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Publisher: Sabinet Online Ltd   (Total: 223 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 223 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACCORD Occasional Paper     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 3)
Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.14, h-index: 1)
Acta Criminologica     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Germanica : German Studies in Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Juridica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Acta Patristica et Byzantina     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AFFRIKA J. of Politics, Economics and Society     Full-text available via subscription  
Africa Conflict Monitor     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Africa Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Africa Institute Occasional Paper     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Africa J. of Nursing and Midwifery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 3)
AfricaGrowth Agenda     Full-text available via subscription  
African Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 18)
African Finance J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
African J. for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
African J. of Business and Economic Research     Full-text available via subscription  
African J. of Democracy and Governance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African J. of Farm Child and Youth Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
African J. of Herpetology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.51, h-index: 9)
African J. of Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 1)
African J. of Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
African J. of Rhetoric     Full-text available via subscription  
African J. of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Markets Overview     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African Plant Protection     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African Renaissance     Full-text available via subscription  
African Safety Promotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
African Yearbook of Rhetoric     Full-text available via subscription  
Africanus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agriprobe     Full-text available via subscription  
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History     Full-text available via subscription  
Annual Survey of South African Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Arms Control : Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ars Nova     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Article 40     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Architects and Quantity Surveyors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Capital Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Consumer Confidence Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Consumer Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Economic Prospects : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Economic Prospects : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Intermediate Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Trends : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Wholesale Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of Statistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Business Tax and Company Law Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cabo     Full-text available via subscription  
Cardiovascular J. of Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.3, h-index: 19)
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Clean Air J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Clean Air J. = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug     Full-text available via subscription  
Climate Summary of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
CME : Your SA J. of CPD     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Codicillus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Commonwealth Youth and Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Communicare : J. for Communication Sciences in Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Comparative and Intl. Law J. of Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Conflict Trends     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Conspectus : The J. of the South African Theological Seminary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Crime Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Current Allergy & Clinical Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.126, h-index: 4)
Dairy Mail Africa : Publication for the Dairy Industry in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
De Arte     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
De Rebus     Full-text available via subscription  
Die Kerkblad     Full-text available via subscription  
Educare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
English in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Enterprise Risk     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ergonomics SA : J. of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
ESR Review : Economic and Social Rights in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Evidence Based Summaries in Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
FarmBiz     Full-text available via subscription  
Farmer’s Weekly     Full-text available via subscription  
Farmlink Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Food Manufacturing Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
French Studies in Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Fundamina : A J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Gender and Behaviour     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Gender Questions     Full-text available via subscription  
Ghanaian J. of Economics     Full-text available via subscription  
HR Future     Full-text available via subscription  
HR Highway     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
IFE Psychologia : An Intl. J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Image & Text : a J. for Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
IMFO : Official J. of the Institute of Municipal Finance Officers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
IMIESA     Full-text available via subscription  
Indilinga African J. of Indigenous Knowledge Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Injury and Safety Monitor     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Inside Mining     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Interim : Interdisciplinary J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. for Religious Freedom     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. SportMed J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Investment Analysts J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 4)
J. for Christian Scholarship = Tydskrif vir Christelike Wetenskap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
J. for Contemporary History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
J. for Estate Planning Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
J. for Islamic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
J. for Juridical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
J. for Language Teaching = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
J. for New Generation Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
J. for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
J. of African Elections     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of African Foreign Affairs     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of African Union Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Contemporary Management     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Gender, Information and Development in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
J. of Marketing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
J. of Minimum Intervention in Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Public Administration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
J. of Somali Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Strategic Studies : A J. of the Southern Bureau of Strategic Studies Trust     Full-text available via subscription  
Juta's Business Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Kleio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Learning and Teaching Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Litnet Akademies : 'n Joernaal vir die Geesteswetenskappe, Natuurwetenskappe, Regte en Godsdienswetenskappe     Full-text available via subscription  
Local Government Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
M&J Retail     Full-text available via subscription  
Malawi Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Management Dynamics : J. of the Southern African Institute for Management Scientists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Management Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Medical Technology SA     Full-text available via subscription  
Meditari : Research J. of the School of Accounting Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Missionalia : Southern African J. of Mission Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 3)
MNASSA : Monthly Notes of the Astronomical Society of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Monographs of the Transvaal Museum     Full-text available via subscription  
Musicus     Full-text available via subscription  
Nafu Farmer     Full-text available via subscription  
Neotestamentica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 1)
New Coin Poetry     Full-text available via subscription  
New Voices in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Obiter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 2)
Occupational Health Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Old Testament Essays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Personal Finance Newsletter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Perspectives in Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.242, h-index: 10)
Politeia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Practical Theology in South Africa = Praktiese Teologie in Suid-Afrika     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Professional Accountant     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Professional Nursing Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Progressio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Psycho-analytic Psychotherapy in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Quest     Full-text available via subscription  
ReSource     Full-text available via subscription  
Retail and Marketing Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Rostrum : Newsletter of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SA Horseman     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
SA Irrigation = SA Besproeiing     Full-text available via subscription  
SA Mercantile Law J. = SA Tydskrif vir Handelsreg     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SABI Magazine - Tydskrif     Full-text available via subscription  
Scriptura     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Scrutiny2     Full-text available via subscription  
Servamus Community-based Safety and Security Magazine     Full-text available via subscription  
Shakespeare in Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Slavic Almanac : The South African J. for Slavic, Central and Eastern European Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South Africa Rural Development Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
South African Actuarial J.     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Computer J.     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Food Review     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Gastroenterology Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 1)
South African Health Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
South African Human Rights Yearbook     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
South African J. for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 3)
South African J. of African Languages     Full-text available via subscription  
South African J. of Art History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
South African J. of Business Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.16, h-index: 5)
South African J. of Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
South African J. of Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
South African J. of Criminal Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South African J. of Cultural History     Full-text available via subscription  
South African J. of Diabetes and Vascular Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
South African J. of Economic History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
South African J. of Education     Open Access   (SJR: 0.376, h-index: 9)
South African J. of Higher Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
South African J. of Labour Relations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South African J. of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
South African J. of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 21)
South African J. on Human Rights     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 5)
South African Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
South African Music Studies : SAMUS     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South African Ophthalmology J.     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Review     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Psychiatry Review     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Radiographer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance
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   ISSN (Print) 1117-4315
   Published by Sabinet Online Ltd Homepage  [223 journals]
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: Sport
           and recreation officials' role innovation, job enjoyment and their
           relationship with job satisfaction and intention to stay in a developing
           country : health
    • Authors: Radebe; P.Q., Dhurup, M.
      Abstract: Although job satisfaction has been widely researched among organisational behaviour researchers in various types of organisations, its antecedents such as role innovation and job enjoyment have been scarce in literature. There is a notion that various attitudinal constructs may influence a wide range of behaviour of employees' propensity to stay in organisations. This study offers a conceptual model and proposes the relationships between the constructs : role innovation, job enjoyment, job satisfaction and intention to stay. Data were collected from 201 sport and recreational officials in Gauteng, South Africa, through a structured questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equations modelling (SEM) were used to test the model fit and hypotheses. The results revealed that sport and recreation officials' job role innovation positively influenced job enjoyment. Role innovation and job enjoyment positively influenced job satisfaction. Finally, job satisfaction in turn positively influenced sport officials' intention to stay in the department. In view of causal relationships between role innovation and job enjoyment, it is recommended that intervention programmes be instituted to enhance the level of role innovation while jobs should be re-designed to instill job enjoyment and job satisfaction in sport and recreation officials. The reward system could also be structured in a manner that would reinforce role innovation and intention to stay, which could possibly lead to job satisfaction.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:35Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Challenges faced by sport coaches in South Africa : health
    • Authors: Kubayi; N.A., Coopoo, Y., Morris-Eyton, H.F.
      Abstract: Research has shown that there is a high turnover of sport coaches in South Africa, yet there has been relatively little attention paid to the challenges faced by sport coaches. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the challenges experienced by sport coaches in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. A qualitative approach using focus group interviews was adopted for this study. Two focus group interviews, consisting of five participants each were conducted by the principal researcher with participants who met the inclusion criteria. Only participants who had coached for at least five years were purposively selected to participate in the study. Arising from the thematic analysis of the focus group interviews, the following themes emerged : interference from management, pressure to win, lack of resources and parental pressure. The results of this study provide practical applications for sport organisations to overcome the challenges encountered by sport coaches and also provide strategies to retain and develop sport coaches in South Africa.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:35Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: The
           state of teacher-coaches' sport-specific training, participation and
           coaching experience, mentor interaction and methods of continued education
           in sport coaching : health
    • Authors: Van der Merwe; C.
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the current state of teacher-coaches' sport specific training, playing - and coaching experience regarding sport coaching. Fifty five (55) schools from the Kenneth Kaunda district in the Northwest province of South Africa were selected. Vosloo and Trudel and Camiré's questionnaires were adapted for this study. One hundred and forty four (144) questionnaires were used in the compilation of the results. The Epi-info program was used to capture the data. For the analyzing of the data, frequency tables and cross-tabulations were used to obtain statistical (p
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:34Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Tourism policies and the space economy of the Eastern Cape Province of
           South Africa : a critical realist perspective : health
    • Authors: Acheampong; K.O.
      Abstract: The key objective of this paper is to x-ray the situation in the tourism development process of the post-1994 tourism sector of the Eastern Cape Province. This paper uses empirical data to examine the extent to which actors in the Eastern Cape tourism sector interpreted the national tourism policies. The White Paper on Development and Promotion of Tourism in South Africa is the blueprint of the policy document. Other instruments such as the Tourism Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) Charter also exist to implement BEE in the tourism industry. To explain the historically changing nature of tourism in the Eastern Cape, two phases were used as the basis for data collection : pre-1994 and post-1994. Each period is defined as a particular combination of tourism policies and particular stakeholders in achieving certain development goals. To measure the transformation that has taken place in the tourism sector since 1994, "t-test" was used to examine the statistical significance of some simple correlation results. Fewer number of tourism products existed in the province in the period pre-1994. The dramatic change in the number of tourism businesses, pre- and post-1994 is explained in terms of different government policies that prevailed during this period.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:33Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Authenticity of a South African dining experience : tourists' perceptions
           of cuisine at Knysna Waterfront restaurants : health
    • Authors: Mhlanga; Osward, Hattingh, Zorada, Moolman, Hermanus Johannes
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess tourists' perceptions on the authenticity of a South African dining experience. A total of 400 tourists responded to the survey. A mixed methods research design was followed and a systematic sampling method was used to select respondents. The empirical results show that on a 5 point Likert scale, tourists in the 45 to 54 age group recorded the highest perception score (2.88) whilst female tourists recorded the lowest perception score(1.23). The item with the lowest perception score was "menu consisted of more native dishes than foreign" (1.26), whilst the item with the highest perception score was "waiters were natives in ethnic restaurants" (4.17). The overall mean perception score was 2.54 implying that, tourists perceived their dining experience to be less authentic. The study further revealed that 76% of visitors would like to experience authentic South African cuisine and 24% do not wary about experiencing authentic South African cuisine. The study also revealed that 81% perceive the dining experience at Knysna Waterfront as just a copy of the Western countries, 16% percent noted some South African quest largely diluted by foreign standards and 3% believed it was truly a South African dining experience. Consequently, restaurants should include traditional South African dishes in their menus and, for commercial purposes a staged South African experience be created using such strategies as manipulating the music, interior décor and anything that identifies with South Africa.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:33Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Tobacco use among ARV treated HIV infected rural South Africans :
           prevalence and its determinants : health
    • Authors: Mashinya; F., Alberts, M., Van Geertruyden, J.P., Colebunders, R., Choma, S.S.R.
      Abstract: Tobacco use remains one of the major cardiovascular risk factors and its use in anti-retroviral (ARV) treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected people may lead to activation of immune cells and rendering them more susceptible to HIV. We determined the prevalence of and factors associated with tobacco use in an anti-retroviral treated HIV infected rural African people. The study was a cross-sectional, conducted in three ARV clinics in rural Dikgale Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), South Africa. Socio-demographic, tobacco and alcohol use data were collected using World Health Organisation stepwise approach to surveillance (STEPS) questionnaire. The Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables between tobacco users and non tobacco users. The multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of tobacco use status. Of 214 ARV treated HIV infected participants, 171 (79.9%) were females and 43 (20.1%) were males. The mean age of participants was 44.8 ± 11.8 years. About 45 (21%) of participants were tobacco users. A higher proportion of males than females (39.5% versus 16.4%, p=0.02) used tobacco. Older age >50years (p=0.01), marital status (p=0.03) and alcohol consumption (p=0.001) were significant independent predictors of tobacco use. Tobacco use among ARV treated HIV infected rural people was common. Older age, alcohol consumption and marital status were the risk factors for tobacco use. There is need to scale up the awareness on how tobacco use, apart from being a risk factor for CVD, interferes with viral suppression despite treatment with anti-retroviral drugs.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:32Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: The
           falsehood of a single appraisal system : The case of the Free State Health
           Department, South Africa : health
    • Authors: Semakula-Katende; M.S., Schmikl, E.D., Pelser, T.G.
      Abstract: This paper focuses on the appraisal system, popularly called the Employee Performance Management and Development System (EPMDS) of the Free State Health Department. The objective of the study was to establish gaps in the successful application of performance appraisals, and identify the major factors required for their effectiveness, which were addressed and subsequently led to the development of a modified structural performance appraisal model (MSPAM). A triangulation of quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (interview) study was conducted at ten South African public health institutions, in the Free State Province The results revealed a general perception amongst participants that the EPMDS, in its current form was neither supporting the attainment of organisational goals and objectives nor assessing effectively the core component of employees within the South African Department of Health. Reward and attitudes were found to be the unintended outcomes of an effective performance appraisal. An important, non-refutable finding about the EPMDS in its current form was that it was more suitable for use with the non-skilled and/or semi-skilled (blue collar) employees than with the skilled (professional) ones. This was supported by the qualitative and empirical evidence from the study. It is recommended that remunerative rewards should be part of a holistic appraisal approach and not simply a one-sided approach.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:31Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Strategies utilized by professional nurses in the primary health care
           facilities regarding adherence of patients to anti-retroviral therapy
           (ART) in Capricorn district, Limpopo province, South Africa : health
    • Authors: Phashe; M.L., Ramalivhana, N.J.
      Abstract: The success of anti-retroviral therapy for HIV infection, though widespread and resounding, has been limited by inadequate adherence to its unforgiving regimens especially over a long term. While health care professionals may not be able to predict adherence, they can help to overcome barriers to adherence and take steps to improve it. The aim of the study was to explore and describe the strategies utilized by professional nurses in the primary health care facilities regarding adherence to anti-retroviral therapy in Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. A qualitative research approach was used to describe the strategies that are utilized by professional nurses in the primary health care facilities in the district, to refer patients to Mankweng Hospital which is a tertiary hospital in the Province. Unstructured interview guides and observations were used to collect data until saturation was reached. The data were analysed qualitatively using Tesch's open coding method. Eighteen professional nurses working in the primary health care facilities participated in the study. The findings revealed that the strategies utilized by professional nurses in the primary health care facilities to improve adherence to ART were described. Information and education, health worker and adherence guidelines, use of adherence partner or treatment buddy, addressing religious beliefs, communication skills, community mobilization and continuous counselling were the strategies that were utilized by professional nurses in the primary health care facilities to improve adherence to ART.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:31Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: Risk
           factors for the development of metabolic disorders : a review of hormonal
           and enzymatic perspectives : health
    • Authors: Moraba; M.M., Mabusela, M.S., Mashinya, F.
      Abstract: Metabolic disorders are chronic non-communicable diseases of high mortality rate. They pose serious health problems and challenge the medical fraternity enormously. External factors impact on the hormones and enzymes which trigger development of metabolic disorders. The aim of this review was to highlight major hormonal and enzymatic factors that differentially predispose males and females to obesity, diabetes mellitus and hypertension.The research was a literature based quantitative and comparative review. Extensive literature search was made, in which original articles were targeted and review papers were excluded. A combination of various words was used to search for relevant articles. Science Direct, Google Scholar, Pub-Med, NIH Public Access and PMC literature databases were searched. The identified articles were examined for further relevant references. All articles that referred to hormones, enzyme(s) and metabolic disorders were assessed. About 100 articles and papers were retrieved and 61 of them were relevant. After analysis of the articles, personal viewpoints and comments were made. Ten hormones, one enzyme of high metabolic impact and one disease condition were identified for predisposition to metabolic disorders in male and female genders. Polycystic ovary syndrome, insulin, cortisol, resistin, lipoprotein lipase, estrogen, testosterone, and rostene, leptin, adiponectin, angiotensin II and aldosterone were found to be elements of high metabolic impact discussed in this review. Metabolic disorders are associated with hormonal and enzymatic imbalances. They are also influenced by certain disease conditions which lead to hormonal and enzymatic imbalances that serve as risk factors. Hormonal and enzymatic imbalances are risk factors for obesity, diabetes mellitus and hypertension in both males and females. Females reflected more hormonal and enzymatic imbalances than males.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:30Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: How
           diabetics lose vision : Molecular and biochemical mechanisms associated
           with hyperglycaemic damage in the retina : health
    • Authors: Mathebula; S.D.
