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Publisher: Sabinet Online Ltd   (Total: 188 journals)

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Showing 1 - 188 of 188 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACCORD Occasional Paper     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.13, h-index: 4)
Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 2)
Acta Criminologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Germanica : German Studies in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Juridica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Patristica et Byzantina     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AFFRIKA J. of Politics, Economics and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Africa Conflict Monitor     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Africa Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Africa Institute Occasional Paper     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Africa J. of Nursing and Midwifery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 4)
AfricaGrowth Agenda     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 21)
African Finance J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 2)
African J. for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African J. of Business and Economic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African J. of Democracy and Governance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
African J. of Herpetology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.327, h-index: 10)
African J. of Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
African J. of Rhetoric     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African J. of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
African Plant Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Renaissance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African Safety Promotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
African Yearbook of Rhetoric     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Africanus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agriprobe     Open Access  
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annals of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Survey of South African Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Ars Nova     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Article 40     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BER : Architects and Quantity Surveyors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Capital Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Consumer Confidence Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Consumer Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Economic Prospects : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Economic Prospects : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Intermediate Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Trends : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Wholesale Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of Statistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Business Tax and Company Law Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cabo     Full-text available via subscription  
Cardiovascular J. of Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.414, h-index: 22)
Cardiovascular J. of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Clean Air J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Clean Air J. = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug     Full-text available via subscription  
Climate Summary of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Commonwealth Youth and Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communicare : J. for Communication Sciences in Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Comparative and Intl. Law J. of Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Conflict Trends     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Conspectus : The J. of the South African Theological Seminary     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Allergy & Clinical Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.127, h-index: 6)
De Arte     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
De Rebus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Die Kerkblad     Full-text available via subscription  
Educare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
English in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ergonomics SA : J. of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ESR Review : Economic and Social Rights in South Africa     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Evidence Based Summaries in Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
FarmBiz     Full-text available via subscription  
Farmer’s Weekly     Full-text available via subscription  
Farmlink Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Food Manufacturing Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
French Studies in Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Fundamina : A J. of Legal History     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gender and Behaviour     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Gender Questions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ghanaian J. of Economics     Full-text available via subscription  
HR Future     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
IFE Psychologia : An Intl. J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Image & Text : a J. for Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
IMFO : Official J. of the Institute of Municipal Finance Officers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
IMIESA     Full-text available via subscription  
Indilinga African J. of Indigenous Knowledge Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Inside Mining     Full-text available via subscription  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Interim : Interdisciplinary J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. for Religious Freedom     Full-text available via subscription  
J. for Christian Scholarship = Tydskrif vir Christelike Wetenskap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
J. for Contemporary History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
J. for Islamic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
J. for Juridical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
