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Publisher: Sabinet Online Ltd   (Total: 223 journals)

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African J. for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
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Journal Cover African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance
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   ISSN (Print) 1117-4315
   Published by Sabinet Online Ltd Homepage  [223 journals]
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and
           health : editorial
    • Abstract: This special edition (supplement) of the African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance (AJPHERD) addresses the theme "Current Issues in Sport, Physical Activity, Recreation and Health". The rationale for the choice of theme is to promote inter university/inter institution research collaboration in sport which is a pillar towards which all tertiary institutions strive. This approach is expected to address a genuine need towards the rapidly changing context of research and inculcate responsible conduct in research. It is anticipated that with this approach research networks will be expanded and the quality of research will improve. Capacity, specialisation, and resources such as data and equipment can be shared. Greater collegiality between institutions and organisations as well as the establishment of research alliances could be developed through this initiative.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:16Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: Effect of physical exercise programme on gross motor
           function of children with cerebral palsy : physical activity and health
    • Authors: Bhutia; C.D., Nair, U.S., Surujlal, J.
      Abstract: Sedentary individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) are often at increased risk for muscle weakness, decreased cardiovascular and muscular endurance, impaired circulation, limited functional strength, multiple system problems, lower bone density, increased fractures, lower self-esteem, and reduced independence. Regular physical activity for individuals with CP provides numerous benefits which include: an improved sense of wellness and body image, increased capacity to perform activities of daily living as well as reduction of the severity of some symptoms such as spasticity and athetosis. Other recognised benefits of physical activity for those with CP include increased bone density, increased muscular strength, improved cardiorespiratory fitness, increased motor mobility, increased self-esteem, decreased depression and anxiety, and improved personal and caregiver satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the gross motor function would improve in children with spastic CP through a physical activity programme. The participants were 10 children aged 13 to 18 years with mild/moderate CP. They were randomly assigned to two groups, an experimental group (n=5) and a control group (n=5).The experimental group underwent twelve weeks of a physical exercise programme and the control group did not participate in any organised exercise programme. Basic gross motor abilities in daily situations were studied using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM 88). Groups involved in the exercise programme experienced statistically significant improvement in GMFM 88 scores after treatment. GMFM Total Score (Dimensions A-E) increased 12.6% (p
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:15Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: Attitude towards sport and physical activity, self-esteem,
           life satisfaction relationships and variations in terms of gender :
           perspectives from university students : physical activity and health
    • Authors: Swanepoel; E., Surujlal, J., Dhurup, M.
      Abstract: Universities provide a platform for sport and physical activity participation opportunities to students. For students, participation in sport and physical activity is an important part of university life which can lead to improved physical and mental health. Positive consequences such as increased self-esteem and life satisfaction can emanate from participation in sport and physical activity. University students' participation in sport and physical activity can be bound by the social constructions of gender and gender stereotypes. Hence, the purpose of the study was to examine the relationship among attitude towards sport, self-esteem and life satisfaction of university students from a gender perspective. A non-probability convenient sample of university students (from first year to postgraduate) from two universities in the Gauteng Province, participated in the study. A four-section questionnaire comprising questions on demographic variables, participants' attitude towards sport, self-esteem and satisfaction with life was used to collect data. Cronbach alpha was used to assess the reliability of the attitude to sport scale (α=0.943), self-esteem scale (α=0.748) and satisfaction with life scale (α=0.804). Correlations were used to examine the relationship among the constructs. The results of the correlation analysis showed weak, yet positive association between students' attitude towards sport and satisfaction with life. Attitude towards sport and self-esteem showed insignificant associations with satisfaction with life. The mean ranks indicated that male students seem to be more inclined to sport compared to their female counterpart. Limitations and areas for future research are suggested.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:14Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: The effect of hyperbaric oxygen and blood platelet injection
           therapy on the healing of hamstring injuries in rugby players : a case
           series report : physical activity and health
    • Authors: Botha; D.M., Coopoo, Y., Botha, M.K., Collins, R., Lynch, E., Van Niekerk, R.L.
      Abstract: There are a number of ultra-structural and immuno-histochemical studies involving hyperbaric oxygen treatment in skeletal muscle, as well as soft tissue healing. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy, in conjunction with blood platelet injection therapy, serves as a valuable addition to previously known and trusted rehabilitation techniques and protocols for the healing of musculoskeletal or soft tissue injuries. The primary aim of this case report is to describe the effect on the recovery time of hamstring injuries when combining hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) and platelet rich plasma (PRP) injection therapy with exercise rehabilitation. A retrospective, post-intervention data analysis was used in this case series report. Data, obtained through collaboration with a professional rugby union and an accredited Hyperbaric Medicine (HBOT) Centre, were analysed using the Statistical Programme for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The significance value was set at 5%. A significant decrease in the injury time of the hamstring injuries in rugby players was noted, with a 38% reduction in injury time in players with a grade-one injury, and 45.7% reduction in players with a grade-two injury. In terms of recurrent injuries, 62% of players with grade-one injuries remained uninjured after treatment, and the percentage of re-injured players with grade-two injuries was 0% after HBOT, PRP and physical therapy treatment. The notion that the healing time of hamstring injuries will decrease when HBOT and PRP are administered in conjunction with traditional rehabilitation therapy is indicated by the data of this report.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:14Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: Perceived support for physical activity in the school
           environment : physical activity and health
    • Authors: Phillips; J.S., Kirenga, L., Steyl, T., Kagwiza, J.
      Abstract: Physical activity for an individual is a strong means for prevention of diseases and for nations, a cost-effective method to improve public health across the population. A decline in physical activity of youth has however been noted in various world regions. Schools present unique opportunities to provide time, facilities and guidance for young people to participate in physical activity. The aim of this study is to determine the patterns of physical activity participation among high school girls and their perceived social support for physical activity in the school environment in Kigali, Rwanda. Three hundred and fifty (350) learners from six schools participated in the study. The mean age of the study sample was 16.06. The majority of learners did not meet the number of days required for moderate days of physical activity (66%) and for vigorous days of physical activity (70.9%). Overall the study sample responded negatively when asked about support for physical activity from Physical Education (PE) teachers, other teachers and boys at school. Teachers in general and PE teachers specifically thus need to be more aware of learners perceptions of their support for physical activity. It could be argued that if learners perceive teachers to be more supportive of physical activity, their participation in physical activity could increase. Continuous education including the benefits of and the required levels of physical activity is suggested for both PE and other teachers.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:13Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: Prevention programmes for lower limb injuries : a systematic
           review : physical activity and health
    • Authors: Pillay; Tanushree, De Clercq, Dirk, Frantz, Jose M.
      Abstract: With the increased participation in landing sports such as netball, basketball and volleyball exists an associated increase in the risk of sport injuries. This highlights the need for effective injury prevention strategies. There is wide a publication of injury rate and injury prevalence studies, however, there exists a gap for the evaluation of evidence based-interventions to inform practice. The aim of this review was to identify injury prevention programmes and interventions focusing on the prevention and treatment of lower limb injuries in landing sports. Articles published between 2001 and 2011 were retrieved from online and print sources, and included multiple research methodologies. Search terms were derived following a preliminary review of relevant literature. Studies were evaluated for methodological quality using CASP critical appraisal tools. A meta-synthesis of the results are presented. Studies included in the data analysis (n=13) were mainly clinical trials, which differed by design. Interventions described within the analysed articles focused on: proprioceptive and balance training (n = 6), educational and theory sessions (n=2), taping and bracing (n=1), neuromuscular training (n=1) and eccentric training (n=3). Although there is limited research available, identified studies showed positive outcomes. The results of the literature review indicate the benefit of injury prevention intervention programmes and the need for furthering research in this field. The review also reveals that few injury intervention prevention studies exist for netball and that more research needs to be conducted in this sport within a South African context as it is so widely played.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:12Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: The effects of self-efficacy on entrepreneurial inclinations
           : evidence from sport management students in selected universities in the
           
    • Authors: Koloba; H.A., Dhurup, M., Radebe, P.
      Abstract: Entrepreneurship continues to draw much interest and attention from various stakeholders. Due to modern day challenges and uncertainty in their future, there is a greater need for students with entrepreneurial skills. For this reason and many others, students around the world are encouraged to consider an entrepreneurial career path. Given the multitudes of factors that influence entrepreneurial inclinations, this study aims to investigate the influence of self-efficacy on entrepreneurial inclination of sport management students. A quantitative study, using a structured questionnaire was administered to sport management students in two universities in South Africa. Data were analysed from 173 students who had fully completed the questionnaire. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was used to establish the entrepreneurial inclination factors and to test the goodness-of-fit of the proposed relationships. Two hypotheses are tested using a structural path model. The results show that self-efficacy positively influences innovativeness and risk-taking behaviours (entrepreneurial factors) among students to venture into business. Therefore, there is a need to create favourable conditions to enable the students to participate actively in entrepreneurial activities.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:12Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: The glass ceiling in sport coaching : perceived challenges
           of female coaches : sport management and governance
    • Authors: Surujlal; J., Vyas-Doorgapersad, S.
      Abstract: Women sport coaches are starkly under-represented in sport organisations. While there are currently probably more female sport coaches than ever before, they are still outnumbered by their male counterparts. This may be attributed to the fact that sport, being generally a male-dominated domain, appears to discriminate against women thereby preventing their advancement to high level positions in many sport organisations. Thus, women coaches may experience a 'glass ceiling', which obstructs their professional upward movement. Limited research evidence in a South African sport coaching context exists which addressed the challenges faced by female sport coaches to move up the hierarchical ladder in sport organisations. Hence, the purpose of this study was to obtain qualitative data from female sport coaches regarding the perceived challenges they face in progressing career-wise within their organisations and provide recommendations on the findings. Four themes, namely gender discrimination, stereotyping, career path opportunities, and organisational support emerged from the content analysis. The findings of the study suggest that males in high coaching positions continue to wield power which safeguards their positions. If the current practice at some of the sport organisations continues, the marginalisation of women aspiring for higher positions would be perpetuated and women will continue feel that they are second best. It is therefore important for sport organisations to level the playing field so that both male and female coaches have equal opportunity to compete for higher positions. This may involve mapping out a career-path which includes continuous professional development to prepare women for higher positions. Professional organisations for women which provide professional access and guidance, present and explore career-related issues, and offer a forum for problem-solving and enrichment for women in the sports industry can also be established.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:11Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: The influence of selected demographic variables on attitudes
           towards selling sex at a mega sporting event : a case study of the 2010
           Soccer World Cup : sport management and governance
    • Authors: Surujlal; J., Zhang, Z.
      Abstract: The need to sell sex with mega sporting events is often justified by meeting the sexual needs and satisfaction of tourists, and both the direct and indirect economic benefits from sex sales. It is clear that this justification gives dominant weight to economic gains and neglect how the public, especially, certain important demographic groups in the public view this practice. Understanding the attitudes and opinions of demographic groups will provide us with a holistic approach to the practice. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to investigate whether four demographic variables: gender, age, education level, and employment status influences attitudes towards selling sex with mega events. A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data. A series of Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) were utilised to test the four demographic variables. The results indicate that all of the four variables, except education level, had a significant effect on attitudes toward sex work. The female participants showed a stronger concern over the negative impacts of sex work on families and society and exploitation than the male participants; the younger participants demonstrated a stronger concern over the risks associated with sex work and exploitation than the older ones; and the employed participants saw less positive outcomes of sex work than the unemployed. The findings were important as they might provide pointers regarding the strategies to use to market mega sport events. They may also provide vital information regarding how tolerant members of society are towards selling sex with mega sport events.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:10Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: A qualitative analysis of motives and challenges in
           professional female soccer : sport management and governance
    • Authors: Swanepoel; M.J., Surujlal, J., Isabirye, A.K.
      Abstract: This study investigated the motives and challenges experienced by professional female soccer players in South Africa. It used a qualitative research approach in which data were collected from eleven purposively selected participants code-named R1 to R11 through in-depth interviews. During the data analysis process, participants' responses were synthesised into themes and subthemes that revealed the challenges faced by professional female soccer players as well as factors that motivated them to play. The results of the study revealed that female participation in professional soccer is influenced by factors such as supportive family and friends, available time to practice, good sports facilities, and supportive male and female relationships. However, scarcity of career opportunities, inadequate funding and time, together with negative attitudes towards women entering soccer as a male-dominated sport were major challenges that discouraged their participation. In order to attract more females to soccer, the study recommends that sports administrators should understand motivation factors as well as challenges to participation in the sport. It further recommends that understanding the needs, attitudes and experiences of females may enable soccer administrators to put systems in place to address barriers to their participation in soccer. A need still remains for the formulation and implementation of policies focusing on women's soccer funding, enforcement of professional development of women's soccer and the creation of a comfortable environment to support female participation.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:10Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: The implementation of a football development policy in
           
    • Authors: O'Gorman; J., Coopoo, Y., Fortuin, C.S.
      Abstract: This study has a distinctly practical focus on football development policy in England and South Africa. Set within the context of the on-going issue of the need to develop a 'National Football Policy' to establish a footballing legacy from hosting the 2010 World Cup (Bob et al., 2010), the purpose of this paper is to generate ideas and discussion as to how such a policy may be formulated to be implemented. To this end an overview of grassroots football in England and South Africa is presented to set the context for a brief discussion of the practicalities of lesson drawn and policy implementation for football development. Data are presented from analysis of the processes and outcomes of an English football development policy, the FA Charter Standard, within a region of England that is multiracial, has a high proportion of ethnic minority population, and is socially and economically disadvantaged. A sample was generated consisting of three volunteers from grassroots football clubs, two football development officers, and two sports development professionals responsible for implementing the Charter Standard. The discussion and findings suggest that South African football development policy makers may wish to note, and draw lessons from, the unintended consequences of formulating a uniform policy for implementation in a 'top-down' manner within a socio-political context that is ethnically and culturally diverse.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:08Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: A comparative study between Australian and South African
           university sport students' volunteer motives and constraints : sport
           management and governance
    • Authors: Van den Berg; L., Cuskelly, G., Auld, C.
      Abstract: Volunteering plays an integral part in the success of numerous South African and Australian organisations and university students have been identified as a latent target population with the greatest potential for volunteering. Organisations who wish to recruit students should be knowledgeable regarding their motives and constraints in order to increase community and sport volunteer activities. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the motives and constraints influencing volunteerism amongst South African and Australian sport students. A non-probability convenience sampling design was used to collect data from 278 South African and 208 Australian students enrolled in a sport curriculum at two universities in the Gauteng province and three universities within the Queensland area. The volunteer questionnaire developed by Auld and Cuskelly (2001) was used to gather data. The study identified slight egoistic differences in volunteer constraining and motivating factors between South African and Australian sport students. However, students from both countries indicated a low social motivation factor but an equal perceived confidence in their ability to solve problems when volunteering. The comparative results could aid organisations to broaden their current recruitment operations.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:08Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: Job-related barriers encountered by football coaches in
           Gauteng Province of South Africa : sport management and governance
    • Authors: Kubayi; N.A., Coopoo, Y., Morris-Eyton, H.F.
      Abstract: Football is the most popular sport in South Africa. Despite its laudable acclaim, research has shown that there is a high turnover of football coaches in the country. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the work-related barriers experienced by such coaches in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. A quantitative approach was adopted for this study. Eighty-six football coaches completed a 34-item questionnaire on the perceived hindrances to coaching, which yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.952. Results indicated that coaches identified lack of support for women players and coaches, unfair treatment of women, difficultly in gaining entry to the coaching profession, and inadequate salary as major barriers to their coaching. It is recommended that the South African Football Association (SAFA) should take note of these findings and develop remedial measures to alleviate the challenges facing football coaches. The association should also ensure that all forms of discrimination against female coaches are eliminated and that their needs are well catered for.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:07Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: Perceived leadership styles of sport administrators and the
           relationship with organisational effectiveness : sport management and
           governance
    • Authors: Naidoo; P., Coopoo, Y., Surujlal, J.