      Abstract: Diabetic patients are at risk of increased morbidity and mortality from macrovascular and microvascular complications. The increased risk of the vascular complications includes genetic factors, hyperglycaemia, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and oxidative stress. The mechanisms by which hyperglycaemia causes vision loss and blindness and other diabetic complications include the polyol pathway, accumulation of AGEs, activation of PKC, increased oxidative stress, increased flux through the hexosamine pathway and vascular inflammation. All these pathways play critical roles in the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy and other diabetic complications.There is an individual variation in the presentation and course of diabetic retinopathy, and other diabetes-induced complications. Some patients, after many years with diabetes, never develop sight-threatening retinal changes, thus maintaining good visual acuity.However, there are patients who after only a few years of diabetes show diabetic retinopathy that progresses rapidly and may not respond to available treatment. Some patients do not lose their vision even with poor metabolic control; others develop vision loss despite good metabolic control.The threat of vision loss requires a lot of patient education and psychological support, not only after a loss but also before any loss is recognized by the patient. Care for patients with diabetes requires an understanding that the diabetic eye is an end-organ response to a general metabolic disease.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:29Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Challenges and milestones of a cohort study in a rural area of South
           Africa : the Ellisras Longitudinal Study : health
    • Authors: Monyeki; K.D., Mabata, L.R., Ramoshaba, N.E.
      Abstract: Health care practitioners seek to base decisions regarding disease management strategies on the best available evidence to improve the quality of life. This is especially true of resource-limited rural populations in Africa, where the ordinary person can often not even afford the most basic medical care. The purpose of this paper is to briefly explain the nature of a cohort study, its challenges and milestones within the African context, based on the Ellisras Longitudinal Study (ELS). A total of 2225 children, 550 pre-school (mean age of 4.4 ± 0.99 years) and 1675 primary school children (mean age of 8.0 ±1.11 years) were used at baseline, and were followed for the period 1996 to 2003 employing periodic surveys for data collection. A total of 1771 subjects, comprising of 489 pre-school children (mean age of 11.4 ± 0.96 years) and 1282 primary schoolchildren (mean age of 14.9 ± 1.11 years), were successfully followed up to November 2003. The migration or relocation of families from rural to urban areas or from one area to another within Lephalale; the naming of siblings in the family, children parenting the families, and long term financial commitment were among major challenges experienced in the ELS. In addition, the prevalence of hypertension and obesity was found to be low in this population, though malnutrition in terms of mild, moderate, and severe was extremely high. Over time, the development of fat among Lephalale girls was high compared to boys. Obtaining and applying research-based evidence could fulfill the goal of achieving optimal goals of educating the community about the best available strategies for better health for all.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:29Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: A
           reflection on psychosocial assessment and support as a component of
           holistic antenatal care : health
    • Authors: Mathibe-Neke; J.M.
      Abstract: The rationale of any national screening programme is to recognize the benefits for public health, to test a healthy population and to detect risk factors for morbidity and mortality in order to provide timely and appropriate care interventions. The purpose of the study was to establish the existence and the importance of psychosocial care in midwifery, in an attempt to enhance holistic care. The philosophical basis of the study was hinged on the researcher's values and belief on holism and comprehensive assessment. A mixed-method approach was applied through combining quantitative and qualitative research techniques and approaches to address psychosocial risk assessment and psychosocial support by midwives during antenatal care in Gauteng province, South Africa. Qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews with midwifery experts and focus group discussions with pregnant women and midwives in clinical practice. Findings of in-depth interviews with midwifery experts are reported. The focus of the interview was on the expert's perception of psychosocial care within midwifery practice. Data saturation occurred with the fourth interviewee. The results of the study suggest that psychosocial care is addressed to a limited extent in midwifery practice. Holistic screening of women and recognition of emotional responses with appropriate interventions are essential to promote a woman's healthy adjustment to pregnancy.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:28Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: Birth
           weight does not associate with gestational physical activity profile : a
           retrospective cohort study : health
    • Authors: Amaeze; A.A., Anasonye, M.T., Abaraogu, U.O., Igwe, S.E., Okafor, U.A.C.
      Abstract: Exercise during pregnancy has been a subject of debate and whether gestational physical activity profile affects birth weight is an important issue as birth weight is an indicator of fetal, neo-natal and post-natal mortality. This study was carried at three hospitals in Enugu, Eastern Nigeria to determine the difference between the birth weight of babies born to women who were physically active during pregnancy and those who were sedentary. In this retrospective cohort, gestational physical activity profile of women who gave birth to normal singleton babies through vaginal delivery and did not have any complication were collected with a modified general practice physical activity questionnaire (GPPAQ) enabling participants grouping into active and sedentary groups. Mean birth weight of both the physically active and sedentary groups was significantly higher than the WHO minimum standard birth weight of new born babies. However, no significant difference was found in the mean weight of babies of physically active women and their sedentary counterparts. The mean birth weight of babies in Enugu is significantly higher than the WHO minimum standard and more than halve of the pregnant women in Enugu metropolis are physically active during pregnancy irrespective of their educational qualification with primiparous more likely to be involved in physical activity than multiparous. There was no relationship between maternal physical/occupational activity and the birth weight of babies. An all-inclusive experimental study is needed to establish an effect response trend.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:27Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Cardiovascular fitness of a pediatric population in Central Kampala,
           Uganda : health
    • Authors: Nsibambi; C.A., Wamukoya, E.K., Wanderi, P.M., Onywera, V.O., Goon, D.T.
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the cardiovascular fitness of pediatric population in central Kampala, Uganda. A stratified random sampling was used to select 1929 pupils aged 6-9 years in Wakiso and Mukono districts. A pre-experimental design was used to collect data on the cardiovascular fitness endurance using a 9-minute distance run/walk test. Pupils in day schools had significantly higher mean score (1538.02±309.09) for the 9-minute distance run/walk than those in boarding schools (1486.27±305.22). There was significant gender difference in cardiovascular fitness endurance with boys recording higher mean score (1591±356.76) than girls(1440.64±236.72). Majority (71%) of pupils met acceptable cardiovascular fitness endurance according to percentile norms set by American Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD). About 18.8% and 10.1% had weak and critical cardiovascular endurance status, respectively, which necessitated intervention. Pupils in day schools had better cardiovascular fitness endurance than those in boarding schools; and boys had better cardiovascular endurance compared to girls. There is need for surveillance of physical activity patterns of Ugandan children which may affect their cardiovascular fitness endurance.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:27Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: The
           effect of participation in competitive sports on school connectedness of
           secondary school students : health
    • Authors: Kamau; A.W., Rintaugu, E.G., Muniu, R.K., Amusa, L.O.
      Abstract: The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of participation in competitive sports on school connectedness among secondary school students. The demographics of gender, age, class, school type, school status and athletic status (participation/non participation in sport) were treated as independent variable while school connectedness was treated as the dependent variable. The study employed a descriptive survey design. The study employed stratified random sampling to select 26 schools while simple random sampling was used to select 384 students. Data were collected through questionnaires and analysed using descriptive statistics of percentages, means and standard deviations and inferential statistics of t-tests and ANOVA. The study established that gender (t 340=0.64, p>0.51) and class level (t340=-1.25, p>0.21) did not have any significant differences on students' connectedness to school. However, the study findings revealed that age (F4, 342=2.70, p
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:26Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Effect of HeartMath workshop on physiological coherence, sense of
           coherence, zone, mood and resilience perceptions : health
    • Authors: Edwards; D.J., Edwards, S.D., Buscombe, R.M., Beale, J.T., Wilson, M.
      Abstract: This study examines the effect of a HeartMath workshop on physiological coherence, sense of coherence, zone, mood and resilience perceptions. A quasi-experimental design, involving mixed quantitative and qualitative research methodologies and techniques, was used. The sample consisted of 10 workshop participants, 5 males and 5 females, with mean age of 22.10. Participants were matched for age and gender with 10 control group persons. Statistical analysis revealed significant within group, pre to post workshop results for physiological coherence, sense of coherence, zone and mood, with improvement in resilience. Workshop and control between group results were significant for sense of coherence, with zone, mood and resilience effects also in the expected direction. Thematic content analysis revealed participants' perceptions of experiences supported the quantitative results. Recommendations for future interventions are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T04:57:25Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.2: Conducting responsive research to address public health
           challenges : editorial
    • Abstract: Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges was adopted as the theme for this AJPHERD supplement. The theme consists of seven subthemes: Public health intervention for maternal and child health; Perspectives of HIV and AIDS across populations; Adolescent sexual health and behavior; Patient centered treatment and care; Utilization of primary health care services; Increasing patient access to treatment; and optimizing hospital patient care. The theme was adopted in the wake for the call to renew primary health care (PHC) by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in order for health systems to respond to the challenges of a changing world to achieve better health care access and quality and social protection for all.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08T11:09:40Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.2: Patient satisfaction with the quality of pharmaceutical
           services offered at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Ga-Rankuwa, South
           Africa : patient centered treatment and care
    • Authors: Bezuidenhout; Selente
      Abstract: Patient satisfaction has been used as a measurement of quality services provided by health care personnel. The challenge is however, not only meeting patients' requirements, but also delivering and maintaining services of good quality. Hence, there is a need to assess health care systems regarding patient satisfaction as often as possible. The objective of the study was to assess patient satisfaction with the quality of pharmaceutical services offered at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, South Africa. A quantitative, descriptive study was conducted in which a standardised questionnaire was used to collect data. A total of 220 patients were conveniently selected. The first available required number of patients that complied with requirements formed the study population. Most of the patients 87% have reported that their pharmacist treats them with respect. Almost 85% of patients indicated that they were satisfied with the pharmaceutical care service provided at the pharmacy. Only 27% of the interviewed patients indicated problems with some of the services provided at the pharmacy. In general, the patients were satisfied with the pharmaceutical care received, however, some of the factors, such as waiting time and medication shortages, may need to be further explored and corrected.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08T11:09:39Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.2: Health-related quality of life and adherence to
           antiretroviral treatment over a 12-month period for patients attending two
           public sector clinics in South Africa : patient centered treatment and
           care
    • Authors: Vagiri; R.V., Meyer, J.C., Gous, A.G.S.
      Abstract: Expansion of the HIV treatment programme in South Africa over the last decade has resulted in wider access to antiretroviral treatment (ART), which has contributed to the increased life expectancy of HIV-positive patients. Optimal adherence (≥95%) to ART is very critical for the therapeutic success of ART and the improvement of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, patients face many barriers to cope with ART as adherence is a complex phenomenon influenced by a number of factors. This longitudinal, quantitative study was conducted at two study sites with 431 HIV patients over a period of 12 months. Adherence and HRQoL data were collected by interviewing patients every four months. The sample was predominantly female (76.1%), middle-aged (62.2%), married (68.7%) and unemployed (56.1%). Over the 12-month study period, the majority of patients (76.2%) reported optimal adherence (≥95%). Patients who reported optimal adherence also reported better HRQoL in most quality of life domains, compared to those who were
      PubDate: 2016-02-08T11:09:38Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.2: Knowledge of type-2 diabetes among patients attending a
           community health centre in Pretoria, South Africa : patient centered
           treatment and care
    • Authors: Moosa; A., Bezuidenhout, S., Meyer, J.C.
      Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a growing problem in South Africa and is the most prevalent condition at Laudium Community Health Centre (CHC). Patient knowledge regarding diabetes type-2 is important as it can play a role in controlling the disease. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of patients with type-2 diabetes. A quantitative, descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at Laudium CHC. The sample included 217 adult (≥18 years) diabetes type-2 patients who have visited the doctor as well as the pharmacy. Face-to-face patient exit interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire. Females were predominant (65%); majority of patients were >60 years and 51% Indians. Two thirds of patients (65%) had a family history of diabetes with a mother (43.6%) being the most common family member with diabetes. Information about type-2 diabetes was mainly received from the clinic (75%). More than half of patients did not know the condition of diabetes (56.7%) and did not have any knowledge about any risk factors for type-2 diabetes (56.2%). Less than half (45.6%) of patients were not practicing any lifestyle modification for type-2 diabetes. Evidently, the results indicated that patients lacked sufficient knowledge regarding type-2 diabetes. Health care managers should consider programmes to capacitate patients with knowledge about their disease.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08T11:09:38Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.2: Improving patient safety with antiretroviral treatment by
           actively soliciting adverse drug reaction reports : patient centered
           treatment and care
    • Authors: Ally; S., Meyer, J.C., Schellack, N., Summers, R.S.
      Abstract: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) contribute to patient morbidity, hospitalisation and increased costs for the health care system. The burden of ADR reporting is a responsibility often overlooked by health care professionals. A decentralised pharmacovigilance programme for HIV, AIDS and TB was implemented in Mpumalanga Province in 2012. Spontaneous ADR reporting from outpatient settings subsequently increased, but lack of reporting of ADRs for hospital inpatients remained a concern. This study aimed to determine the outcome of a pharmacist's participation in the management of patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART) for the identification, management and reporting of ADRs. An active pharmacovigilance (PV) system through pharmaceutical care provided by a pharmacist was implemented as an operational project as part of routine practice, in two medical wards at Ermelo Provincial Hospital. Baseline data on ADR-reporting were collected retrospectively for a 12-week period prior to the implementation of the PV system. The implementation phase (12 weeks) consisted of daily monitoring of prescription charts, laboratory results and progress notes of patients by a pharmacist, actively seeking to identify and report ADRs or events related to ART. Suspected ADRs were discussed and pharmaceutical care interventions implemented, based on shared decision-making between the prescriber and the pharmacist. In total, 107 patients received pharmaceutical care over a period of 12 weeks, from which 72 ADRs (67.3%) were reported. General ADR reports accounted for 21% (38), IRIS-type reports for 36% (23) and reports of virological failure for 10% (11) of the suspected ADRs identified. The ADR reporting rate from the two medical wards for inpatients on ART, increased from 0.5% for the 12-week period prior to the operational project to 51.1% during the implementation phase. The pharmacovigilance activities of a pharmacist in the wards evidently improved reporting of ADRs related to ART, contributing to patient safety. Hospital management and policy makers should consider the role that a pharmacist can play in improving rational and safe use of medicines in the inpatient setting.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08T11:09:37Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.2: A profile of Isoniazid Tuberculosis Preventive Therapy
           treatment defaulters in Botswana : utilization of primary health care
           services
    • Authors: Mokwena; K., Motsamai, O.
      Abstract: Tuberculosis is the main cause of morbidity and mortality among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) globally, and this co-infection has negative treatment outcomes. Because of its high HIV prevalence, Botswana also experiences a high rate of HIV/TB co-infection. In 2001 Botswana implemented a nationwide Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT), which is provided for all patients diagnosed with HIV. However, several studies have reported on high defaulter rates for patients enrolled in the IPT programme. This study profiles the characteristics of IPT defaulters in Botswana. A quantitative, retrospective and descriptive design was used to collect data from records of patients enrolled in the IPT programme between 2008 and 2009. Data were collected from IPT and TB records from 24 health facilities across 8 districts in Botswana, using structured data abstraction tools. Of the 1007 patient records reviewed, 655 (65%) were defaulters. Males defaulted more than females, and the defaulter rate was highest amongst those aged below 20 years (74%) and those between 21 and 30 years (70.3%). Most clients defaulted within the first two months of initiation of IPT. Defaulting rates across the 24 health facilities ranged from 39% to 86% with an average rate of 62.6%. In order to improve the treatment completion rate, the IPT programme should seek ways of targeting specific groups as well as districts and health facilities with the highest defaulting rates.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08T11:09:36Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.2: Factors influencing the utilisation of community-based
           rehabilitation services by people with disability in Tshwane, Gauteng
           Province, South Africa : utilization of primary health care services
    • Authors: Kotsokoane; F.M., Skaal, L., Tshabalala, M.D.