J. for Language Teaching = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
J. for New Generation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
J. of African Elections     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of African Foreign Affairs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
J. of African Union Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Contemporary Management     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Gender, Information and Development in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
J. of Minimum Intervention in Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Public Administration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
J. of Somali Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Strategic Studies : A J. of the Southern Bureau of Strategic Studies Trust     Full-text available via subscription  
Kleio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Learning and Teaching Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Litnet Akademies : 'n Joernaal vir die Geesteswetenskappe, Natuurwetenskappe, Regte en Godsdienswetenskappe     Open Access  
Management Dynamics : J. of the Southern African Institute for Management Scientists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Medical Technology SA     Full-text available via subscription  
Meditari : Research J. of the School of Accounting Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
MNASSA : Monthly Notes of the Astronomical Society of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Monographs of the Transvaal Museum     Full-text available via subscription  
Musicus     Full-text available via subscription  
Neotestamentica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.212, h-index: 6)
New Coin Poetry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
New Voices in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Obiter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.106, h-index: 2)
Occupational Health Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Old Testament Essays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Personal Finance Newsletter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Perspectives in Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.228, h-index: 13)
Politeia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Professional Accountant     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Professional Nursing Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Progressio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Psycho-analytic Psychotherapy in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Quest     Open Access  
ReSource     Full-text available via subscription  
Retail and Marketing Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Rostrum : Newsletter of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SA Irrigation = SA Besproeiing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SA Mercantile Law J. = SA Tydskrif vir Handelsreg     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SABI Magazine - Tydskrif     Full-text available via subscription  
Scriptura : Intl. J. of Bible, Religion and Theology in Southern Africa     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Scrutiny2     Full-text available via subscription  
Servamus Community-based Safety and Security Magazine     Full-text available via subscription  
Shakespeare in Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
South African Actuarial J.     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Computer J.     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Food Review     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Gastroenterology Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 1)
South African Health Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
South African J. for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 7)
South African J. of Art History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
South African J. of Business Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 8)
South African J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, h-index: 14)
South African J. of Criminal Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South African J. of Cultural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South African J. of Diabetes and Vascular Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South African J. of Economic History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
South African J. of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.335, h-index: 14)
South African J. of Higher Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
South African J. of Labour Relations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
South African J. of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
South African J. of Wildlife Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.583, h-index: 24)
South African J. on Human Rights     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
South African Music Studies : SAMUS     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
South African Ophthalmology J.     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Review     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Radiographer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Southern African Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Southern African Forestry J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Southern African Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 11)
Southern African J. of Accountability and Auditing Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Southern African Review of Education with Education with Production     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Stilet : Tydskrif van die Afrikaanse Letterkundevereniging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Studies in Economics and Econometrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Natuurwetenskap en Tegnologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tax Breaks Newsletter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
TAXtalk     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
TD : The J. for Transdisciplinary Research in Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Transport World Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Unisa Latin American Report     Full-text available via subscription  
Veld & Flora     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Water & Sanitation Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Without Prejudice     Full-text available via subscription  