      Abstract: Sport administrators in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) play a significant role in influencing the activities of the sport department towards the goals of athletic success and economic viability. An important factor contributing to sport administrators' success and organisational effectiveness is the leadership style adopted by the sport administrator. The purpose of this study was to investigate different leadership styles adopted by sport administrators employed at HEIs in South Africa, ascertain whether there were any differences in terms of gender and establish the relationship between leadership styles and organisational effectiveness. Using a quantitative research approach, separate sets of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) were administered to sport coaches and sport administrators. Descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations, percentages and frequencies were generated from the demographic data and the MLQ responses. Chi square analyses for independence were used to determine whether there were any differences in terms of gender. Correlations were used to establish the relationship between leadership styles and organisational effectiveness. The results indicated that the most dominant leadership style adopted by sport administrators was transformational. Correlation analysis revealed a positive and significant relationship between transformational leadership style and organisational effectiveness. Therefore, sport administrators should be provided the necessary support in terms of training and resources to develop their leadership style so that both they and the organisation benefit.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:06Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: Sport and recreation officers' perceptions of organisational
           support and deviant workplace behaviours in Gauteng Province, South Africa
           : sport management and governance
    • Authors: Dhurup; M., Radebe, P., Surujlal, J.
      Abstract: Research initiatives have primarily analysed the relationship between organisational support with various constructs, inter-alia job satisfaction, organisational commitment, job discretion, job attitude, organisational politics and turnover intentions. Whilst these studies are noteworthy, research on organisational support and workplace deviant behaviour relationships have been limited and scarcely found in literature especially within sport domains. This study examines the relationship between organisational support and workplace deviant behaviours. A quantitative study was used to analyse data from 152 sport and recreation officers in the Gauteng Province, South Africa. High levels of organisational support seem to be negatively associated with workplace deviant behaviour. Overall, it appears that employees with higher levels of perceived organisational support are likely to engage in pro-social behaviour rather than anti-social deviant behaviours. A high level of perceived organisational support may assist to restore the balance between the benefits awarded by an organisation and the contributions of employees. Therefore, when employees perceive a high level of organisational support, employees show greater propensity to disengage in workplace deviant behaviours.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:05Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: The psychological contract, violation of the psychological
           contract, work-related anxiety and intention to quit of sport coaches in
           South Africa : sport management and governance
    • Authors: Dhurup; M., Keyser, E., Surujlal, J.
      Abstract: Like most employer-employee relationships, the relationship between sport coaches and their employers is governed by legal work contracts which clearly spell out the rights and obligations of the two parties (the employer and the employee). However, formal contracts do not reflect all the exchanges between the employer and the employee in the workplace. The unwritten dimensions (psychological contract) also impacts on coaches' employment relationships which is often a neglected area of research. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine whether the psychological contract, violation of the psychological contract and work-related anxiety predict sport coaches' intention to quit the coaching profession. The study is located within a quantitative research design. The respondents consisted of 151 (n=151) sport coaches sampled through a convenience sampling technique in the Gauteng province, South Africa. The PSYCONES Scale (employer obligations, employee obligations, violation of psychological contract), Work-related Anxiety Scale and Intention to Quit Scale were used to collect data. Descriptive and regression analysis were used to examine the relationship among the constructs. The findings reveal that violation of the psychological contract and work-related anxiety of sport coaches predict intention to quit. This study advocates the notion that, like in other organisational contexts, it is essential for employers in the sport industry to identify and fulfil the psychological contracts of sport coaches in the management of employee relationships between coaches and their employees.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:04Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: Foreign soccer spectator support motives : a two-country
           comparison of the English Premier League (EPL) : sport marketing
    • Authors: Puri; H., Surujlal, J., Dhurup, M.
      Abstract: The English Premier League (EPL) has its roots in the oldest football league in world soccer, the Football League. Television coverage has played a major role in attracting and increasing the number of EPL spectators, both local and foreign. The purpose of this study was thus to analyse and compare EPL soccer spectator motives in South Africa and India. A quantitative research approach was utilised which involved the administration of questionnaires to Indian and South African spectators. The sample for the study comprised EPL soccer spectators. A total of 250 (n=250) and 181(n=181) usable responses were received from India and South Africa respectively. A descriptive analysis of the sample composition was undertaken and factor analysis was undertaken to establish spectator motives to support EPL teams. A two-factor solution (entertainment/socialisation and knowledge acquisition; entertainment/identification and knowledge acquisition) emerged for both samples as the items were logically associated with the underlying factors. Non-parametric Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to establish the strength and direction of the relationship between the motives. Both samples showed mixed results in terms of fan motivation with regard to the English Premier League support. The results of the correlation analysis showed a strong positive association between the two constructs, r=0.762; n= 181; p
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:04Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: The psychological skills level of football coaches from the
           Vodacom and National First Division Leagues in South Africa : sport
           development
    • Authors: Van Niekerk; R.L., Coopoo, Y., Fortuin, C.S.
      Abstract: This study aimed to determine the psychological skills profile of football coaches from two South African leagues. A purposive sample of 81 football coaches from the National First Division (NFD) and Vodacom Leagues (VL) with mean ages of 44.3 and 34.9 years of age respectively, were asked to complete the Psychological Skills Inventory. A descriptive research design was followed in this research study. The results indicated that the coaches had high mental toughness, but could further benefit from a psychological skills training programme as quite a number of coaches still had to develop various mental skills. The development of concentration skills seemed to be of importance, as more than half of the coaches had low levels of concentration ability. Age was found to be a significant differentiating factor in the mental skills of the two groups of coaches, and was also positively correlated with most of the psychological skills. As coaches play an important leadership and decision making role in the performance of football players, their modeling of strong psychological skills during performance are essential contributors to the psychological skills development of their players and should not be neglected.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:02Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: Coaches' perspectives on youth football development
           programmes in the eThekwini region, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa : sport
           development
    • Authors: Davids; J., Naidoo, R., Coopoo, Y.
      Abstract: In football, the role of development is crucial as it identifies talent and monitors the progression of youth players to mature players. Development seeks to eventually have these players being capable of competing on an international stage such as at the Football World Cup or the Olympic Games. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of coaches on the youth football development programmes in the eThekwini region, KwaZulu-Natal. This study was an exploratory design. Coaches (n=13) from five youth development football clubs were interviewed. The analysis of interviews was carried out methodically by the clustering of themes. Majority of coaches were between the ages of 42-52 years with a mean age of 43.3 years. Overall, coaches expressed dissatisfaction towards the quality of the youth football development programmes, specifically, leadership, facilities and their use, financial support, age-cheating, the selection process of players and the football qualification/s of coaches. There were varied perspectives towards the 'structured' youth football development programmes among coaches. Coaches believed that international development programmes were well-managed, employed highly qualified coaches and that children began playing football at a much younger age than children in KwaZulu-Natal.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:01Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: Sport for social change : an inter-university collaboration
           between the University of the Western Cape, South Africa, and the
           University of Connecticut, USA, and their NGO partners : sport education
           and community development
    • Authors: Laattoe; N., Keim, M.
      Abstract: This study explores the impact of a Sport for Social Change Programme on sport and development practitioners who participated in a cultural exchange programme between the Global Training and Development Institute, University of Connecticut, USA, and the Interdisciplinary Centre for Sports Science and Development (ICESSD) at the University of the Western Cape, South Africa. Data were collected under the auspices of the ICESSD. The study involved 10 participants aged between 21 and 58 years of age residing and practicing in the broader Cape Town area being in charge of children and youth in their respective projects and organisations. The study used a qualitative approach and explored the relationship between the cultural exchange and development of the participants both in terms of their practice of using sport for social change programmes as well as personally and integrated qualitative findings using thematic analysis. The study showed that the practitioners who participated in the cultural Sport for Social Change exchange programme acquired various skills related to both practitioner skills in the sport and development field as well as personal development. It is concluded that there is an association between cross-cultural exchange programmes and personal and practitioner development. It is therefore recommended that students and practitioners in the sport and development field participate in cross-cultural exchange programmes that are well planned, structured and organised to further develop the practice of sport for social change and to monitor and evaluate the integration of these new skills into practice.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:00Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: The influence of the social environment on youth physical
           activity : sport education and community development
    • Authors: Phillips; J.S., Awotidebe, A.W.
      Abstract: Research has highlighted the decline of physical activity during the last twenty years and identified adolescence as the age of the greatest decline. Despite the fact that the benefits of physical activity have been proven, many children and youth do not meet the current guidelines for sufficient physical activity. There are however various factors that influence physical activity levels amongst the youth and researchers have highlighted the links between environmental conditions and health-related behaviours such as physical inactivity. Therefore an increased emphasis exists on the role of the social and physical environment as key modifiable determinants of physical activity. The aim of this study is thus to explore the social environmental factors that influence the physical activity participation among female school-going adolescents in the Western Cape. Focus group discussions were held with 55 school-going adolescents in a selected community in the Western Cape. The discussions yielded four (4) themes: safety; financial constraints, competing responsibilities and parental support. These themes highlighted that physical activity participation was influenced by the social, economic and physical environments that these adolescents live in. Opportunities to be physically active in an enjoyable and comfortable environment are undoubtedly essential for all girls. Therefore appropriate activity interventions taking into consideration issues related to social support, safety and cost-effectiveness of activities are more likely to effectively engage and sustain participation in physical activity.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T14:59:59Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: Beyond winning : validation of unethical behaviours of
           amateur sport coaches' scale as perceived through the lenses of athletes :
           sport ethics
    • Authors: Dhurup; M., Mathaba, R.L.
      Abstract: Ethics have received extensive attention and intrigued business environments in developed countries with regard to research in the last decade. However, developing countries seem to pause with such types of research initiatives. Sport environments in particular are perceived to further lag behind research on ethical behaviours in developing countries. Athletes spend vast amounts of their time in practising and developing their sport skills so that their beliefs and achievements reverberate in their hearts; shaped by those with whom they come in contact in sport environments. In particular, coaches among others are perceived as strong influencing figures in the regulation of athletes' behaviour, attitudes and their desire to achieve. Against this perspective, the study examines the primary factors that comprise coaches' unethical behaviours from the perspective of amateur athletes. Data were analysed from 211 amateur athletes from Southern and Central Gauteng (South Africa) on their perceptions of their coaches' unethical behaviours through a structured questionnaire. Exploratory factors analysis procedures were used to establish the dimensions of coaches' unethical behaviours. Thereafter, the factor structure was subjected to further analysis to ascertain the 'goodness-of-fit' of the factor structure through confirmatory factor analysis. The confirmatory factor procedure showed a satisfactory fit of the factors to the model. The results indicate three factors; coaches' dishonesty, coaches' unprofessionalism and coaches' abusiveness as three basic constructs of coaches' unethical behaviours in amateur sport. Further research and additions of scale items is warranted to explore possible coaches' unethical behaviour among sport coaches.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T14:59:58Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: A model examining the relationship between parenting, and
           decision making on healthy lifestyle behaviours of adolescents in rural
           Western Cape, South Africa : sport education and community development
    • Authors: Davids; Eugene Lee, Roman, Nicolette Vanessa, Leach, Lloyd, Sekot, Ales
      Abstract: The Health Promotion Model provides a theoretical framework exploring the relationships which aid healthy lifestyle behaviours of individuals, such as participation in sport and recreational activities. Research indicates that a number of health risk behaviours are established in adolescence and affect health and well-being in later life. This study therefore examined the relationship between parenting styles and decision making styles on healthy lifestyle behaviours of adolescents in the rural Western Cape, South Africa. The sample consisted of 457 secondary school learners in the Overberg Education District, Western Cape. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to test the goodness of fit of the constructs within the proposed model, followed by the structural model testing using the Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS). The results suggest that a significant positive relationship exists between maternal parenting styles and decision making styles of adolescents (r= .196; p
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T14:59:58Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Conducting responsive research to address public health
           challenges : editorial
    • Abstract: Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges was adopted as the theme for this AJPHERD supplement. The theme consists of seven subthemes: Public health intervention for maternal and child health; Perspectives of HIV and AIDS across populations; Adolescent sexual health and behavior; Patient centered treatment and care; Utilization of primary health care services; Increasing patient access to treatment; and optimizing hospital patient care. The theme was adopted in the wake for the call to renew primary health care (PHC) by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in order for health systems to respond to the challenges of a changing world to achieve better health care access and quality and social protection for all.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:39:12Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Factors associated with antenatal care bookings among
           pregnant women in Tshwane Health District, South Africa : public health
           intervention for maternal and child health
    • Authors: Mfolo; M.V.H., Mndzebele, S.L.
      Abstract: The antenatal period is an important opportunity for reaching pregnant women with several interventions important for the health and well-being of both the mother and the unborn child. The purpose of the study was to investigate the determinants of antenatal care booking among pregnant women in the Tshwane Health District, Gauteng Province. The study was a quantitative, descriptive study that was conducted among 320 pregnant women. A pretested, structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was collected on socio-demographic and obstetric issues. A logistic regression analysis was carried out to describe the determinants of timing for ANC booking. A total of 320 questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women attending Kgabo Community Health Care for their first booking at antenatal care. The mean age of participants was 25.3 years with a range of 14-45 years. The majority (88%) of the participants had a secondary level or higher education. About 22.5% of the participants were
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:39:11Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Factors associated with mixed feeding practices among HIV
           positive post-natal women in Merafong sub-district, Gauteng Province,
           South Africa : public health intervention for maternal and child health
    • Authors: Madiba; S.
      Abstract: The World Health Organization estimates that globally, less than 40% of infants under six months of age are exclusively breastfed. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is particularly lower in low-resourced countries than in developed countries. The study determined feeding practices, factors that influence mixed feeding, and reasons mothers adopt the infant feeding practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 202 HIV-positive post-natal women who were mothers of babies aged six weeks to nine months. Mothers were recruited from primary health care facilities offering prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV services in Merafong sub-district, Gauteng province, South Africa. Exclusive formula feeding (EFF) was the preferred feeding option (n=113, 56.8%). Two thirds (n=66, 58.9%) of the mothers opted for EFF because they did not want to infect their babies with HIV. Over half (n=109, 55.6%) practiced mixed feeding. EBF mothers' reasons for mixed feeding were related to their perceptions of insufficient breast milk to satisfy the baby (n=53, 50.9%) while EFF mothers wanted their babies to gain weight (n=41, 36%). Adhering to initial feeding was associated with previous enrolment in PMTCT and inversely associated with introducing complementary and traditional medicines. Adhering to initial feeding choice was difficult for EBF and EFF mothers. There is need for interventions to educate mothers and significant others on the adequacy of breast milk and to encourage HIV positive mothers to initiate and sustain EBF. Interventions should also address cultural practices that threaten the success of PMTCT in reducing HIV transmission.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:39:10Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Decision-making and practice on infant feeding : a case
           study of women in a prevention of mother to child transmission programme
           in Gauteng Province, South Africa : public health intervention for
           maternal and child health
    • Authors: Ntuli; B., Modibedi, K.
      Abstract: For prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) programme to produce good results, the choice of recommended feeding options by the mother plays a major role. This therefore means that decision making with regards to the choice of recommended feeding options forms part of a bigger strategy within the PMTCT programme to reduce mother to child transmission (MTCT). This qualitative explorative study was conducted among 32 mothers on the PMTCT programme with the aim of investigating their decision making and practice on infant feeding. Five focus groups discussions were conducted. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis and open coding whereby themes and sub-themes were identified. Most mothers made decisions of infant feeding during prenatal period. Exclusive breast feeding was the common feeding option opted for by 20 out of 32 mothers. Few mothers (5 out of 20) were practising mixed feeding at the time of data collection. Health care workers, socio-economic status, previous enrolment in PMTCT and fear of infecting the baby, influenced mothers on decision making on infant feeding options. Family, stigma, and previous feeding history influenced mothers feeding practices. Health care providers need to provide continuous counselling as early as possible to enable the mothers to choose the recommended infant feeding options and adhere to their selected options to reduce MTCT. Furthermore, the influence of infant feeding options and practices have implications for the success of the PMTCT.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:39:10Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Community-based management programme for treatment of
           acute child malnutrition using the out-patient therapeutic treatment
           approach in Dhas district of Ethiopia : public health intervention for
           maternal and child health
    • Authors: Mokgatle; M.M., Demisse, B.N.