      Abstract: Community-based rehabilitation (CBR), is an approach to rehabilitation service delivery intended to reach people with disabilities. Unfortunately, CBR is still inaccessible. The aim of the study was to determine factors influencing the utilisation of community based rehabilitation in Gauteng Province, South Africa. A quantitative retrospective descriptive study design was used. A self-constructed questionnaire was used to collect data. A proportional sample of convenience, of people with disabilities and caregivers for children with disabilities residing in Soshanguve and Winterveldt were studied. The majority were males (56.2%), 52.8% of participants did not receive disability grant. The main conditions were hemiplegia (44.9%) and cerebral palsy (40.4%). There was no association between disability and gender (p = 0.207). Most participants used taxis (67%). The main finding was lack of awareness of rehabilitation services in 77.5% of the participants. Shortage of staff, equipment and patient referral were other factors that influenced utilisation of community based rehabilitation services in Soshanguve and Winterveldt.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08T11:09:35Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.2: Health seeking behaviours of migrant domestic workers in
           Centurion, South Africa : utilization of primary health care services
    • Authors: Tshabalala; M.M., Van Der Heever, H.
      Abstract: Little is known concerning the health care seeking behaviours of migrant domestic workers to facilitate optimum prevention and management of both communicable and non-communicable diseases among the many domestic migrant workers in South Africa. This study aimed to explore health seeking behaviours and experiences of migrant domestic workers during ill health in general whilst they live in their employers' households. Qualitative methods were used to explore health care seeking behaviour of the migrant domestic workers during the process of being ill. Data was collected from a sample of 15 respondents with open-ended questions using a semi structured interview guide. In this study it was found that problems in access to health services were identified in four areas: a) emotional and psychological influence on health seeking, b) the influence of health awareness to health seeking behaviour, c) barriers contributing to difficulty in accessing health care services and d) financial impact to seeking health care. It was concluded that there is existence of health care access problems for migrants during their employment period in South Africa.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08T11:09:35Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.2: Use of active health promotion to increase the uptake of
           cervical cancer screening in Botswana : utilization of primary health care
           services
    • Authors: Mokwena; K., Okore, O.
      Abstract: The Sub Saharan Africa region experiences high rates of cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. Records of the Nyangabgwe Referral Hospital in Botswana indicate that cervical cancer contributed between 73% and 78% of all malignancy admissions in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Although early detection of cervical cancer enables timely intervention and improved health outcomes, poor prognosis occurs because many women present with advanced cervical cancer disease. The purpose of this interventional study was to integrate a health promotion component into the standard cervical screening programme in Nyangabgwe Referral Hospital, Botswana, with the intention of improving the uptake of cervical cancer. The components of the health promotion intervention were health education talks, flyers and posters at various strategic positions in the hospital and surrounding clinics over a 4 week period, during which pre- and post-intervention screening numbers were recorded. The uptake of cervical cancer screening post-intervention phase was higher than the pre-intervention phases in all sites and for all age groups. Health education talks were found to be more influential than pamphlets and posters in increasing the uptake of cervical cancer screening. The standard cervical cancer screening programme can be improved by integrating an active health promotion component.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08T11:09:34Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.2: Prostate cancer awareness and screening behaviour among
           men in Gauteng Province, South Africa : utilization of primary health care
           services
    • Authors: Mndzebele; S.L., Mogale, J.W.
      Abstract: Considering the threat posed by prostate cancer to South African men in general, this study investigates the awareness and screening habits of men at Dr. George Mukhari Academic Hospital (DGMAH). A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. A sample size of 395 participants with urological conditions was systematically selected at the Urology Out-Patient Department at DGMAH. The results indicated that about 51.4% of the participants had a close relative (blood-related) who had been diagnosed with prostate cancer. About half (51.7%) of the participants knew that diagnosing prostate cancer in its early stages would ensure successfully treatment. Most of the participants (85.6%) were ignorant of the fact that individuals, whose family members had been diagnosed with prostate cancer, also stand a chance of acquiring it in future. majority of the participants (89.8%) believe that regular screening was a good practice; whilst about 57.4% even felt that this should be done only when an individual has displayed some symptoms. Most of the participants (91%) indicated that being under urological surveillance was the reason behind their regular attendance of prostate cancer screening. Participants who resided in rural areas were found to be 51% less likely to have positive perceptions towards prostate cancer screening compared to those who resided within the urban settlement [OR=0.49; 95%CI= (0.133-0.027)]. Men without tertiary education were found to be 48% less likely to undergo prostate cancer screening as compared to those who had tertiary education [OR=0.52; 95%CI=(0.053-0.002)]. Men with a close-relative who had been diagnosed with prostate cancer have average chances of acquiring it.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08T11:09:34Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.2: Adherence to the Primary Health Care Standard Treatment
           Guidelines in a pediatric sample with respiratory conditions in
           Umkhanyakude Health District, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa : increasing
           patient access to treatment
    • Authors: Hlongwana; S., Bezuidenhout, S., Helberg, E.
      Abstract: Primary Health Care (PHC) is the first level of contact with the National Health System in South Africa, with health care services provided mainly by nurses. The National Drug Policy was developed in South Africa to guide health care services, which resulted in the formulation of Standard Treatment Guidelines and Essential Medicine List (STGs/EML) for PHC. Emphasis has been placed on all prescribers to strictly adhere to these guidelines when providing clinical patient care. This study investigated adherence of authorised prescribers to STGs/EML when treating children presenting with respiratory conditions at PHC level in the Umkhanyakude Health District, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. Twenty PHC facilities and three prescribers from each facility were randomly selected for interview and auditing of prescription registers. Five prescriptions from each selected prescriber containing any of the children's respiratory conditions to be studied were audited resulting that 15 prescriptions at a PHC facility were audited. Respiratory conditions or symptoms were found to be more prevalent in the prescriptions for children five years and under than those of children above five years up to 12 years. Pneumonia (39.7%) was the most common respiratory condition followed by common cold and influenza. Amoxicillin (52%) was mostly prescribed for these respiratory conditions. Only 4% of prescribers showed full adherence to the 2008 PHC STGs/EML. Also, failure to accurately diagnose respiratory conditions and lack of implementation and monitoring strategies were amongst the factors impacting on adherence. Multifaceted interventions must be implemented by the District Team to improve adherence to the PHC STGs/EML.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08T11:09:33Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.2: Factors influencing the dispensing of three months'
           chronic medicines to patients in public health institutions in Gauteng
           Province, South Africa : increasing patient access to treatment
    • Authors: Mashile; M.R., Bezuidenhout, S., Helberg, E.
      Abstract: Patients collecting repeat medicines without having to see a doctor increase the demand for pharmaceutical services. In order to reduce patient queues and waiting times, the Gauteng Department of Health instructed public healthcare facilities to dispense three months' chronic medication to patients. The aim of this study was to investigate factors contributing to the success or failure of the dispensing of three months medicines to stable chronic patients in Gauteng Province. This cross-sectional and descriptive study involves pharmacy managers and their deputies in all the 31 hospitals in the Gauteng Province. A questionnaire was developed for pharmacists. Hospitals achieved 37.50% compliance with Circular Letter 23 of 2009 in or before 2010 when the Circular Letter was distributed. However, by November 2012, compliance with Circular Letter 23 of 2009 had dropped to only 26.78% in hospitals. The major factor which influenced the dispensing of three months' medication was identified as the stock shortage caused by non-availability of medicines at the Medical Supply Depot. The continuous availability of medicines, adequate budget, human resources, and storage facilities as well as the implementation of a computerised stock control and dispensing system are recommended.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08T11:09:33Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.2: Reasons contributing to the success or failure of the down
           referral system of stable chronic patients at a tertiary hospital in South
           Africa : increasing patient access to treatment
    • Authors: Oladipupo; R.V., Bezuidenhout, S., Helberg, E.
      Abstract: Studies have shown how difficult it can be to have a proper patient referral system operating smoothly, especially when not well supported by all stakeholders and/or when patients by-pass the system. This study sought to explore possible reasons contributing to the success or failure of the down referral system of stable chronic patients at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital (DGMAH). A quantitative, descriptive study was conducted in which a structured self-designed questionnaire was used for data collection. The target population included all the medical doctors from the identified outpatient clinics at DGMAH that down refer patients. Only 30.5% of the doctors referred to the Standard Treatment Guidelines/Essential Medicine List (STGs/EML) before they prescribe treatment for patients; 77.9% of the doctors have not seen the down referral circular; 76% of the doctors are down referring less than ten patients per week; 40% of the doctors reported the lack or shortage of medication at PHC clinics as a major challenge. The low use of STGs and EML by the doctors and unavailability of medicine at PHC clinics were the major contributory factors for the possible failure of the down referral system.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08T11:09:32Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.2: Knowledge and perceptions of community pharmacists about
           the commonly sold herbal medicines used as African traditional medicines
           in community pharmacies in Tshwane townships, South Africa : increasing
           patient access to treatment
    • Authors: Mothibe; M.E.
      Abstract: Traditional medicines (TMs) continue to play a significant role in the treatment and management of diseases in the developing world. Commercialisation and marketing has popularised the herbal medicines (HMs) such that they are readily available for use from pharmacies and other outlets. The many herbal mixtures sold over the counter in pharmacies have not been tested for efficacy and safety. Although they are readily available and used, their effectiveness remain unproven and their safety and toxicity profiles remain unknown. The quantitative, descriptive study was aimed to determine the knowledge and perceptions of community pharmacists about African traditional medicines (ATMs) use, and specifically about the HMs commonly sold in Tshwane township pharmacies. Self-administered questionnaires were used to obtain data from qualified and registered pharmacists working in the identified community pharmacies. The participants were aware of the use of ATMs by the public. The majority believed that ATMs were used due to their affordability and that the users trusted the medicines and considered them to be natural products. Pharmacists perceived it was appropriate for them to dispense ATMs, yet only half believed that safety aspects were taken into consideration during production. The majority had no formal teaching or training about ATMs. They had knowledge about the sources and some pharmacological properties of five of the ten commonly sold medicines, but not their mechanisms of action, safety aspects or interactions. There were some knowledge gaps identified in the study; hence it is recommended that aspects of ATMs be included in pharmacy curricula.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08T11:09:31Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.2: Optimising services by the clinical pharmacist in a
           neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital in Gauteng Province,
           South Africa : optimizing hospital patient care
    • Authors: De Jager; Z., Schellack, N., Gous, A.G.S.
      Abstract: South Africa's health sector is faced with a shortage of skilled personnel in key areas, such as pharmacy. Due to these staff shortages it is difficult to allocate pharmacists to work full time in clinical units. Schellack and Gous (2010) designed a Pharmaceutical Care Risk Assessment Sheet (PCRAS) to prioritize patients in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for the clinical pharmacist practicing pharmaceutical care. An operational prospective study with a cross sectional design was followed. During the three month study period, 61 patients were enrolled. The total time spent in the NICU was 161 hours in 43 days, i.e. an average of 3.57 hours per day. The pharmacist spent the majority of the time (71 %) with patient care related interventions. Using the PCRAS scores the patients were prioritised into three categories e.g. low, moderate or high. All the patients were seen by the pharmacist for a total of 375 occasions, with an average of 6.15 consultations per patient. Over the study period the researcher made 153 interventions with a mean average of 2.46 interventions per patient. The mean medicines prescribed per patient were 7.97. The pharmaceutical risk assessment sheets allows for risk stratification in prioritizing patient care for the clinical pharmacist. This might save the pharmacist time and enable them to assist with other functions e.g. dosage preparations and stock control in the pharmacy.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08T11:09:30Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.2: Pharmacists' knowledge on adult HIV treatment in a retail
           pharmacy group in South Africa : increasing patient access to treatment
    • Authors: Mkhabela; P.M., Schellack, N., Gous, A.G.S.
      Abstract: There is a rapid approval of new antiretroviral treatment (ART) drugs and continuous change in ARV regimens. In South Africa, the National Department of Health (NDoH) has formulated the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. (HIV) Treatment Guidelines that governs the public and private health sector on HIV management. The aim of the study was to assess the level of knowledge of pharmacists working for a specific retail pharmacy group on adult HIV treatment as prescribed by the NDoH in 2010. The study used a quantitative cross-sectional study design. During the study period, a total of 51 pharmacists were employed by the specific retail group in South Africa, and of these 27 pharmacists responded with a response rate of 52.9%. Female respondents formed the majority of the respondents (56.0%) with an average age of between 23 - 65 years. Gauteng Province had the highest response rate of 48.2%. The majority of the respondents (74%) have been with retail pharmacies for less than five years. The pharmacists' knowledge on ARV drugs and regimens were between 49.7 - 50%. They had a higher level of knowledge on ARV drugs (74%). Respondents were not able to pass (46.3%) sections pertaining to side effects, drug interactions and contra-indications. Overall achievement on this assessment for the respondents was 48.1%, which indicate that pharmacists working for this specific private retail pharmacies lack sufficient current knowledge on HIV and its management. Therefore it would be recommended that they attend a targeted training course on HIV and its management.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08T11:09:30Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.2: Initiation of antiretroviral therapy for newly admitted
           HIV positive paediatric patients at a teaching hospital : a health care
           teamwork approach : optimizing hospital patient care
    • Authors: Mokou; C.R., Meyer, J.C., Schellack, N.
      Abstract: Infants who acquire HIV before or around delivery, have rapid disease progression in the first few months of life. Early determination of HIV exposure and a definitive diagnosis are critical to allow for early initiation of lifesaving antiretroviral treatment (ART). The study investigated the impact of a pharmacist-driven service, as part of the health care team, for the early initiation of HIV positive paediatric patients on ART. A two-phased, descriptive, operational study was conducted prospectively. Phase 1 included a situational analysis, whereby current procedures for initiation and administration of ART for newly admitted HIV positive paediatric patients (n=23) were documented. Interventions were implemented in Phase 2 in the form of a pharmacist-driven ART service for HIV positive patients (n=50) already initiated or not yet initiated on ART. A total of 73 patients were admitted to the study. With the presence of a pharmacist in the ward, the average number of days to ART initiation was reduced from 80.8 days (n=4) in Phase 1 to 33.8 days (n=12) in Phase 2 for the patients who were newly diagnosed with HIV and not yet initiated on ART. For the known HIV positive patients who were not yet initiated on ART, the average number of days from testing to ART initiation reduced from 327.0 days (n=7) in Phase 1 to 219.4 days (n=9) in Phase 2. The pharmacist's presence in the ward and engagement with the multidisciplinary health care team furthermore contributed to the identification and management of various medication or treatment-related problems, to the benefit of HIV positive paediatric patients.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08T11:09:29Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.2: Prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis at a public
           district hospital in Gauteng Province, South Africa : a retrospective
           analysis : optimizing hospital patient care
    • Authors: Mohlala; J.T., Schellack, N., Gous, A.G.S.
      Abstract: Drug-resistant Tuberculosis (DR-TB) has become more prevalent in resource limited developing countries globally. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of monoresistant TB (MTB) and multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB), and to describe the drugs that patients were resistant to, at the district hospital, South Rand Hospital, Johannesburg. A retrospective study using patients' records was conducted at the hospital's TB wards. Records of patients older than 18 years of age were included in the study. Of the 200 patients files identified, 140 (70%) of the patients were males and 60 (30%) were females. Just less than half of patients 86 (43%) were in the age group of 30-39 years and only one patient in the age group of 80-89 years. The majority of patients, 147 (73%) were HIV positive, 32 (16%) patients' HIV status was unknown, while 11 (5.5%) patients were HIV negative. MTB had the highest prevalence (n=163, 81.5%) and MDR-TB with the lowest prevalence (n=37, 18.5%) of cases. Evidently the study indicated that the prevalence of DR-TB was higher in males and that most of the patients affected were HIV positive. MTB had the highest prevalence at this district hospital and a future prospective study may provide more information on the increasing trend of drug resistant TB in South Africa.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08T11:09:29Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.2: Assessing the level of understanding in the management of
           acute ischaemic stroke by medical doctors at a provincial hospital in
           KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa : optimizing hospital patient care
    • Authors: Vilakazi; S., Schellack, N., Gous, A.G.S.