Word and Action = Woord en Daad     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover African Entomology
  [SJR: 0.295]   [H-I: 21]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1021-3589 - ISSN (Online) 0013-8789
   Published by Sabinet Online Ltd Homepage  [188 journals]
  • Woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann), in South Africa :
           biology and management practices, with focus on the potential use of
           entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi : review article
    • Authors: N.F. Stokwe; A.P. Malan
      Abstract: Eriosoma lanigerum, woolly apple aphid (WAA), is an important pest of apples in the Western Cape province of South Africa and in other apple-growing areas of the world. The aphid forms densely packed colonies covered with white, waxy, filamentous secretions, on the above-ground parts and on the roots of apple trees. The management of WAA primarily entails the use of resistant root stocks, chemical and biological control, or the integration of all three strategies. Although Aphelinus mali is a specialised parasitoid of WAA, its level of control has been reported to be unsatisfactory as its parasitism is confined to the above-ground populations of WAA. Entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi that are important natural biological control agents of many insects and other arthropods are used to control a wide range of soilborne insects. The successful applications of these entomopathogens to control other soilborne insects raise the possibility of using them to target the subterranean populations of WAA. The review represents a combination of previous and current information on management practices for the control of WAA and the potential of integrating biocontrolagents such as entomopathogenic nematodes and entomopathogenic fungi in a pest management system.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Review of ecological and conservation perspectives on future options for
           arthropod management in Cape Floristic Region pome fruit orchards : review
           article
    • Authors: P.T. Thorpe; J.S. Pryke M.J. Samways
      Abstract: Intensification of agriculture can have spin-offs on surrounding areas and ecosystems. There is a necessity to pursue sustainable agricultural practices to meet the increasing demand for food production while aligning with international conservation targets. Arthropod pestcontrol techniques in Cape Floristic Region pome orchards, South Africa, that preserve biodiversity while simultaneously controlling pests, are reviewed here. Emphasis is placedon the chronic pests: Mediteranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) (Wiedemann), Natal fruit fly (Ceratitis rosa) (Karsch) and codling moth (Cydia pomonella) (L.), while other sporadic and perennial pests are also considered. Biological control (biocontrol) is an important, sustainable pest control measure. However, certain risks associated with releasing living organisms into the environment must not be ignored. Monitoring of release programmes is essential. The sterile insect technique (SIT) offers a species-specific approach for controlling pests. However, the technique is research and management intensive. Globally SIT has shown great success, but lack of financial support has limited SIT uptake in South African pomefruit orchards. SIT has shown increased effectiveness as an integrated technique, particularly with parasitoid release and pheromone-based mating disruption. Habitat management, the preservation of natural vegetation and use of beneficial plant species increases cropresilience, encourages conservation biological control and maintains crop health. Area-wide control is stressed as a favourable strategy which deals with entire pest populations rather than isolated farm-by-farm approaches. Other techniques covered include pheromone based mating disruption, attract-and-kill and physical barriers such as sticky tree-bands, which all show integration potential with biologically-based techniques, while minimising insecticide application. The usefulness of insecticides as a curative approach is recognised, and ways of preserving insecticide life-spans by limiting insect resistance are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Behaviour of intranidal and extranidal major workers of the African
           carpenter antCamponotus maculatus Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
           during dyadicnestmate reunion tests
    • Authors: P.J. Mazurkiewicz; A. Wagner-Ziemka, A. Mirecka E.J. Godzinska
      Abstract: Behavioural differences between intranidal and extranidal major workers from a laboratory colony of an African carpenter ant species Camponotus maculatus reared from a foundress captured in Cameroon were investigated by means of dyadic nest mate reunion tests. Prior to the test, the ants were subjected to social isolation (48 h) in test tubes containing water reservoirs and carbohydrate food. Each test (20 min) involved a confrontation between a dyad of nestmates (two intranidal workers or two extranidal ones) placed in a set of two connected test tubes in which they had been isolated. Intranidal major workers showed higher propensity for resting behaviour and lower propensity for behavioural responses to elements of physical environment than extranidal ones. Similar behavioural differences between intranidal and extranidal minor workers (nurses and foragers) from the same colony were reported earlier in a companion study by our group. However, in contrast to minor nurses and foragers, intranidal and extranidal major workers of C. maculatus did not differ with respect to propensity for locomotion, self-grooming and social behaviour. Our findings provide a new clear-cut example of behavioural differences between nestmates related to differences in both worker morphology and worker specialisation in intranidal versus extranidal tasks.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Diversity and ecology of spider assemblages associated with Vachellia
           xanthophloea bark in a South African reserve (Arachnida: Araneae)
    • Authors: C.R. Haddad
