical Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.126, h-index: 4)
Dairy Mail Africa : Publication for the Dairy Industry in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
De Arte     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
De Rebus     Full-text available via subscription  
Die Kerkblad     Full-text available via subscription  
Educare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
English in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Enterprise Risk     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ergonomics SA : J. of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
ESR Review : Economic and Social Rights in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Evidence Based Summaries in Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
FarmBiz     Full-text available via subscription  
Farmer’s Weekly     Full-text available via subscription  
Farmlink Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Food Manufacturing Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
French Studies in Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Fundamina : A J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Gender and Behaviour     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Gender Questions     Full-text available via subscription  
Ghanaian J. of Economics     Full-text available via subscription  
HR Future     Full-text available via subscription  
HR Highway     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
IFE Psychologia : An Intl. J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Image & Text : a J. for Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
IMFO : Official J. of the Institute of Municipal Finance Officers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
IMIESA     Full-text available via subscription  
Indilinga African J. of Indigenous Knowledge Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Injury and Safety Monitor     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Inside Mining     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Interim : Interdisciplinary J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. for Religious Freedom     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. SportMed J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
J. for Christian Scholarship = Tydskrif vir Christelike Wetenskap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
J. for Contemporary History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
J. for Estate Planning Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
J. for Islamic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
J. for Juridical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
J. for Language Teaching = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
J. for New Generation Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
J. for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
J. of African Elections     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of African Foreign Affairs     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of African Union Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Contemporary Management     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Gender, Information and Development in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
J. of Marketing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
J. of Minimum Intervention in Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Public Administration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
J. of Somali Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Strategic Studies : A J. of the Southern Bureau of Strategic Studies Trust     Full-text available via subscription  
Juta's Business Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Kleio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Learning and Teaching Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Litnet Akademies : 'n Joernaal vir die Geesteswetenskappe, Natuurwetenskappe, Regte en Godsdienswetenskappe     Full-text available via subscription  
Local Government Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
M&J Retail     Full-text available via subscription  
Malawi Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Management Dynamics : J. of the Southern African Institute for Management Scientists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Management Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Medical Technology SA     Full-text available via subscription  
Meditari : Research J. of the School of Accounting Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Missionalia : Southern African J. of Mission Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 3)
MNASSA : Monthly Notes of the Astronomical Society of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Monographs of the Transvaal Museum     Full-text available via subscription  
Musicus     Full-text available via subscription  
Nafu Farmer     Full-text available via subscription  
Neotestamentica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 1)
New Coin Poetry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
New Voices in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Obiter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 2)
Occupational Health Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Old Testament Essays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Personal Finance Newsletter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Perspectives in Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.242, h-index: 10)
Politeia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Practical Theology in South Africa = Praktiese Teologie in Suid-Afrika     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Professional Accountant     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Professional Nursing Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Progressio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Psycho-analytic Psychotherapy in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Quest     Full-text available via subscription  
ReSource     Full-text available via subscription  
Retail and Marketing Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Rostrum : Newsletter of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SA Horseman     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
SA Irrigation = SA Besproeiing     Full-text available via subscription  
SA Mercantile Law J. = SA Tydskrif vir Handelsreg     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SABI Magazine - Tydskrif     Full-text available via subscription  
Scriptura     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Scrutiny2     Full-text available via subscription  
Servamus Community-based Safety and Security Magazine     Full-text available via subscription  
Shakespeare in Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Slavic Almanac : The South African J. for Slavic, Central and Eastern European Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South Africa Rural Development Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
South African Actuarial J.     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Computer J.     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Food Review     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Gastroenterology Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 1)
South African Health Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
South African Human Rights Yearbook     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
South African J. for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 3)
South African J. of African Languages     Full-text available via subscription  
South African J. of Art History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
South African J. of Business Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.16, h-index: 5)
South African J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
South African J. of Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
South African J. of Criminal Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South African J. of Cultural History     Full-text available via subscription  
South African J. of Diabetes and Vascular Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
South African J. of Economic History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
South African J. of Education     Open Access   (SJR: 0.376, h-index: 9)
South African J. of Higher Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
South African J. of Labour Relations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South African J. of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
South African J. of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 21)
South African J. on Human Rights     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 5)
South African Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
South African Music Studies : SAMUS     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South African Ophthalmology J.     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Review     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Psychiatry Review     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Radiographer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Southern African Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance
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   ISSN (Print) 1117-4315
   Published by Sabinet Online Ltd Homepage  [222 journals]
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Contemporary health, culture and sexuality issues in HIV/AIDS and chronic
           diseases : Supplement 1: Contemporary health, culture and sexuality issues
           in HIV/AIDS and chronic diseases : editorial
    • Abstract: In human beings, the achievement and maintenance of good health is underpinned by the availability of sustainable supportive social, cultural, economic and environmental conditions. The spread of HIV reached pandemic levels within a short period of time and this catapulted the challenge to the top of the international health agenda and as such this became one of the most public health issues for a long time. This communicable disease transformed the social, medical, ethical and political landscape and enforced a paradigm shift in approach to public health. Numerous programmes championed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and involving Not-for-profit organisations and governments have been implemented with varying degrees of success. Recently, chronic diseases and conditions such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, cancer, obesity, and arthritis either existing alone or co-morbid with HIV have emerged as public health issues of concern. These chronic diseases are not only common and costly but are also preventable. Some foundations of health are now at an all-time risk with previous gains at the risk of nullification by these emergent challenges.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:07:21Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Contemporary health, culture and sexuality issues in HIV/AIDS and chronic
           diseases : Supplement 1: Factors influencing the health of men in
           polygynous relationship
    • Authors: Makua; T.
      Abstract: The research was conducted to explore factors that influence the health experiences of men in polygynous relationships.A descriptive and interpretive phenomenological research methodology was used to gather data through personal in-depth interviews. This led to an understanding of the phenomena within the naturalistic context of occurrence - the natural social and cultural context.The findings of this study revealed that the health of participants in polygynous relationships is influenced by religion and culture. The participants believe that the church guides them as far as their health at home is concerned, and that traditional healers have answers to their health concerns.There is a general myth that a polygynous relationship is riddled with ill-health. There is a strong need to promote culture and religion among this group of the population so as to meet their health needs. The need to maintain their cultural practices was palpable throughout the narrations of their health-seeking behaviours.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:07:20Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Contemporary health, culture and sexuality issues in HIV/AIDS and chronic
           diseases : Supplement 1: Dilemma for choosing exclusive replacement
           feeding for HIV positive mothers of infants at a public hospital in
           Gauteng Province, South Africa
    • Authors: Modiba; L.M.
      Abstract: The burden of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic is greatest in poor resource settings. In particular 22.5 million of the 33.2 million individuals infected with HIV globally live in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). South Africa as well is having a large number of mothers with this burden of HIV infection. Infant feeding in communities with a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS has a potential challenge for mothers who must ultimately decide how to feed their infants within the context that constrain their choices. The purpose of this study was to determine challenges of HIV-positive mothers on exclusive replacement feeding. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual study was undertaken to examine the experiences of HIV positive mothers on the exclusive formula feeding. Fifteen interviews women agreed to participate but only 12 women were interviewed using semi-structured interviews based on data saturation. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed by means of content analysis and coding. Five themes emerged from this study, namely: Mothers knowledge of recommended feeding practices; fear of disclosure due to stigma; limited support; social isolation and mother's strategies. The shame associated with HIV is a major obstacle to its prevention, and the stigma that surrounds people is compounded by discrimination against women, leading to women avoiding testing and treatment services for fear of abandonment and other repercussions from husbands, families, and communities and health providers.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:07:20Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Contemporary health, culture and sexuality issues in HIV/AIDS and chronic
           diseases : Supplement 1: Nigerian university students' practices for
           preventing sexually transmitted diseases
    • Authors: Umar; C., Nkosi, Z.Z., Ndou, N.
      Abstract: Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) remain an important public health challenge among Nigerian students. Abuja University is located in a region of high STDs prevalence. However, it is not clear what students do to minimize their risk of contracting STDs. The purpose of the study was to explore sexual practices that prevent STDs among Abuja University students and also to identify factors which influence the adoption of such preventive sexual practices. A qualitative study, based on an exploratory and descriptive design, using in-depth interviews with 23 informants, examined practices students adopt to prevent STDs, including factors influencing them. Thematic data analysis was performed. The level of awareness of STDs was high. Common preventive sexual practices included abstinence, use of condoms, mutual masturbation and douching. Fear of STDs and pregnancy, parental influences, religious inclinations and respect for cultural values influenced students' sexual practices. Programmes that improve students' knowledge about STDs and those that enable parents to acquire knowledge and skills to positively influence their children's attitudes to sex may effectively reduce risk behaviours and promote preventive practices among students.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:07:19Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Contemporary health, culture and sexuality issues in HIV/AIDS and chronic
           diseases : Supplement 1: Views of HIV positive pregnant women on
           accessibility of the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission programme
           in North West Province, South Africa
    • Authors: Habedi; Debbie Seoka Kgomotso
      Abstract: Many governments, including the South African government, have made health care services accessible to their citizens. However, studies have revealed that most services are inadequate and inaccessible for all in rural areas. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the views of the HIV positive pregnant women on accessibility of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission programme (PMTCT) in the North West Province of South Africa. Ten HIV positive pregnant women selected by purposeful sampling were recruited for the study. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Tesch's approach was used to analyse the data. The findings of the study showed that most of the HIV positive pregnant women do not access the prevention of mother-to-child transmission programme due to distance and shortage of health care workers. The study recommends the need to develop strategies that would enhance accessibility to such services in the rural communities.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:07:19Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Contemporary health, culture and sexuality issues in HIV/AIDS and chronic
           diseases : Supplement 1: Without a tail, it is not a cat : writing an
           acceptable abstract
    • Authors: Tichapondwa Modesto; S.
      Abstract: The enthusiasm to write research-based articles for the annual International Journal of Open and Distance Learning is high among budding researchers. Editorial experience has, however, shown two critical gaps addressed in this study, namely rejection of above 90% of abstracts by the Chief Editor, and the increasing unwillingness by interested authors to submit abstracts for fear of the abstracts being rejected. The study aimed at assessing shortcomings in the sample of 30 abstracts reviewed in the past three years. The research was conducted around the construct of 'an abstract' as explained by research scholars. Content analysis of the 30 abstracts was the preferred method, used in conjunction with a pre-determined quality evaluation criteria instrument. Data analysis involved numerical measurement and interpretation of the presence or absence of quality criteria in a given abstract. Some of the findings were vaguely cast problem statements, and a visible absence of some of the elements expected in an abstract. This led to a number of conclusions, including one about lack of awareness by writers regarding how to write an acceptable abstract. One recommendation was that the Editor of the Journal should give written guidance to budding writers on how to write an abstract.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:07:18Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Contemporary health, culture and sexuality issues in HIV/AIDS and chronic
           diseases : Supplement 1: The intersection of HIV and AIDS risk behaviours
           and gender-based violence among youths in Botswana
    • Authors: Seloilwe; E., Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, G.
      Abstract: This study evaluates gender-based violence and its intersection with HIV and AIDS. The study is based on a larger investigation that examined the HIV prevalence patterns among youth in Botswana. The study used a qualitative exploratory design underpinned by these methods: focus group discussions as well as in-depth interviews, using semi-structured interview guides with open ended questions. It covered specific topics pertaining to intimate partner violence. The areas covered by the interview guides included but were not limited to: impact of HIV and AIDS in the districts, common risks and protective behaviours among the youth, sexual relationships and family and church involvement in HIV and AIDS issues. The study triangulated data sources to validate and enrich data collected from youth by including and getting views of service providers on these issues. Different accounts of violence between partners were narrated by participants in all the three districts. The data also indicated that men always had an upper hand when it comes to sexual matters, and if a woman decides otherwise, it may lead to conflict. Passion killings were mentioned as being unprecedented and a new phenomenon. Violence seems to occur as a result of the male partner feeling exploited or used by the female partner in a relationship. The study is concluded by examining how violence can contribute to HIV and AIDS among the youth and suggests ways to mitigate this situation.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:07:18Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Contemporary health, culture and sexuality issues in HIV/AIDS and chronic
           diseases : Supplement 1: Depression, anxiety and stress following
           discharge from intensive care units : the case of Botswana
    • Authors: Dithole; K., Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, G.
      Abstract: Patients discharged from the intensive care unit are challenged by many factors that may cause psychological disturbances. Evidence from previous studies has confirmed that the intensive care unit environment is traumatic. Intensive care unit patients may have perceptions related to this stressful unit that may result in psychological problems after discharge. This study reports on the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress experienced by patients who were discharged from the intensive care units and transferred to the general wards and later discharged. The study was a prospective, descriptive, and used correlational quantitative design that investigated 36 patients. A follow-up was made on 28 of these patients at their homes. All the patients had been mechanically ventilated and had been hospitalized in the intensive care units for at least 24 hours. During the follow-up, participants completed self-reporting instrument using the self-administered Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS0-21) developed by Lovibond and Lovibond (1995). The findings of this study indicate high proportion for severe to extremely severe-depression (55.5%), anxiety (83.3%) and stress (44.5%) in the hospital, but these levels decreased when patients were at home, where the following were recorded: depression (55.5%) anxiety (35.7%) and stress (21.4%). There was no association between stress, anxiety and depression with the patients' demographic characteristics including age, sex, level of education and social support. The study concluded that there was a need for the intensive care unit liaison personnel to visit these patients in the general wards to assist them to adjust after being discharged from the Intensive care units.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:07:17Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Contemporary health, culture and sexuality issues in HIV/AIDS and chronic
           diseases : Supplement 1: Perception of HIV positive women regarding
           measures to improve the quality of antenatal care
    • Authors: Ganga-Limando; M., Gule, W.P.
      Abstract: In the past decade, the Ministry of Health of Swaziland developed and implemented focused antenatal care package in line with the World Health Organisation guidelines. Yet official reports suggest that the implementation of the focused antenatal care did not translate into improvement of the quality of ANC provided to HIV positive pregnant women. The aim of the study was to explore and describe the perceptions of HIV-positive women regarding measures required to improve the quality of focused antenatal provided to HIV positive. This study used a qualitative descriptive, exploratory design. Eighteen individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 HIV positive pregnant women who attended at least one antenatal care visit at a public health facility. Seven subthemes emerged from the analysis of the collected data: enhance the provision of integrated care, capacity building, use of mix skilled professionals, empathy, enhance the content of health education, involvement of partners, and ensure the hospital-to-community continuum of care. Providing quality focused antenatal care to HIV positive women is a significant step in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV and the pregnancy related morbidity and mortality. Integrating HIV positive pregnant women's perspectives into measures aimed at improving the quality of focused antenatal care has the potential to strengthen individualised care principle of focused antenatal care. These measures should be supported with additional resources and effective leadership.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:07:16Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Contemporary health, culture and sexuality issues in HIV/AIDS and chronic
           diseases : Supplement 1: An integrated approach to the mitigation of
           chronic illnesses
    • Authors: Mataure; P., Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, G., Sibanda, S.