      Abstract: The incidence of stroke has become a global challenge with numerous reports suggesting an increase in frequency, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Lack of resources and reliable data on stroke incidence and outcomes pose a challenge in diagnosing and treating patients in time, hence an urgent call for intervention is desired. The study objective was to determine the level of understanding of physicians working at Madadeni Provincial Hospital in the management of acute ischaemic stroke measuring the initial clinical intervention, the use of fibrinolytics, antiplatelets and anticoagulants. The study followed a quantitative prospective, cross-sectional design. All twenty three medical practitioners were enrolled with a response rate of 95.6 %. The study revealed that 68.2% of the participants understood that acute ischaemic stroke is a medical emergency and requires urgent intervention. None of the participants could differentiate between thrombo-embolic and cardio-embolic stroke. More than seventy percent (72.7%) of the participants did not know about tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and its recommended dose and 86.4% of the participants did not know about the t-PA administration window period. Participants were also enabled to reflect their own experiences about clinical intervention in stroke management and the average performance by the participants was 24.2%. It is recommended that continuing professional development on acute ischaemic stroke and guidelines should be provided to medical practitioners.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08T11:09:28Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and
           health : editorial
    • Abstract: This special edition (supplement) of the African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance (AJPHERD) addresses the theme "Current Issues in Sport, Physical Activity, Recreation and Health". The rationale for the choice of theme is to promote inter university/inter institution research collaboration in sport which is a pillar towards which all tertiary institutions strive. This approach is expected to address a genuine need towards the rapidly changing context of research and inculcate responsible conduct in research. It is anticipated that with this approach research networks will be expanded and the quality of research will improve. Capacity, specialisation, and resources such as data and equipment can be shared. Greater collegiality between institutions and organisations as well as the establishment of research alliances could be developed through this initiative.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:16Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: Effect of physical exercise programme on gross motor
           function of children with cerebral palsy : physical activity and health
    • Authors: Bhutia; C.D., Nair, U.S., Surujlal, J.
      Abstract: Sedentary individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) are often at increased risk for muscle weakness, decreased cardiovascular and muscular endurance, impaired circulation, limited functional strength, multiple system problems, lower bone density, increased fractures, lower self-esteem, and reduced independence. Regular physical activity for individuals with CP provides numerous benefits which include: an improved sense of wellness and body image, increased capacity to perform activities of daily living as well as reduction of the severity of some symptoms such as spasticity and athetosis. Other recognised benefits of physical activity for those with CP include increased bone density, increased muscular strength, improved cardiorespiratory fitness, increased motor mobility, increased self-esteem, decreased depression and anxiety, and improved personal and caregiver satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the gross motor function would improve in children with spastic CP through a physical activity programme. The participants were 10 children aged 13 to 18 years with mild/moderate CP. They were randomly assigned to two groups, an experimental group (n=5) and a control group (n=5).The experimental group underwent twelve weeks of a physical exercise programme and the control group did not participate in any organised exercise programme. Basic gross motor abilities in daily situations were studied using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM 88). Groups involved in the exercise programme experienced statistically significant improvement in GMFM 88 scores after treatment. GMFM Total Score (Dimensions A-E) increased 12.6% (p
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:15Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: Attitude towards sport and physical activity, self-esteem,
           life satisfaction relationships and variations in terms of gender :
           perspectives from university students : physical activity and health
    • Authors: Swanepoel; E., Surujlal, J., Dhurup, M.
      Abstract: Universities provide a platform for sport and physical activity participation opportunities to students. For students, participation in sport and physical activity is an important part of university life which can lead to improved physical and mental health. Positive consequences such as increased self-esteem and life satisfaction can emanate from participation in sport and physical activity. University students' participation in sport and physical activity can be bound by the social constructions of gender and gender stereotypes. Hence, the purpose of the study was to examine the relationship among attitude towards sport, self-esteem and life satisfaction of university students from a gender perspective. A non-probability convenient sample of university students (from first year to postgraduate) from two universities in the Gauteng Province, participated in the study. A four-section questionnaire comprising questions on demographic variables, participants' attitude towards sport, self-esteem and satisfaction with life was used to collect data. Cronbach alpha was used to assess the reliability of the attitude to sport scale (α=0.943), self-esteem scale (α=0.748) and satisfaction with life scale (α=0.804). Correlations were used to examine the relationship among the constructs. The results of the correlation analysis showed weak, yet positive association between students' attitude towards sport and satisfaction with life. Attitude towards sport and self-esteem showed insignificant associations with satisfaction with life. The mean ranks indicated that male students seem to be more inclined to sport compared to their female counterpart. Limitations and areas for future research are suggested.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:14Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: The effect of hyperbaric oxygen and blood platelet injection
           therapy on the healing of hamstring injuries in rugby players : a case
           series report : physical activity and health
    • Authors: Botha; D.M., Coopoo, Y., Botha, M.K., Collins, R., Lynch, E., Van Niekerk, R.L.
      Abstract: There are a number of ultra-structural and immuno-histochemical studies involving hyperbaric oxygen treatment in skeletal muscle, as well as soft tissue healing. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy, in conjunction with blood platelet injection therapy, serves as a valuable addition to previously known and trusted rehabilitation techniques and protocols for the healing of musculoskeletal or soft tissue injuries. The primary aim of this case report is to describe the effect on the recovery time of hamstring injuries when combining hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) and platelet rich plasma (PRP) injection therapy with exercise rehabilitation. A retrospective, post-intervention data analysis was used in this case series report. Data, obtained through collaboration with a professional rugby union and an accredited Hyperbaric Medicine (HBOT) Centre, were analysed using the Statistical Programme for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The significance value was set at 5%. A significant decrease in the injury time of the hamstring injuries in rugby players was noted, with a 38% reduction in injury time in players with a grade-one injury, and 45.7% reduction in players with a grade-two injury. In terms of recurrent injuries, 62% of players with grade-one injuries remained uninjured after treatment, and the percentage of re-injured players with grade-two injuries was 0% after HBOT, PRP and physical therapy treatment. The notion that the healing time of hamstring injuries will decrease when HBOT and PRP are administered in conjunction with traditional rehabilitation therapy is indicated by the data of this report.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:14Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: Perceived support for physical activity in the school
           environment : physical activity and health
    • Authors: Phillips; J.S., Kirenga, L., Steyl, T., Kagwiza, J.
      Abstract: Physical activity for an individual is a strong means for prevention of diseases and for nations, a cost-effective method to improve public health across the population. A decline in physical activity of youth has however been noted in various world regions. Schools present unique opportunities to provide time, facilities and guidance for young people to participate in physical activity. The aim of this study is to determine the patterns of physical activity participation among high school girls and their perceived social support for physical activity in the school environment in Kigali, Rwanda. Three hundred and fifty (350) learners from six schools participated in the study. The mean age of the study sample was 16.06. The majority of learners did not meet the number of days required for moderate days of physical activity (66%) and for vigorous days of physical activity (70.9%). Overall the study sample responded negatively when asked about support for physical activity from Physical Education (PE) teachers, other teachers and boys at school. Teachers in general and PE teachers specifically thus need to be more aware of learners perceptions of their support for physical activity. It could be argued that if learners perceive teachers to be more supportive of physical activity, their participation in physical activity could increase. Continuous education including the benefits of and the required levels of physical activity is suggested for both PE and other teachers.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:13Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: Prevention programmes for lower limb injuries : a systematic
           review : physical activity and health
    • Authors: Pillay; Tanushree, De Clercq, Dirk, Frantz, Jose M.
      Abstract: With the increased participation in landing sports such as netball, basketball and volleyball exists an associated increase in the risk of sport injuries. This highlights the need for effective injury prevention strategies. There is wide a publication of injury rate and injury prevalence studies, however, there exists a gap for the evaluation of evidence based-interventions to inform practice. The aim of this review was to identify injury prevention programmes and interventions focusing on the prevention and treatment of lower limb injuries in landing sports. Articles published between 2001 and 2011 were retrieved from online and print sources, and included multiple research methodologies. Search terms were derived following a preliminary review of relevant literature. Studies were evaluated for methodological quality using CASP critical appraisal tools. A meta-synthesis of the results are presented. Studies included in the data analysis (n=13) were mainly clinical trials, which differed by design. Interventions described within the analysed articles focused on: proprioceptive and balance training (n = 6), educational and theory sessions (n=2), taping and bracing (n=1), neuromuscular training (n=1) and eccentric training (n=3). Although there is limited research available, identified studies showed positive outcomes. The results of the literature review indicate the benefit of injury prevention intervention programmes and the need for furthering research in this field. The review also reveals that few injury intervention prevention studies exist for netball and that more research needs to be conducted in this sport within a South African context as it is so widely played.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:12Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: The effects of self-efficacy on entrepreneurial inclinations
           : evidence from sport management students in selected universities in the
           
    • Authors: Koloba; H.A., Dhurup, M., Radebe, P.
      Abstract: Entrepreneurship continues to draw much interest and attention from various stakeholders. Due to modern day challenges and uncertainty in their future, there is a greater need for students with entrepreneurial skills. For this reason and many others, students around the world are encouraged to consider an entrepreneurial career path. Given the multitudes of factors that influence entrepreneurial inclinations, this study aims to investigate the influence of self-efficacy on entrepreneurial inclination of sport management students. A quantitative study, using a structured questionnaire was administered to sport management students in two universities in South Africa. Data were analysed from 173 students who had fully completed the questionnaire. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was used to establish the entrepreneurial inclination factors and to test the goodness-of-fit of the proposed relationships. Two hypotheses are tested using a structural path model. The results show that self-efficacy positively influences innovativeness and risk-taking behaviours (entrepreneurial factors) among students to venture into business. Therefore, there is a need to create favourable conditions to enable the students to participate actively in entrepreneurial activities.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:12Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: The glass ceiling in sport coaching : perceived challenges
           of female coaches : sport management and governance
    • Authors: Surujlal; J., Vyas-Doorgapersad, S.
      Abstract: Women sport coaches are starkly under-represented in sport organisations. While there are currently probably more female sport coaches than ever before, they are still outnumbered by their male counterparts. This may be attributed to the fact that sport, being generally a male-dominated domain, appears to discriminate against women thereby preventing their advancement to high level positions in many sport organisations. Thus, women coaches may experience a 'glass ceiling', which obstructs their professional upward movement. Limited research evidence in a South African sport coaching context exists which addressed the challenges faced by female sport coaches to move up the hierarchical ladder in sport organisations. Hence, the purpose of this study was to obtain qualitative data from female sport coaches regarding the perceived challenges they face in progressing career-wise within their organisations and provide recommendations on the findings. Four themes, namely gender discrimination, stereotyping, career path opportunities, and organisational support emerged from the content analysis. The findings of the study suggest that males in high coaching positions continue to wield power which safeguards their positions. If the current practice at some of the sport organisations continues, the marginalisation of women aspiring for higher positions would be perpetuated and women will continue feel that they are second best. It is therefore important for sport organisations to level the playing field so that both male and female coaches have equal opportunity to compete for higher positions. This may involve mapping out a career-path which includes continuous professional development to prepare women for higher positions. Professional organisations for women which provide professional access and guidance, present and explore career-related issues, and offer a forum for problem-solving and enrichment for women in the sports industry can also be established.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:11Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: The influence of selected demographic variables on attitudes
           towards selling sex at a mega sporting event : a case study of the 2010
           Soccer World Cup : sport management and governance
    • Authors: Surujlal; J., Zhang, Z.
      Abstract: The need to sell sex with mega sporting events is often justified by meeting the sexual needs and satisfaction of tourists, and both the direct and indirect economic benefits from sex sales. It is clear that this justification gives dominant weight to economic gains and neglect how the public, especially, certain important demographic groups in the public view this practice. Understanding the attitudes and opinions of demographic groups will provide us with a holistic approach to the practice. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to investigate whether four demographic variables: gender, age, education level, and employment status influences attitudes towards selling sex with mega events. A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data. A series of Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) were utilised to test the four demographic variables. The results indicate that all of the four variables, except education level, had a significant effect on attitudes toward sex work. The female participants showed a stronger concern over the negative impacts of sex work on families and society and exploitation than the male participants; the younger participants demonstrated a stronger concern over the risks associated with sex work and exploitation than the older ones; and the employed participants saw less positive outcomes of sex work than the unemployed. The findings were important as they might provide pointers regarding the strategies to use to market mega sport events. They may also provide vital information regarding how tolerant members of society are towards selling sex with mega sport events.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:10Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: A qualitative analysis of motives and challenges in
           professional female soccer : sport management and governance
    • Authors: Swanepoel; M.J., Surujlal, J., Isabirye, A.K.
      Abstract: This study investigated the motives and challenges experienced by professional female soccer players in South Africa. It used a qualitative research approach in which data were collected from eleven purposively selected participants code-named R1 to R11 through in-depth interviews. During the data analysis process, participants' responses were synthesised into themes and subthemes that revealed the challenges faced by professional female soccer players as well as factors that motivated them to play. The results of the study revealed that female participation in professional soccer is influenced by factors such as supportive family and friends, available time to practice, good sports facilities, and supportive male and female relationships. However, scarcity of career opportunities, inadequate funding and time, together with negative attitudes towards women entering soccer as a male-dominated sport were major challenges that discouraged their participation. In order to attract more females to soccer, the study recommends that sports administrators should understand motivation factors as well as challenges to participation in the sport. It further recommends that understanding the needs, attitudes and experiences of females may enable soccer administrators to put systems in place to address barriers to their participation in soccer. A need still remains for the formulation and implementation of policies focusing on women's soccer funding, enforcement of professional development of women's soccer and the creation of a comfortable environment to support female participation.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:10Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: The implementation of a football development policy in
           
    • Authors: O'Gorman; J., Coopoo, Y., Fortuin, C.S.
      Abstract: This study has a distinctly practical focus on football development policy in England and South Africa. Set within the context of the on-going issue of the need to develop a 'National Football Policy' to establish a footballing legacy from hosting the 2010 World Cup (Bob et al., 2010), the purpose of this paper is to generate ideas and discussion as to how such a policy may be formulated to be implemented. To this end an overview of grassroots football in England and South Africa is presented to set the context for a brief discussion of the practicalities of lesson drawn and policy implementation for football development. Data are presented from analysis of the processes and outcomes of an English football development policy, the FA Charter Standard, within a region of England that is multiracial, has a high proportion of ethnic minority population, and is socially and economically disadvantaged. A sample was generated consisting of three volunteers from grassroots football clubs, two football development officers, and two sports development professionals responsible for implementing the Charter Standard. The discussion and findings suggest that South African football development policy makers may wish to note, and draw lessons from, the unintended consequences of formulating a uniform policy for implementation in a 'top-down' manner within a socio-political context that is ethnically and culturally diverse.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:08Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: A comparative study between Australian and South African
           university sport students' volunteer motives and constraints : sport
           management and governance
    • Authors: Van den Berg; L., Cuskelly, G., Auld, C.
      Abstract: Volunteering plays an integral part in the success of numerous South African and Australian organisations and university students have been identified as a latent target population with the greatest potential for volunteering. Organisations who wish to recruit students should be knowledgeable regarding their motives and constraints in order to increase community and sport volunteer activities. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the motives and constraints influencing volunteerism amongst South African and Australian sport students. A non-probability convenience sampling design was used to collect data from 278 South African and 208 Australian students enrolled in a sport curriculum at two universities in the Gauteng province and three universities within the Queensland area. The volunteer questionnaire developed by Auld and Cuskelly (2001) was used to gather data. The study identified slight egoistic differences in volunteer constraining and motivating factors between South African and Australian sport students. However, students from both countries indicated a low social motivation factor but an equal perceived confidence in their ability to solve problems when volunteering. The comparative results could aid organisations to broaden their current recruitment operations.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:08Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: Job-related barriers encountered by football coaches in
           Gauteng Province of South Africa : sport management and governance
    • Authors: Kubayi; N.A., Coopoo, Y., Morris-Eyton, H.F.
      Abstract: Football is the most popular sport in South Africa. Despite its laudable acclaim, research has shown that there is a high turnover of football coaches in the country. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the work-related barriers experienced by such coaches in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. A quantitative approach was adopted for this study. Eighty-six football coaches completed a 34-item questionnaire on the perceived hindrances to coaching, which yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.952. Results indicated that coaches identified lack of support for women players and coaches, unfair treatment of women, difficultly in gaining entry to the coaching profession, and inadequate salary as major barriers to their coaching. It is recommended that the South African Football Association (SAFA) should take note of these findings and develop remedial measures to alleviate the challenges facing football coaches. The association should also ensure that all forms of discrimination against female coaches are eliminated and that their needs are well catered for.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:07Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: Perceived leadership styles of sport administrators and the
           relationship with organisational effectiveness : sport management and
           governance
    • Authors: Naidoo; P., Coopoo, Y., Surujlal, J.