      Abstract: Severe acute malnutrition remains a major killer of children under the age of five years and contributes to one million child deaths in the world each year. Until recently, the management of severe acute malnutrition has been restricted to centre-based care with limited coverage and impact. Community-based management of acute malnutrition involves timely detection of severe acute malnutrition in the community, and treatment of those without medical complications with ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF) such as plumpynut at home. This study aimed to investigate the progress and the effectiveness of the CMAM project in Dhas implemented from July 2010 to December 2010 in addressing child malnutrition. A quantitative, descriptive survey was applied on 163 severely acute malnourished children aged 6-59 months admitted and treated in all health facilities in Dhas district from July 2010 to December 2010. The mean age at admission was 20 months, 35% (n=57) were below 12 months old, 57% (n=93) were below two years. About 98.2% (n=160) were new admissions. The reason for admission was low mid-upper arm circumference. The programme achieved the recovery rate of 69.9% and there were no mortalities. The recovery rate for malnutrition of admitted children was below the expected sphere standard. The defaulter rate was relatively high but there were no infant and child mortalities. The CMAM programme contributed to reduction of malnutrition and exceeded the expected outcomes.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:39:09Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Parents' influence on early childhood caries among their
           children at a community health centre in Gauteng Province, South Africa :
           public health intervention for maternal and child health
    • Authors: Ntombela; D.E., Mndzebele, S.L.
      Abstract: Early childhood caries (ECC) is a serious oral health problem that has remained unexplored in many developing countries including the Sub-Saharan Africa region, especially among the disadvantaged populations. This study investigates the knowledge, attitudes and practices of parents with regard to ECC affecting their children aged between 1 and 5 years old. A cross-sectional survey design was used involving 299 individuals; where a parent and his/her child were counted as one. The majority of the participants (97%) were the biological parents of the children. About 32% of the parents were under the age of 20 years, and 73% were single. Almost all the parents (91%) had primary level of education. About 87% of the parents did not know that dental caries do affect children who are below the age of 2 years, and that brushing a child's teeth is important for maintaining good oral health (65%). A higher proportion of parents with a caries-free child compare to those parents whose children had caries knew that: "sugar consumption and other cariogenic foods increase caries development" [8%-vs-1%, (p0.05)]. Overall, the mean-dmft score among the children was 7.5±4.2, ranging from 1 to 20. Girls had an insignificantly higher mean-dmft score than boys [7.9±3.3 vs 6.9±4.6, (p>0.05)]. Children in the age group of 1 to 2 years old had higher mean-dmft scores than those aged 3 to 5 years old [7.6±4.7 -vs- 7.5±3.9, (p>0.05)]. The findings of this study suggest that good oral health knowledge, practices and perceptions of parents has a positive influence in reducing early childhood caries among their children.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:39:08Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Treatment outcomes of HIV infected children receiving
           antiretroviral therapy at the ALERT centre in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia :
           public health intervention for maternal and child health
    • Authors: Mokgatle; M.M., Mekonnen, A.K.
      Abstract: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage for children in the sub Saharan region is slightly below the global figures; and globally children continued to have less access to ART than adults. This study aimed to determine the treatment outcome of children who have received ART treatment for at least 24 weeks, and enrolled to treatment over five years period between March 2005 and December 2010. A five-year retrospective records review was conducted using electronic medical records of paediatric patients who were enrolled in an ART programme in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ART initiation was 6.4 ± 4.1 inter-quartile range years of age, and 61.4% children were older than 5 years of age, while 56 (8.6%) were under 18 months at the time of initiation of ART showing significant delay in diagnosing HIV infected children. After six months there was significant clinical and immunologic response. The mean difference at baseline and six months for CD4 count was 251 (n= 374, CI: 219, 283, p
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:39:07Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Parental disclosure of HIV positive status to
           HIV-uninfected children and their reactions to disclosure in Ekurhuleni
           district, Gauteng Province, South Africa : perspectives of HIV and AIDS
           across populations
    • Authors: Madiba; S.
      Abstract: The largest populations of HIV-infected patients live in Africa and care for many un-infected children, this has heightened the need for disclosure of parental HIV status to un-infected children. However, existing literature in sub-Saharan shows low parental disclosure rates. The study sought to determine reasons for parental disclosure and non-disclosure of HIV status to uninfected children and examine the reactions of children to disclosure. A cross sectional survey was conducted among HIV-infected parents of children aged 6-18 years attending a primary health care clinic at Ekurhuleni district, Gauteng province. The sample consisted of 340 HIV-infected adult patients. There were more females 235 (69%) than males 105 (31%). Over half (n=197, 57.9%) had known about their HIV status for 1-5 years, 210 (63%) tested because they were sick, 215 (72.9%) were receiving ART for 1-5 years, 105 (31%) disclosed to children and 26 (26.4%) disclosed immediately after testing. Based on parents reports, the majority (n=74, 68%) of children were sad, worried, angry, confused, shocked, tearful, scared, and distressed after parental disclosure. Non-disclosed parents believed that the child was too young to understand, 217 (94.8%) planned to disclose in the future, and 129 (57.1%) said 21-25 years was the ideal age for disclosure. Non-disclosed parents were not totally against disclosure but were fearful of the perceived negative consequences of disclosure. Health care-workers can play a crucial role in supporting parents to disclose but also offer specific counselling and support to children before and after parental disclosure.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:39:06Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Life experiences and circumstances surrounding elderly
           people living with HIV and AIDS in Northern Gauteng, South Africa :
           perspectives of HIV and AIDS across populations
    • Authors: Nemakanga; M.N., Mndzebele, S.L.
      Abstract: The elderly living with HIV have been largely neglected, leading to a growing population of older people facing socioeconomic, psychological and physical challenges allied with the aging process. There is lack of awareness about the transmission of the disease and educational material targeted towards older adults. The study explores the experiences and awareness of older adults regarding HIV in Hammanskraal community. This was a qualitative explorative study. A purposive sampling technique was used to select participants for the focus group discussion (FGD). The interview guide was developed in English and translated into Setswana language. Five focus group discussions were conducted with 32 participants. The participants were assured of their privacy and confidentiality. All the FGDs were recorded, transcribed, and finally analysed using the N-VIVO software. Seven thematic areas were unveiled from the study. It transpired that older people living with HIV experience physical changes such as: weight gain or loss, body pain, body weakness, tiredness and sores. The findings showed that older adults cope well with the burdens that HIV created by learning to accept their status. In addition, some participants reported high level of psychological distress, especially those who lacked support system. The social experiences such as stigma, isolation and discrimination were the important issues raised during focus group discussions. Various financial burdens were expressed such as extra spending as a result of diet modification, treatment, transportation and medication. Some participants also reported lost jobs due to deterioration of their physical health. The majority of the elderly living with HIV do have a sound knowledge of HIV&AIDS, including some coping mechanisms when caught-up in such situations.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:39:05Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Disclosure to sexual partner and associated factors among
           HIV positive adult clinic attendees in Johannesburg, South Africa :
           perspectives of HIV and AIDS across populations
    • Authors: Madiba; S., Letsoalo, B.
      Abstract: Disclosure to sexual partner has been linked to early testing, early enrolment on antiretroviral treatment (ART), as well as early access to HIV prevention and care. The study assessed the rate of HIV status disclosure to regular sexual partners and determined reactions to disclosure and associated factors among adult clients receiving ART ten years since the roll out of ART in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adult clients attending an ART clinic attached to a tertiary hospital in Gauteng province, South Africa. Multivariate logistic-regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with disclosure. The sample included 400 clients, 229 (57.3%) females and 171 (42.8%) males. The mean age was 39.8 years. The mean time since testing for HIV was 5.8 years, 225 (56.3%) had been on ART for < 2 years, 209 (52.3%) discussed HIV testing with partner prior to testing, and 234 (63.2%) knew the partner's HIV status. The prevalence of disclosure was 303 (75.8%) and 210 (78.4%) disclosed within six months. Fear of negative reactions was the main barrier for disclosure and 20.1% experienced negative reactions after disclosure. Acceptance of a partner's HIV status was gradual, participants moved from denial, anger, violence, and blame to acceptance and support. Prior discussions about HIV testing with partner (aOR=4.36, p=0.000, CI: 2.26-8.41) and knowledge of partner's HIV status (aOR=14.2, p=0.000, CI: 7.00-28.7) were associated with disclosure. Counselling should encourage early mutual disclosure of HIV test results to prevent the further spread of HIV.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:39:04Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and perceptions about HIV-positive
           people among primary school learners in Soshanguve, Pretoria, South Africa
           : perspectives of HIV and AIDS across populations
    • Authors: Dzhugudzha; N.T., Mokgatle, M.M., Madiba, S.
      Abstract: Lack of HIV/AIDS knowledge among young children have increased the fear of HIV infection resulting in their negative attitudes towards people affected by HIV and AIDS. This study aimed to determine the knowledge of HIV/AIDS and perception of primary school learners about HIV positive people in Soshanguve. A quantitative cross sectional descriptive survey design was conducted among 370 learners in grades 6 and 7, respectively. The age ranged from 10 to 15 years old. Data were collected using researcher-assisted-questionnaires with closed-ended questions. The findings show that the learners had a mean knowledge score of 19.8 from 27 knowledge-related questions. Accordingly, 44% (163) had high knowledge level classified with a knowledge score of greater or equal to 75%, 52% (n=191) had moderate knowledge classified with a knowledge score of 51% to 74% score, and 4% (n=16) had low knowledge level with less than or equal to 50% score of knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS Learners (53%) had positive perception about HIV positive people and there was a significant association between high knowledge level and positive perception. Primary school learners have knowledge levels of HIV transmission but there were knowledge gaps and misconceptions in most of knowledge regarding HIV prevention and control. The misconceptions about HIV/AIDS may provide some reasons why some of the learners have negative perceptions of HIV positive people.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:39:03Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Needs of primary caregivers relating to care given to
           HIV/AIDS patients and support from palliative care nurses in Malawi :
           perspectives of HIV and AIDS across populations
    • Authors: Mkwinda; E., Lekalakala-Mokgele, E., Sengane, M.
      Abstract: The current care of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) rests with primary caregivers since they are now nursed at home. This is as a result of the management of HIV/AIDS with antiretroviral therapy (ART) which prolongs the lives of PLWHA. The palliative care approach has been instrumental in improving the quality of life for PLWHA and is being provided at the clinics by nurses. However, continuity of care is provided at home by primary caregivers who take up this role without preparation, training and support. The study explored the primary caregiver's needs concerning care given to HIV/AIDS patients and the support they receive from palliative care nurses in Malawi. The study used qualitative explorative research design to conduct in-depth interviews with 18 primary caregivers from three palliative care clinics in Lilongwe and Salima districts of Malawi. Data were analyzed using NVivo software package version 10 and three themes emerged from the data. Findings revealed that primary caregivers needed training in their role and education on the patients' condition from nurses to provide proper care. They also needed clinical and financial resources which negatively impacted the care they provided to the patients. They also needed support of different forms in their role to give proper care to patient. More could be done in meeting the needs of primary caregivers to achieve better quality of care to PLWHA.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:39:02Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: HIV/AIDS related knowledge and attitudes towards learners
           infected with HIV among high school learners in Gauteng and North West
           Provinces in South Africa : perspectives of HIV and AIDS across
           populations
    • Authors: Madiba; S., Mokgatle, M.
      Abstract: The study assessed high school learners' HIV knowledge and attitudes towards learners infected with HIV/AIDS. The survey was part of formative evaluation with grade 10-12 learners in order to assess the acceptability of HIV counselling and testing (HCT) at schools. The study consisted of 17 high schools in two provinces in South Africa. T-tests were used to compare the differences in the mean HIV knowledge scores. Logistic regressions were performed to establish associations between demographic variables, attitudes, and HIV knowledge scores. The sample consisted of 2970 learners aged 14-27 years. The majority had high knowledge scores: 87% on HIV-related knowledge, 98.6% on the modes of transmission, and 73% on prevention. Overall, HIV knowledge was high, with a total mean score of 20.5 out of 26 points. There were significant differences in the HIV knowledge total mean scores; females had higher scores (M=20.6, SD=2.3) than males (M=20.3, SD=2.4), and the younger age group (M=20.5, SD=2.4) had higher scores than the older age group (M=20.1, SD=2.1). A quarter (25.4%) exhibited negative attitudes towards HIV-positive learners, and 75% would not date HIV-positive learners. Negative attitudes were associated with gender (OR=0.48, CI: 0.41-0.57), grades (OR=3.24, CI: 2.36-4.44), and total HIV knowledge scores (OR=2.21, CI: 1.43-3.43). Despite substantial HIV knowledge, there were knowledge gaps and misconceptions which resulted in negative attitudes towards the disease. Appropriate sexual health education and HIV prevention interventions in school are crucial in correcting the knowledge gaps as well as reducing stigma and discrimination to assist learners to accept HIV-positive persons.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:39:01Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Dental students' perceptions and behaviours towards dental
           patients living with HIV/AIDS in Pretoria, South Africa : perspectives of
           HIV and AIDS across populations
    • Authors: Galane; M.L., Mndzebele, S.L.
      Abstract: The HIV pandemic continues to be a major public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. The number of HIV/AIDS patients is increasing annually and there are no specialised oral health institutions that provide oral health care to HIV/AIDS patients. The purpose of the study was to determine the knowledge, attitudes and infection control practices of third, fourth and fifth year dental students towards patients living with the HIV/AIDS at the Medunsa Oral Health Centre (MOHC). This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 139 dental students at MOHC, using self-administered questionnaire. Stata IC/10 was used for data analysis. The response rate was 86%. The participants' age range was between 20-39 years, with a mean age of 25.9 years (SD 3.9 years) and 51.7% were females. Fourth-year dental students represented a larger proportion (39.2%) as compared to the third and fifth-year groups. The majority of the participants (79.2%) were blacks. About 37.9% of the participants resided in urban areas. Over half (55.8%) had no previous training in HIV/AIDS. Participants' gender [(OR = 2.97; 95%CI = 0.99 - 8.89) (P
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:39:00Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Adolescents' sexual behaviours and views about the sexual
           health education programme - a post intervention qualitative survey in
           Rustenburg, North West Province, South Africa : adolescent sexual health
           and behaviour
    • Authors: Malefo; M.A., Mokgatle, M.M., Madiba, S.
      Abstract: The AURUM Institute's sexual health education programme was implemented to reduce STI's, HIV, unplanned pregnancies, and encourage abstinence to prepare for the acceptance of adolescents HIV vaccines for future studies. Both boys and girls age 12 to 17 years in Bojanala district were enrolled in the study. The study aimed to explore the sexual behaviours of adolescents six months after the sexual health education intervention. A qualitative descriptive design using face-to-face interviews was conducted with 28 female adolescents who participated in the sexual health education programme at the AURUM institute. The age range of the participants was 15-20 years; and they were first told about sexuality between ages of 12 and 18 years. Most of the adolescents first learned about sexuality at school especially participants from child-headed households. It was promising that all participants reported that they knew they have to use condoms as prevention for HIV infection. They reported that they enjoyed participating in the programme, some reported that they gained self-confidence while others said they were disappointed in themselves for not using the information they acquired from the sexual health education programme. Sexual health education programme increase adolescent's knowledge; however, there is no change or reduction in risky sexual behaviours.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:38:59Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Knowledge on reproductive health among high school pupils
           in the Hhohho region, Swaziland : adolescent sexual health and behaviour
    • Authors: Fernandes; L., Magagula, F.