      Abstract: There are serious concerns relating to the growing number of people living with chronic illnesses that were being cared for at home and within the community but are not receiving appropriate attention and care from the health service providers and the health system at large. This happens despite the existence of Ministry of Health sanctioned Community and Home Based Care programmes. Patient centred and effective health intervention programmes are mandatory if the health outcomes of service users are to be met or improved. This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of the Community and Home Based Care (C&HBC) in providing services that effectively met users' goals in mitigating chronic illnesses. An explorative and descriptive mixed methods study was used in which in-depth structured and unstructured interviews and focus group discussion were conducted with 206 eligible participants. Results showed that the C&HBC programme generally improved the health status of respondents resulting in an enhanced quality of life. There was a satisfactory measure of socio-economic needs such as finance, food security, and pain relief being poorly met. The Community and Home Based care programme could not meet all the needs due to limited resources and a lack of integration of services. A fully integrated health and social care service is needed.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:07:16Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Contemporary health, culture and sexuality issues in HIV/AIDS and chronic
           diseases : Supplement 1: Stigma experienced by people living with HIV and
           AIDS in Soshanguve, South Africa
    • Authors: Senyalo; R.G., Maja, T., Ramukumba, T.S.
      Abstract: Stigma related to human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndromes have been reported as a major barrier to control and prevention globally. Stigmatisation resulting in silence, secrecy and denial not only affects care and treatment, it has serious implications for prevention, which are critical in a disease with such a long subclinical phase. Literature states that human immunodeficiency and acquired in low resourced areas results in individuals suffering from stigma and discrimination. The objective of this paper was to describe reactions of community members in the study area towards people living with HIV and AIDS. The study design is descriptive exploratory qualitative in nature and was conducted in a low resource community in Soshanguve. Focus group discussions were held with community members who met the selection criteria using themes derived from the Stigmatisation model. Tech's model of content analysis was used to analyse data. Measures of trustworthiness were ensured and ethical considerations were adhered to throughout. The findings revealed that community members reacted in various ways to PLWHA. Salient isolation, myths and misunderstandings, disregard, blame, discrimination and stigmatisation were levelled against PLWHA.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:07:15Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Contemporary health, culture and sexuality issues in HIV/AIDS and chronic
           diseases : Supplement 1: Reduced adherence to antiretroviral therapy among
           patients on antiretroviral therapy in Limpopo province, South Africa
    • Authors: Makua; T.
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the determining factors for reduced adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV positive patients on ART residing in Polokwane, in Limpopo Province of South Africa. This study made use of the generic qualitative research design and in-depth qualitative interviews to collect data from a purposive sample of patients who did not adhere to ART. Thematic content analysis was used to analyse the data collected from the 18 patients from four clinics in Polokwane offering ART to patients. The participants attributed their reduced adherence to service delivery, patients' socio-economic status and family factors. The socio-economic status such as unemployment and abuse of alcohol leading to forgetfulness to take ART was among the factors cited by participants. Failure to disclose the health status to the family was indicated as the reason for reduced adherence to the treatment. None or partial adherence can lead to the development of drug-resistant strains of the virus. Health education on ART would assist the patients with managing the stigmatisation. In order to increase the understanding of the effects of alcohol on the ART, a lot of efforts need to be put on educating the patients about such interaction.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:07:14Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Contemporary health, culture and sexuality issues in HIV/AIDS and chronic
           diseases : Supplement 1: Attitudes of labour ward staff towards a clinical
           practice guideline for monitoring women during labour : midwives' views
    • Authors: Lumadi; Thanyani Gladys
      Abstract: Partogram is generally regarded as a clinical practice guideline that is useful in early detection of complications during labour.This article described the views of midwives on the use of partogram in monitoring women during labour. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive design was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seventeen midwives who were purposively selected from three hospitals in Vhembe District. Interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using Tesch's (1990) eightsteps data analysis.Positive and negative views of midwives were highlighted. Partogram was viewed as an important tool that is liked by some participants. However, lack of support, trust, knowledge and dislike of the partogram among some other staff members were indicated by midwives. It is concluded that although partogram is regarded as a useful tool, consideration of the views of midwives on its use can assist managers in identifying and addressing aspects that may improve the effective use of the partogram.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:07:14Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Contemporary health, culture and sexuality issues in HIV/AIDS and chronic
           diseases : Supplement 1: Experiences of newly qualified nurses allocated
           to critical care units in their first year post graduation
    • Authors: Masango; T.E., Chiliza, T.C.
      Abstract: The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the lived experiences of newly qualified professional nurses allocated in Intensive Care Units (ICU) during their first year post graduation. An explorative, descriptive interpretative and qualitative design was conducted to explore the nurses' experiences. Purposive sampling was used based on the belief that the researcher's knowledge about the population can be used to hand pick sample elements. Data was collected through in-depth unstructured interviews and written narratives which were transcribed into verbatim transcripts. A Coallizi's method of data analysis was used. The findings revealed that the newly qualified professional nurses experienced difficulties and challenges in adjusting to the unit due to lack of mentors caused by the shortage of staff and by the fact that ICU environment is different from the wards that they are used to. It is recommended that nurses be exposed to intensive care units during their training. Even after completion they should be introduced to ICU after they have gained confidence in themselves as registered nurses. Also, mentoring of newly qualified nurses should be mandatory in ICU.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:07:13Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Contemporary health, culture and sexuality issues in HIV/AIDS and chronic
           diseases : Supplement 1: Analysis of efficiency of Isoniazid Preventive
           Therapy Programme among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected clients
    • Authors: Maboe; K.A., Bengtsson, M.N., Van Rensburg, G.H.
      Abstract: Measures have been taken to reduce the mortality rate of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected clients. The use of isoniazid preventive therapy was one of those measures. Irrespective of using isoniazid preventive therapy mortality rate increased. The aim of this article is to analyse the causes and the factors that led to mortality among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected people who received isoniazid preventive therapy. A retrospective quantitative, explorative, descriptive isoniazid preventive therapy design was used. The records of 80 deceased patients who received isoniazid preventive therapy were reviewed through the use of a checklist. Of the records (N = 80), 75% were for female. The most highly indicated causes of death were gastroenteritis (18.75%), cryptococcal meningitis (17.5%) and pneumonia (16.25%). The causes of death of the patients who died before completing the six months of isoniazid preventive therapy; (28.75%) were gastroenteritis (21.7%), symptoms and signs of bacterial pneumonia (17.4%), cryptococcal meningitis (13%), pulmonary tuberculosis (13%), septicaemia (13%), and murder (13%). A breakdown in isoniazid preventive therapy, cotrimoxazole prophylaxis therapy and antiretroviral therapy interventions and the lack of holistic care for people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus led to opportunistic infections leading to mortality among patients receiving isoniazid preventive therapy. A reorganisation of services of care for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected persons, such as provision of cotrimazole prophylaxis therapy and isoniazid preventive therapy to ensure a holistic approach to care, is recommended.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:07:13Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Editorial
    • Abstract: In public and private organisations, employees are usually exposed to considerable stress. Work-related stress takes various forms ranging from the need to accomplish specific tasks and meet job-related targets to coping with family demands and achieving personal goals. In many cases, employees especially, those in managerial positions, are often preoccupied with executing their duties to the extent that they neglect their health and have little or no time to engage in wholesome physical activity, thereby aiding predisposition to developing hypokinetic diseases.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:04:52Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Employees' modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease : the case
           of an African University
    • Authors: Phillips; J.S., Banyangiriki, J.
      Abstract: The importance of determining the prevalence of modifiable health risk behaviours among specific populations for effective preventive and therapeutic measures has been emphasized in literature. Worksites have been identified as strategic locations for the delivery of interventions to decrease the prevalence of chronic diseases of lifestyle among adult populations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of modifiable risks factors for cardiovascular diseases of employees at an urban university in Kigali, Rwanda. Physical activity levels were assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Body mass index was computed from weight and height measurements. Blood pressure readings were taken and hypertension for the study was defined as ≥140/90 for systolic and diastolic respectively. A total of 36 participants were classified as being hypertensive. Both systolic blood pressure (r=0.627; p<0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (r=0.598; p<0.05) significantly correlates with age. A total of 41% of the participants were classified as either overweight or obese and 28% as physically inactive. Factors found to be significantly associated with hypertension was current smoking, current alcohol use, self-reported diabetes mellitus, physical inactivity and overweight and obesity. This study confirms the high prevalence of modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases among adults employed at an urban university in Kigaili, Rwanda. These findings further highlight the need for health promoting initiatives at the work place and specifically the benefits of such initiatives at institutions of higher education.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:04:52Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Umbilini experiential knowledge and indigenous healing praxis in Ukunyanga
           tradition
    • Authors: Mlisa; Lily-Rose Nomfundo, Nel, Philip
      Abstract: The study discusses the understanding of amagqirha (diviner healers) regarding the practice of umbilini, a therapeutic skill in ukunyanga tradition. Qualitative data on the maintenance of umbilini was collected from 94 participants including amagqirha, their initiates and clients in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, using integrated data collection methods. The researcher's experiences as an igqirha and experiencing other cultures' healing skills also form part of the discussion. Results indicated that amagqirha, and initiates believe umbilini should be sharpened, awakened and nurtured to sustain its power and effect. Various specific cultural related rituals such as ukuhlamba (cleansing), intlombe (séance), which are birth and initiation rites as well as eating ubulawu were identified as key strategies used to awaken and maintain umbilini. Findings suggest how deep rooted those strategies are to sustaining the power of umbilini. The results invite further studies on the valuable contribution that umbilini could make towards general life wellness and health protection beyond the scope of its employment by traditional healers.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:04:51Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Sitting time and associated factors among chronic disease patients in
           Cambodia, Myanmar and Vietnam
    • Authors: Peltzer; K., Pengpid, S.
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of high sitting time and associate factors among chronic disease patients in Cambodia, Myanmar and Vietnam. Sitting time and physical activity were measured using the General Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). A number of logistic regression models investigated socio-demographic and health related factors associated with higher sitting (≥6hrs/day) in 4803 adults, including four separate sub-samples for analysis comprising those who had cardiovascular disease (n = 804), hypertension (n = 1402), diabetes (n = 509) and anxiety and/or depression (n = 2114). Results indicate that the mean reported sitting time was 196 minutes/day (SD=157), with 20.7% having high sitting time (≥6hrs/day). Using multivariate logistic regression the odds of 6 or more hours sitting time per day were significantly associated with a number of factors across the different study samples: older age, higher educational level, being single, divorced or widowed, not being employed, living in a rural area, having fewer chronic conditions, poorer self-rated health status, activity limitation, low physical activity, no problem drinking and not having depression symptoms. The results may help to identify chronic disease patients that should be targeted in interventions aiming at reducing sitting time.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:04:50Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: The
           effect of family structure on decision making, parenting styles and
           healthy lifestyle behaviour of adolescents in rural South Africa
    • Authors: Davids; E.L., Roman, N.V., Leach, L.
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to compare perceived parenting styles, decision making styles and healthy lifestyle behaviours of adolescents from single and two-parent families within a rural setting in South Africa. The study employed a quantitative methodology with a cross-sectional comparative group design. The sample consisted of 457 Grade 9 learners from four randomly selected secondary schools in the Overberg Education District, Western Cape, South Africa. The data was collected using the Parental Style and Dimension Questionnaire, Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire and the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II as well as a short biographical questionnaire. The data was analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics (MANOVA). The results suggest that maternal and paternal authoritative parenting, vigilant decision making and often engagement in healthy lifestyle behaviours were prevalent for adolescents in rural South Africa. The results furthermore suggest that there were no significant main effects of family structure on perceived parenting styles, decision making styles and healthy lifestyle behaviours. The findings also serve as a recommendation for future research to do an urban-rural comparison, as the applicability of urban findings are often questioned in rural studies.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:04:49Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Ritual impurities : perspectives of women living with HIV and AIDS
    • Authors: Shirindi; M.L., Makofane, M.D.M.
      Abstract: This paper seeks to explore the women's perspectives on HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). Thus, a qualitative exploratory-descriptive study was conducted among women living with HIV (WLWHIV) and AIDS in Mankweng and the surrounding villages of Limpopo Province in South Africa. A purposive sampling technique was employed to recruit 54 suitable participants for six (6) focus group discussions consisting of nine members each. In addition, one-on-one interviews were conducted with two (2) academics in African studies and two (2) traditional healers. The NVivo programme was utilised to manage the qualitative data. The PEN-3 model was useful in understanding the subjective accounts of the participants which suggest a similarity between makgoma (ritual impurities) and HIV and AIDS. However, these claims were refuted by academics and traditional healers on the basis that makgoma is curable if treated earlier while HIV and AIDS is not. The WLWHIV and AIDS may have advertently or inadvertently associated makgoma with HIV and AIDS to avoid stigmatization and discrimination. This is attributed to the fact that makgoma is widely known and accepted among traditionalists. However, the existing misconceptions call for cultural sensitivity on the part of the helping professionals to take into account health care users' cultural beliefs which may hamper their understanding of HIV and AIDS.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:04:49Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Electronic documentation of patients' records : completeness, timeliness
           and clinicians' views
    • Authors: Al Baloushi; F.A., Ramukumba, M.M.
      Abstract: The implementation of the electronic health record opened opportunities to enhance the quality of care through collaborative decision-making and fast tracked documentation. However, in order to gain from the benefits of electronic health records (EHRs), data captured need to be complete and timely. This paper reports on the electronic documentation of patients' records two years after the implementation of the EHR in an acute care hospital. The purpose was to assess the completeness and timeliness of electronic documentation and to elicit views of clinicians regarding the observed trends. Compliance was defined as availability of required documents and the presence of specific elements within the documents completed, within the stipulated time frame. The study used the hospital documentation policy to assess rate of compliance. A retrospective descriptive, explanatory design using electronic data extraction and structured checklists was utilised to collect quantitative data in five documents of In-Patient (IP) encounters. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 clinicians, 4 physicians and 2 charge nurses. The rate of compliance showed a significant decline especially learning assessment, history and physical examination documentation. Clinicians cited both system and human issues as contributory factors.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:04:48Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Socioeconomic status, somatic growth and physical fitness of rural South
           African children : Ellisras Longitudinal Study
    • Authors: Monyeki; K.D., Ramoshaba, N.E.
      Abstract: This study investigated the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) somatic growth and physical fitness (PF) of Ellisras rural children. A cross-sectional study of 1714 children who were part of the Ellisras longitudinal study was undertaken. Anthropometric measurements were taken according to the standard procedures of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. PF were assessed using the EUROFIT and AAHPERD protocols to determine the physical fitness. Girls were having significant (P<0.05) high mean body weight, subcutaneous fat than boys in each socioeconomic group level. Height (B=0.74 95% CI 0.03 to 1.45), fat mass (B= 0.02 95% CI 0.00 to 0.03) and fat free mass (B=0.01 95% CI 0.00 to 0.02), plate taping (B= -0.04 95% CI -0.07 to -0.02) showed significant (P<0.05) change between the first and second socio economic status after adjusting for age gender and maturation. SES differentiation in somatic growth and to a lesser extend in some physical fitness variables was noted in the of Ellisras rural children. Additional research to verify the relationships over time between lifestyle changes and health outcomes may be vital in this population.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:04:47Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Evaluation of HeartMath training programme for improving personal
           resilience and psychophysiological coherence
    • Authors: Edwards; S.D., Edwards, D.J., Highley, J.A.
      Abstract: The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of a HeartMath training apparatus on personal resilience and physiological coherence. A within group, pre-test and post-test, outcome evaluative design was employed to assess changes in dependent variables. A small convenience sample of 6 participants, 4 women and 2 men, with a mean age of 49 years and an age range from 25 to 68 years, each completed 4 HeartMath training sessions which included 9 tools and techniques. Non-parametric statistical analysis for quantitative data indicated significant increases in physiological coherence and personal resilience perceptions. Thematic content analysis for qualitative data yielded unequivocally positive, experiential descriptions. Integrative findings are discussed in relation to previous and future research.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:04:47Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Relationship between social contract, anxiety, performance, workload and
           intention to quit among professional sport coaches
    • Authors: Pelser-Carstens; V., Keyser, E., Surujlal, J.