      Abstract: Sport administrators in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) play a significant role in influencing the activities of the sport department towards the goals of athletic success and economic viability. An important factor contributing to sport administrators' success and organisational effectiveness is the leadership style adopted by the sport administrator. The purpose of this study was to investigate different leadership styles adopted by sport administrators employed at HEIs in South Africa, ascertain whether there were any differences in terms of gender and establish the relationship between leadership styles and organisational effectiveness. Using a quantitative research approach, separate sets of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) were administered to sport coaches and sport administrators. Descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations, percentages and frequencies were generated from the demographic data and the MLQ responses. Chi square analyses for independence were used to determine whether there were any differences in terms of gender. Correlations were used to establish the relationship between leadership styles and organisational effectiveness. The results indicated that the most dominant leadership style adopted by sport administrators was transformational. Correlation analysis revealed a positive and significant relationship between transformational leadership style and organisational effectiveness. Therefore, sport administrators should be provided the necessary support in terms of training and resources to develop their leadership style so that both they and the organisation benefit.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:06Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: Sport and recreation officers' perceptions of organisational
           support and deviant workplace behaviours in Gauteng Province, South Africa
           : sport management and governance
    • Authors: Dhurup; M., Radebe, P., Surujlal, J.
      Abstract: Research initiatives have primarily analysed the relationship between organisational support with various constructs, inter-alia job satisfaction, organisational commitment, job discretion, job attitude, organisational politics and turnover intentions. Whilst these studies are noteworthy, research on organisational support and workplace deviant behaviour relationships have been limited and scarcely found in literature especially within sport domains. This study examines the relationship between organisational support and workplace deviant behaviours. A quantitative study was used to analyse data from 152 sport and recreation officers in the Gauteng Province, South Africa. High levels of organisational support seem to be negatively associated with workplace deviant behaviour. Overall, it appears that employees with higher levels of perceived organisational support are likely to engage in pro-social behaviour rather than anti-social deviant behaviours. A high level of perceived organisational support may assist to restore the balance between the benefits awarded by an organisation and the contributions of employees. Therefore, when employees perceive a high level of organisational support, employees show greater propensity to disengage in workplace deviant behaviours.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:05Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: The psychological contract, violation of the psychological
           contract, work-related anxiety and intention to quit of sport coaches in
           South Africa : sport management and governance
    • Authors: Dhurup; M., Keyser, E., Surujlal, J.
      Abstract: Like most employer-employee relationships, the relationship between sport coaches and their employers is governed by legal work contracts which clearly spell out the rights and obligations of the two parties (the employer and the employee). However, formal contracts do not reflect all the exchanges between the employer and the employee in the workplace. The unwritten dimensions (psychological contract) also impacts on coaches' employment relationships which is often a neglected area of research. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine whether the psychological contract, violation of the psychological contract and work-related anxiety predict sport coaches' intention to quit the coaching profession. The study is located within a quantitative research design. The respondents consisted of 151 (n=151) sport coaches sampled through a convenience sampling technique in the Gauteng province, South Africa. The PSYCONES Scale (employer obligations, employee obligations, violation of psychological contract), Work-related Anxiety Scale and Intention to Quit Scale were used to collect data. Descriptive and regression analysis were used to examine the relationship among the constructs. The findings reveal that violation of the psychological contract and work-related anxiety of sport coaches predict intention to quit. This study advocates the notion that, like in other organisational contexts, it is essential for employers in the sport industry to identify and fulfil the psychological contracts of sport coaches in the management of employee relationships between coaches and their employees.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:04Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: Foreign soccer spectator support motives : a two-country
           comparison of the English Premier League (EPL) : sport marketing
    • Authors: Puri; H., Surujlal, J., Dhurup, M.
      Abstract: The English Premier League (EPL) has its roots in the oldest football league in world soccer, the Football League. Television coverage has played a major role in attracting and increasing the number of EPL spectators, both local and foreign. The purpose of this study was thus to analyse and compare EPL soccer spectator motives in South Africa and India. A quantitative research approach was utilised which involved the administration of questionnaires to Indian and South African spectators. The sample for the study comprised EPL soccer spectators. A total of 250 (n=250) and 181(n=181) usable responses were received from India and South Africa respectively. A descriptive analysis of the sample composition was undertaken and factor analysis was undertaken to establish spectator motives to support EPL teams. A two-factor solution (entertainment/socialisation and knowledge acquisition; entertainment/identification and knowledge acquisition) emerged for both samples as the items were logically associated with the underlying factors. Non-parametric Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to establish the strength and direction of the relationship between the motives. Both samples showed mixed results in terms of fan motivation with regard to the English Premier League support. The results of the correlation analysis showed a strong positive association between the two constructs, r=0.762; n= 181; p
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:04Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: The psychological skills level of football coaches from the
           Vodacom and National First Division Leagues in South Africa : sport
           development
    • Authors: Van Niekerk; R.L., Coopoo, Y., Fortuin, C.S.
      Abstract: This study aimed to determine the psychological skills profile of football coaches from two South African leagues. A purposive sample of 81 football coaches from the National First Division (NFD) and Vodacom Leagues (VL) with mean ages of 44.3 and 34.9 years of age respectively, were asked to complete the Psychological Skills Inventory. A descriptive research design was followed in this research study. The results indicated that the coaches had high mental toughness, but could further benefit from a psychological skills training programme as quite a number of coaches still had to develop various mental skills. The development of concentration skills seemed to be of importance, as more than half of the coaches had low levels of concentration ability. Age was found to be a significant differentiating factor in the mental skills of the two groups of coaches, and was also positively correlated with most of the psychological skills. As coaches play an important leadership and decision making role in the performance of football players, their modeling of strong psychological skills during performance are essential contributors to the psychological skills development of their players and should not be neglected.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:02Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: Coaches' perspectives on youth football development
           programmes in the eThekwini region, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa : sport
           development
    • Authors: Davids; J., Naidoo, R., Coopoo, Y.
      Abstract: In football, the role of development is crucial as it identifies talent and monitors the progression of youth players to mature players. Development seeks to eventually have these players being capable of competing on an international stage such as at the Football World Cup or the Olympic Games. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of coaches on the youth football development programmes in the eThekwini region, KwaZulu-Natal. This study was an exploratory design. Coaches (n=13) from five youth development football clubs were interviewed. The analysis of interviews was carried out methodically by the clustering of themes. Majority of coaches were between the ages of 42-52 years with a mean age of 43.3 years. Overall, coaches expressed dissatisfaction towards the quality of the youth football development programmes, specifically, leadership, facilities and their use, financial support, age-cheating, the selection process of players and the football qualification/s of coaches. There were varied perspectives towards the 'structured' youth football development programmes among coaches. Coaches believed that international development programmes were well-managed, employed highly qualified coaches and that children began playing football at a much younger age than children in KwaZulu-Natal.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:01Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: Sport for social change : an inter-university collaboration
           between the University of the Western Cape, South Africa, and the
           University of Connecticut, USA, and their NGO partners : sport education
           and community development
    • Authors: Laattoe; N., Keim, M.
      Abstract: This study explores the impact of a Sport for Social Change Programme on sport and development practitioners who participated in a cultural exchange programme between the Global Training and Development Institute, University of Connecticut, USA, and the Interdisciplinary Centre for Sports Science and Development (ICESSD) at the University of the Western Cape, South Africa. Data were collected under the auspices of the ICESSD. The study involved 10 participants aged between 21 and 58 years of age residing and practicing in the broader Cape Town area being in charge of children and youth in their respective projects and organisations. The study used a qualitative approach and explored the relationship between the cultural exchange and development of the participants both in terms of their practice of using sport for social change programmes as well as personally and integrated qualitative findings using thematic analysis. The study showed that the practitioners who participated in the cultural Sport for Social Change exchange programme acquired various skills related to both practitioner skills in the sport and development field as well as personal development. It is concluded that there is an association between cross-cultural exchange programmes and personal and practitioner development. It is therefore recommended that students and practitioners in the sport and development field participate in cross-cultural exchange programmes that are well planned, structured and organised to further develop the practice of sport for social change and to monitor and evaluate the integration of these new skills into practice.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T15:00:00Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: The influence of the social environment on youth physical
           activity : sport education and community development
    • Authors: Phillips; J.S., Awotidebe, A.W.
      Abstract: Research has highlighted the decline of physical activity during the last twenty years and identified adolescence as the age of the greatest decline. Despite the fact that the benefits of physical activity have been proven, many children and youth do not meet the current guidelines for sufficient physical activity. There are however various factors that influence physical activity levels amongst the youth and researchers have highlighted the links between environmental conditions and health-related behaviours such as physical inactivity. Therefore an increased emphasis exists on the role of the social and physical environment as key modifiable determinants of physical activity. The aim of this study is thus to explore the social environmental factors that influence the physical activity participation among female school-going adolescents in the Western Cape. Focus group discussions were held with 55 school-going adolescents in a selected community in the Western Cape. The discussions yielded four (4) themes: safety; financial constraints, competing responsibilities and parental support. These themes highlighted that physical activity participation was influenced by the social, economic and physical environments that these adolescents live in. Opportunities to be physically active in an enjoyable and comfortable environment are undoubtedly essential for all girls. Therefore appropriate activity interventions taking into consideration issues related to social support, safety and cost-effectiveness of activities are more likely to effectively engage and sustain participation in physical activity.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T14:59:59Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: Beyond winning : validation of unethical behaviours of
           amateur sport coaches' scale as perceived through the lenses of athletes :
           sport ethics
    • Authors: Dhurup; M., Mathaba, R.L.
      Abstract: Ethics have received extensive attention and intrigued business environments in developed countries with regard to research in the last decade. However, developing countries seem to pause with such types of research initiatives. Sport environments in particular are perceived to further lag behind research on ethical behaviours in developing countries. Athletes spend vast amounts of their time in practising and developing their sport skills so that their beliefs and achievements reverberate in their hearts; shaped by those with whom they come in contact in sport environments. In particular, coaches among others are perceived as strong influencing figures in the regulation of athletes' behaviour, attitudes and their desire to achieve. Against this perspective, the study examines the primary factors that comprise coaches' unethical behaviours from the perspective of amateur athletes. Data were analysed from 211 amateur athletes from Southern and Central Gauteng (South Africa) on their perceptions of their coaches' unethical behaviours through a structured questionnaire. Exploratory factors analysis procedures were used to establish the dimensions of coaches' unethical behaviours. Thereafter, the factor structure was subjected to further analysis to ascertain the 'goodness-of-fit' of the factor structure through confirmatory factor analysis. The confirmatory factor procedure showed a satisfactory fit of the factors to the model. The results indicate three factors; coaches' dishonesty, coaches' unprofessionalism and coaches' abusiveness as three basic constructs of coaches' unethical behaviours in amateur sport. Further research and additions of scale items is warranted to explore possible coaches' unethical behaviour among sport coaches.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T14:59:58Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Current issues in sport, physical activity, recreation and health :
           Supplement 1: A model examining the relationship between parenting, and
           decision making on healthy lifestyle behaviours of adolescents in rural
           Western Cape, South Africa : sport education and community development
    • Authors: Davids; Eugene Lee, Roman, Nicolette Vanessa, Leach, Lloyd, Sekot, Ales
      Abstract: The Health Promotion Model provides a theoretical framework exploring the relationships which aid healthy lifestyle behaviours of individuals, such as participation in sport and recreational activities. Research indicates that a number of health risk behaviours are established in adolescence and affect health and well-being in later life. This study therefore examined the relationship between parenting styles and decision making styles on healthy lifestyle behaviours of adolescents in the rural Western Cape, South Africa. The sample consisted of 457 secondary school learners in the Overberg Education District, Western Cape. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to test the goodness of fit of the constructs within the proposed model, followed by the structural model testing using the Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS). The results suggest that a significant positive relationship exists between maternal parenting styles and decision making styles of adolescents (r= .196; p
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T14:59:58Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Conducting responsive research to address public health
           challenges : editorial
    • Abstract: Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges was adopted as the theme for this AJPHERD supplement. The theme consists of seven subthemes: Public health intervention for maternal and child health; Perspectives of HIV and AIDS across populations; Adolescent sexual health and behavior; Patient centered treatment and care; Utilization of primary health care services; Increasing patient access to treatment; and optimizing hospital patient care. The theme was adopted in the wake for the call to renew primary health care (PHC) by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in order for health systems to respond to the challenges of a changing world to achieve better health care access and quality and social protection for all.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:39:12Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Factors associated with antenatal care bookings among
           pregnant women in Tshwane Health District, South Africa : public health
           intervention for maternal and child health
    • Authors: Mfolo; M.V.H., Mndzebele, S.L.
      Abstract: The antenatal period is an important opportunity for reaching pregnant women with several interventions important for the health and well-being of both the mother and the unborn child. The purpose of the study was to investigate the determinants of antenatal care booking among pregnant women in the Tshwane Health District, Gauteng Province. The study was a quantitative, descriptive study that was conducted among 320 pregnant women. A pretested, structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was collected on socio-demographic and obstetric issues. A logistic regression analysis was carried out to describe the determinants of timing for ANC booking. A total of 320 questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women attending Kgabo Community Health Care for their first booking at antenatal care. The mean age of participants was 25.3 years with a range of 14-45 years. The majority (88%) of the participants had a secondary level or higher education. About 22.5% of the participants were
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:39:11Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Factors associated with mixed feeding practices among HIV
           positive post-natal women in Merafong sub-district, Gauteng Province,
           South Africa : public health intervention for maternal and child health
    • Authors: Madiba; S.
      Abstract: The World Health Organization estimates that globally, less than 40% of infants under six months of age are exclusively breastfed. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is particularly lower in low-resourced countries than in developed countries. The study determined feeding practices, factors that influence mixed feeding, and reasons mothers adopt the infant feeding practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 202 HIV-positive post-natal women who were mothers of babies aged six weeks to nine months. Mothers were recruited from primary health care facilities offering prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV services in Merafong sub-district, Gauteng province, South Africa. Exclusive formula feeding (EFF) was the preferred feeding option (n=113, 56.8%). Two thirds (n=66, 58.9%) of the mothers opted for EFF because they did not want to infect their babies with HIV. Over half (n=109, 55.6%) practiced mixed feeding. EBF mothers' reasons for mixed feeding were related to their perceptions of insufficient breast milk to satisfy the baby (n=53, 50.9%) while EFF mothers wanted their babies to gain weight (n=41, 36%). Adhering to initial feeding was associated with previous enrolment in PMTCT and inversely associated with introducing complementary and traditional medicines. Adhering to initial feeding choice was difficult for EBF and EFF mothers. There is need for interventions to educate mothers and significant others on the adequacy of breast milk and to encourage HIV positive mothers to initiate and sustain EBF. Interventions should also address cultural practices that threaten the success of PMTCT in reducing HIV transmission.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:39:10Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Decision-making and practice on infant feeding : a case
           study of women in a prevention of mother to child transmission programme
           in Gauteng Province, South Africa : public health intervention for
           maternal and child health
    • Authors: Ntuli; B., Modibedi, K.
      Abstract: For prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) programme to produce good results, the choice of recommended feeding options by the mother plays a major role. This therefore means that decision making with regards to the choice of recommended feeding options forms part of a bigger strategy within the PMTCT programme to reduce mother to child transmission (MTCT). This qualitative explorative study was conducted among 32 mothers on the PMTCT programme with the aim of investigating their decision making and practice on infant feeding. Five focus groups discussions were conducted. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis and open coding whereby themes and sub-themes were identified. Most mothers made decisions of infant feeding during prenatal period. Exclusive breast feeding was the common feeding option opted for by 20 out of 32 mothers. Few mothers (5 out of 20) were practising mixed feeding at the time of data collection. Health care workers, socio-economic status, previous enrolment in PMTCT and fear of infecting the baby, influenced mothers on decision making on infant feeding options. Family, stigma, and previous feeding history influenced mothers feeding practices. Health care providers need to provide continuous counselling as early as possible to enable the mothers to choose the recommended infant feeding options and adhere to their selected options to reduce MTCT. Furthermore, the influence of infant feeding options and practices have implications for the success of the PMTCT.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:39:10Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Community-based management programme for treatment of
           acute child malnutrition using the out-patient therapeutic treatment
           approach in Dhas district of Ethiopia : public health intervention for
           maternal and child health
    • Authors: Mokgatle; M.M., Demisse, B.N.