      Abstract: During the development of sexual and reproductive maturity, adolescents experiences extensive physical, psychological, emotional, and personality changes. This heightened curiosity about bodily changes and sexual feelings is associated with various risks including unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV/AIDS. This quantitative descriptive cross-sectional survey aimed to document the knowledge in the domain of sexual and reproductive health (RH) among high school pupils from three schools in the Hhohho Region of Swaziland. A validated structured self-administered questionnaire was utilized to collect data from high school pupils between the ages of 15-19 years. A total of 375 parent consent forms were distributed; 317 were received with 27 questionnaires found to be incomplete resulting in a final response rate of 77.3% (290/375). In general the student's knowledge could be regarded as average with 23.1% (67/290) scoring 50% and less; 61.7% (179/290) scoring between 50% to 75% and 15.0% (44/290) scoring above 75% answering the questions with regards to knowledge on HIV/AIDS, STI's, contraceptive and condom use. Parents rarely discussed sexual matters with pupils even though a majority of them lived in the same household while mothers [41.0% (119/290)] and teachers [25.9% (75/290)] were found to be an important source of RH information. The majority of pupils have factual sexual and reproductive knowledge to be able to make healthy and responsible sexual health decisions.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:38:59Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Contraceptive knowledge and use : views of teen mothers
           accessing a youth friendly clinic in a rural district of Mpumalanga
           Province, South Africa : adolescent sexual health and behaviour
    • Authors: Madiba; S., Ntuli, B.
      Abstract: There is general consensus that adolescents in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa do not visit facilities providing contraceptives because they view them as unfriendly; and thus the high rates of unintended pregnancies witnessed in South Africa, despite the implementation of the youth friendly services (YFS) in many parts of the country. This study explores teen mother's reasons for non-use of contraceptives, and describes their experiences of seeking contraception services from Phola-Nsikazi, an YFS site in Mpumalanga province. This was a descriptive, qualitative study using in-depth interviews and focus groups discussions with 33 in-school and out-of-school teen mothers aged 15-19 years. Data were analyzed using thematic approach and NVivo 10, data analysis software. Teen mothers were dissatisfied with the type of service provided at the clinic, despite it being a designated YFS site. With regards to contraceptive use, 20 out of 33 teen mothers never used any contraceptive and did not know about the contraceptive services that were available in the clinic prior to falling pregnant. All teen mothers were using injectables during the post-partum period. Lack of knowledge about contraceptives and poor access to contraceptives, mainly due to negative attitudes of nurses, were barriers to obtaining and using contraception correctly and consistency. It is important that health care providers understand that for adolescents to use contraceptives correct and consistent, they need to be provided with accurate information in a friendly and non-judgmental environment. Positive provider attitude underpins the adolescent friendly clinic concept and is a key to enhancing contraceptive use among teenagers.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:38:58Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Factors contributing to unplanned pregnancies in
           adolescent girls in Hammanskraal, South Africa : an emancipatory
           decision-making approach : adolescent sexual health and behaviour
    • Authors: Madumo; M.M., Havenga, Y., Van Aswegen, E.J.
      Abstract: Unplanned pregnancies among adolescents constitute a global public health concern. Although preventable, it remains common and is usually associated with negative health and socioeconomic outcomes for the baby, the adolescents themselves, the family and society at large. Health care services in South Africa are dealing with high numbers of adolescent girls with unplanned pregnancies seeking professional help with their pregnancies. Support for adolescent girls in choices about decision making on pregnancy prevention is often not available from the family, school, community, or health care services. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the factors contributing to the prevalence of unplanned pregnancies in adolescent girls in Hammanskraal. One-to-one interviews using semi-structured questions were used to collect data. Sixteen adolescent girls with unplanned pregnancies were interviewed. Purposive sampling was used to select participants for the study. The findings revealed that lack of personal knowledge, empowerment, and reflection, limited flexibility in health care environment, restrictive social norms, poverty, and substance abuse contributed to the occurrence of unplanned pregnancies in adolescent girls. The findings suggest the need for a programme for the prevention of unplanned pregnancies in adolescent girls through emancipated decision-making.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:38:58Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Strategies towards achieving Sustainable Development Goals : Supplement
           1.2: Strategies towards achieving Sustainable Development Goals :
           editorial
    • Abstract: The Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) provided guidance by recommending a framework to government departments on how to formulate and implement policies to address health care problems. Furthermore, they provided guidance on how countries can come up with aid programmes to deal with problems faced by all communities in the world that could be used to address those problems even though the health challenges vary from one country to the other. The MDGs were aimed at improving the lives of the people in all communities even though emphasis was on developing countries. MDGs focused on reduction of child and maternal deaths, combating HIV, malaria and other diseases in terms of health related aspects. Currently, every country is expected to work towards achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T07:55:44Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Strategies towards achieving Sustainable Development Goals : Supplement
           1.2: A comparison of responses on the Becks Depression Inventory - 11 (BDI
           11) amongst the Pedi, Tsonga and Venda cultures of Limpopo Province, South
           Africa : indigenous knowledge system in health care
    • Authors: Nel; K., Masola, J., Rankoana, S.A., Govender, S., Mothibi, K.
      Abstract: The Becks Depression Inventory 11 (BDI - 11) is one of the most used psychometric tools in hospitals and clinics throughout South Africa. The questions are in English and often use difficult words and concepts such as pessimism and self-dislike, which rural Black populations may find difficult to understand. The aim of this research was to compare multicultural responses to the Becks Depression Inventory 11 (BDI 11) amongst three of Limpopo's major ethnic groups: the Tsonga, Venda and Pedi. A mixed methods approach, using a survey and an interview was utilised. This is consistent with triangulation of research methods. The study was conducted at a rural university in Limpopo Province, South Africa. A purposive sample of sixty undergraduate students, of both genders aged between 19 and 33 was used, all were second language English speakers. In conclusion the results revealed that the BDI 11 presented difficulties to the Tsonga, Pedi and Venda respondents on all but two of the items. Difficulties were related to understanding English words or concepts (for instance, pessimism) and what were perceived as culturally inappropriate questions about sexual performance and crying (displaying emotion).
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T07:55:43Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Strategies towards achieving Sustainable Development Goals : Supplement
           1.2: The use of indigenous knowledge in primary health care : a case study
           of Makanye community in Limpopo Province, South Africa : indigenous
           knowledge system in health care
    • Authors: Rankoana; S.A., Nel, K., Mothibi, K., Mothiba, T.M., Mamogobo, P., Setwaba, M.
      Abstract: The use of indigenous knowledge to meet primary health care needs goes back to 1978 when the World Health Assembly announced the potential use of traditional medicine and urged member states to use traditional medical practices in primary health care. The present study examined the use of indigenous knowledge for preventive, curative and protective health care. Data were collected through interactions with a sample of 100 participants. The study results provide explanations of disease, disease etiology, health implications of food and medical ethnobotanical knowledge as the indigenous knowledge systems used to maintain good health. These knowledge systems provide protective, preventive and curative care. The study recommends scientific research to explore the role of indigenous knowledge in health care among South African cultural groups in order to validate the knowledge and use it to achieve Sustainable Development Goals to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all people.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T07:55:43Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Strategies towards achieving Sustainable Development Goals : Supplement
           1.2: Culture and marriage : the dual barriers to condom use among health
           care providers in Tshwane, South Africa : indigenous knowledge system in
           health care
    • Authors: Mataboge; M.S., Ngunyulu, R.N., Mogale, S., Mulaudzi, F.M., Peu, M.D.
      Abstract: The use of condom will provide men and women 100% protection against HIV and AIDS infection. However, the acceptability of condom use in sexual relations including marriage is confronted with culturally entrenched barriers. Health care providers as being socialised within the communities with specific cultures also experience barriers regarding condom use. The purpose of the study was to explore and describe culture and marriage as barriers regarding condom use among health care providers in Tshwane. A qualitative, focused ethnography design was used. Data collection was through semi-structured interviews using three research questions. The population included health care providers who were responsible for provision of HIV and AIDS programmes in selected health care settings in Tshwane. Purposive sampling was used and ethical principles were upheld. Trustworthiness was ensured. Results indicated that irrespective of health care providers being knowledgeable on condom use, when faced with condom use in their sexual relationships they are confronted by culturally entrenched barriers. Marriage becomes a barrier for condom use as it is culturally embedded. Norms and values determining men and women's behaviour in a relationship stipulate that men are decision makers. As such, health care providers' sexual partners refuse to use condoms. It is recommended that culturally sensitive programmes be developed and health care providers receive appropriate training to address culture and marriage as barriers regarding condom use in their sexual relationships.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T07:55:42Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Strategies towards achieving Sustainable Development Goals : Supplement
           1.2: Student nurses' perceptions about the Integrated Management of
           Childhood Illnesses training received at the KwaZulu-Natal College of
           Nursing, South Africa : teaching and learning in health care professions
    • Authors: Jacpasad; N., Sibiya, M.N., Sokhela, D.G.
      Abstract: Integrated management of childhood illnesses (IMCI) is the WHO and UNICEF's strategy developed in the 1990s to reduce child mortality and morbidity globally. This integrated approach guides health care workers and ensures that the child is cared for effectively at a single visit to reduce morbidity and mortality rate of children younger than five years of age. South Africa is one of 12 countries with high child mortality and morbidity rates. The purpose of this descriptive quantitative study was to evaluate the IMCI training of 100 randomly selected student nurses in the KwaZulu-Natal College of Nursing. The objective was to assess teaching methods used to prepare learner nurses for this approach. A self-administered questionnaire designed by Goga and Muhe (2011) was used to collect data. The results indicated that the time allocated for theory was adequate, but for clinical practice and clinical training time was found to be insufficient. It was concluded that the recommended duration of training (11) days was inadequate for the amount of information contained in the IMCI course.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T07:55:41Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Strategies towards achieving Sustainable Development Goals : Supplement
           1.2: Piloting of a service-learning pedagogical model : students'
           perceptions of the gender-based violence service-learning module at a
           school of nursing in the Western Cape, South Africa : teaching and
           learning in health care professions
    • Authors: Julie; Hester
      Abstract: Research indicates that most higher education institutions in South Africa fail to establish a standard practice for service-learning (SL) in the formalised systems of their respective academic programmes. An intervention study was undertaken to develop a service-learning implementation framework for the school of nursing, using the multi-phased design and development model of Rothman and Thomas. This article focuses on reporting the findings related to student perceptions of the gender-based violence service-learning module during the piloting phase. This was a quantitative, exploratory, descriptive study which used a structured questionnaire for data collection. Participants were 162 final-year nursing students enrolled in 2012. The students indicated the mutual benefits of community work in terms of the learning they had experienced, the service the community had received, as well as the transformation that had assisted them to translate theory into practice. Also, the students indicated that service-learning as a teaching methodology was demanding in terms of time, cost, and effort, and generally found it quite challenging to engage with the module content because the blogging and structured reflection were cited as new teaching strategies. Service-learning modules should bear a higher credit rating to compensate for demands of the service-learning pedagogy in terms of time and finances. Students should also be introduced to community partners and their expectations before the commencement of the project.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T07:55:40Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Strategies towards achieving Sustainable Development Goals : Supplement
           1.2: Perceptions of student nurses regarding accompaniment in the clinical
           environment in Gauteng Province, South Africa : teaching and learning in
           health care professions
    • Authors: Letswalo; L.O., Peu, M.D.
      Abstract: This study explores the perceptions of student nurses during accompaniment in the clinical environment. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive research approach was applied on 24 student nurses' to explore their perceptions during accompaniment in the clinical environment. The participants were conveniently and purposively selected. The student nurses were registered for their first year of training. Data was generated through two focus group interviews comprising of 12 student nurses each. Unstructured focus groups interviews were conducted during data collection. Studies have confirmed that student nurses who are not adequately accompanied during placement are unable to attain the learning outcomes set by their programme most students were dissatisfied with accompaniment and failed summative practical evaluation. Persons assigned to teach and facilitate learning in this environment were not readily available to take up this responsibility. Data analysis revealed the following findings; a disregard of student status by clinical staff, hostile clinical environment, inadequate clinical supervision and lack of commitment by professional nurses in teaching students and caring for patients under their care. To achieve efficient and effective accompaniment, student status should be recognised by clinical staff, creation of conducive learning environment should be created and appropriate supervision of students be facilitated by professional nurses in the clinical environment.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T07:55:39Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Strategies towards achieving Sustainable Development Goals : Supplement
           1.2: An investigation into the new graduate nurses' care and management of
           patients with HIV and AIDS in two provinces of South Africa : teaching and
           learning in health care professions
    • Authors: Modeste; Rugira R. Marie, Adejumo, Oluyinka
      Abstract: The Human Immunodeficiency (HIV) epidemic has been around for more than three decades and South Africa has more people living with HIV infection than any other country in Africa. Since nurses are the backbone of the healthcare system, they are the most involved in providing healthcare services to people living with HIV. For this reason, their training is expected to equip and enable them to function as soon as they have graduated, congruent to the expectations of the employers. This research investigates how new graduate nurses provide care and management for HIV and AIDS patients in South Africa while emphasising the reported weaknesses in this care. Individual interviews were conducted with 17 participants who included recent graduates, nurse educators, nurses in practice, members of the nursing governing body, and persons living with HIV. The data were analysed by using a deductive thematic content analysis. Shortcomings were reported relating to aspects required by nurses for HIV and AIDS care and management; including areas such as knowledge, holistic safe practice, and policy. The identified shortcomings should be included in the nurses' pre-service training with the purpose of comprehensively preparing graduates to provide effective care and management for HIV patients and to respond to HIV/AIDS healthcare needs which is a national priority.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T07:55:39Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Strategies towards achieving Sustainable Development Goals : Supplement
           1.2: Educating nurses on intervention in and prevention of intimate
           partner violence : a systematic review : teaching and learning in health
           care professions
    • Authors: Khumisi; E.T., De Waal, M., Van Wyk, N.C.
      Abstract: In South Africa, a woman is killed by a male partner every six hours, making South Africa's intimate femicide rate the highest, globally. Nurses are in a unique position to identify, assist and support women who are at risk or who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) when such women seek help. Unfortunately, nurses often fail to use this critical opportunity to break the cycle of violence because of a lack of confidence, skills and support systems. The purpose of the systematic review was to appraise learning needs and curricula of nurse education on intervention and prevention of intimate partner violence. A selection of electronic databases for the period 2009-2014 was used as data sources. The systematic review involved a computerised search of the selected databases to identify and assess published studies on nurse education curricula and learning programmes on intimate partner violence intervention and prevention. Of the 1 446 identified studies, 56 studies were initially identified for review and then reduced to 14 after excluding studies that did not meet the selection criteria. These articles were critically appraised with the use of a set of qualitative criteria. Studies reviewed identified the need for training nurses on their roles and responsibilities on IPV intervention and prevention and developing their core competencies in this domain. Studies also indicated the skills needed by nurse educators in the education and training of student nurses on IPV intervention and prevention. The key aspects of IPV curricula content that were positively accepted by nurses included knowledge, attitudinal and skills components, as well as environmental-, management- and systems components. A limitation of the study was the exclusion of domestic violence. While intimate partner violence and domestic violence overlap, it may well be that in the literature some studies may have focused on domestic violence prevention and intervention.The outcomes of this review gives insight into how nurse education and professional development can be structured in local- and international health care education settings for IPV intervention and prevention. Recommendations are offered for curriculum design and development for nurse educators and nurse education on IPV intervention and prevention. The findings of the study could contribute to developing nurse education curricula in local and international contexts to prevent and intervene in IPV as a global public health care phenomenon.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T07:55:38Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Strategies towards achieving Sustainable Development Goals : Supplement
           1.2: The relationship between final year occupational therapy students'
           values and their levels of achievement : teaching and learning in health
           care professions
    • Authors: De Beer; Marianne, Swanepoel, Henk
      Abstract: This study set out to investigate the relationship between individual values of final year occupational therapy students at seven universities as well as the eventual performance of each student during the final evaluation. Using a quantitative research method, a total of 154 final year students were assessed in the early part of their final year by means of the Value Scale - a standardised instrument for the multicultural population in South Africa. The final grade each student obtained was reflected by the mean of the grades obtained in all the subjects for that study year. This grade reflected both theoretical knowledge and the practical application of such knowledge. No positive correlations were found between the six second-order value factors and their achievement percentages for the sample as a whole. However, a negative correlation was obtained in terms of autonomous lifestyle and the students' levels of achievement (r= -0,169; p -0,036) for the sample as a whole. This result indicates that the higher the students rated independence of action within their work, as well as creativity, diversity, change of activities and risk incurred in projects proposed, the lower their average grades tended to be. In a profession that sets a high value on creativity and independence, it is specifically those students possessing these values who seem to flounder. It is recommended that the autonomy and creativity of occupational therapy students in the clinical field be researched by means of a qualitative method since the declared values by means of self-report measures in quantitative research may not reveal a student's operational value system.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T07:55:37Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Strategies towards achieving Sustainable Development Goals : Supplement
           1.2: Experiences of nursing students regarding interdisciplinary
           postgraduate supervision at a University of Technology in KwaZulu-Natal
           
    • Authors: Sibiya; M.N.