      Abstract: Within the relationships in modern sport, coaches hold a degree of authority over their athletes and, by implication, operate to some degree as supervisors. Athletes are in the subordinate roles as employees are to employers. As in most employment relationships, there are times when athletes, like employees, find themselves at odds with their respective coaches and vice versa. Understanding the social contract in the context of sport coaching may provide an explanation regarding the role and function of athlete dissent, particularly as it changes or evolves to the level of sport participation and the expectations and demands of coaches. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to examine the relationship between sport coaches' social contract, performance, workload, anxiety and their influence on sport coaches' intention to quit. A non-experimental survey design was used to collect data from sport coaches. A research instrument which included a section requesting demographic information, and the Social Contract Scale, Perceived Performance Scale, Workload Scale, Anxiety Scale, and Intention to Quit Scale was administered to the coaches. Means, standard deviations, skewness and kurtosis were used to describe the empirical data. Reliability and validity were established using factor analysis and Cronbach alpha coefficients. Structural equation modelling (SEM) using AMOS was employed to test the hypotheses. The results revealed that a positive relationship does not exist between sport coaches social contract and perceived performance. Furthermore sport coaches' anxiety indirectly mediates the relationship between perceived performance and intention to quit. Increased workload and anxiety have the potential to influence coaches' performance levels and intention to quit. Therefore, it is of great importance that sport organisations consider these factors when determining the expected outputs of sport coaches.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:04:46Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: In
           the search of the tendency to symmetrize the shots in female soccer at top
           level competitions
    • Authors: Bergier; Jozef
      Abstract: An important issue in team games is the possession of as many versatile players as possible. The versatility in soccer concerns both the left-foot and right-foot skills (symmetricalness) in reference to shots at goal. The aim of the paper is precise play recognition and outlining the tendencies of shot symmetricalness in top world women's soccer. For the analysis the author's own elaboration has been used according to the questionnaire of shot observation (shots at goal). The material of study concerns the observation of matches recorded on video tape at the following women's soccer tournaments: the FIFA Women's World Cup 2003 and 2007, the Under 19 FIFA Women's World Cup 2004 and the UEFA Women's Cup 2005 and 2009. In order to outline the tendencies in shot symmetricalness possibly comparable senior tournaments have been used: FIFA World Cup 2007, UEFA Women's Cup 2005 and 2009. As a result of the analysis model player behaviour has been worked out. This model of the shot at goal skill is expressed in the short accuracy of 50% and the shot effectiveness of circa 10.0%. The stable pattern of right-foot domination (65% of shots) has been confirmed. No new tendencies were observed over five years (2005-2009). There emerge examples of more versatile training in terms of shots an instance of which is the Brazilian team at the Under 19 FIFA World Cup in which the number of right-foot and left-foot shots was perfectly symmetrical and amounted to 50% respectively. The data that have been gathered can be used in shot skill assessment.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:04:45Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Football injuries during a South African university sport tournament
    • Authors: Mtshali; S., Stewart, A.V., Musenge, E.
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of injuries in amateur football players during a University Sport South Africa Football tournament and the factors associated with these injuries. A prospective study design to describe football injuries during the University Sport South Africa Football Championships was undertaken. All 32 teams participating during the tournament were invited to participate in the study, but only eleven teams agreed to participate. These included four male and seven female teams. Injuries were recorded daily. Descriptive analysis and a univariate regression were used to analyse the results. A total of 176 players who participated in the study sustained 90 injuries during the tournament. The female players had an incidence of 1.36 injuries per match (95% CI 1.0 - 1.7) which is equivalent to 61.7 injuries/1000 player matches (95% CI 45.7 - 77.7). The incidence of injuries in the male players was 1.38 injuries per match (95% CI 0.9 - 1.8) which is equivalent to 62.5 injuries/1000 player matches (95% CI 41.2 - 83.8). There was an increase in injury rate during warm up (p<0.00) and during contact with another player (p<0.05) due to foul play which resulted in trauma types of injuries for both male and female players. The incidence of injuries in this study for amateur players was similar to other studies football tournaments. Players in this study were more likely to get injuries during warm up and contact with another player.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:04:45Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Factors contributing to a memorable wine route experience
    • Authors: Saayman; M., Van Der Merwe, P.
      Abstract: Wine tourism, especially wine festivals and routes, is becoming more popular in South Africa, primarily because it gives wine cellars and wine farms greater publicity and exposure leading to increase in wine sales. The wine farmers or cellars are also expanding their product offering to involve more than just wine tasting and sales. They are therefore developing tourism products such as accommodation, restaurants, wedding venues, cultural activities and adventure activities. The unanswered question is what factors do consumers regard as important when visiting a wine route? Therefore, the purpose of this article is to determine the factors that contribute to a memorable wine route experience. This study was conducted at one of South Africa's largest wine routes, namely the Robertson Wine Route, from 4-6 June 2014. A questionnaire was used for data collection. The results revealed four important factors for having a memorable wine route experience, namely amenities, food and entertainment, information dissemination and qualities of the route. The most important motive for visiting a wine route is to relax and escape, followed by experiencing a unique event. These results can be used by wine route managers and product owners to develop and market wine routes more effectively.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:04:44Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: A
           
    • Authors: Jugmohan; S., Steyn, J.N.
      Abstract: Tourism is often regarded as a vehicle for the economic development of disadvantaged rural communities. Although the concept is good in principle, the successful implementation of community-based tourism projects has proved to be problematic.This article focuses on the preconditions required for the successful implementation of community based tourism development projects. A list of pre-conditions extracted from a literature study (the research design) is compiled and subsequently field-tested on existing CBT projects in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. A CBT pre-conditions model is subsequently proposed and an implementation strategy suggested.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:04:43Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: An
           anthropometrical related lower body explosive power (LBEP) prediction
           model among a cohort of adolescents in the North West Province, South
           Africa : the PAHL Study
    • Authors: Pienaar; C., Kruger, A., Coetzee, B., Monyeki, M.A., Van Der Walt, K.N.
      Abstract: In the prediction of lower body explosive power (LBEP), very few researchers have investigated the possibility of making use of anthropometric variables to compile prediction models. Therefore the purpose of this study was to develop a LBEP prediction model from several anthropometric measurements for a cohort of adolescent boys and girls living in the Tlokwe local municipality of the Dr Kenneth Kaunda district in the North West Province, South Africa. This was a cross-sectional experimental design on a purposeively selected cohort of 214 adolescents (15.82±0.68 years) consisting of 88 boys and 126 girls who were part of the Physical Activity and Health Longitudinal Study (PAHLS). Data were obtained by means of skinfold (SF) and LBEP measurements as well as the calculation of maturity age. The results of the forward stepwise regression analysis shows that stature (57%), muscle mass percentage (10%) and maturation age (3%) were the anthropometric variables that served as significant (p<0.001) predictors of LBEP. In view of the fact that the majority of coaches and teachers in South Africa have very limited means to directly measure anthropometric variables and LBEP in adolescents, the use of adolescents' stature, muscle mass and maturity age may possibly serve as an accurate alternative to predict adolescents' LBEP.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T10:04:43Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: An
           evaluation of Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC) Programme in Thulamela
           Municipality, Limpopo Province, South Africa
    • Authors: Sikhwari; Tshimangadzo D.
      Abstract: Large numbers of children are growing up without adult protection, nutritional support, or financial support because of the AIDS epidemic. Most of the children are forced to act as caregivers and providers in their families. Without adequate support, these children are at risk of being affected by malnutrition and some form of sexual exploitation. The Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC) programme was developed from the home-based care programme to provide children under the age of 18 years with support in core service areas such as HIV prevention education, access to anti-retroviral treatment and psychological care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent to which the services of the OVC programme are reaching the intended target groups, namely orphans and vulnerable children. The study employed a qualitative programme evaluation design to assess the implementation of the OVC programme. The researcher used convenience sampling to select 14 staff members serving in the OVC programme. A random sample of 30 children was selected from 6 wards in Thulamela Municipality, South Africa. The study used individual interviews to capture the views of staff members, whereas focus group interviews were used to collect data from the children. The data from both individual and focus group interviews were analysed through content analysis. This process entails exploring the general sense of data and identifying patterns that emerge as themes. The study found that the objectives of the OVC programme were achieved, even though the degrees of achievement differed. The services were to a large extent delivered to the target groups. However, it was found that the OVC programme does not have sufficient capacity and resources. The evaluation has shown that service delivery does not depend entirely on the availability of resources, but on the sacrifices and dedication of staff as well.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:59:55Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Nurses' perceptions on factors contributing to job dissatisfaction in a
           public psychiatric hospital in North West Province, South Africa
    • Authors: Molefe; J., Sehularo, L.A.
      Abstract: Job dissatisfaction among nurses is a serious global concern. However, it seems that the numbers of studies on job dissatisfaction among nurses are limited. This study therefore seeks to explore and describe the nurses' perceptions on the factors contributing to job dissatisfaction in order to make recommendations aimed at increasing nurses' satisfaction level in a public psychiatric hospital in North West Province. Exploratory-descriptive qualitative design was followed. Purposive sampling techniques was utilised to select study participants. Sample size was determined by data saturation which was reached after ten unstructured individual interviews. Data were analysed following Tesch's method of qualitative data analysis. The results indicated three major themes of the factors contributing to job dissatisfaction among nurses, that is, social, financial and organisational factors. From these results, it can be concluded that more nursing research is still needed on this topic.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:59:54Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Social workers' perspectives on the experiences and challenges of women
           living with HIV
    • Authors: Tayo; S.Z., Makofane, M.D.M.
      Abstract: Women living with HIV (WLHIV) face a myriad of challenges which have an adverse influence on their multiple roles. Hence, the psychosocial support provided to HIV infected women by social workers is important to enhance the women's social functioning. A qualitative research study was undertaken applying the explorative, descriptive and contextual strategy to explore and describe the experiences of social workers who witnessed the plight of women living with HIV in the Pietermaritzburg region of Kwa-Zulu Natal. Non-probability purposive and snowball sampling techniques were employed to select a sample of thirteen participants who met the set criteria. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews buttressed with open-ended questions were conducted with the participants. Digitally recorded data were transcribed and analysed applying Tesch's eight steps. Data verification was guided by Guba's model. Two themes emerged from data analysis, coupled with various issues. Women living with HIV grapple with issues related to fear of disclosure, stigma and discrimination while the ineffective delivery of social work services is attributed to lack of human resources, requisite knowledge and skills - these inhibit appropriate interventions to address women's fear of disclosure and unfavourable working conditions. The paper concludes with suggestions for social work education, practice and further research.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:59:53Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: Risky
           sexual behaviour of university students : perceptions and the effect of a
           sex education tool
    • Authors: Born; K.M., Wolvaardt, L., Mcintosh, E.
      Abstract: The increasing HIV incidence amongst people aged 15-24 years and the reported gaps in sex-education received at school and reported risky sexual behaviour in South Africa justifies the importance of this study. This study examines the risky sexual behaviour and perceptions among first-year students enrolled at Monash South Africa in South Africa. This four-phased mixed methods pilot study explored whether a sex-education intervention tool positively influenced risky sexual behaviour. Phase 1 used self-administered questionnaires to obtain quantitative and qualitative baseline data. In Phase 2 a sex-education intervention tool was designed to address identified gaps. In Phase 3 a prospective cohort of 12 mixed-gender students participated in the sex-education intervention sessions and was followed up a month later (Phase 4) to evaluate the effectiveness of the tool. Phase 1 participants (139) were between 18- 21 years. The level of sex-education knowledge amongst the participants was low and of a poor quality; this could be a result of poor preparation at school. The results suggest the necessity of sex-education programmes for university students considering the low proportion of students entering university with basic sex education. Of the 139 participants, 27 were identified with risky sexual behaviour and considered for an intervention. The intervention participants felt more able to be responsible for their behaviour after the intervention. The participants reported that the sex-education intervention tool influenced their risky sexual behaviour positively. This pilot intervention study can be adopted by universities interested in engaging their students about their sexual health and augmenting school-level interventions.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:59:53Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Mechanisms of coexistence of factor VII hyperactivity with dyslipidaemia,
           diabetes mellitus, obesity and its role in the development of myocardial
           infarction : a review
    • Authors: Moraba; M.M., Mabusela, M.S., Mashinya, F., Dikotope, S.A., Choma, S.S.R.
      Abstract: Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the terminal complications of the cardiovascular disease, with high global mortality rate, accounting for 7.3 million deaths worldwide. It has a wide range of risk factors, including metabolic disorders and, presumably, factor VII (FVII) hyperactivity. However, the causal link of FVII hyperactivity with MI in the presence of metabolic disorders is still an area of uncertainty. The review investigated the mechanisms of coexistence of FVII hyperactivity with dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, obesity and its role in the development of MI. Original articles were targeted. Various words combination was used to search for articles of relevance. Science Direct, Google Scholar, PubMed, NIH Public Access, Medline, PMC and Medscape were sites (techniques) used to search for the articles and related papers. A total of 140 papers and articles were retrieved and 102 of them were found suitable for literature review for the topic in question. Literature reported controversial results regarding association of FVII hyperactivity with MI. Some researchers found FVII hyperactivity to be an independent risk factor and predictor of myocardial infarction (MI), while some did not agree. Methods of different sensitivities; associated risk factors of MI; the stage of MI at which FVII activity was estimated; the presence of FVII mutated gene (353 Arg-Gln) and different interpretations of results were the sources of the discrepancy. Factor VII hyperactivity does not develop without other atherogenic risk factors. Dyslipidaemia, DM and obesity were found to induce FVII hyperactivity. Hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, high levels of FFAs and leptin constitute the underlying mechanisms for coexistence of FVII hyperactivity and metabolic disorders. Factor VII hyperactivity does not cause development of MI de novo. In conclusion, factor VII hyperactivity plays a secondary role in the development of MI. It is induced by other risk factors associated with it. Metabolic disorders are the most confounding risk factors that FVII hyperactivity is often associated with in MI. Improvement of metabolic parameters decreases the levels of FVII activity, the risk for development of MI and controls its severity.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:59:52Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: High
           rate of teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections in Fort
           Beaufort, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa
    • Authors: Nika; T.R., Bereda-Thakhati, J.E., Goon, D.T.
      Abstract: There is increased in teenage pregnancy despite the presence of dual protection practice and health care awareness programmes related to health and sexuality education in South Africa. The present study explores the underlying causes of high teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases rates, including HIV and AIDS in Fort Beaufort. The sample comprised of 70 conveniently selected pregnant teenagers aged 15-19 years. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaire. About 56.9% participants knew nothing about family planning, 27.5% perceived family planning as prevention of pregnancy, and regard injection as a method of family planning, while 11% described family planning as planning for future babies. Those who knew about family planning mentioned friends, clinics, schools, family and neighbours as the source of information about family planning. Concerning condom use, majority (96.1%) heard about condoms, 66.7% once used the condoms and 72.5% were knowledgeable about condom use and 27.5% did not know how to use the condoms. About 34% knew that condoms protect against pregnancy and STIs, pregnancy (20.0%), STIs (37.1%) and 9% did not know anything about condoms. Regarding knowledge about STIs, 47% knew that one gets STIs through sex with an infected partner, though infectious, can be treated, 45% had no knowledge about STIs, 7.8% knew that one gets STIs when he/she sleeps with a partner without using condoms. Only 3.0% admitted having been treated for STIs. Teenagers are not well informed about family planning methods. Those who used condoms are not consistent and had limited knowledge about their use. The teenagers had knowledge about HIV and AIDS as well as STIs, but they did not use condoms during sexual intercourse which indicate negligence. There is need to reinforce health education on family planning and counseling to clients for better choices of methods including dual protection in order to prevent pregnancy and STIs, including HIV and AIDS.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:59:51Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: The
           relationship between parenting styles and childhood trauma : a study of
           street children in Limpopo Province, South Africa
    • Authors: Maepa; M.P., Idemudia, E.S., Ofonedu, M.E.