      Abstract: Severe acute malnutrition remains a major killer of children under the age of five years and contributes to one million child deaths in the world each year. Until recently, the management of severe acute malnutrition has been restricted to centre-based care with limited coverage and impact. Community-based management of acute malnutrition involves timely detection of severe acute malnutrition in the community, and treatment of those without medical complications with ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF) such as plumpynut at home. This study aimed to investigate the progress and the effectiveness of the CMAM project in Dhas implemented from July 2010 to December 2010 in addressing child malnutrition. A quantitative, descriptive survey was applied on 163 severely acute malnourished children aged 6-59 months admitted and treated in all health facilities in Dhas district from July 2010 to December 2010. The mean age at admission was 20 months, 35% (n=57) were below 12 months old, 57% (n=93) were below two years. About 98.2% (n=160) were new admissions. The reason for admission was low mid-upper arm circumference. The programme achieved the recovery rate of 69.9% and there were no mortalities. The recovery rate for malnutrition of admitted children was below the expected sphere standard. The defaulter rate was relatively high but there were no infant and child mortalities. The CMAM programme contributed to reduction of malnutrition and exceeded the expected outcomes.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:39:09Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Parents' influence on early childhood caries among their
           children at a community health centre in Gauteng Province, South Africa :
           public health intervention for maternal and child health
    • Authors: Ntombela; D.E., Mndzebele, S.L.
      Abstract: Early childhood caries (ECC) is a serious oral health problem that has remained unexplored in many developing countries including the Sub-Saharan Africa region, especially among the disadvantaged populations. This study investigates the knowledge, attitudes and practices of parents with regard to ECC affecting their children aged between 1 and 5 years old. A cross-sectional survey design was used involving 299 individuals; where a parent and his/her child were counted as one. The majority of the participants (97%) were the biological parents of the children. About 32% of the parents were under the age of 20 years, and 73% were single. Almost all the parents (91%) had primary level of education. About 87% of the parents did not know that dental caries do affect children who are below the age of 2 years, and that brushing a child's teeth is important for maintaining good oral health (65%). A higher proportion of parents with a caries-free child compare to those parents whose children had caries knew that: "sugar consumption and other cariogenic foods increase caries development" [8%-vs-1%, (p0.05)]. Overall, the mean-dmft score among the children was 7.5±4.2, ranging from 1 to 20. Girls had an insignificantly higher mean-dmft score than boys [7.9±3.3 vs 6.9±4.6, (p>0.05)]. Children in the age group of 1 to 2 years old had higher mean-dmft scores than those aged 3 to 5 years old [7.6±4.7 -vs- 7.5±3.9, (p>0.05)]. The findings of this study suggest that good oral health knowledge, practices and perceptions of parents has a positive influence in reducing early childhood caries among their children.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:39:08Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Treatment outcomes of HIV infected children receiving
           antiretroviral therapy at the ALERT centre in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia :
           public health intervention for maternal and child health
    • Authors: Mokgatle; M.M., Mekonnen, A.K.
      Abstract: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage for children in the sub Saharan region is slightly below the global figures; and globally children continued to have less access to ART than adults. This study aimed to determine the treatment outcome of children who have received ART treatment for at least 24 weeks, and enrolled to treatment over five years period between March 2005 and December 2010. A five-year retrospective records review was conducted using electronic medical records of paediatric patients who were enrolled in an ART programme in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ART initiation was 6.4 ± 4.1 inter-quartile range years of age, and 61.4% children were older than 5 years of age, while 56 (8.6%) were under 18 months at the time of initiation of ART showing significant delay in diagnosing HIV infected children. After six months there was significant clinical and immunologic response. The mean difference at baseline and six months for CD4 count was 251 (n= 374, CI: 219, 283, p
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:39:07Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Parental disclosure of HIV positive status to
           HIV-uninfected children and their reactions to disclosure in Ekurhuleni
           district, Gauteng Province, South Africa : perspectives of HIV and AIDS
           across populations
    • Authors: Madiba; S.
      Abstract: The largest populations of HIV-infected patients live in Africa and care for many un-infected children, this has heightened the need for disclosure of parental HIV status to un-infected children. However, existing literature in sub-Saharan shows low parental disclosure rates. The study sought to determine reasons for parental disclosure and non-disclosure of HIV status to uninfected children and examine the reactions of children to disclosure. A cross sectional survey was conducted among HIV-infected parents of children aged 6-18 years attending a primary health care clinic at Ekurhuleni district, Gauteng province. The sample consisted of 340 HIV-infected adult patients. There were more females 235 (69%) than males 105 (31%). Over half (n=197, 57.9%) had known about their HIV status for 1-5 years, 210 (63%) tested because they were sick, 215 (72.9%) were receiving ART for 1-5 years, 105 (31%) disclosed to children and 26 (26.4%) disclosed immediately after testing. Based on parents reports, the majority (n=74, 68%) of children were sad, worried, angry, confused, shocked, tearful, scared, and distressed after parental disclosure. Non-disclosed parents believed that the child was too young to understand, 217 (94.8%) planned to disclose in the future, and 129 (57.1%) said 21-25 years was the ideal age for disclosure. Non-disclosed parents were not totally against disclosure but were fearful of the perceived negative consequences of disclosure. Health care-workers can play a crucial role in supporting parents to disclose but also offer specific counselling and support to children before and after parental disclosure.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:39:06Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Life experiences and circumstances surrounding elderly
           people living with HIV and AIDS in Northern Gauteng, South Africa :
           perspectives of HIV and AIDS across populations
    • Authors: Nemakanga; M.N., Mndzebele, S.L.
      Abstract: The elderly living with HIV have been largely neglected, leading to a growing population of older people facing socioeconomic, psychological and physical challenges allied with the aging process. There is lack of awareness about the transmission of the disease and educational material targeted towards older adults. The study explores the experiences and awareness of older adults regarding HIV in Hammanskraal community. This was a qualitative explorative study. A purposive sampling technique was used to select participants for the focus group discussion (FGD). The interview guide was developed in English and translated into Setswana language. Five focus group discussions were conducted with 32 participants. The participants were assured of their privacy and confidentiality. All the FGDs were recorded, transcribed, and finally analysed using the N-VIVO software. Seven thematic areas were unveiled from the study. It transpired that older people living with HIV experience physical changes such as: weight gain or loss, body pain, body weakness, tiredness and sores. The findings showed that older adults cope well with the burdens that HIV created by learning to accept their status. In addition, some participants reported high level of psychological distress, especially those who lacked support system. The social experiences such as stigma, isolation and discrimination were the important issues raised during focus group discussions. Various financial burdens were expressed such as extra spending as a result of diet modification, treatment, transportation and medication. Some participants also reported lost jobs due to deterioration of their physical health. The majority of the elderly living with HIV do have a sound knowledge of HIV&AIDS, including some coping mechanisms when caught-up in such situations.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:39:05Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Disclosure to sexual partner and associated factors among
           HIV positive adult clinic attendees in Johannesburg, South Africa :
           perspectives of HIV and AIDS across populations
    • Authors: Madiba; S., Letsoalo, B.
      Abstract: Disclosure to sexual partner has been linked to early testing, early enrolment on antiretroviral treatment (ART), as well as early access to HIV prevention and care. The study assessed the rate of HIV status disclosure to regular sexual partners and determined reactions to disclosure and associated factors among adult clients receiving ART ten years since the roll out of ART in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adult clients attending an ART clinic attached to a tertiary hospital in Gauteng province, South Africa. Multivariate logistic-regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with disclosure. The sample included 400 clients, 229 (57.3%) females and 171 (42.8%) males. The mean age was 39.8 years. The mean time since testing for HIV was 5.8 years, 225 (56.3%) had been on ART for < 2 years, 209 (52.3%) discussed HIV testing with partner prior to testing, and 234 (63.2%) knew the partner's HIV status. The prevalence of disclosure was 303 (75.8%) and 210 (78.4%) disclosed within six months. Fear of negative reactions was the main barrier for disclosure and 20.1% experienced negative reactions after disclosure. Acceptance of a partner's HIV status was gradual, participants moved from denial, anger, violence, and blame to acceptance and support. Prior discussions about HIV testing with partner (aOR=4.36, p=0.000, CI: 2.26-8.41) and knowledge of partner's HIV status (aOR=14.2, p=0.000, CI: 7.00-28.7) were associated with disclosure. Counselling should encourage early mutual disclosure of HIV test results to prevent the further spread of HIV.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:39:04Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and perceptions about HIV-positive
           people among primary school learners in Soshanguve, Pretoria, South Africa
           : perspectives of HIV and AIDS across populations
    • Authors: Dzhugudzha; N.T., Mokgatle, M.M., Madiba, S.
      Abstract: Lack of HIV/AIDS knowledge among young children have increased the fear of HIV infection resulting in their negative attitudes towards people affected by HIV and AIDS. This study aimed to determine the knowledge of HIV/AIDS and perception of primary school learners about HIV positive people in Soshanguve. A quantitative cross sectional descriptive survey design was conducted among 370 learners in grades 6 and 7, respectively. The age ranged from 10 to 15 years old. Data were collected using researcher-assisted-questionnaires with closed-ended questions. The findings show that the learners had a mean knowledge score of 19.8 from 27 knowledge-related questions. Accordingly, 44% (163) had high knowledge level classified with a knowledge score of greater or equal to 75%, 52% (n=191) had moderate knowledge classified with a knowledge score of 51% to 74% score, and 4% (n=16) had low knowledge level with less than or equal to 50% score of knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS Learners (53%) had positive perception about HIV positive people and there was a significant association between high knowledge level and positive perception. Primary school learners have knowledge levels of HIV transmission but there were knowledge gaps and misconceptions in most of knowledge regarding HIV prevention and control. The misconceptions about HIV/AIDS may provide some reasons why some of the learners have negative perceptions of HIV positive people.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:39:03Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Needs of primary caregivers relating to care given to
           HIV/AIDS patients and support from palliative care nurses in Malawi :
           perspectives of HIV and AIDS across populations
    • Authors: Mkwinda; E., Lekalakala-Mokgele, E., Sengane, M.
      Abstract: The current care of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) rests with primary caregivers since they are now nursed at home. This is as a result of the management of HIV/AIDS with antiretroviral therapy (ART) which prolongs the lives of PLWHA. The palliative care approach has been instrumental in improving the quality of life for PLWHA and is being provided at the clinics by nurses. However, continuity of care is provided at home by primary caregivers who take up this role without preparation, training and support. The study explored the primary caregiver's needs concerning care given to HIV/AIDS patients and the support they receive from palliative care nurses in Malawi. The study used qualitative explorative research design to conduct in-depth interviews with 18 primary caregivers from three palliative care clinics in Lilongwe and Salima districts of Malawi. Data were analyzed using NVivo software package version 10 and three themes emerged from the data. Findings revealed that primary caregivers needed training in their role and education on the patients' condition from nurses to provide proper care. They also needed clinical and financial resources which negatively impacted the care they provided to the patients. They also needed support of different forms in their role to give proper care to patient. More could be done in meeting the needs of primary caregivers to achieve better quality of care to PLWHA.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:39:02Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: HIV/AIDS related knowledge and attitudes towards learners
           infected with HIV among high school learners in Gauteng and North West
           Provinces in South Africa : perspectives of HIV and AIDS across
           populations
    • Authors: Madiba; S., Mokgatle, M.
      Abstract: The study assessed high school learners' HIV knowledge and attitudes towards learners infected with HIV/AIDS. The survey was part of formative evaluation with grade 10-12 learners in order to assess the acceptability of HIV counselling and testing (HCT) at schools. The study consisted of 17 high schools in two provinces in South Africa. T-tests were used to compare the differences in the mean HIV knowledge scores. Logistic regressions were performed to establish associations between demographic variables, attitudes, and HIV knowledge scores. The sample consisted of 2970 learners aged 14-27 years. The majority had high knowledge scores: 87% on HIV-related knowledge, 98.6% on the modes of transmission, and 73% on prevention. Overall, HIV knowledge was high, with a total mean score of 20.5 out of 26 points. There were significant differences in the HIV knowledge total mean scores; females had higher scores (M=20.6, SD=2.3) than males (M=20.3, SD=2.4), and the younger age group (M=20.5, SD=2.4) had higher scores than the older age group (M=20.1, SD=2.1). A quarter (25.4%) exhibited negative attitudes towards HIV-positive learners, and 75% would not date HIV-positive learners. Negative attitudes were associated with gender (OR=0.48, CI: 0.41-0.57), grades (OR=3.24, CI: 2.36-4.44), and total HIV knowledge scores (OR=2.21, CI: 1.43-3.43). Despite substantial HIV knowledge, there were knowledge gaps and misconceptions which resulted in negative attitudes towards the disease. Appropriate sexual health education and HIV prevention interventions in school are crucial in correcting the knowledge gaps as well as reducing stigma and discrimination to assist learners to accept HIV-positive persons.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:39:01Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Dental students' perceptions and behaviours towards dental
           patients living with HIV/AIDS in Pretoria, South Africa : perspectives of
           HIV and AIDS across populations
    • Authors: Galane; M.L., Mndzebele, S.L.
      Abstract: The HIV pandemic continues to be a major public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. The number of HIV/AIDS patients is increasing annually and there are no specialised oral health institutions that provide oral health care to HIV/AIDS patients. The purpose of the study was to determine the knowledge, attitudes and infection control practices of third, fourth and fifth year dental students towards patients living with the HIV/AIDS at the Medunsa Oral Health Centre (MOHC). This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 139 dental students at MOHC, using self-administered questionnaire. Stata IC/10 was used for data analysis. The response rate was 86%. The participants' age range was between 20-39 years, with a mean age of 25.9 years (SD 3.9 years) and 51.7% were females. Fourth-year dental students represented a larger proportion (39.2%) as compared to the third and fifth-year groups. The majority of the participants (79.2%) were blacks. About 37.9% of the participants resided in urban areas. Over half (55.8%) had no previous training in HIV/AIDS. Participants' gender [(OR = 2.97; 95%CI = 0.99 - 8.89) (P
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:39:00Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Adolescents' sexual behaviours and views about the sexual
           health education programme - a post intervention qualitative survey in
           Rustenburg, North West Province, South Africa : adolescent sexual health
           and behaviour
    • Authors: Malefo; M.A., Mokgatle, M.M., Madiba, S.
      Abstract: The AURUM Institute's sexual health education programme was implemented to reduce STI's, HIV, unplanned pregnancies, and encourage abstinence to prepare for the acceptance of adolescents HIV vaccines for future studies. Both boys and girls age 12 to 17 years in Bojanala district were enrolled in the study. The study aimed to explore the sexual behaviours of adolescents six months after the sexual health education intervention. A qualitative descriptive design using face-to-face interviews was conducted with 28 female adolescents who participated in the sexual health education programme at the AURUM institute. The age range of the participants was 15-20 years; and they were first told about sexuality between ages of 12 and 18 years. Most of the adolescents first learned about sexuality at school especially participants from child-headed households. It was promising that all participants reported that they knew they have to use condoms as prevention for HIV infection. They reported that they enjoyed participating in the programme, some reported that they gained self-confidence while others said they were disappointed in themselves for not using the information they acquired from the sexual health education programme. Sexual health education programme increase adolescent's knowledge; however, there is no change or reduction in risky sexual behaviours.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:38:59Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Knowledge on reproductive health among high school pupils
           in the Hhohho region, Swaziland : adolescent sexual health and behaviour
    • Authors: Fernandes; L., Magagula, F.
      Abstract: During the development of sexual and reproductive maturity, adolescents experiences extensive physical, psychological, emotional, and personality changes. This heightened curiosity about bodily changes and sexual feelings is associated with various risks including unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV/AIDS. This quantitative descriptive cross-sectional survey aimed to document the knowledge in the domain of sexual and reproductive health (RH) among high school pupils from three schools in the Hhohho Region of Swaziland. A validated structured self-administered questionnaire was utilized to collect data from high school pupils between the ages of 15-19 years. A total of 375 parent consent forms were distributed; 317 were received with 27 questionnaires found to be incomplete resulting in a final response rate of 77.3% (290/375). In general the student's knowledge could be regarded as average with 23.1% (67/290) scoring 50% and less; 61.7% (179/290) scoring between 50% to 75% and 15.0% (44/290) scoring above 75% answering the questions with regards to knowledge on HIV/AIDS, STI's, contraceptive and condom use. Parents rarely discussed sexual matters with pupils even though a majority of them lived in the same household while mothers [41.0% (119/290)] and teachers [25.9% (75/290)] were found to be an important source of RH information. The majority of pupils have factual sexual and reproductive knowledge to be able to make healthy and responsible sexual health decisions.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:38:59Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Contraceptive knowledge and use : views of teen mothers
           accessing a youth friendly clinic in a rural district of Mpumalanga
           Province, South Africa : adolescent sexual health and behaviour
    • Authors: Madiba; S., Ntuli, B.