      Abstract: Spiders are a prominent group of predatory arthropods in most terrestrial ecosystems, and are especially diverse in the Savanna Biome of South Africa. Despite this, there is a considerable paucity of information on spider assemblages in particular microhabitats, including tree bark. The spiders associated with the bark of Vachellia xanthophloea (fever trees) were studied at five wetland sites in the Ndumo Game Reserve, South Africa. The influence of various seasonal, habitat and phenological effects on spider assemblages was investigated. In total, 8341 spiders were collected, of which only 2726 were adults (32.7 %), representing 25 families and 108 species. While total spider abundance and adult species richness did not differ significantly between sites, significant differences were found in adult abundance and in overall assemblages between sites. There were also no significant seasonal effects on spider assemblages and guild composition. Only eight of the species collected can be considered exclusive bark-dwelling spiders, while similar proportions are facultative bark-dwellers (43.5 %) or accidental bark-dwellers (49.1 %). This study demonstrates that targeted sampling of specialised microhabitats can yield a significant proportion of the spider diversity in a particular locality, and can contribute to understanding patterns of biodiversity in conserved areas.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Bioassay of three solanaceous weeds as alternative hosts for the invasive
           tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and insights on
           their carryover potential
    • Authors: K. Abbes; A. Harbi, M. Elimem, A. Hafsi B. Chermiti
      Abstract: Reservoir host plants can play a critical role in the maintenance and spread of invasive agricultural insect pests, particularly when the pest species attacks a wide range of host plants, is ecologically plastic and demonstrates high reproductive fitness. The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), fits well within this category of alien pests. Indeed, this moth has become, in a very short period, the main phytosanitary factor limiting tomato production in the world. In addition, it is becoming a potential pest of potato crops. Among reported host weeds of this insect, Solanum nigrum L., Datura stramonium L. and Datura ferox L. are widely distributed in both T. absoluta's original geographical range and in newly infested areas. In this paper, we assess the suitability of these three plants as alternate hosts for T. absoluta. Development time of juvenile instars, adult longevity and female fecundity of the pest reared on these weeds were compared with those observed on tomato and potato plants under laboratory conditions. The study revealed that T. absoluta did not oviposit and develop on either D. stramonium or D. ferox. Conversely, tomato leafminers reared on S. nigrum (black nightshade) exhibited a reproductive fitness comparable with that seen on potato. All the investigated parameters confirmed that tomato is the most suitable host plant for the pest. These findings highlight the potential of the black nightshade to act as a reservoir host for T. absoluta and the carryover of its populations in periods when neither tomato nor potato crops are available.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Screening of entomopathogenic fungi against citrus mealybug, Plannococcus
           citri(Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)
    • Authors: V.C. Chartier FitzGerald; M.P. Hill, S.D. Moore, J.F. Dames S.D. Moore
      Abstract: Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug) is a common and damaging citrus crop pest which has proven difficult to control using conventional methods, such as chemical pesticides and insect growth regulators, particularly late in the citrus growing season. The virulence of two entomopathogenic fungal species was studied in laboratory bioassays against the crawlers and adults of P. citri. Isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, collected from citrus orchards in the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa, were verified using and molecular techniques. Mealybug bioassays were performed in 24-well plates. Beauveria bassiana (GAR 17 B3) and M. anisopliae (FCM AR 23 B3) isolates both resulted in 67.5 % mortality of mealybug crawlers and B. bassiana (GB AR 23 13 3) resulted in 64 % crawler mortality with concentrations of 1 x 107 conidia/ml. These three isolates were further tested in multipledose bioassays to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50), which were 5.29 x 105conidia/ml for the M. anisopliae isolate (FCM AR 23 B3), 4.25 x 106 conidia/ml for B. bassiana (GAR 17 B3), and 6.65 x 107 conidia/ml B. bassiana (GB AR 23 13 3) for crawlers, respectively. The results of this study suggested that two isolates (M. anisopliae FCM AR 23 B3 and B. bassiana GAR 17 B3) showed potential for further development as biological control agents against citrus mealybug. Further research would be required to determine their ability to perform under field conditions.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • The attractiveness of toxic bait is not always accompanied by increased
           mortality in laboratory colonies of Argentine ants, Linepithema
           humile(Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
    • Authors: N.P. Mothapo; T.C. Wossler
      Abstract: The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, is a globally known invasive ant species responsible for widespread biodiversity and economic loss, thus there is a growing need to control and preferably locally eradicate these ants from invaded environments and households. We evaluated the attractiveness and toxicity of six commercial baits containing hydramethylnon, imidacloprid and pyriproxyfen targeting Argentine ants, and differing in bait formulation. Hydramethylnon granular baits were most effective, killing workers (85-100% worker mortality) and queens (63-75 %) in the laboratory within 24 h. Workers were most attracted to and consumed the most of the imidacloprid gel bait, but, contrary to previous studies, mortality on this bait was low. The pyriproxyfen bait was least effective in killing workers, as was expected, and was the least consumed of all baits.We advocate the use of a fine granular hydramethylnon formulation for the effective control of Argentine ants. The attractiveness and consumption of the gel formulation was encouraging, therefore increased concentrations of the toxicant imidacloprid in gel formulation should be tested for improved bait efficacy. Combinations of toxicants that act on multiple levels, such as the larvicide pyriproxyfen and the respiratory toxicant hydramethylnon, should be tested in order to maximise colony eradication from brood to queens.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Diversity of bacteria isolated from the flies Musca domestica (Muscidae)