      Abstract: Childhood adversity increases the risk for psychopathology and psychiatric disorders in individuals and is one of the reasons for high numbers of street children seen in South African towns. This study aims to compare parenting styles and history of childhood trauma between street children and non-street children and to assess the relationship between parenting styles and childhood trauma among the street children. Using a cross-sectional design involving a snowball method, the study sampled a total of 300 street children. Concurrently, 300 non-street children were sampled using simple randomisation. Results obtained from a questionnaire with three sections was used (section A: demographic information, section B: parenting styles, section C: childhood trauma) revealed significant differences regarding parental warmth (t(598) = 14.02, p < .000), parental supervision (t(598) = 20.92, p < .000) and childhood trauma (t(598) = -27.24, p <.000), for the two groups. The results also revealed significant negative relationship between parental warmth and childhood trauma (r(300) = -.212, p <.001) but no significant difference was found between parental supervision and childhood trauma. The study concluded that understanding the role of parenting style as a predictor of childhood trauma is critical in the prevention of child abuse.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:59:50Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Sitting time and associated factors in older adults in South Africa
    • Authors: Peltzer; K., Phaswana-Mafuya, N.
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of sitting time and to explore relationships with socio-demographic, BMI, well-being, and health risk behaviour variables among older South Africans, This analysis is based on data from a national population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2008, the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE), with a probability sample of 3840 aged 50 years and older South Africans. The primary outcome was sitting time. The exposures assessed included: socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, physical activity, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. Results indicate that the mean reported sitting time was 195 minutes/day (SD=143), and the median sitting time was 180.00 minutes/day. In multivariate logistic regression older age, activity limitation, and low quality of life were associated with high sitting time. In addition, in bivariate analysis poorer cognitive functioning was associated with high sitting time. The results may help to identify older adults that should be targeted in interventions aiming at reducing sitting time.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:59:50Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Purchasing preferences for sports shoes : an investigation of University
           students in Botswana
    • Authors: Akpata; D., Thebe, V., Mogano, M., Kwelegano, S.
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to find out factors that influence University students' purchasing preferences for sports shoes. Several factors from literature such as comfort, advertising, brand, price, style and quality have been identified as influencing university students to purchase sports shoes. A sample (N=120) of University of Botswana sport marketing students participated in the study. The Lyons and Jackson Athletic Shoe Survey questionnaire was modified and used to gather responses from the participants. The responses of the participants were rated on a Likert scale representing strongly agree to strongly disagree on a scale of 1 - 5. Data was analysed descriptively by the use of means, frequencies and percentages for the students' demographics and purchasing preferences. The independent t-test was used to determine if significant differences exists between the purchasing preferences mean scores of males and females at a selected probability level. The results indicated that quality is the most influential factor in purchasing sports shoes by university students. The results of T-test showed no significant differences between males and females on their preferences which signified similar purchasing behaviour. The study is useful in providing further information to shoe marketers on University students' purchasing preferences in order to develop better marketing strategies.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:59:49Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: The
           gap between the management and success of elite middle and long distance
           runners in Kenya
    • Authors: Kanyiba; Lewis R., Mwisukha, Andanje, Onywera, Vincent O.
      Abstract: Kenya has been very successful at middle and long distance races in international competitions for the last five decades. However, Kenyan world record beaters have denounced the motherland flag by switching nationality, sought training in alien bases under foreign managers, been living under deplorable conditions after athletic career, or they have been the victim of neglect-induced death at a prime career age. There is extensive research available on the success of Kenyan athletes, but no study to the knowledge of the researchers has linked the management of Kenyan athletes to that success. As a foundation for further research, the current exploratory study was designed to determine whether elite athletes, their coaches, and administrative officials (Athletics Kenya [AK] officials) differed on the effectiveness of the sampled managerial practices (personnel, equipment/facilities, motivation, patriotism, team selection, and training programs) in facilitating the success of Kenyan elite runners. The study further details the effect of nationality change and the role of foreign managers towards the success of Kenyans in distance running. The study took place in Nairobi, Kenya. The sample comprised 185 elite athletes, 49 coaches, and 34 AK officials. The Chi-square (χ2) test for independence (α = .05.) analysis was used to determine a consistent and predictable relationship between the variables. The pairwise comparisons showed that athletes differed significantly with coaches and AK officials on the sampled managerial practices while coaches did not differ significantly with AK officials. Suggestions for further research are given.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:59:49Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: A
           cross-over from Sport Psychology to the Psychology of Music : an
           intervention study on undergraduate music students
    • Authors: Steyn; Barend J.M., Steyn, Margaretha H., Maree, David J.F., Panebianco-Warrens, Clorinda
      Abstract: The primary aim of this research was to evaluate whether the cross-over from Sport Psychology to the Psychology of Music in terms of the knowledge base, intervention Psychological Skills Training (PST) protocols and psychometric measurements was meaningful. A second aim was to ascertain whether the psychological skills levels and mindfulness levels per se have improved amongst the undergraduate students. Extensive research on psychological benefits of PST in sport has been conducted in Sport Psychology, with unambiguously positive results. Mindfulness training, and specifically the mindfulness-acceptance-commitment (MAC) approach have been applied in sport and as in the case of PST, it has not yet been fully utilized in the context of music. This specific combination of PST and the MAC approach were tested on undergraduate music students in a seven-week intervention program. A quasi-experimental design was implemented in this research. Voluntary participation was adopted to ensure that the participants were fully engaged in and committed to this study. A convenience sample of 36 undergraduate music students from the Department of Music at the University of Pretoria was selected. The experimental group consisted of 21 students, and the remaining 15 students composed of the control group. Within the experimental group significant improvements in performance anxiety, psychological skills and mindfulness indicated that the cross-over from the performance-evaluative context of sport to music was meaningful and partially successful.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:59:48Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Bull's Mental Skills Questionnaire validation in an Afrikaans speaking
           population
    • Authors: Kruger; A., Edwards, D.J., Edwards, S.D.
      Abstract: The purpose of this research was to validate the Bull's Mental Skills Questionnaire in an Afrikaans speaking population. An Afrikaans version of the scale was developed through a rigorous translation and back translation procedure. The scale was administered to a convenience sample of 674 first to third year, Human Movement Science students (337 males and 324 females), with a mean age of 19.58±1.62. Exploratory Principle Component Factor Analysis, using Rotation Method: Promax with Kaiser Normalization, yielded a satisfactory six factor solution, virtually identical to six of the seven factors of the English version. Cronbach alpha reliability indices for the respective subscales were as follows: Concentration ability (.83), Anxiety and worry management (.81), Relaxation ability (.74), Imagery ability (.61), Motivation (.75) and Mental preparation (.57). It is recommended that this shortened six subscale version be used in mental skills research and praxis in Afrikaans speaking populations.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:59:47Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Practitioners' perceptions of sport and exercise psychology in South
           Africa and the United Kingdom
    • Authors: Edwards; D.J., Barker, J.B.
      Abstract: With the rationale to promote the national and international discipline, praxis and value of Sport and Exercise Psychology (S&EP) as well as make a contribution to the limited amount of comparison research, this study focused on comparative perceptions of relevant, knowledgeable S&EP stakeholders in South Africa (SA) and the United Kingdom (UK), to the extent to which they represent the discipline in economically developed and developing contexts respectively. It was considered that comparative research on these two countries would be instructive. A purposive sample of 12 practitioners (six SA and six UK) completed an online survey with participants from this sample further purposely selected for focus groups and individual interviews. Data was analysed using thematic content analysis. Three main findings emerged. First, although SA has no formalised professional training and registration, the discipline and praxis is advancing with much potential for further structural development and contribution. Second, in comparison, UK professional training and regulatory council registration, has evolved and diversified the field. Third, with their relative similarities and differences, SA and UK can learn much from one another, in terms of the contribution which S&EP can make. Further relevant international academic and professional collaboration should considerably advance the contributions of S&EP at local, national and international level.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:59:47Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: The
           psychology of the heart : implications for health, physical activity and
           sport
    • Authors: Edwards; S.D.
      Abstract: Over the centuries, the heart has been recognized as a centre for spiritual, intellectual and emotional life in diverse cultures. This paper introduces a psychology of the heart with specific reference to the time honoured, transcultural applications of a local, African, Zulu, breath based, heart focussed, psychotherapeutic workshop codenamed SHISO. Discussion focusses on implications for health, physical activity and sport of psychophysiological resonance, coherence and heart rate variability feedback applications involving respiration and facilitation of positive emotion.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:59:46Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: Is
           the game of touch rugby safe for female adolescents?
    • Authors: Vijam; K.L., De Koning, C., Dawson, S., Ellapen, T.J.
      Abstract: The game of touch rugby is considered safe, yielding minimal acute musculoskeletal injuries. This study profiled the prevalence of acute touch rugby musculoskeletal injury among female adolescent non-elite, recreational players over a 6 month period (February-July 2014). Data were collected from 76 high school players participating, in the A League in the Upper High Way Area of KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, via voluntary parental informed consent and player assent. Players completed a self-report questionnaire probing the nature and mechanism of acute musculoskeletal injuries. Probability was set at p≤0.05. Forty-nine players sustained acute musculoskeletal injuries with the ankle (33.3%) and knee (28.8%) being most prevalent (p<0.001). The Link player position indicated most injuries (p<0.0001). The mechanisms producing the musculoskeletal injuries were rapid, rotational movement (33.3%) and poor landing (26.6%) (p<0.05). Female adolescent touch rugby players experience a high prevalence of acute musculoskeletal knee and ankle injuries.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:59:45Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Community-based tourism : origins and present trends
    • Authors: Giampiccoli; A.
      Abstract: Understanding the origins of Community Based Tourism helps in mapping its possible trajectories. Past and current trends are important to unlock the possibilities in the future. This paper posits that with a better understanding of the original conceptualization, practices and roles of CBT, possibilities will abound to understand contemporary CBT matters. It argues that since its origins to current times, the CBT approach has endured a significant mismatch from the original aims and strategies of CBT in terms of practical approaches and outcomes. The hallmarks of a genuine CBT project include local control (rather than mere involvement), decision making at all the stages of the project's life cycle, equitable sharing of the collective benefits, within the context of a holistic, bottom-up approach to community development. Instead CBT projects have been distancing themselves to different degree from genuine CBT projects.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:59:44Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Optimal training loads for the hang clean and squat jump in Under-21 rugby
           union players
    • Authors: De Villiers; N., Venter, R.E.
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the optimal loads that would produce peak power output (PPO) in the hang clean and squat jump. Under-21 male rugby players (n = 59) from two rugby academies performed a maximal-strength test in the hang clean and squat, followed by a power test in the hang clean and squat jump with loads ranging from 30 to 90% of maximal strength (1RM). Pre-season and in-season testing was conducted. PPO for the hang clean was achieved at 90% 1RM during pre-season and at 80% 1RM during in-season. PPO forthe squat jump was achieved in a range from 60- 90% 1RM during pre-season and 50-90% 1RM during in-season. Optimal load for power production was 90% 1RM for the hang clean and 60-90% for the squat jump. Improvement in strength levels affected both peak-power production and the optimal load in both exercises. Results indicated that the more experienced the player was in strength training, the lower the percentage load that produced PPO. Load prescriptions would depend on the strength levels and training status of the players and should be monitored throughout the training year.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:59:44Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Community-based tourism research in academic journals : a numerical
           analysis
    • Authors: Mtapuri; O., Giampiccoli, A., Spershott, C.
      Abstract: This article examines the growth of Community-Based Tourism within the broader discipline of tourism. New topics in the field have emerged such as responsible tourism, pro-poor tourism, sports tourism and moral impacts of tourism. This phenomenon also reflects the multidisciplinarity of tourism. In this article, using the Title, Abstract and Keywords (TAK) for instances in which the words (Community-based Tourism, Community Tourism and Community-Based Eco-Tourism) to subsume community-Based Tourism (CBT), a search was made in various databases and found that CBT as a sub-specialty of tourism started to emerge in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The number of articles published specifically on CBT has been growing phenomenally. The major contribution of this article is that we now know the evolution of CBT and we also now know its trajectory of growth which has been upward. While the number of articles on CBT is growing, there is no journal dedicated solely to CBT.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:59:43Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Editorial
    • Abstract: Many of the diseases in adulthood have their antecedents in childhood and adolescence. For instance, there is overwhelming research evidence in support of the prevalence of risk factors of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in childhood such as hyperlipidemia, diabetes and hypertension.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:57:23Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: A
           systematic review on the effect of HIV infection on motor and cognitive
           development of infants and toddlers : health
    • Authors: Khondowe; O., Nikodem, V.C., Frantz, J.M., Harper, K.
      Abstract: The purpose of this systematic meta-analysis was to determine motor and cognitive developmental impairment in HIV infected children aged 0 to 42 months. A systematic search was done to identify relevant articles. Identified studies were assessed independently by two reviewers using a quality assessment tool. Data were entered into Review Manager Software and meta-analyses were performed. The I2 heterogeneity statistic test was used to determine the variability across studies and if present was the random effects model used for analysis. The initial search yielded 319 studies. After screening and thorough assessment of the identified studies, 11 were included in the systematic review with a total population of 1 444 participants. Research designs varied across studies. The meta-analysis produced a combined prevalence of motor delay was 83% (CI 74.98 to 90.57) and for cognitive delay was 76 % (CI 65.89 to 85.72). The prevalence of mild motor delay was 15.26% (95% CI: 11.19 to 19.33) and for mild cognitive delay was 21.85% (95% CI: 10.40 to 33.30). The prevalence of 64.53% (95%CI: 54.13 to 74.94) for significant motor delay and 51.94% (95% CI: 40.92 to 62.96) for significant cognitive delay. This systematic review aimed at developing our current understanding of the prevalence of motor and cognitive development in children infected with HIV. The findings suggest that there is a high prevalence of motor and cognitive developmental delay in children infected with HIV.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:57:23Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Depressive, suicidal and related symptoms in university students in
           Mauritius : health
    • Authors: Pillay; A.L., Bundhoo, H.Y.
      Abstract: Depressive disorders in adolescents and young adults are a source of concern, especially in view of their negative impact on general functioning and efficacy in daily life. Moreover, the treatability and prognosis in most cases of depression encourage early detection. In this regard the present investigation sought to examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms in young college students in the small Indian Ocean island of Mauritius. Using the University Student Depression Inventory (USDI) the researchers found that in their sample of 255 students, 16.5% reported sadness most of the time, 11.8% reported feelings of worthlessness and 7.1% noted suicidal ideation. Symptoms of low self-esteem (25.1%) and feelings of emptiness (15.7%) were also reported, while 26.7% wondered whether life is worth living. No significant gender differences were noted, although participants in the 21-22 year age group reported more symptoms than those in the 18-20 year age group. The results are discussed within the context of social and developmental issues.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:57:22Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Determinants of overweight and obesity in Kenyan adolescents in public and
           private schools : health
    • Authors: Okoth; M.A., Ochola, S., Onywera, V., Steyn, N.P.