      Abstract: The quality of the relationship between post graduate students and supervisors directly influences the quality of the post graduate education experience. Due to a lack of capacity in terms of nurse academics with the required credentials to supervise post graduate students, almost 50% of students in the participating university's department of nursing have supervisors from other academic departments within the same university. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of nursing post graduate students regarding interdisciplinary supervision. The participants were selected on a voluntary, convenience and purposive basis. In-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted with 16 consenting post graduate students who registered for the first time as nursing post graduate research students during 2012 and 2013 academic session. The themes identified were support of students, accessibility and availability of supervisors and knowledge and expertise in the field of nursing. Although some of the participants reported experiences that had negative impacts, others reported positive experiences in their interaction with interdisciplinary and nursing supervisors.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T07:55:36Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Strategies towards achieving Sustainable Development Goals : Supplement
           1.2: Guided reflection : a valuable tool for improving undergraduate
           student nurses' levels of reflection : teaching and learning in health
           care professions
    • Authors: Mahlanze; H.T., Sibiya, M.N., Govender, S.
      Abstract: In 2011, the undergraduate nursing programme at the Durban University of Technology introduced reflective journal writing. Students submitted journals of poor quality which lacked reflection, thus motivating the need to improve the levels of reflection by introducing a structured guide developed from Gibb's reflective cycle. Using a purposive sampling approach, forty students volunteered their reflective journals to be used for the study. During their clinical placements, each participating student wrote and submitted two reflective journals. Analysis of the journals revealed lower levels of reflection in the first reflective journal compared to improved levels in the second journal. The students initially struggled with the last three phases of Gibb's framework, but improved following feedback and guidance. Levels of reflection and development of reflective practice could be enhanced if all educators participate actively in guiding and supporting students during the writing of their reflective journals.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T07:55:36Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Recounting social tourism development in South Africa
    • Authors: Adinolfi; M.C., Ivanovic, M.
      Abstract: Notwithstanding tourism in South Africa being declared a priority sector alongside mining and agriculture, the South African government's concern with the sustainability of the domestic tourism market stems from a significant lack of travel culture among the majority of the population. This study takes an initial look at the development of social tourism in South Africa both historically and as an unconventional way of addressing some of South Africa's domestic tourism gaps with particular emphasis on encouraging youth participation in social tourism. Specifically, the report recounts evidence of social tourism development in South Africa along three distinct historical and political periods namely during the independence period of 1910- 1948, in the period of apartheid between 1948 and 1994 and in the post 1994 democratic era. In particular the paper presents the workings of the Star Seaside Fund, a charity organisation that has been developing social tourism in South Africa since 1910. In-depth interviews with staff of the charity organisation revealed surprising facts that the Star Seaside Fund was taking underprivileged black children to the seaside during the apartheid era when travel of the majority of its black citizens was extremely restricted and heavily regulated. Furthermore, in-depth interviews with two participants confirmed the long-lasting social and psychological benefits of social tourism travel to the participating youth. Therefore this study represents a contribution to the further enrichment of social tourism discourse in South Africa as well as a better understanding of its current nature.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:49Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: An examination of tourism infrastructure and services
           available at the Durban central beachfront locality, South Africa
    • Authors: Bob; U., Maharaj, A.
      Abstract: Durban's central beachfront area is a key tourism destination and is also one of the main recreational spaces for local residents. Infrastructure and services within tourism and recreational spaces play a key role in minimising negative impacts and maximising positive impacts. However, few studies critically examine these locations in relation to infrastructural and service provision aspects. This research utilises observation to audit and assess the status of infrastructure and services (including tourism products) in the Durban central beachfront. Additionally, surveys conducted with visitors at the different localities in the Durban central beachfront area complement the infrastructural and service audit undertaken. The audit indicates that the central beachfront has a significant level of infrastructural services. However, when the specific localities that comprise the central beachfront (spanning from Addington Beach in the south to Blue Lagoon in the North) are examined, substantial differences emerge which reinforces the need to be more critical when examining a specific tourist destination or locality. Furthermore, the study identifies several infrastructure needs linked to transport, ablution facilities, safety and security, and maintenance issues. This research assists in informing future planning in this important tourist and recreational location in South Africa. More importantly, it contributes to the body of knowledge in relation to understanding the physical attributes in tourist/recreational places and notes the importance of examining differences within these destinations.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:49Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Authentic economy shaping transmodern tourism experience
    • Authors: Ivanovich; M., Saayman, M.
      Abstract: This is a conceptual paper which outlines new integrated, multidisciplinary theoretical framework suitable for an alignment of postmodern authenticity discourse in tourism to the principles of new authentic economy of transmodernism. Firstly, the paper problematises the incompatibility of three seminal social theories of authenticity, objective, constructive and existential, arising from the recent calls to declare the modernist theory of objective authenticity obsolete in the phenomenology of new tourist experience and replace it with the postmodernist theory of existential authenticity. Secondly, the paper reveals that in authentic economy the new economic value is created through rendering five genres of authenticity to its consumers/tourists by every sector of the world's economy, including tourism. Lastly, the paper confirms that transmodernism possesses an intrinsic ability to transcend the two preceding paradigms, modernism and postmodernism, while constructing the new cohesive experiential reality based on personal transformations and enlightenment. As this new reality reinforces a sense of being true to (one) authentic-Self it culminates in transformatory tourist experience seen as a higher order need than the Maslow's self-actualisation need. The ontological properties of transformatory tourism experience are analogous to existential and influential authenticity pertinent to social and economic sciences respectively. Against this backdrop the paper provides a blueprint for a synthesis of three seminal social authenticity theories and five genres of authentic economy into transformatory experience of new tourism as transmodern phenomenon. Conceptualisation of framework of transmodern authenticity pertinent to new tourism is the main contribution of this paper to South African tourism discourse.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:48Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: The role of tribal authorities in rural tourism development
           in South Africa : the case of the Kingdom of the Rain Queen
    • Authors: Ivanovich; M.
      Abstract: The strategic objectives of South Africa's government in getting the most impoverished rural areas in the country out from underdevelopment are: infrastructure development, poverty alleviation and job creation. In the national policy framework, tourism is singled out as the most effective tool for achieving pro-poor rural development through community-based tourism. A successful implementation of pro-poor tourism development at the local level requires an inclusive approach and developmental governance which depends on effective cooperation between tribal (traditional) authorities and the local government. Likewise, a successful implementation of community-based tourism development depends on active participation of community in all tourism related issues including distribution of benefits. Since the poorest areas in the country are under the rule of tribal authorities, the question this paper attempts to answer is whether community-based rural tourism development can be implemented in areas under tribal chieftaincy. In understanding the role of tribal authority in rural tourism development the focus is on royal villages in the kingdom of Modjadji, the Rain Queen, in the Limpopo province of SouthAfrica. The key findings from in-depth interviews lead to a conclusion that traditional authorities have absolute power in making decisions regarding every aspect of tourism development in the village, in particular employment and share of benefits which emerged as the most contentious issue for the community. This points to an imperative of extending the research agenda on applicability of community-based tourism under tribal chieftaincy for achieving pro-poor developmental objectives of rural tourism development in South Africa.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:46Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Community perceptions of a community-based tourism project :
           a case study of the CAMPFIRE programme in Zimbabwe
    • Authors: Tichaawa; T.M., Mhlanga, O.
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to elicit community perceptions on the effectiveness of the Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) programme, a community initiative, designed to benefit rural communities in villages around Hwange National Park in Zimbabwe. CAMPFIRE aims to help rural communities to manage their resources, especially wildlife, while alleviating poverty in local communities. In order to meet the surveys' goals, descriptive and bivariate statistical analyses were conducted. Villagers' perceptions were measured on a five-point Likert-type scale. The results reveal that the overall mean score for perception items was 4.03, whilst the perception scores ranged between 3.42 and4.56. The highest perception score was for the item: "CAMPFIRE has improved infrastructural development e.g. schools, clinics etc. The lowest perception score was for the item: "the community has benefited economically". The findings suggest that the current model of ecotourismin Zimbabwe is socially improving the livelihood base of locals and wildlife conservation. However, to change negative perceptions, the programme needs to economically improve the livelihood of locals so that the whole community benefits economically and villagers should be compensated for wildlife damage. This may help community members to fully support the programme. The study aids policy-making and formulation for government and nongovernmental organizations that could fully empower local communities in managing wildlife resources.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:45Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Building capabilities for sub-Saharan Africa's rural tourism
           services performance
    • Authors: Ezeuduji; I.O.
      Abstract: Rural tourism development is an entrepreneurial process. It requires rural communities to showcase their set of capabilities, their sources of leverage and knowledge necessary to embark on tourism development. In rural sub-Saharan Africa's local communities, managing transition from traditional livelihood activities to rural tourism is a sensitive process. Stakeholders, with local communities at the core, can collaborate and manage this development proactively. This study explores, by way of descriptive analysis, how capabilities for rural tourism services performance can be developed in rural sub-Saharan Africa, in terms of responsibility, delegation and accountability. Local governments as rural tourism stakeholder demand rural development. Local communities demand income from tourism development. Local governments and local communities should then share responsibility towards achieving tourism development goals by performing required activities, and accountability in evaluating how well individuals meet their responsibilities. Not-for-profit organisations as rural tourism stakeholder demand equity and local empowerment, hence can be delegated by local governments to facilitate capability building for rural tourism services performance, and to disclose results transparently, in both formal and informal ways.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:45Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Festival tourism in South Africa : characteristics and
           motivations of attendees at craft beer festivals
    • Authors: Rogerson; C.M., Collins, K.J.E.
      Abstract: Festival tourism is a growing issue in South African tourism writings. Most contemporary work examines music, arts, sports or food and drink festivals, especially wine festivals. This article addresses beer tourism which is a rising focus in culinary tourism. An international review of research on beer tourism and beer festivals provides the context for this investigation of South African beer tourism. Currently, beer tourism is concentrated upon craft beer micro-breweries and associated organized beer festivals. The article unpacks the characteristics and motivations of beer festival attendees at four South African beer festivals. Key findings are the dominance of festival attendees by Millennials, by day visitors at large city festivals, and by domestic tourists at festivals hosted in small towns.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:44Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Profiling volunteer tourists for the benefit of host
           organisations : the case of a seabird rehabilitation centre in the Western
           Cape, South Africa
    • Authors: Olivier; C., Davies, S.E.H., Joubert, E.
      Abstract: Volunteer tourists have become a critical human resource for many organisations in South Africa. Understanding who the volunteer tourist is as well as how a host organisation benefits from this interaction is imperative for the effective management of this human resource. A review of the current literature showed that most volunteer tourism research studies is volunteer tourist- centred and focus on the motivations for participation and the benefits of participation to the volunteer tourist. Within the South African context, only two volunteer tourist profile studies exist and both excluded host organisation factors that indicated how host organisations benefited from hosting volunteer tourists. This paper created a comprehensive profile of volunteer tourists at a non-profit seabird rehabilitation centre in Table View, Western Cape, South Africa. The profile included demographic and motivational factors as well as host organisation specificinformation that provided valuable information for volunteer management, future marketing and fund-raising campaigns. Data were collected through 110 anonymous, self-administered, online questionnaires and from the data, four conclusions were reached. Firstly, the demographic factorsof volunteer tourists that participated in this international volunteer programme was similar to other South African based volunteer tourism studies. Secondly, to experience something different and new was the most important motivational factor for volunteer tourists. Thirdly, volunteer tourists derived considerable benefit from the experience. Lastly, volunteer tourists continued to support this non-profit organisation (NPO) through social and financial activities after completing the programme, indicating that a mutually beneficial relationship exists between the host organisation and the volunteer tourist.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:43Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Local residents' perceptions of the socio-economic impacts
           of the Breedekloof outdoor and wine festival, Western Cape, South Africa
    • Authors: Ismail; S., Swart, K.
      Abstract: This study focused on residents' perceptions of the socio-economic impacts of the Breedekloof Outdoor and Wine Festival (BOWF) hosted in the Breedekloof region in the Breede Valley of the Western Cape Province, South Africa. The Breede Valley region is located in the Cape Winelands District near Cape Town. The event industry in this region is relatively undiscovered but in recent years has been revealed to be a major catalyst for tourism and economic development. Underpinning this study was the understanding that the perceived socio-economic impacts of the event are pivotal for the future planning, management and sustainability of the event as well as to minimise negative and maximise positive impacts of the BOWF. Quantitative methods, specifically survey questionnaires were used and administered to 374 residents of Rawsonville, the main town in the Breedekloof region where the event takes place, using spatially-based systematic sampling. The results demonstrated support for the Festival among the respondents as they perceived it as beneficial to the local businesses in the region. Furthermore, this festival showcases the town and its beauty and does not inconvenience local lifestyles. There were mixed views on inequalities relating to employment opportunities and involvement in the planning and management of the event. Overall the responses were positive, however in order to foster common understanding of the BOWF and its impact, the awareness and participation of residents are essential.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:42Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Examining the quality of carbon trading as pathway to
           environmental justice or recipe for disaster at the Bisasar landfill in
           Durban, South Africa
    • Authors: Leonard; L.
      Abstract: The Kyoto Protocol is an international arrangement setting goals for thirty-seven industrialised countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Clean Development Mechanism as a flexibility mechanism defined in the Kyoto Protocol offers emission reduction projects which generate Certified Emission Reduction units which may be traded in emissions trading schemes. The purpose is to support industrialised countries in attaining compliance with part of their quantified emission curb and reduction obligations but without emission reductions in their own countries. The Bisasar landfill in Durban was opened in 1980 during the Apartheid era in the largely Indian residential area of Clare Estate. Although the new democratic government promised to close the landfill in 1994, it still remains operational - mainly due to the Clean Development Mechanism project adopted by government. In an attempt to examine the effectiveness of carbon trading schemes to reduce emissions, this paper examines literature on how the carbon trading project at the landfill has progressed since its inception. Empirical work with key social actors since 2007 is drawn upon coupled with recent literature to examine how government's 'model' quality project has unfolded. Evidence suggests that the state has failed to acknowledge that the carbon trading project stimulates waste accumulation in order to secure methane for carbon credits. Far from addressing climate change, the scheme intensifies local environmental and health risks and ignores livelihoods while reestablishing Apartheid-era racial conflicts. There is an urgent need for government to explore alternatives to landfills and carbon trading projects which will offer sustainable jobs and robust recycling interventions.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:41Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Sustainable tourism development challenges in the Eastern
           
    • Authors: Acheampong; K.O., Tichaawa, T.M.