      Abstract: There is general consensus that adolescents in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa do not visit facilities providing contraceptives because they view them as unfriendly; and thus the high rates of unintended pregnancies witnessed in South Africa, despite the implementation of the youth friendly services (YFS) in many parts of the country. This study explores teen mother's reasons for non-use of contraceptives, and describes their experiences of seeking contraception services from Phola-Nsikazi, an YFS site in Mpumalanga province. This was a descriptive, qualitative study using in-depth interviews and focus groups discussions with 33 in-school and out-of-school teen mothers aged 15-19 years. Data were analyzed using thematic approach and NVivo 10, data analysis software. Teen mothers were dissatisfied with the type of service provided at the clinic, despite it being a designated YFS site. With regards to contraceptive use, 20 out of 33 teen mothers never used any contraceptive and did not know about the contraceptive services that were available in the clinic prior to falling pregnant. All teen mothers were using injectables during the post-partum period. Lack of knowledge about contraceptives and poor access to contraceptives, mainly due to negative attitudes of nurses, were barriers to obtaining and using contraception correctly and consistency. It is important that health care providers understand that for adolescents to use contraceptives correct and consistent, they need to be provided with accurate information in a friendly and non-judgmental environment. Positive provider attitude underpins the adolescent friendly clinic concept and is a key to enhancing contraceptive use among teenagers.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:38:58Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Conducting responsive research to address public health challenges :
           Supplement 2.1: Factors contributing to unplanned pregnancies in
           adolescent girls in Hammanskraal, South Africa : an emancipatory
           decision-making approach : adolescent sexual health and behaviour
    • Authors: Madumo; M.M., Havenga, Y., Van Aswegen, E.J.
      Abstract: Unplanned pregnancies among adolescents constitute a global public health concern. Although preventable, it remains common and is usually associated with negative health and socioeconomic outcomes for the baby, the adolescents themselves, the family and society at large. Health care services in South Africa are dealing with high numbers of adolescent girls with unplanned pregnancies seeking professional help with their pregnancies. Support for adolescent girls in choices about decision making on pregnancy prevention is often not available from the family, school, community, or health care services. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the factors contributing to the prevalence of unplanned pregnancies in adolescent girls in Hammanskraal. One-to-one interviews using semi-structured questions were used to collect data. Sixteen adolescent girls with unplanned pregnancies were interviewed. Purposive sampling was used to select participants for the study. The findings revealed that lack of personal knowledge, empowerment, and reflection, limited flexibility in health care environment, restrictive social norms, poverty, and substance abuse contributed to the occurrence of unplanned pregnancies in adolescent girls. The findings suggest the need for a programme for the prevention of unplanned pregnancies in adolescent girls through emancipated decision-making.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T09:38:58Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Recounting social tourism development in South Africa
    • Authors: Adinolfi; M.C., Ivanovic, M.
      Abstract: Notwithstanding tourism in South Africa being declared a priority sector alongside mining and agriculture, the South African government's concern with the sustainability of the domestic tourism market stems from a significant lack of travel culture among the majority of the population. This study takes an initial look at the development of social tourism in South Africa both historically and as an unconventional way of addressing some of South Africa's domestic tourism gaps with particular emphasis on encouraging youth participation in social tourism. Specifically, the report recounts evidence of social tourism development in South Africa along three distinct historical and political periods namely during the independence period of 1910- 1948, in the period of apartheid between 1948 and 1994 and in the post 1994 democratic era. In particular the paper presents the workings of the Star Seaside Fund, a charity organisation that has been developing social tourism in South Africa since 1910. In-depth interviews with staff of the charity organisation revealed surprising facts that the Star Seaside Fund was taking underprivileged black children to the seaside during the apartheid era when travel of the majority of its black citizens was extremely restricted and heavily regulated. Furthermore, in-depth interviews with two participants confirmed the long-lasting social and psychological benefits of social tourism travel to the participating youth. Therefore this study represents a contribution to the further enrichment of social tourism discourse in South Africa as well as a better understanding of its current nature.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:49Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: An examination of tourism infrastructure and services
           available at the Durban central beachfront locality, South Africa
    • Authors: Bob; U., Maharaj, A.
      Abstract: Durban's central beachfront area is a key tourism destination and is also one of the main recreational spaces for local residents. Infrastructure and services within tourism and recreational spaces play a key role in minimising negative impacts and maximising positive impacts. However, few studies critically examine these locations in relation to infrastructural and service provision aspects. This research utilises observation to audit and assess the status of infrastructure and services (including tourism products) in the Durban central beachfront. Additionally, surveys conducted with visitors at the different localities in the Durban central beachfront area complement the infrastructural and service audit undertaken. The audit indicates that the central beachfront has a significant level of infrastructural services. However, when the specific localities that comprise the central beachfront (spanning from Addington Beach in the south to Blue Lagoon in the North) are examined, substantial differences emerge which reinforces the need to be more critical when examining a specific tourist destination or locality. Furthermore, the study identifies several infrastructure needs linked to transport, ablution facilities, safety and security, and maintenance issues. This research assists in informing future planning in this important tourist and recreational location in South Africa. More importantly, it contributes to the body of knowledge in relation to understanding the physical attributes in tourist/recreational places and notes the importance of examining differences within these destinations.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:49Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Authentic economy shaping transmodern tourism experience
    • Authors: Ivanovich; M., Saayman, M.
      Abstract: This is a conceptual paper which outlines new integrated, multidisciplinary theoretical framework suitable for an alignment of postmodern authenticity discourse in tourism to the principles of new authentic economy of transmodernism. Firstly, the paper problematises the incompatibility of three seminal social theories of authenticity, objective, constructive and existential, arising from the recent calls to declare the modernist theory of objective authenticity obsolete in the phenomenology of new tourist experience and replace it with the postmodernist theory of existential authenticity. Secondly, the paper reveals that in authentic economy the new economic value is created through rendering five genres of authenticity to its consumers/tourists by every sector of the world's economy, including tourism. Lastly, the paper confirms that transmodernism possesses an intrinsic ability to transcend the two preceding paradigms, modernism and postmodernism, while constructing the new cohesive experiential reality based on personal transformations and enlightenment. As this new reality reinforces a sense of being true to (one) authentic-Self it culminates in transformatory tourist experience seen as a higher order need than the Maslow's self-actualisation need. The ontological properties of transformatory tourism experience are analogous to existential and influential authenticity pertinent to social and economic sciences respectively. Against this backdrop the paper provides a blueprint for a synthesis of three seminal social authenticity theories and five genres of authentic economy into transformatory experience of new tourism as transmodern phenomenon. Conceptualisation of framework of transmodern authenticity pertinent to new tourism is the main contribution of this paper to South African tourism discourse.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:48Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: The role of tribal authorities in rural tourism development
           in South Africa : the case of the Kingdom of the Rain Queen
    • Authors: Ivanovich; M.
      Abstract: The strategic objectives of South Africa's government in getting the most impoverished rural areas in the country out from underdevelopment are: infrastructure development, poverty alleviation and job creation. In the national policy framework, tourism is singled out as the most effective tool for achieving pro-poor rural development through community-based tourism. A successful implementation of pro-poor tourism development at the local level requires an inclusive approach and developmental governance which depends on effective cooperation between tribal (traditional) authorities and the local government. Likewise, a successful implementation of community-based tourism development depends on active participation of community in all tourism related issues including distribution of benefits. Since the poorest areas in the country are under the rule of tribal authorities, the question this paper attempts to answer is whether community-based rural tourism development can be implemented in areas under tribal chieftaincy. In understanding the role of tribal authority in rural tourism development the focus is on royal villages in the kingdom of Modjadji, the Rain Queen, in the Limpopo province of SouthAfrica. The key findings from in-depth interviews lead to a conclusion that traditional authorities have absolute power in making decisions regarding every aspect of tourism development in the village, in particular employment and share of benefits which emerged as the most contentious issue for the community. This points to an imperative of extending the research agenda on applicability of community-based tourism under tribal chieftaincy for achieving pro-poor developmental objectives of rural tourism development in South Africa.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:46Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Community perceptions of a community-based tourism project :
           a case study of the CAMPFIRE programme in Zimbabwe
    • Authors: Tichaawa; T.M., Mhlanga, O.
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to elicit community perceptions on the effectiveness of the Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) programme, a community initiative, designed to benefit rural communities in villages around Hwange National Park in Zimbabwe. CAMPFIRE aims to help rural communities to manage their resources, especially wildlife, while alleviating poverty in local communities. In order to meet the surveys' goals, descriptive and bivariate statistical analyses were conducted. Villagers' perceptions were measured on a five-point Likert-type scale. The results reveal that the overall mean score for perception items was 4.03, whilst the perception scores ranged between 3.42 and4.56. The highest perception score was for the item: "CAMPFIRE has improved infrastructural development e.g. schools, clinics etc. The lowest perception score was for the item: "the community has benefited economically". The findings suggest that the current model of ecotourismin Zimbabwe is socially improving the livelihood base of locals and wildlife conservation. However, to change negative perceptions, the programme needs to economically improve the livelihood of locals so that the whole community benefits economically and villagers should be compensated for wildlife damage. This may help community members to fully support the programme. The study aids policy-making and formulation for government and nongovernmental organizations that could fully empower local communities in managing wildlife resources.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:45Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Building capabilities for sub-Saharan Africa's rural tourism
           services performance
    • Authors: Ezeuduji; I.O.
      Abstract: Rural tourism development is an entrepreneurial process. It requires rural communities to showcase their set of capabilities, their sources of leverage and knowledge necessary to embark on tourism development. In rural sub-Saharan Africa's local communities, managing transition from traditional livelihood activities to rural tourism is a sensitive process. Stakeholders, with local communities at the core, can collaborate and manage this development proactively. This study explores, by way of descriptive analysis, how capabilities for rural tourism services performance can be developed in rural sub-Saharan Africa, in terms of responsibility, delegation and accountability. Local governments as rural tourism stakeholder demand rural development. Local communities demand income from tourism development. Local governments and local communities should then share responsibility towards achieving tourism development goals by performing required activities, and accountability in evaluating how well individuals meet their responsibilities. Not-for-profit organisations as rural tourism stakeholder demand equity and local empowerment, hence can be delegated by local governments to facilitate capability building for rural tourism services performance, and to disclose results transparently, in both formal and informal ways.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:45Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Festival tourism in South Africa : characteristics and
           motivations of attendees at craft beer festivals
    • Authors: Rogerson; C.M., Collins, K.J.E.
      Abstract: Festival tourism is a growing issue in South African tourism writings. Most contemporary work examines music, arts, sports or food and drink festivals, especially wine festivals. This article addresses beer tourism which is a rising focus in culinary tourism. An international review of research on beer tourism and beer festivals provides the context for this investigation of South African beer tourism. Currently, beer tourism is concentrated upon craft beer micro-breweries and associated organized beer festivals. The article unpacks the characteristics and motivations of beer festival attendees at four South African beer festivals. Key findings are the dominance of festival attendees by Millennials, by day visitors at large city festivals, and by domestic tourists at festivals hosted in small towns.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:44Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Profiling volunteer tourists for the benefit of host
           organisations : the case of a seabird rehabilitation centre in the Western
           Cape, South Africa
    • Authors: Olivier; C., Davies, S.E.H., Joubert, E.
      Abstract: Volunteer tourists have become a critical human resource for many organisations in South Africa. Understanding who the volunteer tourist is as well as how a host organisation benefits from this interaction is imperative for the effective management of this human resource. A review of the current literature showed that most volunteer tourism research studies is volunteer tourist- centred and focus on the motivations for participation and the benefits of participation to the volunteer tourist. Within the South African context, only two volunteer tourist profile studies exist and both excluded host organisation factors that indicated how host organisations benefited from hosting volunteer tourists. This paper created a comprehensive profile of volunteer tourists at a non-profit seabird rehabilitation centre in Table View, Western Cape, South Africa. The profile included demographic and motivational factors as well as host organisation specificinformation that provided valuable information for volunteer management, future marketing and fund-raising campaigns. Data were collected through 110 anonymous, self-administered, online questionnaires and from the data, four conclusions were reached. Firstly, the demographic factorsof volunteer tourists that participated in this international volunteer programme was similar to other South African based volunteer tourism studies. Secondly, to experience something different and new was the most important motivational factor for volunteer tourists. Thirdly, volunteer tourists derived considerable benefit from the experience. Lastly, volunteer tourists continued to support this non-profit organisation (NPO) through social and financial activities after completing the programme, indicating that a mutually beneficial relationship exists between the host organisation and the volunteer tourist.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:43Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Local residents' perceptions of the socio-economic impacts
           of the Breedekloof outdoor and wine festival, Western Cape, South Africa
    • Authors: Ismail; S., Swart, K.
      Abstract: This study focused on residents' perceptions of the socio-economic impacts of the Breedekloof Outdoor and Wine Festival (BOWF) hosted in the Breedekloof region in the Breede Valley of the Western Cape Province, South Africa. The Breede Valley region is located in the Cape Winelands District near Cape Town. The event industry in this region is relatively undiscovered but in recent years has been revealed to be a major catalyst for tourism and economic development. Underpinning this study was the understanding that the perceived socio-economic impacts of the event are pivotal for the future planning, management and sustainability of the event as well as to minimise negative and maximise positive impacts of the BOWF. Quantitative methods, specifically survey questionnaires were used and administered to 374 residents of Rawsonville, the main town in the Breedekloof region where the event takes place, using spatially-based systematic sampling. The results demonstrated support for the Festival among the respondents as they perceived it as beneficial to the local businesses in the region. Furthermore, this festival showcases the town and its beauty and does not inconvenience local lifestyles. There were mixed views on inequalities relating to employment opportunities and involvement in the planning and management of the event. Overall the responses were positive, however in order to foster common understanding of the BOWF and its impact, the awareness and participation of residents are essential.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:42Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Examining the quality of carbon trading as pathway to
           environmental justice or recipe for disaster at the Bisasar landfill in
           Durban, South Africa
    • Authors: Leonard; L.
      Abstract: The Kyoto Protocol is an international arrangement setting goals for thirty-seven industrialised countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Clean Development Mechanism as a flexibility mechanism defined in the Kyoto Protocol offers emission reduction projects which generate Certified Emission Reduction units which may be traded in emissions trading schemes. The purpose is to support industrialised countries in attaining compliance with part of their quantified emission curb and reduction obligations but without emission reductions in their own countries. The Bisasar landfill in Durban was opened in 1980 during the Apartheid era in the largely Indian residential area of Clare Estate. Although the new democratic government promised to close the landfill in 1994, it still remains operational - mainly due to the Clean Development Mechanism project adopted by government. In an attempt to examine the effectiveness of carbon trading schemes to reduce emissions, this paper examines literature on how the carbon trading project at the landfill has progressed since its inception. Empirical work with key social actors since 2007 is drawn upon coupled with recent literature to examine how government's 'model' quality project has unfolded. Evidence suggests that the state has failed to acknowledge that the carbon trading project stimulates waste accumulation in order to secure methane for carbon credits. Far from addressing climate change, the scheme intensifies local environmental and health risks and ignores livelihoods while reestablishing Apartheid-era racial conflicts. There is an urgent need for government to explore alternatives to landfills and carbon trading projects which will offer sustainable jobs and robust recycling interventions.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:41Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Sustainable tourism development challenges in the Eastern
           
    • Authors: Acheampong; K.O., Tichaawa, T.M.