      Abstract: Overweight and obesity have been identified as increasing public health problems among adolescents in many developed and developing countries. This study aimed at measuring the determinants of overweight and obesity, namely body mass index (BMI), dietary intake and physical activity levels of students (15-19 years) at public (less affluent) versus private (more affluent) schools in Kisumu East District of Kenya (n=387). A 24-hour dietary recall and 7-day food frequency were conducted with each participant. Physical activity levels were measured using the physical activity questionnaire for adolescents (PAQ-A). A higher percent of overweight adolescents were found at private schools than public schools (17% vs. 14%). Overall, 15.5% of adolescents were overweight or obese (BMI>=25). Students at private schools had significantly higher intakes of all nutrients than those at public schools, except for cholesterol and fibre. Differences between private schools and public schools were particularly high for energy (2186 Kcal vs. 1845 Kcal), fat (66g vs. 50g), carbohydrate (302g vs. 345g), and polyunsaturated fats (16g vs. 10 g), respectively. Carbohydrates (p=0.003), fruit and vegetables (p=0.013), and fats (p=0.003) were negative predictors while meat and eggs (p=0.002) and protein (p=0.005) were positive predictors of BMI. Physical activity levels were lower at public schools than at private schools. The prevalence of overweight students was highest at private schools as were intake of calories, carbohydrate, and fat, suggestive of increased urbanisation of lifestyle and associated rise in NCDs.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:57:22Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Impact of integrated tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus (TB/HIV)
           services in Africa : health
    • Authors: Makhado; L., Serapelwane, M., Hlongwane, L.J., Bodigelo, O.M., Dichate, M.B., Sebogadi, K.E., Bayo, C.L.
      Abstract: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic presents a significant challenge to global tuberculosis (TB) control. Worldwide, TB is the most opportunistic infection affecting HIV positive individuals, and it remains the most common cause of death in patients with AIDS. To address the dual burden of TB/HIV, World Health Organization (WHO) developed guidelines promoting the collaboration of the two programmes to achieve holistic patient care. However, in most African countries this policy is often not implemented at the level of patient care contributing to delayed diagnosis and linkage to care. In Africa, the control of TB/HIV a coinfection remains a major challenge despite the availability of international guidelines of TB/HIV services. Hence this study seeks to systematically review the impact of TB/HIV collaborative services in Africa. In order to identify relevant studies, electronic database: Pubmed, Embase, CIHNAL and Sabinet were searched from 2005 to end of august 2013. The general search structure for electronic databases was (impact of or synonyms) AND (collaborat* or integrat*) AND (TB/HIV or TB-HIV or TB and HIV) AND (services) AND (Africa). Further studies were identified by citations in retrieved papers and by consultation with experts. The level of integration seems to vary according to country and facility. It was evident that the impact of TB/HIV integration is somewhat difficult to rigorously measure; hence rigorous evaluative studies are needed to measure the impact of TB/HIV integration. This is due to different models of integration employed in different facilities and countries in Africa.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:57:21Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Measuring the effects of maternal morbidity in pregnancy, age and parity
           on pregnancy outcome in a south-west Nigerian community : health
    • Authors: Degun; A.M., Amosu, A.M., Goon, D.T.
      Abstract: The study examined the effects of maternal morbidity, age and parity on pregnancy outcome. It is a cross-sectional retrospective study of pregnant mothers who delivered in eight randomly selected health facilities located within four randomly selected local government areas (Yewa North, Yewa South, Ifo and Ado-Odo Ota) in Ogun State, Nigeria. A total of 13,903 case notes of mothers who delivered in the eight randomly selected health facilities with fairly complete records were eamined. All available records of normal and assisted deliveries were used including the associated maternal and infant characteristics for the period 2009-2011. These included the birth weight of each of the infants, infant survival at birth, maternal age and parity, and all properly diagnosed illnesses suffered by the mothers during pregnancy. The overall incidence of low birth weight (LBW) was 17.3% with mothers below 20 years of age and primiparous mothers recording the highest LBW incidences of 9.86% and 11.4%, respectively. LBW incidence for pregnant mothers diagnosed for malaria was 7.25%, those with iron deficiency anaemia recorded 2.89%, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) patients had 3.56%, while pregnancy related hypertensive patients accounted for 2.38% of the LBW incidence. Pregnant mothers diagnosed for STIs, malaria and iron deficiency anaemia delivered 209, 143 and 140 stillborn babies respectively. Also, primiparous (182) and Para 1(169) mothers recorded most of the stillborn deliveries when compared with multiparous mothers. Maternal morbidity, parity and age, were all found to be significant for LBW and stillbirths (p<0.001).
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:57:20Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Nurses' perspective regarding disclosure of human immune virus status in
           the workplace, Limpopo province : health
    • Authors: Makhado; L., Davhana-Maselesele, M., Golekanye, K.M., Koboekae, N.W., Keria, D.O., Maraka, M.M., Mfebe, C.N., Rathulong, K.V.
      Abstract: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) status disclosure is a critical component of HIV prevention and treatment efforts. This study seeks to determine and describe the level of exposure to HIV and disclosure of HIV status among nurses in a regional hospital in Limpopo province. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among all cadres of nurses and stratified sampling was used. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from nurses. The IBM Statistical Social Packages Sciences (SPSS) statistics version 21 was used for data analysis. Tables were mostly used to present the results given the descriptive nature of the study. Study was conducted among 233 nurses with about 88% concerned about contracting HIV at work. Majority (59.6%) had been exposed to HIV at work in the last 12 months (45% in 136). About 9% reported that they wouldn't tell anyone at work, 40.8% would not tell their supervisors and 12% would tell a family member if they thought they were HIV positive. Most participants (55.4%) preferred to work with HIV patients. A holistic approach must be encouraged through continuous HIV education programmes in health facilities to facilitate awareness of disclosure and its impact in the quality health care service.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:57:20Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: The
           effect of chronic low back pain on daily living and fear-avoidance beliefs
           in working adults : health
    • Authors: Kruger; P.E., Billson, J.H., Wood, P.S., Du Toit, P.J.
      Abstract: Low back pain (LBP) has become one of the most influential musculoskeletal diseases of modern society. Exercise has been shown to be very effective in the treatment of chronic low back pain (CLBP). The goal of the study was to test the effect of two exercise intervention programmes (conservative and progressive-aggressive programmes) for 12 weeks on CLBP and their impact on the activities of daily living, and fear avoidance beliefs about physical activities and work-related activities. In total 22 participants were recruited for the study and randomly assigned to one of two exercise groups: 11 participants in the conservative exercise group and 11 in the progressive-aggressive group). The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), the Functional Rating Index (FRI), and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain measurement was completed by the participants pre- and post-test. There were no statistically significant differences at the 5% level between the conservative and progressive-aggressive programmes. In conclusion, the results from the present study indicate that both types of programmes have shown to be very effective in the improvement of daily living and fear avoidance beliefs. On the basis of the magnitude of improvement, an aggressive-progressive exercise programme may be a little more effective than a more conservative exercise programme.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:57:19Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: The
           determinants of HIV infection among learners in Mpumalanga Province, South
           Africa : health
    • Authors: Armooh; S.E., Tugli, A., Anyanwu, F.C.
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess the determinants of HIV infection amongst learners in Malelane Sub-district, of Ehlanzeni Region, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. This descriptive study involved 350 grade 10 learners who were selected using simple random sampling technique. A questionnaire containing closed and open ended questions was used for data collection. Almost half of the learners reported being afraid to get treated for sexually transmitted infection (STI) or go for voluntary counseling and testing (VCT), more above school age (ASA) learners reported ever receiving treatment for STI and 46.3 % of the learners reported being afraid to get condoms as they would be seen by nurses or other parents. More males were involved in the promotion of condom use (p = 0.03) but more females received information regarding HIV/AIDS than males (p= 0.04). Furthermore, more males (14.0%) than females (9.0%) received treatment for STI while the school age (SA) learners were more likely to ask for permission to go out in the evening than the ASA learners (p =0.00). Fewer males ask for permission to go out in the evening than females (p=0.00). More ASA learners have more friends who are sexually active than SA learners (p=0.01) and more males than females are likely to have friends who are sexually active (p=0.00). Although the level of awareness of the determinants of HIV infection and the availability of HIV preventive services rendered in the local clinics and hospitals was high, more needs to be done to encourage safer sexual behaviour in order to reduce learners' vulnerability to HIV infection.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:57:19Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: The
           evaluation of the implementation of Integrated Management of childhood
           illnesses protocol at Mamotswa clinic Limpopo Province, South Africa :
           health
    • Authors: Tladi; F.M.
      Abstract: It is important to train more professional nurses for the implementation of Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) as a way of substantially reducing child mortality in the Limpopo province, South Africa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of IMCI protocol at Mamotshwa clinic in the Capricorn district of the Limpopo province. The study used the qualitative method because little is known about the topic. It is also important to understand the in-depth experiences of the human phenomenon. The phenomenological, descriptive, explorative and contextual research design was used. The sample (12) included professional nurses who were trained for IMCI at Mamotshwa clinic in the Capricorn district of the Limpopo province. The data were analysed using Tesch's inductive, descriptive coding technique method for analysing data. The results indicated that more IMCI professional need to be trained; child health status needs to be improved and that more material resources need to be provided. The conclusion and recommendations for the study protocol are that IMCI improves the quality and efficiency care of children less than five years old, and decreases child mortality through proper training of professional nurses.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:57:18Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: The
           prevalence of health risk behaviours among learners in selected urbanized
           secondary schools in Namibia : health
    • Authors: Strydom; G.L., De-Ridder, J.H., Greeff, M.
      Abstract: Research indicates that destructive lifestyles during adolescence may lead to serious health risks in later years of life. The prevalence of health risk behaviour among school learners should signal significant red flags to authorities as well as communities. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of some health risk behaviour among learners in selected urbanized secondary schools in Namibia. For this study, 294 learners (boys = 133 and girls = 161) from four secondary schools in Windhoek, the capital of Namibia, were randomly selected. To determine the prevalence of health risk behaviour in each age group, height, body mass, body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF) were determined and the Youth Risk Behaviour Survey Questionnaire (2003) was completed by each participant. The following constructs were studied, viz. physical activity participation, overweight/obesity, smoking, sexual activity, suicidal ideation, alcohol and drug usage. Data were analysed by using the Statistica for Windows (version 6 software) to calculate the descriptive statistics as well as two-way analysis of variance, to determine the relationship between physical activity participation and health risk behaviour. The effect size (ES) was calculated in order to determine the practical significance of the difference. Descriptive analysis indicated some alarming prevalence of health risk behaviour among the learners. The highest prevalence of health risk behaviour in boys and girls combined are; alcohol intake (47%) and overweight/obesity (39%) respectively, followed by smoking (28%) and sexual activity (25%). For the boys, alcohol intake (46%), sexual activity (30%) and smoking (30%) ranked first, second and third respectively, while for the girls, overweight/obesity (61%) showed the highest prevalence with alcohol consumption (47%) and physical inactivity (28%) in the second and third place respectively. The age group (boys and girls) which revealed the highest prevalence of health risk behaviour is the 15-year-old boys (70% alcohol intake) and 14-year-old girls (80% alcohol intake). It also appears that participation in physical activity can be associated with a decreased prevalence of risky behaviour, although different responses occurred between boys and girls - as well as between age groups in the same gender. This study reveals alarming red flags that should not be ignored by the public and authorities.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:57:17Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: Views
           and experiences of employees regarding wellness facilitation in nursing
           colleges in Gauteng and North West Provinces, South Africa : health
    • Authors: Tlapu; M.M., Klopper, H., Lekalakala-Mokgele, S.
      Abstract: There have been on-going debates regarding employee wellness and management roles. Conventionally, employees are expected to report for duty, do their work and leave their personal problems at home (Armstrong, 2008). However this debate has lost support as most of the prominent challenges in the workplace is deterioration of work ethics, work performance and availability due to poor physical health habits, a limited pool of talent and rising costs in the provision of health-related benefits. The purpose of the study was to explore and describe experiences and views of employees with regard to wellness. The study was qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual in nature. Data was collected by means of individual and focus group interviews conducted by the moderator. The data analysis procedure from Henning, Van Rensburg and Smit's (2008) writing was adopted as the bases for data analysis of the study. Ethical considerations were observed throughout the study as well as trustworthiness. Seven themes emerged from the focus group interviews' results namely: concept of wellness, supportive environment, communication, team building, staff development; employee coaching and change management. The concept wellness includes taking care of individuals (employees) holistically, which means taking care of them emotionally, physically, socially, spiritually and professionally. Accordingly, managers are responsible for supporting employees in facilitating all aspects of their wellness. A well-constructed comprehensive programme is a vehicle for employees' wellness facilitation. The programme should address employees' needs such as; a supportive environment, communication, team work and staff development.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:57:17Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Determinants of association of hyperhomocysteinaemia and metabolic
           disorders : a review : health
    • Authors: Moraba; M.M., Mashinya, F., Dikotope, S.A., Mabusela, M.S.
      Abstract: Hyperhomocysteinaemia may complicate diseases of metabolic origin. This would make standard therapy less effective with slow recovery progress, health deterioration and socioeconomic implications, if not detected and treated for, promptly. The study was aimed at establishing factors that determine and influence the association of hyperhomocysteinaemia with obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. The study was a cross-sectional literature review. Relevant articles and papers were analysed. Review articles were excluded, although original references from them were cited. Science Direct, Google Scholar, PubMed, NIH Public Access and PMC databases of literature search were used. All articles and papers that referred to homocysteine or hyperhomocysteinaemia and metabolic disorders or metabolic parameters were assessed. Hundred and thirty articles and papers were retrieved but only 87 of them were found relevant. After analysis of the articles and literature papers, personal viewpoints and comments were made. Insulin resistance, low nitrous oxide level, low level and functionally defective HDL, age, overt diabetic nephropathy and deficiency of vitamin B12 and folate were identified as determinants of the association of hyperhomocysteinaemia with obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidaemia.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:57:16Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Factors influencing future intention to consume team websites : further
           evidence from South African soccer supporters : sport management
    • Authors: Mafini; C., Dhurup, M.
      Abstract: This study explored factors influencing the future consumption of team websites by sports fans. The study adopted a quantitative approach in which a two section questionnaire was administered to a conveniently selected sample consisting of 219 respondents who were supporters of any of the 16 teams in the South African Premier Soccer League. All respondents were based in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Data analysis was conducted using the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (Version 22.0). Exploratory Factor Analysis using the Principal Components Analysis method was applied to extract factors influencing the future use of team websites. Five factors; perceived enjoyment, team support, social networking, pass time and commitment were identified, with commitment emerging as the most important. Sports marketers can use the information generated by this study to design strategies for enhancing the future use of team websites, thereby improving the support base for their teams.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:57:15Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Responsible tourism : analysing implementation and challenges in East
           London using the stakeholder approach : tourism
    • Authors: Tichaawa; T.M., Samhere, S.