      Abstract: This study seeks answers to what extent tourism policies have succeeded in addressing the problem of inequalities in the development of the Eastern Cape province, and the extent to which the informal sector has not been given the recognition it deserves to be a leading player in the progress made towards sustainable tourism development. This study set out to unravel the challenges facing this sector, and to propose recommendations that could help it make a meaningful contribution to sustainable tourism development within the Eastern Cape's economy. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire administered to 120 informal operators in the tourism sector in the 39 municipalities in the Eastern Cape province. The operational taxonomic units (OTUs) used in this study were the 37 local municipalities and the two metropolitan municipalities making up the six District Municipalities of the Eastern Cape province. The study indicates that the majority of the informal operators were of black descent, ranging from 25 to 55 years of age, and living mostly in the townships and informal settlements. Inability to afford the heavy capital outlay and to abide by all the official conditions required to invest in a formal tourism business sector were noted as the main reasons for entering into informal operations, with the view to improving the living conditions of the entrepreneurs involved.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:41Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Delegates' environmental attitudes, knowledge and behaviour
           at the 17th Conference of the Parties (COP17) in Durban, South Africa
    • Authors: Moodley; K., Sershen
      Abstract: The environmental attitudes, knowledge and responsible tourism behaviour of delegates at a climate change conference, such as the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), is an area in which little, or no academic research has been undertaken. This study presents results of a Green Survey of delegates (tourists) at COP17 focusing on environmental attitudes, knowledge and behaviour. Five hundred and three delegates, from developed and developing countries were interviewed at the conference venue (International Convention Centre [ICC]), in Durban, South Africa, from 28th November to 8th December, 2011. Delegates comprised representatives of the world's governments, private sector and civil society. The results indicate that despite delegates' awareness of environmental best practices and good knowledge of environmental issues, there was inconsistency in environmental behaviour due to a range of factors. There was also a gap in environmental behaviour practised at home and whilst travelling. The majority of the delegates agreed that COP17 had major environmental impacts in terms of energy consumption, air pollution, solid waste generation and over-consumption of water. Most respondents stated that they engaged in environmentally responsible practices (sometimes or always). It was also found that some socio-demographic variables and environmental knowledge was related to pro-environmental behaviour. Some of the recommendations emanating from this study included holding COP events using video-conferencing; delegates travelling less internally or locally and/ or using non-fossil-fuelled vehicles or public transport, and delegates taking more responsibility in ensuring that their travel and accommodation choices are pro-environmental.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:40Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Conceptualisation and use of green spaces in peri-urban
           communities : experiences from Inanda, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
    • Authors: Munien; S., Nkambule, S.S., Buthelezi, H.Z.
      Abstract: The impacts of global warming and climate change are becoming increasingly evident across the developing and developed world. In this regard, Africa is amongst the most vulnerable due to high levels of abject poverty and limited capacity to adapt to the impacts of climate change. As a result, there has been increased investment in conservation and mitigation programmes, particularly across KwaZulu-Natal which houses high levels of biodiversity and poverty. Biologically diverse areas are not only important from an environmental perspective to protect the planet's natural resources but are also significant in relation to promoting ecotourism activities that have major socio-economic impacts. Furthermore, these ecological spaces have livelihood, leisure and recreational values for local communities. Additionally, there is a growing body of knowledge indicating that the use of green spaces is associated with positive impacts on health and well-being. This study draws on experiences and empirical evidence on the use of green and biologically diverse spaces in Inanda, KwaZulu-Natal. Results indicate that local community members use green spaces for a range of recreational and livelihood purposes such as relaxation, hiking, biking, playing sport and the collection of resources. Also, even though limited levels of scientific knowledge were noted, respondents displayed significant levels of environmental awareness. It is also important to examine the impacts of these specific uses especially in relation to environmental well-being. This study highlights the multiple benefits derived from green spaces and affirms that the main recipients of these benefits are the poor.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:39Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Barriers to environmental management in hotels in KwaZulu-
           Natal, South Africa
    • Authors: Sucheran; R.
      Abstract: In the last two decades an increasing number of studies have focused on the impacts of tourism development on the environment aimed at the depletion of natural resources, the generation of waste and pollution and general environmental degradation. Consequently, the huge growth in the hotel industry has considerably affected the environment at a global level as the sector consumes large amounts of energy, water and non-durable products. Hotels are therefore now urged to engage in responsible and sustainable environmental management practices. Often hotel managers are keen to engage in responsible environmental practices but are unable to do so due to certain impediments. This article examines the barriers or challenges that are faced in adopting more sustainable and responsible environmental management practices in hotels in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. In total, 142 hotels (including hotel chains as one entity) were identified in KwaZulu-Natal and a census approach was adopted, in that all 142 were approached to participate in the study. Sixty hotels responded. Data was collected through a web-based, online survey questionnaire. Quantitative data analysis was undertaken using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS). The findings reveal that hoteliers are faced with a number of barriers in the implementation of environmental management practices. These barriers include lack of knowledge and expertise, lack of resources to implement certain environmental management practices, lack of government assistance, lack of legislation and regulation and high costs. Furthermore, a noteworthy finding is that a number of hotels in KwaZulu-Natal are unaware of the savings potential associated with environmental programmes, that is, the direct benefits to their establishments.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:38Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: The media impact of the 2014 FIFA World Cup&trade; in
           selected tourism markets
    • Authors: Muresherwa; G., Swart, K., Daniels, T.
      Abstract: This study undertakes a media analysis of Brazil's hosting of the 2014 FIFA World Cup™. The hosting of the 2014 World Cup™ was an ideal opportunity for Brazil to enhance its international image. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the media on the hosting of the2014 FIFA World Cup™ on Rio de Janeiro as a host city and major tourist destination in Brazil. In addition, it provides an understanding of how Rio and Brazil have been profiled in the media - pre-, leading up to, during and post the World Cup - in order to determine what has changed about the perceptions of Rio and Brazil as a result of hosting this mega-event. A media content analysis was conducted in Brazil's key tourism markets, viz: Argentina, USA, Germany and Portugal. These countries were purposively selected since they represent Brazil's main tourism markets. The methodology adopted was a qualitative analysis including content sourcing, content identification and the use of Leximancer, an analytic tool for large amounts of textual data. The study examined the media coverage of online newspapers with the largest circulation numbers in the selected markets. Findings revealed a shift in media coverage about Rio and Brazil from negative to a more positive perception over the four time periods. The lead-up period presents an ideal time of addressing expectations since it is usually coupled with massive unfavourable coverage as in the case of Brazil. The positive images need to be highlighted in the marketing of future events in Brazil.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:37Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Major sporting events and responsible tourism : analysis of
           the 2013 Africa Cup of Nations (AFCON) tournament in Port Elizabeth, South
           Africa
    • Authors: Bama; H.K.N., Tichaawa, T.M.
      Abstract: Issues of environmental censorship and sustainability have in recent times gained prominence among global participants vying to deliver sustainable major sport events. Various studies have enunciated the ability of sport tourism events to impact either positively or negatively on the sustainability outlook of host destinations. The concept of responsible tourism has hitherto been introduced in sport tourism events with the aim of promoting sustainability. This study appraises visitors' perceptions and attitudes of the 2013 AFCON tournament in Port Elizabeth, with specific focus on evaluating the host city as a responsible tourism destination. A spatially based systematic sampling approach was adopted and face-to-face interviews were conducted with 386respondents on selected days during the AFCON tournament. Key findings of the study revealed that visitors were satisfied with the responsible tourism practices in Port Elizabeth, with emphasis placed on the need to continuously educate sport tourists on responsible tourism behaviour during major sporting events. The study recommended that future events hosted at the Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium are implemented within the principles of responsible tourism precepts and ensure that the city maintains and augments its standing as a responsible tourism destination.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:36Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: The strategic value of sport for an African city brand
    • Authors: Knott; B., Hemmonsbey, J.D.
      Abstract: Sport is already acknowledged as having a significant impact for city brands, particularly through the hosting of sport events and most notably as a means of creating global awareness, improved image and differentiation from other tourism destinations. This is especially pertinent for emerging brands in an increasingly competitive global environment. Although the literature has predominantly studied the impact of sport mega-events, few have examined the strategic significance of sport more broadly and none have looked at the emerging African city context. This study therefore examines the strategic contribution of sport in the form of teams, personalities, facilities, brands and sponsors and a range of home-grown, re-occurring and megaevents, for an emerging African city brand. Cape Town was chosen as the case study context as it has a strong association with sport, tourism and mega-events. A qualitative design was adopted to study the perceptions of sport tourism and city brand stakeholders on the strategic importance of sport. A series of twelve semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with definitive sport and brand stakeholders. A thematic analysis of these findings identified particular strategic benefits that sport provides for a city brand, such as : brand personality attributes; brand identification; national and global brand competitiveness; and the creation of brand ambassadors. Beyond the theoretical contribution, the study sets out a number of strategic implications for emerging city brand stakeholders wishing to leverage the brand value of sport.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:36Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Profiles of visitors attending the 2013 Confederation of
           African Football (CAF) Nations Cup tournament in Port Elizabeth, South
           Africa
    • Authors: Achu; F.N., Nyathi, L.S., Bama, H.K.N., Tichaawa, T.M.
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the profiles of the visitors who attended the 2013 CAF AFCON in Port Elizabeth. During the event, face-to-face interviews were conducted with visitors, using a systematic, spatially-based purposive sampling technique. The data were captured using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Key findings revealed AFCON attendees to be generally young (18 - 34 years old) and well educated, with the majority having attained a diploma/ postgraduate degree. They were found to exhibit outgoing tendencies, and engaged in a range of activities. Furthermore, the findings indicated that many visitors were first-time attendees at the AFCON tournament, and that their ratings of general impressions and experiences of South Africa/Port Elizabeth were, on average, very good. The significance and the contribution of the study findings can assist tourism planners and marketers in the planning, in the hosting, and in the management of future sporting events, as they provide the travel and behavioural trends of prospective sport fans.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:35Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Exploring potential challenges of first year student
           retention and success rates : a case of the school of tourism and
           hospitality, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
    • Authors: Deen; A., Leonard, L.
      Abstract: There is now an increasing need for universities to support first year students to more easily transition into the academic environment. This is largely due to many students dropping out in their first year of study due to various factors. Such factors may include socio -economic factors and historical legacies. Although studies have been conducted surrounding student drop-out rates, these have largely been dominated by first world experiences with limited attention focused on the global south or less developed countries. Within this context there is an urgent need to understand local socio-economic variables or other challenges that may contribute to student drop-out rate. This paper reports on a mixed method questionnaire administered to first year Tourism and Hospitality students at the University of Johannesburg. Besides the general challenges of funding, other factors contributing to drop-out rates may be due to Tourism and Hospitality not being a primary career choice. While there is a need for the tourism and hospitality department to strongly promote the university support measures to students, it is also the responsibility of students to take the initiative and also engage with the available systems. Results from this study further indicate that students are not prepared for the workload at tertiary level due to an inadequate secondary foundation administered by the South African government curriculum, with students also not understanding the value of tourism and hospitality as primary career choices.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:34Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: The additional skills required of tourism graduates for
           retention within the tourism industry
    • Authors: Wakelin-Theron; N.
      Abstract: The current study was conducted to increase the understanding of graduate retention perspectives on human resource training and additional skills required to sustain employment within the tourism industry. Increased attention needs to be paid not only to the quality of products and services, but also to the quality of human resources. Staffing is a major asset of this industry, since tourism is essentially a service industry that is concerned with people. Retention within the tourism industry remains a contentious issue that is influenced by a variety of factors of a personal or external nature. An explanatory sequential mix method research design was followed. The study consisted primarily of a self-administered survey questionnaire that was conducted in accordance with the requirements of a 5-point Likert scale. The research entailed an empirical examination of 101 graduates from a comprehensive university, the University of Johannesburg, which offers both a Tourism Management Diploma and a Tourism Development degree. Additionally, a focus group interview was held with the graduates concerned. The findings of the study indicate the graduates' employability shortcomings in terms of the Tourism qualification for which they had studied, together with their retention level averages and the current perceived experiences of graduates who are working in the tourism industry.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:33Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Advances in cricket in the 21st century : science, performance and
           technology
    • Authors: Noorbhai; M.H., Noakes, T.D.
      Abstract: Cricket has a known history spanning from the 16th century till present, with international matches having been played since 1844. The game of cricket arrived in Australia as early as colonisation began in 1788. Cricketers started playing on turf wickets in the late 1800's but the dimensions only became available later for both the boundary and pitch. As the years evolved, performances, batting, cricket gear, equipment, technology, playing surfaces and the three formats of the game gradually adapted to the laws of cricket. In addition, cricket bats were adapted to the playing conditions and the evolving laws of cricket. In modern cricket, the bats are bigger and stronger than those used in the earlier eras. Boundaries are also currently smaller which provides batsmen with an added advantage of scoring runs easily and at a rapid rate. Considerable research has also shown the range of evolvements in the cricket sciences. As the demand of players' contracts increase, the commitment and performance levels from players also increase which might also place players at an increased risk for injury. Technology has emerged and has been used to assist players to improve their performances as well as ways to prevent injuries. Based on these interventions, technology and innovative approaches have also shown to have both advantages and disadvantages of the game. The relevant questions to ask is: how far have we really advanced in the cricketing world? Have all facets since the game's inception become institutionalized to a business model? Legislations, ethical considerations and education are needed in order to ensure that there is an equilibrium of effective transitions and management not only for players, but also for the credibility of this beautiful game.
      PubDate: 2016-01-07T09:47:12Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: The
           relationship between motor proficiency and academic performance of
           adolescent learners in Potchefstroom, South Africa : the PAHL Study
    • Authors: Van Niekerk; L., Du Toit, D., Pienaar, A.E.
      Abstract: The effect of movement on academic performance has lately become a topic of interest in literature, as it is widely accepted that there is a strong relationship between motor and cognitive development. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between motor proficiency and academic performance of Senior Phase learners in Potchefstroom, an urban region in South Africa. A total of 236 children between the ages of 13 and 14 years were randomly selected out of eight schools. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 was used to assess motor competency. The learners' academic performance was measured by making use of their average end-of-year academic marks and the marks of English and Mathematics. Significant correlations were found between fine motor control and the end-of-year average marks and English and Mathematics marks in some of the groups. Similarly,correlations were found between the scores of the manipulation coordination items and the English marks of most of the groups, while the end-of-year marks, English and Mathematics marks correlated with body coordination scores in most of the groups. The strength and agility items showed the strongest correlations with the end-of-year marks in all the groups, and the total motor proficiency score showed significant correlations with the end-of-year marks in all the groups. The results of this study imply that motor skill development and maintenance should be incorporated in the Physical Education curriculum for learners of this age group.
      PubDate: 2016-01-07T09:47:11Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: The
           status of physical activity, body composition, health-related fitness and
           
    • Authors: Skaal; H.T., Monyeki M.A., Toriola, A.L.
      Abstract: Research has shown that social correlates of physical activity play an important role in individual participation in physical activity or sport, and hence their link with associated health benefits. The purpose of this study was to determine the status of physical activity (PA), body composition, health related fitness and social correlates of physical activity among adolescents attending high schools in the Tlokwe Local Municipality of the North West Province. A cross-sectional study design was followed on a total of 284 (111 boys and 173 girls) adolescents with the mean age of 14.90±0.72, who are part of the Physical Activity and Health Longitudinal Study (PAHLS). Height, weight, skin-fold thickness (triceps, subscapular and calf) and waist circumferences were measured through the standard procedures described by the International Standard of Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) and percentage body fat (%BF) were used as measures of body composition. Health-related physical fitness (HRPF) was determined by measuring cardio-respiratory endurance, muscle strength and endurance, and flexibility using standardised tests test protocols. The standardised International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-Short form) and Social Support for Physical Activity questionnaire were used to gather information on physical activity and social correlates for physical activity, respectively. The results show that 29% of the 284 participants are underweight and 26% overweight. 34% of boys were underweight and 17% were overweight while 27% of girls were underweight and 32% overweight. Boys significantly (p
      PubDate: 2016-01-07T09:47:10Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Influence of an 8-week kinderkinetic movement programme on the scholastic
           performance of children aged 6-8 years
    • Authors: Gouws; C.
      Abstract: The potential influence of a movement programme on academic performance in children appears to be underestimated. Movement is essential to education and can be regarded as one of the doorways to a child's scholastic performance. We are increasingly interested in the importance of movement because there seems to be a positive interchange between the brain and the body. This study reports on the potential influence of a kinderkinetic intervention programme on the scholastic performance of children aged 6-8 years. Children were selected from schools in the northern Zululand area of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and divided into an experimental and a control group, each comprising 12 children, who were given a pre-test and a post-test based on the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test for Motor Proficiency (BOMTP) and the Quick Neurological Screening Test (QNST) to assess their motor proficiency and gross motor skills. A questionnaire familiar to the class room teacher (Connor Behaviour) was also used to observe the children's behaviour. The experimental group was subjected to an eight week kinderkinetic movement programme while the control group continued with their usual daily programme. The children in the experimental group showed a relative improvement in scholastic performance and motor proficiency. There was a significant correlation (r=.36, p≤ 0.05) between motor proficiency scores and scholastic performance of children in the experimental group. There was a meaningful relationship (r=0.55, p=≤ 0.05) between motor proficiency scores and the scores obtained on the Conner Classroom Behaviour Questionnaire. There was a significant relationship (r=0.49, p ≤ 0.05) for the control group and a negative correlation of (r 0.49 p ≤ 0.10) for the experimental group. The study demonstrated that there is a positive relationship between motor proficiency scores and the scores obtained on the Conner Classroom Behaviour Questionnaire.