      Abstract: This study seeks answers to what extent tourism policies have succeeded in addressing the problem of inequalities in the development of the Eastern Cape province, and the extent to which the informal sector has not been given the recognition it deserves to be a leading player in the progress made towards sustainable tourism development. This study set out to unravel the challenges facing this sector, and to propose recommendations that could help it make a meaningful contribution to sustainable tourism development within the Eastern Cape's economy. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire administered to 120 informal operators in the tourism sector in the 39 municipalities in the Eastern Cape province. The operational taxonomic units (OTUs) used in this study were the 37 local municipalities and the two metropolitan municipalities making up the six District Municipalities of the Eastern Cape province. The study indicates that the majority of the informal operators were of black descent, ranging from 25 to 55 years of age, and living mostly in the townships and informal settlements. Inability to afford the heavy capital outlay and to abide by all the official conditions required to invest in a formal tourism business sector were noted as the main reasons for entering into informal operations, with the view to improving the living conditions of the entrepreneurs involved.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:41Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Delegates' environmental attitudes, knowledge and behaviour
           at the 17th Conference of the Parties (COP17) in Durban, South Africa
    • Authors: Moodley; K., Sershen
      Abstract: The environmental attitudes, knowledge and responsible tourism behaviour of delegates at a climate change conference, such as the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), is an area in which little, or no academic research has been undertaken. This study presents results of a Green Survey of delegates (tourists) at COP17 focusing on environmental attitudes, knowledge and behaviour. Five hundred and three delegates, from developed and developing countries were interviewed at the conference venue (International Convention Centre [ICC]), in Durban, South Africa, from 28th November to 8th December, 2011. Delegates comprised representatives of the world's governments, private sector and civil society. The results indicate that despite delegates' awareness of environmental best practices and good knowledge of environmental issues, there was inconsistency in environmental behaviour due to a range of factors. There was also a gap in environmental behaviour practised at home and whilst travelling. The majority of the delegates agreed that COP17 had major environmental impacts in terms of energy consumption, air pollution, solid waste generation and over-consumption of water. Most respondents stated that they engaged in environmentally responsible practices (sometimes or always). It was also found that some socio-demographic variables and environmental knowledge was related to pro-environmental behaviour. Some of the recommendations emanating from this study included holding COP events using video-conferencing; delegates travelling less internally or locally and/ or using non-fossil-fuelled vehicles or public transport, and delegates taking more responsibility in ensuring that their travel and accommodation choices are pro-environmental.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:40Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Conceptualisation and use of green spaces in peri-urban
           communities : experiences from Inanda, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
    • Authors: Munien; S., Nkambule, S.S., Buthelezi, H.Z.
      Abstract: The impacts of global warming and climate change are becoming increasingly evident across the developing and developed world. In this regard, Africa is amongst the most vulnerable due to high levels of abject poverty and limited capacity to adapt to the impacts of climate change. As a result, there has been increased investment in conservation and mitigation programmes, particularly across KwaZulu-Natal which houses high levels of biodiversity and poverty. Biologically diverse areas are not only important from an environmental perspective to protect the planet's natural resources but are also significant in relation to promoting ecotourism activities that have major socio-economic impacts. Furthermore, these ecological spaces have livelihood, leisure and recreational values for local communities. Additionally, there is a growing body of knowledge indicating that the use of green spaces is associated with positive impacts on health and well-being. This study draws on experiences and empirical evidence on the use of green and biologically diverse spaces in Inanda, KwaZulu-Natal. Results indicate that local community members use green spaces for a range of recreational and livelihood purposes such as relaxation, hiking, biking, playing sport and the collection of resources. Also, even though limited levels of scientific knowledge were noted, respondents displayed significant levels of environmental awareness. It is also important to examine the impacts of these specific uses especially in relation to environmental well-being. This study highlights the multiple benefits derived from green spaces and affirms that the main recipients of these benefits are the poor.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:39Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Barriers to environmental management in hotels in KwaZulu-
           Natal, South Africa
    • Authors: Sucheran; R.
      Abstract: In the last two decades an increasing number of studies have focused on the impacts of tourism development on the environment aimed at the depletion of natural resources, the generation of waste and pollution and general environmental degradation. Consequently, the huge growth in the hotel industry has considerably affected the environment at a global level as the sector consumes large amounts of energy, water and non-durable products. Hotels are therefore now urged to engage in responsible and sustainable environmental management practices. Often hotel managers are keen to engage in responsible environmental practices but are unable to do so due to certain impediments. This article examines the barriers or challenges that are faced in adopting more sustainable and responsible environmental management practices in hotels in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. In total, 142 hotels (including hotel chains as one entity) were identified in KwaZulu-Natal and a census approach was adopted, in that all 142 were approached to participate in the study. Sixty hotels responded. Data was collected through a web-based, online survey questionnaire. Quantitative data analysis was undertaken using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS). The findings reveal that hoteliers are faced with a number of barriers in the implementation of environmental management practices. These barriers include lack of knowledge and expertise, lack of resources to implement certain environmental management practices, lack of government assistance, lack of legislation and regulation and high costs. Furthermore, a noteworthy finding is that a number of hotels in KwaZulu-Natal are unaware of the savings potential associated with environmental programmes, that is, the direct benefits to their establishments.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:38Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: The media impact of the 2014 FIFA World Cup&trade; in
           selected tourism markets
    • Authors: Muresherwa; G., Swart, K., Daniels, T.
      Abstract: This study undertakes a media analysis of Brazil's hosting of the 2014 FIFA World Cup™. The hosting of the 2014 World Cup™ was an ideal opportunity for Brazil to enhance its international image. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the media on the hosting of the2014 FIFA World Cup™ on Rio de Janeiro as a host city and major tourist destination in Brazil. In addition, it provides an understanding of how Rio and Brazil have been profiled in the media - pre-, leading up to, during and post the World Cup - in order to determine what has changed about the perceptions of Rio and Brazil as a result of hosting this mega-event. A media content analysis was conducted in Brazil's key tourism markets, viz: Argentina, USA, Germany and Portugal. These countries were purposively selected since they represent Brazil's main tourism markets. The methodology adopted was a qualitative analysis including content sourcing, content identification and the use of Leximancer, an analytic tool for large amounts of textual data. The study examined the media coverage of online newspapers with the largest circulation numbers in the selected markets. Findings revealed a shift in media coverage about Rio and Brazil from negative to a more positive perception over the four time periods. The lead-up period presents an ideal time of addressing expectations since it is usually coupled with massive unfavourable coverage as in the case of Brazil. The positive images need to be highlighted in the marketing of future events in Brazil.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:37Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Major sporting events and responsible tourism : analysis of
           the 2013 Africa Cup of Nations (AFCON) tournament in Port Elizabeth, South
           Africa
    • Authors: Bama; H.K.N., Tichaawa, T.M.
      Abstract: Issues of environmental censorship and sustainability have in recent times gained prominence among global participants vying to deliver sustainable major sport events. Various studies have enunciated the ability of sport tourism events to impact either positively or negatively on the sustainability outlook of host destinations. The concept of responsible tourism has hitherto been introduced in sport tourism events with the aim of promoting sustainability. This study appraises visitors' perceptions and attitudes of the 2013 AFCON tournament in Port Elizabeth, with specific focus on evaluating the host city as a responsible tourism destination. A spatially based systematic sampling approach was adopted and face-to-face interviews were conducted with 386respondents on selected days during the AFCON tournament. Key findings of the study revealed that visitors were satisfied with the responsible tourism practices in Port Elizabeth, with emphasis placed on the need to continuously educate sport tourists on responsible tourism behaviour during major sporting events. The study recommended that future events hosted at the Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium are implemented within the principles of responsible tourism precepts and ensure that the city maintains and augments its standing as a responsible tourism destination.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:36Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: The strategic value of sport for an African city brand
    • Authors: Knott; B., Hemmonsbey, J.D.
      Abstract: Sport is already acknowledged as having a significant impact for city brands, particularly through the hosting of sport events and most notably as a means of creating global awareness, improved image and differentiation from other tourism destinations. This is especially pertinent for emerging brands in an increasingly competitive global environment. Although the literature has predominantly studied the impact of sport mega-events, few have examined the strategic significance of sport more broadly and none have looked at the emerging African city context. This study therefore examines the strategic contribution of sport in the form of teams, personalities, facilities, brands and sponsors and a range of home-grown, re-occurring and megaevents, for an emerging African city brand. Cape Town was chosen as the case study context as it has a strong association with sport, tourism and mega-events. A qualitative design was adopted to study the perceptions of sport tourism and city brand stakeholders on the strategic importance of sport. A series of twelve semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with definitive sport and brand stakeholders. A thematic analysis of these findings identified particular strategic benefits that sport provides for a city brand, such as : brand personality attributes; brand identification; national and global brand competitiveness; and the creation of brand ambassadors. Beyond the theoretical contribution, the study sets out a number of strategic implications for emerging city brand stakeholders wishing to leverage the brand value of sport.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:36Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Profiles of visitors attending the 2013 Confederation of
           African Football (CAF) Nations Cup tournament in Port Elizabeth, South
           Africa
    • Authors: Achu; F.N., Nyathi, L.S., Bama, H.K.N., Tichaawa, T.M.
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the profiles of the visitors who attended the 2013 CAF AFCON in Port Elizabeth. During the event, face-to-face interviews were conducted with visitors, using a systematic, spatially-based purposive sampling technique. The data were captured using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Key findings revealed AFCON attendees to be generally young (18 - 34 years old) and well educated, with the majority having attained a diploma/ postgraduate degree. They were found to exhibit outgoing tendencies, and engaged in a range of activities. Furthermore, the findings indicated that many visitors were first-time attendees at the AFCON tournament, and that their ratings of general impressions and experiences of South Africa/Port Elizabeth were, on average, very good. The significance and the contribution of the study findings can assist tourism planners and marketers in the planning, in the hosting, and in the management of future sporting events, as they provide the travel and behavioural trends of prospective sport fans.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:35Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: Exploring potential challenges of first year student
           retention and success rates : a case of the school of tourism and
           hospitality, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
    • Authors: Deen; A., Leonard, L.
      Abstract: There is now an increasing need for universities to support first year students to more easily transition into the academic environment. This is largely due to many students dropping out in their first year of study due to various factors. Such factors may include socio -economic factors and historical legacies. Although studies have been conducted surrounding student drop-out rates, these have largely been dominated by first world experiences with limited attention focused on the global south or less developed countries. Within this context there is an urgent need to understand local socio-economic variables or other challenges that may contribute to student drop-out rate. This paper reports on a mixed method questionnaire administered to first year Tourism and Hospitality students at the University of Johannesburg. Besides the general challenges of funding, other factors contributing to drop-out rates may be due to Tourism and Hospitality not being a primary career choice. While there is a need for the tourism and hospitality department to strongly promote the university support measures to students, it is also the responsibility of students to take the initiative and also engage with the available systems. Results from this study further indicate that students are not prepared for the workload at tertiary level due to an inadequate secondary foundation administered by the South African government curriculum, with students also not understanding the value of tourism and hospitality as primary career choices.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:34Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance :
           Supplement 1: The additional skills required of tourism graduates for
           retention within the tourism industry
    • Authors: Wakelin-Theron; N.
      Abstract: The current study was conducted to increase the understanding of graduate retention perspectives on human resource training and additional skills required to sustain employment within the tourism industry. Increased attention needs to be paid not only to the quality of products and services, but also to the quality of human resources. Staffing is a major asset of this industry, since tourism is essentially a service industry that is concerned with people. Retention within the tourism industry remains a contentious issue that is influenced by a variety of factors of a personal or external nature. An explanatory sequential mix method research design was followed. The study consisted primarily of a self-administered survey questionnaire that was conducted in accordance with the requirements of a 5-point Likert scale. The research entailed an empirical examination of 101 graduates from a comprehensive university, the University of Johannesburg, which offers both a Tourism Management Diploma and a Tourism Development degree. Additionally, a focus group interview was held with the graduates concerned. The findings of the study indicate the graduates' employability shortcomings in terms of the Tourism qualification for which they had studied, together with their retention level averages and the current perceived experiences of graduates who are working in the tourism industry.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:34:33Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Advances in cricket in the 21st century : science, performance and
           technology
    • Authors: Noorbhai; M.H., Noakes, T.D.
      Abstract: Cricket has a known history spanning from the 16th century till present, with international matches having been played since 1844. The game of cricket arrived in Australia as early as colonisation began in 1788. Cricketers started playing on turf wickets in the late 1800's but the dimensions only became available later for both the boundary and pitch. As the years evolved, performances, batting, cricket gear, equipment, technology, playing surfaces and the three formats of the game gradually adapted to the laws of cricket. In addition, cricket bats were adapted to the playing conditions and the evolving laws of cricket. In modern cricket, the bats are bigger and stronger than those used in the earlier eras. Boundaries are also currently smaller which provides batsmen with an added advantage of scoring runs easily and at a rapid rate. Considerable research has also shown the range of evolvements in the cricket sciences. As the demand of players' contracts increase, the commitment and performance levels from players also increase which might also place players at an increased risk for injury. Technology has emerged and has been used to assist players to improve their performances as well as ways to prevent injuries. Based on these interventions, technology and innovative approaches have also shown to have both advantages and disadvantages of the game. The relevant questions to ask is: how far have we really advanced in the cricketing world? Have all facets since the game's inception become institutionalized to a business model? Legislations, ethical considerations and education are needed in order to ensure that there is an equilibrium of effective transitions and management not only for players, but also for the credibility of this beautiful game.
      PubDate: 2016-01-07T09:47:12Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: The
           relationship between motor proficiency and academic performance of
           adolescent learners in Potchefstroom, South Africa : the PAHL Study
    • Authors: Van Niekerk; L., Du Toit, D., Pienaar, A.E.
      Abstract: The effect of movement on academic performance has lately become a topic of interest in literature, as it is widely accepted that there is a strong relationship between motor and cognitive development. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between motor proficiency and academic performance of Senior Phase learners in Potchefstroom, an urban region in South Africa. A total of 236 children between the ages of 13 and 14 years were randomly selected out of eight schools. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 was used to assess motor competency. The learners' academic performance was measured by making use of their average end-of-year academic marks and the marks of English and Mathematics. Significant correlations were found between fine motor control and the end-of-year average marks and English and Mathematics marks in some of the groups. Similarly,correlations were found between the scores of the manipulation coordination items and the English marks of most of the groups, while the end-of-year marks, English and Mathematics marks correlated with body coordination scores in most of the groups. The strength and agility items showed the strongest correlations with the end-of-year marks in all the groups, and the total motor proficiency score showed significant correlations with the end-of-year marks in all the groups. The results of this study imply that motor skill development and maintenance should be incorporated in the Physical Education curriculum for learners of this age group.
      PubDate: 2016-01-07T09:47:11Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance: The
           status of physical activity, body composition, health-related fitness and
           
    • Authors: Skaal; H.T., Monyeki M.A., Toriola, A.L.
      Abstract: Research has shown that social correlates of physical activity play an important role in individual participation in physical activity or sport, and hence their link with associated health benefits. The purpose of this study was to determine the status of physical activity (PA), body composition, health related fitness and social correlates of physical activity among adolescents attending high schools in the Tlokwe Local Municipality of the North West Province. A cross-sectional study design was followed on a total of 284 (111 boys and 173 girls) adolescents with the mean age of 14.90±0.72, who are part of the Physical Activity and Health Longitudinal Study (PAHLS). Height, weight, skin-fold thickness (triceps, subscapular and calf) and waist circumferences were measured through the standard procedures described by the International Standard of Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) and percentage body fat (%BF) were used as measures of body composition. Health-related physical fitness (HRPF) was determined by measuring cardio-respiratory endurance, muscle strength and endurance, and flexibility using standardised tests test protocols. The standardised International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-Short form) and Social Support for Physical Activity questionnaire were used to gather information on physical activity and social correlates for physical activity, respectively. The results show that 29% of the 284 participants are underweight and 26% overweight. 34% of boys were underweight and 17% were overweight while 27% of girls were underweight and 32% overweight. Boys significantly (p
      PubDate: 2016-01-07T09:47:10Z
       
  • African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance:
           Influence of an 8-week kinderkinetic movement programme on the scholastic
           performance of children aged 6-8 years
    • Authors: Gouws; C.
      Abstract: The potential influence of a movement programme on academic performance in children appears to be underestimated. Movement is essential to education and can be regarded as one of the doorways to a child's scholastic performance. We are increasingly interested in the importance of movement because there seems to be a positive interchange between the brain and the body. This study reports on the potential influence of a kinderkinetic intervention programme on the scholastic performance of children aged 6-8 years. Children were selected from schools in the northern Zululand area of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and divided into an experimental and a control group, each comprising 12 children, who were given a pre-test and a post-test based on the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test for Motor Proficiency (BOMTP) and the Quick Neurological Screening Test (QNST) to assess their motor proficiency and gross motor skills. A questionnaire familiar to the class room teacher (Connor Behaviour) was also used to observe the children's behaviour. The experimental group was subjected to an eight week kinderkinetic movement programme while the control group continued with their usual daily programme. The children in the experimental group showed a relative improvement in scholastic performance and motor proficiency. There was a significant correlation (r=.36, p≤ 0.05) between motor proficiency scores and scholastic performance of children in the experimental group. There was a meaningful relationship (r=0.55, p=≤ 0.05) between motor proficiency scores and the scores obtained on the Conner Classroom Behaviour Questionnaire. There was a significant relationship (r=0.49, p ≤ 0.05) for the control group and a negative correlation of (r 0.49 p ≤ 0.10) for the experimental group. The study demonstrated that there is a positive relationship between motor proficiency scores and the scores obtained on the Conner Classroom Behaviour Questionnaire.
      PubDate: 2016-01-07T09:47:09Z
       
 
 
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