      Abstract: The practice of responsible tourism in the tourism industry is vital, as such the practice aims to reduce negative developmental consequences while promoting positive ones. This research focuses on responsible tourism practices amongst tourism stakeholders in East London, specifically in the accommodation and sub-travel sectors. The primary purpose of the study was to examine whether the stakeholders concerned were embracing the adoption of responsible tourism guidelines, as set out by the South African government in its policy-related documents and identify the challenges experienced. A stratified random sampling technique was used to target the stakeholders, who were divided into four subsectors, namely: bed and breakfasts; guest houses; backpackers; and travel agencies. The semi-structured questionnaire that was used to gather the relevant data from such stakeholders was administered on a face-to-face basis. In addition, the purposive sampling technique was used to target the key informants. Significant statistical differences were observed amongst various stakeholder groups. The key findings from the research revealed that many stakeholders in East London practise responsible tourism in several different ways. However, the study showed that such stakeholders were not aware that their efforts contributed towards responsible tourism. Furthermore, different challenges, including lack of awareness and limited support from the government, were identified as barriers hindering the full implementation of responsible tourism.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:57:14Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Health and the motivation to visit thermal spring resorts in the Western
           Cape, South Africa : tourism
    • Authors: Boekstein; M.S.
      Abstract: Thermal spring resorts in Europe and other parts of the world are combining the age-old belief in the healing properties of thermal waters with a contemporary desire for health and wellness treatments, often in recreational settings. In the light of these international trends, a better understanding of the extent to which a belief in the healing properties of the waters at thermal spring resorts in the Western Cape, South Africa, forms part of the motivation to visit these resorts, may be useful for both product development and marketing. A theoretical overview is provided of tourist motivation, including well-known motivational theories, aspects of a holiday that are enjoyed the most, and the motivations of health tourists. A survey was carried out at six thermal spring resorts in the Western Cape in 2011/2012, to gather information on visitor patterns and activity preferences, and ascertain whether, and to what extent, a belief in the healing properties of the waters forms part of the motivation to visit. The main reasons for visiting the thermal spring resorts, the most popular activities, and perceptions of visitors regarding the health benefits of the thermal waters, are listed and discussed. It is concluded that the thermal waters provide a multitude of direct and indirect health benefits for visitors, and health considerations are therefore bound to play an important role in the motivation to visit, and re-visit, these resorts.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:57:14Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Movement activities : a critical link in developing motor skills and
           learning in early childhood : motor development
    • Authors: Krog; Soezin
      Abstract: From birth, a newborn moves and displays continuous interest in his surroundings. The child's repertoire of movements enables him to discover his surroundings and to develop essential motor abilities. Simultaneously, he is using his sensory motor system to scour the environment. The development of the brain is reliant on a variety of experiences with movement being the first experience. The aim of this study was to conduct a literature study to determine the critical link between movement and learning as well as the impact of movement on learning. Movement and learning go hand in hand and are the initial steps on the ladder to later effective cognitive functioning. Brain science was found to strongly support the link between movement and learning and provides evidence that movement forms an important building block in the foundations of a child's growth and development. A literature study was used to investigate the critical link between movement, the brain and learning. It was therefore necessary that a neurological perspective be considered in this study in an effort to provide a conceptual analysis and substantiate the importance of motor development during the initial years of the child's development. Important findings of this research reveal movement as the foundation which helps the brain to integrate in preparation for academic work.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:57:13Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: The
           contribution of the African People's Organisation to sport in South Africa
           : July to December 1920 : sport history
    • Authors: Cleophas; F.J.
      Abstract: This article presents a descriptive recovery of sport articles for the period July to December 1920 in the A.P.O. Official Organ of the African People's Organisation (APO). It expands on previous work on the contribution of the African People's Organisation to sport, and this article should be read as part of a continuum on a historical trajectory of the APO starting in 1909 and terminating in 1923. The merit of using the APO as a tool for sport history research was found in the fact that it had branches throughout South Africa from where freelance journalists submitted sport reports. These reports covered sport practices in remote parts of the country, and by surveying the commentary pages of the APO, researchers are able to place participation practices within a social and political context. A further value of this newspaper was the fact that sport was reported from grassroots level and therefore doors are opened to sport historians for exploration work on a local history level. Finally, the APO also provided reports on recreational activities and marginalised sporting codes, thus helping sport historians with the interpretation of a broad human movement performance during the period of review at local community level.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:57:12Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Editorial
    • Abstract: Many of the diseases in adulthood have their antecedents in childhood and adolescence. For instance, there is overwhelming research evidence in support of the prevalence of risk factors of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in childhood such as hyperlipidemia, diabetes and hypertension.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:54:53Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Improving children's health through school-based screening : a case study
           from the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces of South Africa : health
           and physical activity
    • Authors: Potterton; M., Mackenzie, C.
      Abstract: Children in Grade R and Grade 1 were screened for eyesight and ophthalmological health, weight and height, and examined for lymphadenopathy, skin conditions, pallor and general health. The premise of the screening initiative was that certain key health issues acted as barriers to learning in children, and that these were the issues which were addressed in the implementation of the project. Results show a significant improvement in the percentage of pupils immunized and in pupils' nutritional status, a marked difference in terms of overall skin and hair hygiene, improvements in ophthalmological health (particularly notable in a reduction in cases of conjunctivitis), and some improvement in terms of administration of on-site service (in the form of anti-fungal creams and other medicines). These results, while it is impossible to link them solely to the intervention, correlate strongly with the qualitative data of observed change as a result of the health screening. In the qualitative data, a number of recurrent themes or discussions emerged in response to the questions asked: pre-existing health problems, effects of those health problems on learning, issues around access to health-care, psycho-social problems in the community, effects of the health screening on health and on learning, problems with the process of health screening, and suggestions for improvement. Health screening had a positive effect on the pupils, particularly in the areas of ophthalmological health and hygiene.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:54:53Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Effect mechanisms of physical activity on the improvement of insulin
           sensitivity and glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus - reverse
           mechanism approach : a review : health and physical activity
    • Authors: Moraba; M.M., Mabusela, M.S., Mashinya, F.
      Abstract: Diabetes mellitus type 2 is increasingly becoming a global health burden, constituting 85 to 95% of all diabetes cases among the high economic countries and, may be even higher in low and middle income populations. Its morbidity is associated with cultural and social changes, aging, dietary changes, sedentary lifestyle and behavioural patterns. Although some studies have described the benefits of physical activity as a cost-effective treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance, the actual mechanisms have not been co-ordinated systematically.The aim of this review was to attempt, from literature study, a stepwise presentation of how physical activity improves insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Original articles were targeted. Various words combination was used to search for articles of relevance. Science Direct, Google Scholar, PubMed, NIH Public Access, Medline, Medscape and PMC were sites used to search for the articles and related papers.Seventy (70) articles and papers were retrieved and 53 were found relevant. Research facts were analysed and synthesized, personal views and comments were made. Insulin-independent contractile mechanism, decrease in adiposity and raised adiponectin level, GLUT-4 glucose transporter, reversal of insulin resistance and increased muscle tissue sensitivity are the mechanisms through which physical activity improves insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism, with improved muscle glucose uptake for energy generation, followed by decreased glucose level in blood. Physical activity operates through both insulin-dependent and insulin-independent mechanisms to improve glucose metabolism in type 2 DM. Physical activity reverses insulin resistance mechanism. Improvement of insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in type 2 DM is largely dependent on decreasing adiposity and increased adiponectin activity. Physical activity is valuable for general wellness, treatment for metabolic disorders and prevention of their complications in advance.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:54:52Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Effects of Zulu stick fighting on health-related physical fitness of
           prepubescent Zulu males : sport science
    • Authors: Nxumalo; S.A., Semple, S.J., Longhurst, G.K.
      Abstract: Indigenous Zulu games might be useful for the purposes of enhancing motor ability and health. We investigated the potential influence of the traditional martial art of Zulu stick fighting on health-related physical fitness of prepubescent males. Forty-five children were divided into an experimental group (n = 22), which underwent a ten-week stick fighting intervention programme facilitated by two professional stick fighters, and a control group (n = 23) without such an intervention. The five health-related components of physical fitness that we measured were: skinfolds (a proxy for body composition); modified sit and reach (flexibility); sit-ups and push-ups (muscle endurance); grip strength (muscle strength); and a 20-metre Multistage Test for cardiovascular fitness. The stick fighting intervention led to significant differences (p < 0.05) of a 6.6% decrease in body composition, a 28.6% rise in cardiovascular fitness and a 24.8% increase in flexibility. Muscle endurance and strength did not change significantly with muscle strength deteriorating over the course of the intervention programme. The use of indigenous physical activities may provide useful alternatives for activities that are not restricted by cost or equipment at rural schools that mostly lack unaffordable infrastructure and proper exercise facilities.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:54:51Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: Does
           concurrent strength and endurance training improve endurance running?
           A systematic review : sport science
    • Authors: Munekani; I., Ellapen, T.J.
      Abstract: This systematic review examined the effects of concurrent strength and endurance training in relation to running economy (RE), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and lactate threshold (LT). In addition, the examination of combined core-strengthening and endurance running and the use of strength training to protect endurance runners from musculoskeletal running injuries. The authors' complied with PRIMSA guidelines. The outcome interest was concurrent strength training and endurance running, exposure was endurance runners. Seven electronic databases were searched for publications meeting the following inclusion criteria; concomitant strength training and endurance running ranging from 2003-2013, with 48 relevant publications being identified. These were assessed for quality resulting in 25 English published articles; however 15 intervention and two review studies were used. Concurrent strength training and endurance running improves the RE of endurance runners, without impacting on their VO2max and LT. Combined core strength training and running had contradictory findings regarding the benefits for enhanced running performance. The use of strength training as a protective measure against musculoskeletal running injuries has shown to be a worthwhile intervention. It is recommended that future prospective randomized controlled studies using large samples, longer interventions, and completion times of 10km, 21.1km and 42.2km be used to determine the success of concurrent strength and endurance training.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:54:51Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Variable isotonic resistance training in lower limb strength and
           flexibility of recreational cyclists and runners : sport science
    • Authors: Breukelman; G.J., Anderson, J., Pinard, J.P.
      Abstract: We determined the effects of an 8-week, home-based Jump Stretch Flexband® (JSFB) exercise programme on the strength and flexibility of a group of recreational runners and cyclists, with a control group of runners and cyclists who did not alter their daily training regimes. The use of the JSFB significantly increased the dominant and non-dominant hip flexor flexibility of the experimental group (p = 0.0002 and 0.0004, respectively). Significant benefits were also found in hamstring flexibility (p = 0.041), evidence indicating a steady increase within the experimental group. There was also a significant, but inconclusive, increase in the control group's quadricep flexibility in both dominant and non-dominant legs (p = 0.025 and 0.046). There was no significant difference in strength gains, as the experimental group's peak torque-best repetition for extension of the dominant leg was p = 0.37 and the non-dominant leg was p = 0.19, respectively. Thus, using the JSFB appears likely to lead to improved flexibility of an athlete's lower limb muscles, which is an important finding due to the significantly less amount of research that has been done on the large muscle groups compared to the smaller muscle groups.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:54:50Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Changes in renal and hydro-electrolytic parameters induced by the 30-15
           Intermittent Fitness Test (IFT) among female division 1 handball players
           in the Republic of Benin : sport science
    • Authors: Tonon; B.A., Gouthon, P., Agbotan, B., Nigan, Bio, Falola, J.M., Agbotan, H.
      Abstract: This study aims at assessing the changes in renal parameters induced by the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (IFT) in female handball players of the Republic of Benin. The study sample was categorised as experimental (EG: n = 7) and control (CG: n = 6) groups. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with two formulas, urine specific gravity (USG), fractional sodium excretion (FeNa), urinary sodium-potassium ratio (Na/K) and plasma volume variation (PV) were determined before, just at cessation and three hours after the test. In the end, eGFR and PV decreased by at least 17.2% (p < 0.05) according to the formula and 9.2% in the EG group while in CG, FeNa and PV increased, respectively by 39% (p = 0.017) and 1.7%. Three hours after the test, eGFR and PV increased by 10.5% (p = 0.02) and 1.4%, while FeNa decreased by 25% (p = 0.02) in EG. In CG, FeNa decreased by 12.5% and PV increased by 2.7%. Urinary Na/K ratio remained unchanged (p > 0.05) in both groups. The 30-15 IFT induced in hot environment, a transient reduction of eGFR and a decrease of FeNa during recovery in female handball players.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:54:50Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Injury prevalence, stability and balance among female adolescent soccer
           players : sport injury
    • Authors: Koenig; J.P., Puckree, T.
      Abstract: Poor balance is a risk factor for injury in adolescent sport including soccer. There has been a rapid growth in female adolescent soccer especially in South Africa, yet the association between balance and injury in this population has not been fully explored. This study determined the relationship between static balance as measured by the Sway Index (SI), dynamic balance as measured by Limits of Stability Direction Control (LOS) and injury. Injury prevalence and the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and static/dynamic balance were also determined. Eighty adolescent female soccer players, between the ages of 14-18 years were recruited through convenience sampling from schools in the eThekwini district of KwaZulu-Natal. Height, weight, Sway Index (SI) and Limits of Stability Direction Control (LOS) readings were measured using a stadiometer, electronic scale and Biodex Biosway Portable Balance System (Biodex Medical Systems Inc., Shirley, New York) respectively. Only 27.5% of the participants sustained one or more injuries when playing soccer. The OR suggests that an injured player with poor SI is 1.44 times more likely to be injured than one with good SI. Significant correlations (p ≤ 0.05) between BMI and SI were noted. This study revealed that poor static and dynamic balance is associated with injury in adolescent female soccer players.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:54:49Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Cumulative Mild Head Injury (CMHI) in schoolboy rugby players : sport
           injury
    • Authors: Nel; C.R., Jeanne, G., Nel, K.A., Govender, S.
      Abstract: Sport participation as a form of exercise is considered essential for adolescent boys and encouraging involvement in sport or physical activity is important for physical and social development. Participation in sport is associated with the risk of sports - related injuries particularly in contact sports such as rugby. Traditionally the game is seen as promoting teamwork and discipline. The knowledge that cognitive damage can occur in contact sports is problematic as adolescent boys are encouraged to achieve in both the academic and sporting arenas. A quasi-experimental survey design was utilised for the study. A final sample of twenty six schoolboy rugby players and fourteen non-contact sport controls (schoolboy hockey players) was utilised. The age of the sample ranged between fifteen and eighteen years (SD = 2.61 years). Data were analysed by comparing the cognitive profiles of the rugby players with the hockey group and rugby forwards and rugby backline players, mean reaction times and standard deviations (SD) were also reported. A chi-square test was used to test the study hypotheses. The results of the study do not support findings from previous research which indicates that concussive injury and repeated concussions (Cumulative Mild Head Injury - CMHI) incur cognitive deficits in schoolboy rugby players, particularly the forwards. An unexpected finding was the Hockey group had slower mean reaction times post-season than the rugby group. Recommendations were that a more comprehensive study is undertaken and that hockey, at school level, should incorporate reaction time and speed drills into training programmes.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:54:49Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: An
           exploration of the perceptions of spiritual rituals among elite players
           and coaches associated with religiosity or psychological variables : sport
           psychology
    • Authors: Dodo; E.O., Lyoka, P.A., Chetty, I.G., Goon, D.T.