      PubDate: 2016-01-07T09:47:09Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: The
           effect of a walking programme on the psychological well-being and selected
           
    • Authors: Grace; J., Bosch, M., Du Toit, J.
      Abstract: It is widely acknowledged that physical inactivity is a leading factor for obesity worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a pedometer-based physical activity intervention on the psychological well-being and selected physical and physiological indices in overweight/obese adolescents. Following a baseline assessment, 31 adolescents (22 females and 9 males) aged 12-18 years (Mean age 14.4 ± 0.7 years) who were overweight/obese were given a weekly plan with the goal to increase their daily steps every week by 5% for 8 weeks. Participants were evaluated for cardio respiratory fitness, resting heart rate, blood pressure, body mass index and psychological well-being both before and after the 8-week programme. Statistically significant changes were noted in participants' cardio respiratory fitness (d = 0.36; p= 0.049) and BMI (d = 0.091; p = 0.024). No significant differences were noted in personal growth (d = 0.22; p = 0.287); self-acceptance (d = 0.25; p = 0.137); autonomy (d = 0.20; p = 0.217) and environmental mastery (d = 0.24; p = 0.344). In conclusion our results indicate that are latively small change in activity caused a statistically significant improvement in cardio respiratory fitness with no significant impact on psychological well-being.
      PubDate: 2016-01-07T09:47:09Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Community perceptions of the socio-economic legacies of the 2010 FIFA
           World Cup in Nelson Mandela Bay, Port Elizabeth, South Africa : a
           four-year post-event analysis
    • Authors: Tichaawa; T.M., Bama, H.K.N., Swart, K.
      Abstract: The 2010 FIFA World Cup was heralded as Africa's first mega-event with the potential to leverage long term legacy outcomes. Most studies that have previously been commissioned on residents' perceptions have focused on the pre-event, with only a few focusing on post-event perceptions regarding the legacy impacts associated with such events. The importance of understanding residents views both in the pre-event and post-event context in the light of promoting the legacy imperatives of mega sports events has been variously underpinned in academic discourse. This study focuses on the legacy impacts of the 2010 FIFA World Cup in Port Elizabeth; the aim of which is to measure residents' perceptions four years post the event.Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used in the study. The survey population included residents living within a two-kilometre (2km) radius of the Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium in Port Elizabeth. The sample size (n=350) was achieved through face-to-face interviews with respondents. The data were collected using a Likert-type scale measurement in order to ascertain the degree of responsiveness of residents to certain predetermined impact related aspects. Key findings indicated that the community held generally positive perceptions towards the socio-economic legacy impacts of the event, although they were concerned that the benefits were mainly confined to the rich and big businesses. The study recommends the implementation of effective legacy identification strategies pre-event in order to justify the investments made towards hosting them, and to ensure successful outcomes for mega-event host communities.
      PubDate: 2016-01-07T09:47:08Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Perceived motivational factors influencing students with disabilities
           towards sports participation in Amathole district, Eastern Cape Province,
           South Africa
    • Authors: Oladunni; B., Lyoka, P.A., Goon, D.T.
      Abstract: disabilities in participating in sports in the selected special schools in the Amathole district, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Questionnaires, interviews and participant observation were used for data collection. The questionnaire was adapted from De Swardt's study on leisure functioning of learners with learning and physical disabilities. The observation instrument by Bond on disabled sports was applied with slight modifications. The common types of disabilities affecting the students were physical disability (51%), mental retardation (34%) and hearing impairment (15%). The proportion of students who strongly disagreed (4.2%) was not significantly different (p>0.05) from those who disagreed (2.7%) that their parents actually had a significant influence on their participation in sports. Similarly, the proportion of students who agreed (42.2%) that their parents significantly influenced their inclusion in sports did not vary significantly from those who strongly agreed (40.8%) at 5% level of significance. This shows that more than 80% of the students asserted that their parents had a significant influence on their inclusion in sports. However, 9.8% of the respondents were not sure of their parents' influence on their sports participation. This could be due to inability to interpret the question correctly. Inherent skills had a significant influence on children's participation in sports. Responses regarding reason for participation in sport suggest that students had high self-esteem about their physical condition. Students were motivated to participate in sport because of several factors including enjoyment, competency, need to socialise, for health and psychological benefits. Concerning enjoyment,22% of male participants strongly agreed that sport is fun and 40% of their female counterparts strongly agreed. About 56% male and 36% female students agreed that enjoyment was a strong motive behind their participation, while 5% male strongly disagree and only 2% of the female disagreed. Both male (78%) and female (76%) agreed that enjoyment was a strong motive behind their participation. On the issue of competency, students (male and female) shared similar view that participating in sports enabled them to enhance their movement skills competencies. The teachers agreed parents were not involved and portrayed lack of interest in their children's' sports participation and achievements. The present study has shown that students with disabilities shared unique and multiple motives for participation in sports. Some of the motives cited were competency, psychological and health benefits. Other motives are related to team sports such as the need to enjoy the camaraderie of fellow students such as friendship, excitement and fun. Parental influence, the students' inherent skills were identified as constraining factors encountered by students with disabilities in participation in sports.
      PubDate: 2016-01-07T09:47:08Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Physical, anthropometric and physiological profiles of experienced junior
           male and female South African Taekwondo athletes
    • Authors: Mathunjwa; M.L., Mugandani, S.C., Ngcobo, M., Djarova-Daniels, T., Ivanov, S.
      Abstract: The research was aimed at identifying the anthropometric, physical and physiological characteristics of junior Taekwondo athletes to achieve an international status. Data were collected from 25 males and 11 females aged 15.5 ±2.6 years. Measurements consisted of body composition (body fat percentage (%BF), sum of 6 skinfolds), flexibility (sit & reach, hip flexor (HF) and quadriceps flexibility (QF), lower extremity explosive power (vertical jump (Diff VJ) and vertical jump relative power (R Power), muscle endurance (sit-ups and push-ups), muscular strength (hand-grip right and left), hexagonal agility (HEX) and agility T-test, aerobic power (20m bleep test (20MST) converted to maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max.). Data were analyzed using t-test for independent samples and Z-score statistics. Significant higher %BF and sum of skinfolds were recorded in junior female players. No differences in body mass, stature and BMI were found. Male athletes had higher (p
      PubDate: 2016-01-07T09:47:07Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: Speed
           Stacking : an appropriate tool to enhance academic learning in the
           foundation phase
    • Authors: Krog; S.
      Abstract: This study addressed the efficacy of 20 minutes of speed stacking for eight weeks and 16 weeks, as an additional activity to the academic programme, in enhancing learning performance. Speed stacking is a set of 12 cups which are stacked in a specific order and requires the learner to be competent in a number of perceptual and motor skills. The main aim of the study was to determine the impact of 20 minutes of speed staking on mathematics, reading, spelling, visual motor integration, visual sequencing and general intelligence. The sample drawn from three Grade one classes, was divided into group A (N=27) and group B (N=27). Pretesting and post testing was conducted using seven academic assessments. Both groups were exposed to the speed staking intervention programme using different sequences, at different times and retested after the speed staking programme. The empirical research consisted of quantitative data which were analysed by means of paired t-tests and/or Signed rank tests, as well as one-way Wilcoxon Rank Sum test to determine whether speed stacking (and a combination of speed stacking and time lapse) improved aspects of learner performance. Quantitative data were also collected in order to determine the teachers' observations of the impact of the study to serve as additional information to the academic assessments. Apart from the significance of the effect of the speed stacking intervention programme, the timing of the programmes proved to be significant.
      PubDate: 2016-01-07T09:47:06Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Traditional games of Gusii community, Kenya
    • Authors: Mwenda; P.W., Wanderi, M.P., Andanje, J.M., Rintaugu, E.G.
      Abstract: A large component of the cultural traditions of African people has been handed down through generations. In the absence of written records, gradually with time, African communities came up with a number of cultural elements such as oral literature, games, music and dances that facilitated cognitive development to enhance recall and communication of facts. These are vital cultural elements that require preservation and perpetuation over time. The study focused on the Gusii traditional games in terms of their forms, participants, equipment and facilities, rules/ codes of play and the socio-cultural settings within which they were participated, as well as their significance to the participants. This being a descriptive study, interviews and observations were used. The mean age of the respondents was 76 years. The study identified twenty six (26) games as the required data. The study adapted Cheska's scheme to classify the games as follows : games of physical challenge and strategy, games of strategy and chance, games of survival, games of physical challenge and chance, detection games, games of chance only, simulation games and malevolence games. This information is presented in prose and in form of tables showing the frequencies and percentages of skills acquired from participating in the said games. Recommendations made in this study include; Ministry of Education, Science and Technology's encouragement of participation and preservation of traditional games by emphasizing their teaching at all levels as well as identification and documentation of traditional games of all other indigenous Kenyan communities whose studies have not been undertaken.
      PubDate: 2016-01-07T09:47:06Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: The
           global coherence initiative : opportunities for scientific research and
           health promotion
    • Authors: Edwards; S.D.
      Abstract: The Global Coherence Initiative (GCI) was launched in 2008 by the Institute of Heart Math, a non-profit research and education organization, located in Boulder Creek, California. It seeks to research and explore science-based solutions to health and wellness issues (particularly heart focused care) through linking and correlating geophysical and human health phenomena, and developing strategies to help increase personal, social and global coherence. This paper describes the approach and hypotheses behind this initiative and outlines scientific research and health promotion opportunities for local scientific, research, health, educational and related tertiary educational institutions.
      PubDate: 2016-01-07T09:47:05Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           
    • Authors: Achema; G., Ncama, B.P.
      Abstract: The Ubuntu spirit of the African people can greatly impact on the care of children living with HIV and AIDS within the society as the network of relationships within the environment provides a therapeutic milieu for the sick and impoverished. The study aimed at ascertaining the guiding philosophy of care for children with HIV and AIDS with a view to appropriate care in the right philosophy and improving the quality of care given to the children. A qualitative research method was adopted for this study with a grounded theory approach and children living with HIV and AIDS, their caregivers, nurse practitioners and Stakeholders in HIV care were engaged with focused group discussions and interviews. The children and caregiver participants posit among the findings that, the caring atmosphere in the African spirit helps in identifying the problems of the sick child; thereby providing the needed support. The nurse practitioners and stakeholders reflected that, the African spirit of Ubuntu beefs up the interests of one another and provide hospitality and further posit the caring pattern to be deep due to the extended family structures; even although, few among the participants reported inadequate response and inaccessible social security systems as factors impinging on the care. The study concluded that the sense of caring and hospitality for children living with HIV and AIDS is enhanced by the spirit of Ubuntu among the African people with their extended family systems; therefore, modern African societies are encouraged to adopt this livelihood in giving supportive care.
      PubDate: 2016-01-07T09:47:04Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: The
           prevalence and clustering of non-communicable disease risk factors in a
           
    • Authors: Swanepoel; M., Strydom, G.L., Cockeran, M.
      Abstract: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are currently a global epidemic, challenging the individual, corporate environment and health professionals in developed as well as developing countries. It is therefore understandable that comprehensive research has already focused on the detrimental outcomes of NCDs on health, productivity and health care costs in various parts of the world. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and clustering of various risk factors associated with NCDs in a financial institution in South Africa. Body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (TC), casual blood glucose (CBG), stress, smoking habits and physical activity (PA) were determined in a total of8 132 employees (3097 males and 5035 females) between ages of 18 and 65 years, covering all provinces in South Africa. Groupings were done according to age (< 44 and ≥ 45 yrs.) and gender. Descriptive statistics, prevalence of NCD risk factor and clustering were analysed. The majority of employees assessed were at risk (moderate and high risk) with regard to most of the variables viz. increased BMI (65.8%), SBP (62.1%), DBP (56.6%), stress (58.3%) as well as being low physically active (55.4%). Older males (≥ 45 yrs.) were the most vulnerable group with moderate or high risk in BMI (43.2% overweight and 25.9% obese), SBP (51.3% prehypertensive & 26.7% hypertensive), DBP (45.6% pre-hypertensive & 28.5% hypertensive), TC (27.9% borderline high & 7.9% high) and CBG (31.3% borderline high & 23.5% high). Older females showed the highest prevalence of obesity (38.1%), TC (13%), borderline high CBG (35.2%) and stress (31.4%). The risk clustering showed that 42.1% of employees had a clustering of 3-4 risk factors, with older male (48.4%) and female (47.8%) employees experiencing a higher prevalence. Employers should consider the implementation of some health promotion strategies in order to minimize the prevalence of risk factors as well as the migration of employees at risk to higher risk stratum. One strategy, already identified to positively affect most NCD risk factors simultaneously, is the enhancing of physical activity amongst employees.
      PubDate: 2016-01-07T09:47:03Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Assessment of food handler's compliance to personal hygiene practices in
           fast food outlets in Thohoyandou, South Africa
    • Authors: Murwira; T.S., Amosu, A.M., Nemathaga, L.H.
      Abstract: Food safety is becoming a key public health priority because a large number of people consume their meals outside their homes. As a result, they are exposed to food borne illnesses that originate from food stalls, restaurants and other food outlets. Hence the major objective of carrying out this research study was to assess food handler's adherence to personal hygiene practices in fast food outlets in Thohoyandou as stipulated in national food hygiene and regulations. The data was collected using participant observational checklist. Simple random sampling was used to select 122 food handlers as participants in the study. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages). Result analysis was made based on the standards and the requirements prescribed by Regulation R962 of November 2012. The findings showed that food handlers observed personal hygiene by wearing clean uniforms, covering their heads with hair nets, and washed their hands, indicating that food handlers maintained accepted standards in terms of personal hygiene regulations. Regarding health surveillance practices majority of food handler were not medically examined regularly, however they reported illness to management when sick, but some prepared food when they had cough and open sores on their hands. The study recommends that strict adherence to Regulations R962 be enforced and adhered to in order to ensure and assure the preservation and maintenance of food safety.
      PubDate: 2016-01-06T14:37:13Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: A
           survey of South African radiographers' and radiologists' opinions on role
           extension for radiographers
    • Authors: Kekana; R.M., Swindon, L.D., Mathobisa, J.M.
      Abstract: Role extension for radiographers in South Africa is driven by the need to improve service delivery challenges and the radiographers' need for professional recognition. The two areas earmarked for role extension are injection of contrast media and reporting on radiographs. This study was conducted to determine the willingness of diagnostic radiographers to extend their roles and gather the opinions of radiologists regarding this role extension. A quantitative, descriptive, exploratory and cross-sectional study was conducted. A sample of 300 radiographers and 30 radiologists was taken from a population of 7771 radiographers and 885 radiologists as per the Health Professions Council of South Africa register (HPCSA). Survey Monkey was used for making questionnaires accessible to all participants. The level of significance was fixed at 5%. Sixty-eight percent of radiographers agreed in principle to injection of contrast media and only 25.5% agreed to provide a written report on the interpretation of radiographs. Eighty percent of radiologists agreed in principle to radiographers injecting contrast media and only 11.6% agreed to radiographers providing a written report on the interpretation of radiographs. The participants gave an average response of 74.4% on the need for radiologists to take responsibility for the adverse reactions that may results from injecting contrast media. Radiographers and radiologists supported the need for further education and training and role extension for injecting contrast media. There is concern over the 'no one' response as to who performs radiologists' work and how this impacted on service delivery.
      PubDate: 2016-01-06T14:37:13Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Caregivers' and nurses' perceptions of the responsibilities of community
           nurses in the management of infant developmental needs in a primary
           healthcare clinic in South Africa
    • Authors: Leech; R., Van Wyk, N.C, Uys, K.
      Abstract: By virtue of their access to infants and their families, community nurses in South Africa are provided with an important window of opportunity to assess and positively influence infant health and development. Hence, developmental surveillance should be incorporated into the ongoing healthcare of the child. Such routine child development services are not consistently provided by community nurses and if at all these services are provided, significant inadequacies hamper the delivery thereof. A single holistic case study design was used to explore the perceptions of caregivers and community nurses about the responsibilities of community nurses regarding the management of infant developmental needs in a primary healthcare clinic in one of the provinces in South Africa. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five nurses and eleven caregivers of infants. Data were analysed by means of content analysis. Community nurses do not focus adequately on infant development, as stipulated in their scope of practice. The caregivers indicated that they receive limited emotional and appraisal support. The only interventions indicated by the community nurses were that of referral and limited anticipatory guidance. This study highlights the importance of community nurses living up to their responsibility regarding the management of infant developmental needs to ensure optimal outcomes for both the infant and the family.
      PubDate: 2016-01-06T14:37:12Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Hydrotherapy and its effects on chronic pain intensity, physical
           functionality and quality of life in the elderly
    • Authors: Lombard; M., Pretorius, W., Hall, S., Kruger, H., Rossouw, F., Kruger, P.E, Meyer, H.P.
      Abstract: Chronic pain is often associated with impaired muscle strength and limited physical activity and performance, resulting in impaired physical functioning. This study aimed to determine whether voluntary participation in a structured 6-week hydrotherapy exercise programme would improve pain management, functionality and quality of life in an elderly population (n = 22; 77.7 ± 6.6 y)suffering from chronic pain and living in nursing homes in Tshwane. The experimental group (n= 13) attended hydrotherapy classes twice a week for six weeks, while the control group (n = 9)did not. Questionnaires were completed (Chronic Pain Grade, Functional Status Index, and the SF 36), and functional testing performed, in both groups at weeks 0, 3 and 6. The experimental group reported reduced pain intensity at week 3 (p = 0.051); reduced pain-induced disability at week 6 (p = 0.080); reduced assisted help required for activities of daily living (ADL) at week 3 (p = 0.040); reduced difficulty on performing ADL at week 3 (p = 0.012) and reduced pain experienced with ADL at week 3 (p = 0.007) and week 6 (p = 0.014). Improvements in upper body strength and agility were demonstrated. Improvements in sub-scales for quality of life were demonstrated at weeks 3 and 6. The control group showed no statistically significant changes in the above parameters. In conclusion, participation in structured hydrotherapy classes has been shown in this small study to be a beneficial intervention strategy for managing chronic pain in the elderly.
      PubDate: 2016-01-06T14:37:11Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: Lived
           experiences of newly qualified professional nurses on community service in
           midwifery section
    • Authors: Ndaba; B. J., Nkosi, Z.Z.
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of the newly qualified professional nurses in midwifery section. A qualitative descriptive, interpretative phenomenological research was conducted to determine the experiences. The sample included newly qualified professional nurses doing community service. Data collection was conducted by means of unstructured interviews from ten (n=10) informants. Each interview was approximately 45 minutes. Ethical issues were considered. Hussel and Heidergadian's data analysis steps were followed. Two (2) themes and eleven (11) sub-themes emerged from the data collected. The findings revealed that the newly qualified professional nurses were in a state of reality shock, demonstrated by challenges such as shortage of human and material resources; overcrowding; lack of support; and the placement of Midwifery. Nursing Science in the curriculum has impacted negatively on midwives' registration as professional nurses. The majority of professional nurses indicated that they will resign from their current employment as the environment was not conducive for practice. More support is needed for newly qualified professional nurses doing community services in public hospitals.
      PubDate: 2016-01-06T14:37:11Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes and drug susceptibility patterns in
           Limpopo Province, South Africa
    • Authors: Kgasha; M.O., Phasha, Maguga N.T.C., Makgatho, M.E., Mashinya, F., Moraba, M.M.
      Abstract: Tuberculosis is a worldwide health burden with high morbidity and mortality rates. About 8 million people are infected annually, with 1.5 million deaths reported in 2013. The disease is complicated by its high drug resistance and transmission rate. Information about drug resistance, evolutionary genetics and transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains is limited in Limpopo Province. The aims of the study were therefore to characterise and genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum samples from patients living in Limpopo Province and to establish the main families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis circulating in the province and their main genetic mutations. Two hundred and seven (207) acid-fast positive samples were collected from National Health Laboratory Services in Polokwane. Geno Type MTBDRplus and Real-Time PCR were used to determine resistance genes and families, respectively. Beijing and non-Beijing genotypes were detected in 27.6% and 72.4% of the strains, respectively. Co-infection with both genotypes was detected in one sample. Of the 207 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains tested, 28 (13.5%) exhibited drug resistance, of which 14 isolates (50%) were multi-drug resistant. Monoresistant strains to rifampicin constituted 25% (7 isolates) and the other 25% (7 isolates) were mono-resistant to isoniazid. Rifampicin mutations were identified in codons 516 (43%), 526 (33%) and 531 (38%) of the rpoB gene. Isoniazid mutations were identified in codons 15 (19%) and 16 (14%) of the inhA gene and codon 315 (62%) of the katG gene. The non-Beijing is moreprevalent than the Beijing genotype in the Limpopo Province. Drug resistance against rifampicin and isoniazid was in different genes and codons. The high rate of drug resistance calls for continuous monitoring of antimicrobial drugs and treatment default by TB victims.
      PubDate: 2016-01-06T14:37:10Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Sedentary behaviours of government employees in South Africa : are policy
           makers adopting a healthy lifestyle?
    • Authors: Skaal; L., Mathibedi, E.R.
      Abstract: Poor eating habits and physical inactivity are directly linked to health consequences. It is however, not known whether the policymakers in the department of health have adopted a healthy lifestyle which include exercising and eating healthy or not. The aim of this study therefore was to determine the level of physical activity (PA) and eating habits of employees at the Gauteng Department of Health (GDOH), South Africa. The study was conducted among 340 employees of the National Head office of the Department of Health in South Africa. Height and weight were measured; and body mass index calculated. Physical activity level was measured using a validated International Physical Activity Questionnire (IPAQ) and food frequency questionnaire was used for eating habits. The results showed that 40% of participants were overweight, and 37.6% were obese, with females being more obese than males. Of these, 54.7% were inactive and only 14.9% met the WHO-reference for PA level. There was generally a high intake of oily foods and moderate intake of sugary food. Overweight and obesity together with physical inactivity and unhealthy eating were high among GDOH employees irrespective of gender, job category and age. Work site interventions that promote healthy lifestyle are possible interventions of utmost importance at this department to minimise the risk of obesity and subsequent development of non-communciable diseases.
      PubDate: 2016-01-06T14:37:09Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Community-based tourism in rich and poor countries : towards a framework
           for comparison
    • Authors: Giampiccoli; A., Jugmohan, S., Mtapuri, O.
      Abstract: This article is conceptual based on a perusal of academic journal articles and books on matters related to Community-based Tourism (CBT). It contends that CBT is a very important tool for local economic development, community development, empowerment and the attainment of social justice. It observes disparities between rich and poor countries in terms of endowments and how the multiple dimensions of poverty can confound how tourism can be experienced in different contexts. It posits an eight Es model which represents the fundamental pillars upon which to judge a CBT for purposes of support, monitoring and evaluation. The eight E are Endogenous (emphasising a reliance on local resources); Environment - (reflecting the importance of caring for the environment, and broader environmental conditions and infrastructure); Education - (to advance skills and education); Empowerment - (which embraces economic, psychological, social and political empowerment); Equity - (for equitable distribution and re-distribution of both benefits and resources); Evolving - (always improving and changing to take advantage of dynamic opportunities); Enduring - (for long term sustainability) and supporting Entrepreneurship - (for innovation, creativity and viability). The framework/model is also significant as it provides a common ground upon which the understanding of CBT could be carried at international and national level. The model can be customised to take into account local conditions; it is flexible and all-encompassing with potential to be used for rating facilities.
      PubDate: 2016-01-06T14:37:08Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: A
           physical activity programme to improve motor and cognitive development in
           HIV positive children on antiretroviral therapy : a randomised controlled
           trial
    • Authors: Khondowe; O., Nikodem, V.C., Frantz, J.M., Harper, K.
      Abstract: Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) is known to be neurotropic and may cause motor and cognitive development impairment in HIV-positive children. There is inadequate evidence on the effectiveness of neuro-developmental therapy on the motor and cognitive development of HIV-positive children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a physical activity programme on motor and cognitive development in HIV-positive children. Children were randomly allocated to an intervention group who received an individual physical activity programme and massage therapy or to a control group who received standard treatment and massage therapy. Group allocation was concealed in sequentially numbered and opaque, sealed envelopes. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development third edition was used to assess the motor and cognitive development. One hundred and twenty eight children between the ages of three and 36 months were enrolled. No significant differences were found at three or six months after randomisation, between the two groups in the mean motor and cognitive development scores or in the proportions of children that presented with motor or cognitive developmental delay. Fewer children in both groups presented with a delay in motor development at the six-month follow-up visit. The proportion of children with cognitive delay decreased by 2% in the intervention group but increased by 15% in the control group at six months. Further research is required to investigate the need for the implementation of specially designed home-based physical activity intervention programmes with massage therapy to improve motor and cognitive development in HIV-positive children.
      PubDate: 2016-01-06T14:37:08Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: The
           perceived impacts of sport tourism events : residents' perceptions in East
           London, South Africa
    • Authors: Tichaawa; T.M., Moyo, S., Swart, K., Mhlanga, O.
      Abstract: Various studies have demonstrated that the interest, or enthusiasm to host sport tourism events has been due to the perceived potential of such events to promote development, especially in terms of economic growth and such profiled locations as tourist destinations. This article appraises the impacts of hosting sport tourism events in East London South Africa. The study adopted a mixed method research design incorporating the qualitative and quantitative paradigms. A stratified random sampling approach was adopted in which 380 questionnaires were administered to the respondents via face-to-face interviews. The survey which used a 5 point Likert scale measured 21 items covering various positive and negative impacts associated with hosting sport events. The most salient issue to emerge from the data was that, overall, 34.7% of residents agreed and 32.9% strongly agreed with impact statements indicating a generally positive perception. However, the results also indicate that residents are concerned about aspects of the environment when such events are hosted. Furthermore, besides crime and prostitution, residents were also concerned about the extent to which event benefits are equally distributed within the community. Study concludes that tourism planners need to tailor their decisions to the residents' perceptions. This will enhance community's support, which is an essential ingredient for the success of sport tourism in the destination. A holistic plan which takes into consideration residents' perceptions at the same time incorporating all role players in these events is a step towards the success and the future of sport tourism events.
      PubDate: 2016-01-06T14:37:07Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: A new
           tourism practice - developing a model for slow tourism at heritage sites
           and protected areas : a case of Kirstenbosch National Botanical Gardens,
           South Africa
    • Authors: Titus; N., Spencer, J.P.
      Abstract: Slow tourism is the practice of quality time spent by visitors and tourists, usually in areas with natural resources such as heritage sites, protected parks and gardens. Visiting slow tourism areas and engaging in slow tourism activities allows the visitor to appreciate the destination at a much deeper level and in a sensitive manner. Limited local literature is available in South Africa on this new emerging niche form of tourism, where the slow tourist has the opportunity to experience the journey and the destination by staying in one place for a longer time, to see and experience things that are meaningful to them. This new alternative form of tourism is considered an antithesis to mass tourism, and liberates the visitor from angst and stress brought about by today's fast-paced lifestyles. The study was conducted at the Kirstenbosch National Botanical Gardens (KNBG) in Cape Town, South Africa, which has a strong attraction for tourists seeking open, green, natural spaces with unique flora and fauna. Tourism role-players and visitor groups have become more environmentally conscious in which they develop, promote, travel and consume tourism products. Sustainable and responsible tourism practices are at the forefront of the slow tourism phenomena which induces the demand and the supply chain of tourism products emphasised by ethical values. A predominately qualitative research methodology was followed to collect the primary data, using the grounded theory approach at the study site, and in-depth interviews with visitors and the Gardens management. The findings of the survey resulted in the development of a model to promote slow tourism using the economic resources of the KNBG.
      PubDate: 2016-01-06T14:37:06Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: A
           motivation-based typology of five-day international test cricket match
           spectators
    • Authors: Scholtz; M., Kruger, M., Saayman, M.
      Abstract: Considering the various formats of cricket, as well as the different reasons why tourists attend these events, it becomes clear that more direct marketing of these events is required in order to expand attendance at various cricket matches. It is furthermore important to generate a memorable event experience for attendees to encourage future attendance. This research therefore identified different cricket spectator segments at a five-day test match between Australia and South Africa, based on their main motives for attending. Our research has identified three distinct cricket fan clusters that differ in terms of their motives, socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, as well as the factors that are regarded by them as important for a memorable cricket experience. This research makes an important contribution to the greater understanding of sports spectators, specifically cricket spectators, and to the literature on managing and marketing team sport events of this nature.
      PubDate: 2016-01-06T14:37:05Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Factors influencing South African consumers' attitudes and purchase
           intention towards foreign sport apparel
    • Authors: Dhurup; M., Muposhi, A., Shamhuyenhanzva, R.
      Abstract: Although global markets are converging, the realisation of a homogeneous global consumption culture remains a mirage. Researchers have since argued that purchase decisions of foreign sport apparel are influenced more by a host of nationalistic sentiments dominant in the domestic market. This study adopted a quantitative approach to investigate the attitude and purchase intention of South African consumers towards foreign sport apparel. The study was undertaken by means of a questionnaire survey with a convenience sample of 320 South African consumers who had purchase experience of foreign sport apparel. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was employed to validate the psychometric properties of five constructs that were measured by nineteen observed variables using Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS) Version 22.0. The CFA results indicated a good fit of all the measured constructs. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test the hypothesised relationships. Path modeling results indicated that South African consumers exhibit negative yet moderate levels of ethnocentrism and animosity towards foreign sport apparel. The study however, showed a positive significant relationship between cosmopolitanism and attitude towards foreign sport apparel. The study also showed a significant positive relationship between attitudes towards foreign sport apparel and consumer purchase intention. The findings of the study have important implications in the marketing of sport apparel in the context of an emerging market such as South Africa.
      PubDate: 2016-01-06T14:37:04Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Management capacity at sport and recreation facilities on local government
           level
    • Authors: Goslin; A.E., Sere, M.G.O., Kluka, A.
      Abstract: The mandate of public local government is to provide services to constituents to improve overall quality of life. Local governments are increasingly pressured to provide services that reflect value for taxpayers' money and promise sustainable development. Sustainable development is, in turn,dependent upon quality decisions by political leaders and management capacity of civil servants. This study aimed to (1) determine the management capacity profile at sport and recreation facilities on local government level; and (2) identify areas of concern related to management capacity. The research design used was a quantitative, case study with a non-probability purposive sample (n=8). Although the purposive sample of eight recreation and sport facility managers is small, these respondents are responsible for managing 68% of the sport and recreation facilities within the scope of this investigation. Data was collected using the criteria based Capacity Analysis Tool self-administered questionnaire consisting of 88 sub-elements overeight dimensions of management (leadership, governance and strategy; administration and human resources; finances and budget of the facility; project design, management and evaluation; technical capacity; advocacy and networking; community ownership and accountability; and fund raising) and has a Cronbach Alpha value of 0.89 (x=0.89). Results indicated that the internalsystemic management capacity of the particular department in this investigation measured unsatisfactory ( x ± 2.50) in five of the eight management dimensions. While three dimensions scored satisfactory ( x ± 2.50) the overall collective management capacity score for all eight dimensions was unsatisfactory at x =2.33. As scholars proved a link between management capacity and organizational performance, the management capacity profile obtained from this study can be used as baseline from which management practices and capacity at sport and recreation facilities can be further developed.
      PubDate: 2016-01-06T14:37:03Z
       
 
 
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