      Abstract: The purpose of the study was to determine whether or not the spiritual rituals perceptions among coaches and elite players were associated with religiosity or psychological factors. The study involved 120 randomly students; six teachers and principals, respectively, from six selected special schools in Amathole district. Both qualitative and quantitative methodological research designs were used in the study. Data collection involved questionnaires, interviews and participant observation. This study adopted a modified version of Duke Religion Index (DRI) questionnaire. The questionnaire was translated to IsiXhosa because most of the schools use IsiXhosa as their medium of instruction. The interview consisted of structured open ended and close-ended questions. The results show that 27.8% of the respondents did not use rituals during training, 14% were 'not sure' 58.3% agree to use rituals during training sessions for various reasons including belief in God, protection against injury, psychological energising, and preparing for winning competitions. The team observed rituals before the start of all the matches; during the matches which were half time breaks 2/3 of the time they prayed and after matches they prayed for 1/3 of the time. A team and players would only take rituals seriously a few minutes before competitions especially a few minutes before game start. The tendency to use rituals increases with winning demand or pressure on team and for players to perform well. About 50% of the respondents disagreed to the use of rituals during and after the games. Likewise a summed total of 40.3% agreed to the use of rituals during and after game while, 9.7% were indifferent. The use of spiritual rituals among penalty takers elicited responses as follows: 31.7% disagreed, 59.9%agreed while 7.9% were undecided. The association between the practice of spiritual rituals and the effect on taking of penalty (Chi-square value=36.092, df=15; p<0.002) indicates that soccer players use spiritual rituals during penalty kicks. The result shows that spiritual rituals are used by players to boost their confidence during soccer competitions (52.8%). On the contrary, 47.2% of the respondents objected to the use of spiritual rituals for boosting confidence during soccer competitions including penalty kicks. About 34.7% agreed that they practised rituals to remove fear, while 65.3% disagreed. Players (4.2%) admit they practised ritual because others are doing it, while 95% holds an opposite view. The results show that 58% of the respondents agreed that they were practicing spiritual rituals as means of protection from injuries while 41.7% did not agree with the reason. Also, the players (52.7%) use spiritual rituals for intervention to win in soccer competitions, while 47.3% disagreed. Yet, others (9.7%) have no reason for practicing spiritual rituals in competition, while 90.3%dissociated themselves from the statement suggesting that they did have a reason for observing rituals in soccer competition. Soccer players used rituals for many reasons related to the game. These include psychological preparation (no injury, winning, remove fear), personal religious beliefs and no reason because others in the team were using them. On whether coaches and elite players' uses spiritual rituals in competitive soccer in the light of spirituality or psychological means of increasing the soccer competitive outcomes, the responses from the open ended questions were inductively clustered to anxiety/Fear, lack of confidence, pressure and skill. During the interviews, soccer coaches were asked to explain the use of rituals in their team. Majority of respondents (57.1%) used rituals for psychological/motivational interventions. The use of spiritual rituals by both coaches and elite players appears to be related to psychological intervention purposes rather than for religion observances. The use of spiritual rituals in sports is more of psycho-social interventions than spirituality of religion.Soccer players used rituals for many reasons related to the game. These include psychological preparation (no injury, winning, and remove fear), personal religious beliefs and no reason, because others in the team were using them.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:54:48Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: Team
           identification and soccer involvement as determinants of African
           Generation Y students' Premier Soccer League team psychological commitment
           : sport psychology
    • Authors: Mofokeng; T.E., Bevan-Dye, A.L., De Klerk, N.
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of soccer involvement and team identification on African Generation Y students' Premier Soccer League (PSL) team psychological commitment in the South African context. In the South African market, the African Generation Y cohort (individuals born between 1986 and 2005) represents a large yet under-researched segment that in 2013 made up 32 percent of the country's population. Understanding the influence of soccer involvement and PSL team identification on PSL team psychological commitment amongst African Generation Y members will help inform PSL team marketing efforts targeted at this significantly sized segment. Those pursuing tertiary qualifications are likely to be of particular interest to marketers, including sport marketers in that a tertiary qualification is generally associated with a higher future earning potential as well as a higher social standing in a community, making graduates likely current and future role models. A descriptive research design was followed whereby data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire from single cross-sectional convenience sample of students across three South African public higher education institutions' campuses situated in the Gauteng province. The data set was analysed using exploratory principle component analysis and structural equation modelling. The findings suggest that soccer involvement and PSL team identification have a direct significant positive effect on African Generation Y students' PSL team psychological commitment.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:54:47Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Perceived motivational climate as a predictor of concussion-related
           attitudes among sub-elite rugby union players : sport psychology
    • Authors: Lambaskis; A.N., Walker, S.P., Esterhuyse, K.G.F.
      Abstract: Recent consensus statements on sport-related concussion have emphasised the need for education initiatives aimed at raising awareness on this issue. However, these initiatives do not appear to be optimising attitudinal and behaviour change among athletes. It is thus important to better understand motivation within the context of sport-related concussion. This study investigated the extent to which perceived motivational climate (PMC) could predict the concussion-related return-to-play (RTP) attitudes of sub-elite rugby union players. A convenience sample of 139 sub-elite players was drawn from two provincial rugby unions. Participants completed the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire - 2 (PMCSQ-2) and a researcher-compiled measure of concussion-related RTP attitudes. Descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations and hierarchical regression analyses were employed to analyse the data. The regression analyses indicated that PMC did not predict concussion-related RTP attitudes for the total sample. However, PMC did predict RTP attitudes in a sub-sample of players with no reported history of concussion. This relationship was specifically apparent with regard to attitudes regarding returning to practice and training, as well as playing in high priority matches. Contrary to expectation, ego-oriented PMC was predictive of conservative RTP attitudes within the context of practice and high priority matches, while only one aspect of task-oriented PMC predicted RTP attitudes, and then just within the context of high priority matches. This study concluded that PMC is predictive of concussion-related attitudes among sub-elite rugby union players with no history of concussion.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:54:46Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: The
           applicability of uses and gratifications theory in predicting Facebook
           game playing : sport psychology
    • Authors: Mahlangu; H.B.
      Abstract: Entertainment, escapism and passing time have been used in Uses and Gratification (U&G) studies to understand individual's needs concerning media choice. This study examines the usefulness of the Uses and Gratification theory in examining university students' motives to play Facebook games. The data were collected from 118 university students using a self-administered questionnaire to assess the constructs of the Uses and Gratification theory. The collected data were analysed using the regression technique. The analysis identified entertainment as the main significant motive why students play Facebook games.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:54:45Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: The
           influence of justice, benevolence, integrity, and competence in the
           coach-athlete relationship in a South African context : sport psychology
    • Authors: Zhang; Z., Surujlal, J.
      Abstract: This study attempted to provide empirical evidence regarding both the predictability and invariance of the antecedents of athletes' trust in the coach framework proposed by Zhang and Chelladurai (2013). Using samples from South Africa, the results from the multiple linear regression model indicate that the antecedents of trust in the coach framework significantly predicted athlete's trust in the coach (F = 76.73, df, 4, p < 0.01). The four antecedents of trust, namely justice, benevolence, integrity, and competence altogether explained 50% variance of trust in the coach. Of the four perceived characteristics of the coach, the study found that perceived benevolence contributed most to explain athletes' trust in the coach, followed by competence, justice, and integrity. It confirms the results of Zhang and Chelladurai's (2013) study that perceived benevolence and competence are the two most important characteristics of the coach in generating trust in an athlete. The implication of this in practice may require providing greater attention and weighting of these aspects in the training of sport coaches. While the study did not find any significant contributions regarding integrity in explaining trust in the coach it is important that this aspect also receives attention and importance in the training of coaches.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:54:45Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Finding empirical synergy between athlete-endorser brand-fit, brand
           association and brand purchase intentions : sport management
    • Authors: Dhurup; M., Mafini, C.
      Abstract: Athlete celebrity endorsement advertising has been recognised as a common feature of modern day marketing, and has been increasing exponentially over the past two decades, becoming a popular advertising mechanism in today's global marketplace. This study examined the relationship between athlete-endorser brand-fit with brand association and brand purchase intentions amongst a cohort of university students. The study is located within a quantitative research paradigm, thus allowing the testing of relationships among the various constructs through a confirmatory and structural equations modelling. The sample consisted of 226 university students based in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Athlete-endorser brand fit showed strong positive relationships with brand association. A strong positive relationship between brand association and brand purchase intentions was observed. South African companies should continue to make use of athlete celebrity endorsers as they create brand association through emotional bonding and purchase intentions of the advertised brand. Significant purchases may materialise through positive association with the brand that is advertised by an athlete-endorser.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:54:44Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: The
           role and impact of tourism on local economic development : a comparative
           study : tourism and leisure
    • Authors: Meyer; D.F., Meyer, N.
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine what role tourism plays in the economic development of local regions. Tourism is globally recognised as one of the largest and fastest growing economic sectors. In developing countries, tourism is specifically seen as a tool to promote economic development, and alleviate poverty as an alternative to other traditional economic sectors such as industrialization. The study was conducted using tourism statistical data from two geographical areas namely the Metsimaholo municipal area and the Emfuleni municipal area (region previously known as the "Vaal-Triangle"), South Africa. Secondary data were used from the Global Insight data base. Global Insight is one of the world's largest sources of global financial, economic and sectoral data.Data obtained from this source were further analysed, refined and reported on. The results indicated that tourism trips in both areas have shown a steady growth from 2001 to 2013. Within the Emfuleni municipal area, business tourism specifically has shown rapid growth of 8.36 percent per annum, while holiday tourism has grown at a relatively slower rate of 3.31 percent. The Metsimaholo municipal area on the other hand has shown much lower tourism growth. If the two areas in the study region are compared with international standards on the percentage contribution of gross domestic product (GDP) of tourism, the Emfuleni area compares well with a 7.7 percent contribution and Metsimaholo with only a 2.2 percent contribution. Globally the contribution of tourism is between 8 to 10 percent of GDP. Tourism as a low skilled, labour intensive industry, has many benefits for local regions including poverty alleviation and a key sector for local economic development (LED).
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:54:44Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: Older
           adults' perceptions and experiences regarding leisure participation :
           tourism and leisure
    • Authors: Mthembu; T.G., Abdurahman, I., Ferus, L., Langenhoven, A., Sablay, S., Sonday, R.
      Abstract: There has been an increase in ageing population resulting in demands for long-term care which include general health care, personal care, and social services, and institutionalized care. Leisure participation has been recommended in all stages of development including older persons as a strong determinant of health, well-being and quality of life. However, little is known about leisure participation amongst older adults in South Africa as an activity which promotes health, well-being and quality life of the elderly while they are under institutionalized and home environments. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences of older adults regarding their leisure participation in an old age home. A qualitative design was conducted with seven older persons aged 64 - 84 years in an old aged home were purposively selected for the study. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with the participants, analysed using thematic analysis. The three themes emerged from the study: "Contentment lies with those who are at peace"; waiting to die" and "I would really like to do and learn". This study highlighted that leisure participation provides feeling of enjoyment, pleasure and support among older adults when they participate in leisure activities that give them a sense of belonging. These findings suggest that occupational therapists working in communities need to promote healthy active aging, well-being and quality of life of the elderly in order to exercise their fundamental human right.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:54:43Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance : A
           multi-disciplinary approach to health and well-being : Supplement 2:
           Western-trained health care practitioners' knowledge of and experiences
           with traditional healing
    • Authors: Mokgobi; M.G.
      Abstract: Traditional healing has been used alongside western allopathic medicine for many years. Studies have shown that majority of people in developing countries use the services of traditional healers. The question remains - how much do western-trained health care practitioners know about traditional healing and what are their experiences of traditional healing? The objective of this study was to investigate western-trained health care practitioners' knowledge and experiences with traditional healing, in order to contribute to the current debate and discussion on the possible integration of traditional healing and western healing in South Africa. This study used a Within-Stage Mixed Model design to collect data among 319 health care practitioners in South Africa namely Limpopo province and Gauteng province. Participants were sampled by using a convenient sampling method in which only health care practitioners who were at work during data collection had a chance of being selected. The Kruskal-Wallis Test revealed no significant difference in knowledge of traditional healing across the four groups of health care practitioners. However, significant differences were found in experiences with traditional healing across the four groups of health care practitioners. Overall, health care practitioners had a limited knowledge and experience of traditional healing. In conclusion, health care practitioners should be encouraged to engage in activities that would enhance their knowledge and experiences with traditional healing.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T09:51:22Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: Sport
           and recreation officials' role innovation, job enjoyment and their
           relationship with job satisfaction and intention to stay in a developing
           country : health
    • Authors: Radebe; P.Q., Dhurup, M.
      Abstract: Although job satisfaction has been widely researched among organisational behaviour researchers in various types of organisations, its antecedents such as role innovation and job enjoyment have been scarce in literature. There is a notion that various attitudinal constructs may influence a wide range of behaviour of employees' propensity to stay in organisations. This study offers a conceptual model and proposes the relationships between the constructs : role innovation, job enjoyment, job satisfaction and intention to stay. Data were collected from 201 sport and recreational officials in Gauteng, South Africa, through a structured questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equations modelling (SEM) were used to test the model fit and hypotheses. The results revealed that sport and recreation officials' job role innovation positively influenced job enjoyment. Role innovation and job enjoyment positively influenced job satisfaction. Finally, job satisfaction in turn positively influenced sport officials' intention to stay in the department. In view of causal relationships between role innovation and job enjoyment, it is recommended that intervention programmes be instituted to enhance the level of role innovation while jobs should be re-designed to instill job enjoyment and job satisfaction in sport and recreation officials. The reward system could also be structured in a manner that would reinforce role innovation and intention to stay, which could possibly lead to job satisfaction.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:35Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Challenges faced by sport coaches in South Africa : health
    • Authors: Kubayi; N.A., Coopoo, Y., Morris-Eyton, H.F.
      Abstract: Research has shown that there is a high turnover of sport coaches in South Africa, yet there has been relatively little attention paid to the challenges faced by sport coaches. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the challenges experienced by sport coaches in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. A qualitative approach using focus group interviews was adopted for this study. Two focus group interviews, consisting of five participants each were conducted by the principal researcher with participants who met the inclusion criteria. Only participants who had coached for at least five years were purposively selected to participate in the study. Arising from the thematic analysis of the focus group interviews, the following themes emerged : interference from management, pressure to win, lack of resources and parental pressure. The results of this study provide practical applications for sport organisations to overcome the challenges encountered by sport coaches and also provide strategies to retain and develop sport coaches in South Africa.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:35Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: The
           state of teacher-coaches' sport-specific training, participation and
           coaching experience, mentor interaction and methods of continued education
           in sport coaching : health
    • Authors: Van der Merwe; C.
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the current state of teacher-coaches' sport specific training, playing - and coaching experience regarding sport coaching. Fifty five (55) schools from the Kenneth Kaunda district in the Northwest province of South Africa were selected. Vosloo and Trudel and Camiré's questionnaires were adapted for this study. One hundred and forty four (144) questionnaires were used in the compilation of the results. The Epi-info program was used to capture the data. For the analyzing of the data, frequency tables and cross-tabulations were used to obtain statistical (p
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:34Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Tourism policies and the space economy of the Eastern Cape Province of
           South Africa : a critical realist perspective : health
    • Authors: Acheampong; K.O.
      Abstract: The key objective of this paper is to x-ray the situation in the tourism development process of the post-1994 tourism sector of the Eastern Cape Province. This paper uses empirical data to examine the extent to which actors in the Eastern Cape tourism sector interpreted the national tourism policies. The White Paper on Development and Promotion of Tourism in South Africa is the blueprint of the policy document. Other instruments such as the Tourism Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) Charter also exist to implement BEE in the tourism industry. To explain the historically changing nature of tourism in the Eastern Cape, two phases were used as the basis for data collection : pre-1994 and post-1994. Each period is defined as a particular combination of tourism policies and particular stakeholders in achieving certain development goals. To measure the transformation that has taken place in the tourism sector since 1994, "t-test" was used to examine the statistical significance of some simple correlation results. Fewer number of tourism products existed in the province in the period pre-1994. The dramatic change in the number of tourism businesses, pre- and post-1994 is explained in terms of different government policies that prevailed during this period.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:33Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Authenticity of a South African dining experience : tourists' perceptions
           of cuisine at Knysna Waterfront restaurants : health
    • Authors: Mhlanga; Osward, Hattingh, Zorada, Moolman, Hermanus Johannes
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess tourists' perceptions on the authenticity of a South African dining experience. A total of 400 tourists responded to the survey. A mixed methods research design was followed and a systematic sampling method was used to select respondents. The empirical results show that on a 5 point Likert scale, tourists in the 45 to 54 age group recorded the highest perception score (2.88) whilst female tourists recorded the lowest perception score(1.23). The item with the lowest perception score was "menu consisted of more native dishes than foreign" (1.26), whilst the item with the highest perception score was "waiters were natives in ethnic restaurants" (4.17). The overall mean perception score was 2.54 implying that, tourists perceived their dining experience to be less authentic. The study further revealed that 76% of visitors would like to experience authentic South African cuisine and 24% do not wary about experiencing authentic South African cuisine. The study also revealed that 81% perceive the dining experience at Knysna Waterfront as just a copy of the Western countries, 16% percent noted some South African quest largely diluted by foreign standards and 3% believed it was truly a South African dining experience. Consequently, restaurants should include traditional South African dishes in their menus and, for commercial purposes a staged South African experience be created using such strategies as manipulating the music, interior décor and anything that identifies with South Africa.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:33Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Tobacco use among ARV treated HIV infected rural South Africans :
           prevalence and its determinants : health
    • Authors: Mashinya; F., Alberts, M., Van Geertruyden, J.P., Colebunders, R., Choma, S.S.R.
      Abstract: Tobacco use remains one of the major cardiovascular risk factors and its use in anti-retroviral (ARV) treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected people may lead to activation of immune cells and rendering them more susceptible to HIV. We determined the prevalence of and factors associated with tobacco use in an anti-retroviral treated HIV infected rural African people. The study was a cross-sectional, conducted in three ARV clinics in rural Dikgale Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), South Africa. Socio-demographic, tobacco and alcohol use data were collected using World Health Organisation stepwise approach to surveillance (STEPS) questionnaire. The Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables between tobacco users and non tobacco users. The multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of tobacco use status. Of 214 ARV treated HIV infected participants, 171 (79.9%) were females and 43 (20.1%) were males. The mean age of participants was 44.8 ± 11.8 years. About 45 (21%) of participants were tobacco users. A higher proportion of males than females (39.5% versus 16.4%, p=0.02) used tobacco. Older age >50years (p=0.01), marital status (p=0.03) and alcohol consumption (p=0.001) were significant independent predictors of tobacco use. Tobacco use among ARV treated HIV infected rural people was common. Older age, alcohol consumption and marital status were the risk factors for tobacco use. There is need to scale up the awareness on how tobacco use, apart from being a risk factor for CVD, interferes with viral suppression despite treatment with anti-retroviral drugs.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:32Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: The
           falsehood of a single appraisal system : The case of the Free State Health
           Department, South Africa : health
    • Authors: Semakula-Katende; M.S., Schmikl, E.D., Pelser, T.G.
      Abstract: This paper focuses on the appraisal system, popularly called the Employee Performance Management and Development System (EPMDS) of the Free State Health Department. The objective of the study was to establish gaps in the successful application of performance appraisals, and identify the major factors required for their effectiveness, which were addressed and subsequently led to the development of a modified structural performance appraisal model (MSPAM). A triangulation of quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (interview) study was conducted at ten South African public health institutions, in the Free State Province The results revealed a general perception amongst participants that the EPMDS, in its current form was neither supporting the attainment of organisational goals and objectives nor assessing effectively the core component of employees within the South African Department of Health. Reward and attitudes were found to be the unintended outcomes of an effective performance appraisal. An important, non-refutable finding about the EPMDS in its current form was that it was more suitable for use with the non-skilled and/or semi-skilled (blue collar) employees than with the skilled (professional) ones. This was supported by the qualitative and empirical evidence from the study. It is recommended that remunerative rewards should be part of a holistic appraisal approach and not simply a one-sided approach.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:31Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Strategies utilized by professional nurses in the primary health care
           facilities regarding adherence of patients to anti-retroviral therapy
           (ART) in Capricorn district, Limpopo province, South Africa : health
    • Authors: Phashe; M.L., Ramalivhana, N.J.
      Abstract: The success of anti-retroviral therapy for HIV infection, though widespread and resounding, has been limited by inadequate adherence to its unforgiving regimens especially over a long term. While health care professionals may not be able to predict adherence, they can help to overcome barriers to adherence and take steps to improve it. The aim of the study was to explore and describe the strategies utilized by professional nurses in the primary health care facilities regarding adherence to anti-retroviral therapy in Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. A qualitative research approach was used to describe the strategies that are utilized by professional nurses in the primary health care facilities in the district, to refer patients to Mankweng Hospital which is a tertiary hospital in the Province. Unstructured interview guides and observations were used to collect data until saturation was reached. The data were analysed qualitatively using Tesch's open coding method. Eighteen professional nurses working in the primary health care facilities participated in the study. The findings revealed that the strategies utilized by professional nurses in the primary health care facilities to improve adherence to ART were described. Information and education, health worker and adherence guidelines, use of adherence partner or treatment buddy, addressing religious beliefs, communication skills, community mobilization and continuous counselling were the strategies that were utilized by professional nurses in the primary health care facilities to improve adherence to ART.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:31Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: Risk
           factors for the development of metabolic disorders : a review of hormonal
           and enzymatic perspectives : health
    • Authors: Moraba; M.M., Mabusela, M.S., Mashinya, F.
      Abstract: Metabolic disorders are chronic non-communicable diseases of high mortality rate. They pose serious health problems and challenge the medical fraternity enormously. External factors impact on the hormones and enzymes which trigger development of metabolic disorders. The aim of this review was to highlight major hormonal and enzymatic factors that differentially predispose males and females to obesity, diabetes mellitus and hypertension.The research was a literature based quantitative and comparative review. Extensive literature search was made, in which original articles were targeted and review papers were excluded. A combination of various words was used to search for relevant articles. Science Direct, Google Scholar, Pub-Med, NIH Public Access and PMC literature databases were searched. The identified articles were examined for further relevant references. All articles that referred to hormones, enzyme(s) and metabolic disorders were assessed. About 100 articles and papers were retrieved and 61 of them were relevant. After analysis of the articles, personal viewpoints and comments were made. Ten hormones, one enzyme of high metabolic impact and one disease condition were identified for predisposition to metabolic disorders in male and female genders. Polycystic ovary syndrome, insulin, cortisol, resistin, lipoprotein lipase, estrogen, testosterone, and rostene, leptin, adiponectin, angiotensin II and aldosterone were found to be elements of high metabolic impact discussed in this review. Metabolic disorders are associated with hormonal and enzymatic imbalances. They are also influenced by certain disease conditions which lead to hormonal and enzymatic imbalances that serve as risk factors. Hormonal and enzymatic imbalances are risk factors for obesity, diabetes mellitus and hypertension in both males and females. Females reflected more hormonal and enzymatic imbalances than males.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:30Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: How
           diabetics lose vision : Molecular and biochemical mechanisms associated
           with hyperglycaemic damage in the retina : health
    • Authors: Mathebula; S.D.
      Abstract: Diabetic patients are at risk of increased morbidity and mortality from macrovascular and microvascular complications. The increased risk of the vascular complications includes genetic factors, hyperglycaemia, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and oxidative stress. The mechanisms by which hyperglycaemia causes vision loss and blindness and other diabetic complications include the polyol pathway, accumulation of AGEs, activation of PKC, increased oxidative stress, increased flux through the hexosamine pathway and vascular inflammation. All these pathways play critical roles in the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy and other diabetic complications.There is an individual variation in the presentation and course of diabetic retinopathy, and other diabetes-induced complications. Some patients, after many years with diabetes, never develop sight-threatening retinal changes, thus maintaining good visual acuity.However, there are patients who after only a few years of diabetes show diabetic retinopathy that progresses rapidly and may not respond to available treatment. Some patients do not lose their vision even with poor metabolic control; others develop vision loss despite good metabolic control.The threat of vision loss requires a lot of patient education and psychological support, not only after a loss but also before any loss is recognized by the patient. Care for patients with diabetes requires an understanding that the diabetic eye is an end-organ response to a general metabolic disease.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:29Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Challenges and milestones of a cohort study in a rural area of South
           Africa : the Ellisras Longitudinal Study : health
    • Authors: Monyeki; K.D., Mabata, L.R., Ramoshaba, N.E.
      Abstract: Health care practitioners seek to base decisions regarding disease management strategies on the best available evidence to improve the quality of life. This is especially true of resource-limited rural populations in Africa, where the ordinary person can often not even afford the most basic medical care. The purpose of this paper is to briefly explain the nature of a cohort study, its challenges and milestones within the African context, based on the Ellisras Longitudinal Study (ELS). A total of 2225 children, 550 pre-school (mean age of 4.4 ± 0.99 years) and 1675 primary school children (mean age of 8.0 ±1.11 years) were used at baseline, and were followed for the period 1996 to 2003 employing periodic surveys for data collection. A total of 1771 subjects, comprising of 489 pre-school children (mean age of 11.4 ± 0.96 years) and 1282 primary schoolchildren (mean age of 14.9 ± 1.11 years), were successfully followed up to November 2003. The migration or relocation of families from rural to urban areas or from one area to another within Lephalale; the naming of siblings in the family, children parenting the families, and long term financial commitment were among major challenges experienced in the ELS. In addition, the prevalence of hypertension and obesity was found to be low in this population, though malnutrition in terms of mild, moderate, and severe was extremely high. Over time, the development of fat among Lephalale girls was high compared to boys. Obtaining and applying research-based evidence could fulfill the goal of achieving optimal goals of educating the community about the best available strategies for better health for all.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:29Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: A
           reflection on psychosocial assessment and support as a component of
           holistic antenatal care : health
    • Authors: Mathibe-Neke; J.M.
      Abstract: The rationale of any national screening programme is to recognize the benefits for public health, to test a healthy population and to detect risk factors for morbidity and mortality in order to provide timely and appropriate care interventions. The purpose of the study was to establish the existence and the importance of psychosocial care in midwifery, in an attempt to enhance holistic care. The philosophical basis of the study was hinged on the researcher's values and belief on holism and comprehensive assessment. A mixed-method approach was applied through combining quantitative and qualitative research techniques and approaches to address psychosocial risk assessment and psychosocial support by midwives during antenatal care in Gauteng province, South Africa. Qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews with midwifery experts and focus group discussions with pregnant women and midwives in clinical practice. Findings of in-depth interviews with midwifery experts are reported. The focus of the interview was on the expert's perception of psychosocial care within midwifery practice. Data saturation occurred with the fourth interviewee. The results of the study suggest that psychosocial care is addressed to a limited extent in midwifery practice. Holistic screening of women and recognition of emotional responses with appropriate interventions are essential to promote a woman's healthy adjustment to pregnancy.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:28Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: Birth
           weight does not associate with gestational physical activity profile : a
           retrospective cohort study : health
    • Authors: Amaeze; A.A., Anasonye, M.T., Abaraogu, U.O., Igwe, S.E., Okafor, U.A.C.
      Abstract: Exercise during pregnancy has been a subject of debate and whether gestational physical activity profile affects birth weight is an important issue as birth weight is an indicator of fetal, neo-natal and post-natal mortality. This study was carried at three hospitals in Enugu, Eastern Nigeria to determine the difference between the birth weight of babies born to women who were physically active during pregnancy and those who were sedentary. In this retrospective cohort, gestational physical activity profile of women who gave birth to normal singleton babies through vaginal delivery and did not have any complication were collected with a modified general practice physical activity questionnaire (GPPAQ) enabling participants grouping into active and sedentary groups. Mean birth weight of both the physically active and sedentary groups was significantly higher than the WHO minimum standard birth weight of new born babies. However, no significant difference was found in the mean weight of babies of physically active women and their sedentary counterparts. The mean birth weight of babies in Enugu is significantly higher than the WHO minimum standard and more than halve of the pregnant women in Enugu metropolis are physically active during pregnancy irrespective of their educational qualification with primiparous more likely to be involved in physical activity than multiparous. There was no relationship between maternal physical/occupational activity and the birth weight of babies. An all-inclusive experimental study is needed to establish an effect response trend.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:27Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Cardiovascular fitness of a pediatric population in Central Kampala,
           Uganda : health
    • Authors: Nsibambi; C.A., Wamukoya, E.K., Wanderi, P.M., Onywera, V.O., Goon, D.T.
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the cardiovascular fitness of pediatric population in central Kampala, Uganda. A stratified random sampling was used to select 1929 pupils aged 6-9 years in Wakiso and Mukono districts. A pre-experimental design was used to collect data on the cardiovascular fitness endurance using a 9-minute distance run/walk test. Pupils in day schools had significantly higher mean score (1538.02±309.09) for the 9-minute distance run/walk than those in boarding schools (1486.27±305.22). There was significant gender difference in cardiovascular fitness endurance with boys recording higher mean score (1591±356.76) than girls(1440.64±236.72). Majority (71%) of pupils met acceptable cardiovascular fitness endurance according to percentile norms set by American Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD). About 18.8% and 10.1% had weak and critical cardiovascular endurance status, respectively, which necessitated intervention. Pupils in day schools had better cardiovascular fitness endurance than those in boarding schools; and boys had better cardiovascular endurance compared to girls. There is need for surveillance of physical activity patterns of Ugandan children which may affect their cardiovascular fitness endurance.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:27Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: The
           effect of participation in competitive sports on school connectedness of
           secondary school students : health
    • Authors: Kamau; A.W., Rintaugu, E.G., Muniu, R.K., Amusa, L.O.
      Abstract: The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of participation in competitive sports on school connectedness among secondary school students. The demographics of gender, age, class, school type, school status and athletic status (participation/non participation in sport) were treated as independent variable while school connectedness was treated as the dependent variable. The study employed a descriptive survey design. The study employed stratified random sampling to select 26 schools while simple random sampling was used to select 384 students. Data were collected through questionnaires and analysed using descriptive statistics of percentages, means and standard deviations and inferential statistics of t-tests and ANOVA. The study established that gender (t 340=0.64, p>0.51) and class level (t340=-1.25, p>0.21) did not have any significant differences on students' connectedness to school. However, the study findings revealed that age (F4, 342=2.70, p
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:26Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Effect of HeartMath workshop on physiological coherence, sense of
           coherence, zone, mood and resilience perceptions : health
    • Authors: Edwards; D.J., Edwards, S.D., Buscombe, R.M., Beale, J.T., Wilson, M.
      Abstract: This study examines the effect of a HeartMath workshop on physiological coherence, sense of coherence, zone, mood and resilience perceptions. A quasi-experimental design, involving mixed quantitative and qualitative research methodologies and techniques, was used. The sample consisted of 10 workshop participants, 5 males and 5 females, with mean age of 22.10. Participants were matched for age and gender with 10 control group persons. Statistical analysis revealed significant within group, pre to post workshop results for physiological coherence, sense of coherence, zone and mood, with improvement in resilience. Workshop and control between group results were significant for sense of coherence, with zone, mood and resilience effects also in the expected direction. Thematic content analysis revealed participants' perceptions of experiences supported the quantitative results. Recommendations for future interventions are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:25Z
       
 
 
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