           andChrysomya megacephala (Calliphoridae) with emphasis on vectored
           pathogens
    • Authors: D. Brits; M. Brooks M.H. Villet
      Abstract: We evaluated the bacteria occurring externally on Musca domestica and Chrysomya megacephala, the two most common synanthropic flies which may be found at many refusesites throughout the world. Bacteria cultured from 10 specimens of each species were isolated, Gram-stained and examined microscopically, and divided into morphologically distinct 'pseudospecies', to avoid excessive duplication of genetic identification. About 350 bp of the 16S ribosomalRNAgene was amplified from genomic DNA extracted from each 'pseudospecies', sequenced, and bacteria identified using BLASTn. Nineteen different types of colony were identified from M. domestica, with Pseudomonas sp. and Swine Manure Bacterium SP14 being most abundant. Chrysomya megacephala yielded 15 distinct pseudospecies with total colony counts approximating to 10 000 from 10 plates, where 80% of colonies were non-pathogenic Bacillus pumilus. A total of 18 species were identified genetically: three shared by the fly species; four unique to C. megacephala,, and 13 unique to M. domestica. Half of these 18 species were pathogenic, two or three others were food spoilers and the rest were environmental or commensal bacteria from soil or plant matter. This study added three new pathogenic strains of bacteria and one new environmental strain to the list of bacteria reported to be vectored by these flies.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Evaluation of Indian sesame germplasm for resistance against shoot webber
           and capsule borer, Antigastra catalaunalis Duponchel (Lepidoptera:
           Pyraustidae)
    • Authors: K. Balaji; V. Selvanarayanan
      Abstract: Sesame, Sesamum indicum L. is one of the important oilseed crops grown in India and other parts of the world. One-hundred and forty sesame accessions were field evaluated for resistance against shoot webber and capsule borer, Antigastra catalaunalis Duponchel (Lepidoptera: Pyraustidae) at the Experimental Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India. The experiment was carried out in two consecutive seasons, namely February-April 2003 (Rabi season, first field trial) and July-September 2003 (Kharif season, second field trial). The leaf, flower and capsule damage by A. catalaunalis were recorded and the accessions were rated for resistance in comparison with a susceptible control, based on the score chart. The reaction of the accessions against the pest infection varied with seasons. Among the 140 accessions screened, only one accession, NIC 7875, showed high resistance consistently to leaf, flower and capsule damage which is a potential target for generating A. catalaunalis-resistant sesame cultivars.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Pest status of whitegrub species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) attacking
           commercially grown Acacia mearnsii seedlings and its management
           implications in KwaZulu-Natal plantations, South Africa
    • Authors: D. Echeverri-Molina; P. Govender
      Abstract: The abundance and distribution of whitegrub species that attacked black wattle seedlings during their establishment were assessed to determine their pest status and their contribution to the whitegrub species community structure patterns. Ten trials were planted on previous wattle sites. Monthly collections of whitegrubs that attacked seedlings were conducted during the first year of seedling growth. Very stressed or dying wattle seedlings and their surrounding roots were dug out and the soil was assessed to collect any whitegrub pests that caused seedling mortality. A multivariate analysis was used to rank the average abundance of the various whitegrub species that attacked wattle. The individual contribution of whitegrub species to the average similarity within a community and the dissimilarity between communities were tested with similarity percentages comparisons. The best two-dimensional (2-D) model obtained for each species pattern of distribution and relative abundance had a good ordination (stress value: 0.07). From a complex of 13 whitegrub pests found, six whitegrub species (Pegylis sommeri, Schizonycha affinis, Adoretus ictericus, Schizonycha fimbriata, an undescribed Maladera sp. 2 and an unknown species M8), with an average cumulative abundance of 96.4 %, were confirmed to have a high pest status. They accounted for the community structure pattern in the black wattle growing areas of KwaZulu-Natal. The remaining seven species, Heteronychus licas, undescribed Maladera sp. 1, and M5, M10, M11, M12 and M13 (all unknown species), contributed only 3.6 % to the average cumulative abundance and were considered to be minor pests within the whitegrub community structure.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Additions to the checklist of the louse flies (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) of
           Kenya
    • Authors: J. Obona; T. Zeegers, W. Wamiti N. Njoroge
      Abstract: The first comprehensive Kenyan hippoboscid checklist is presented. All reliable and available data of louse flies (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) from Kenya are summarised. First records of two species of louse flies from Kenya are given: Icosta (Icosta) mecorrhina Maa, 1964 and Ornithomya marginalis Maa, 1964. A louse fly collected from Narina's Trogon Apaloderma narina (Stephens, 1815) is published for the first time. This list increases the Kenyan species-richness of the hippoboscid fauna to 22 species.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Impact of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner var. kurstaki application on
           population densities of Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae),
           and its dominant parasitoid, Cotesia vestalis Haliday (Hymenoptera:
           Braconidae) and the implications on cabbage yield
    • Authors: M.A. Stemele
      Abstract: Cotesia vestalis Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a solitary koinobiont endoparasitoid that causes high larval mortality of Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) on Brassica crops in South Africa. Many farmers use prophylactic and curative microbial insecticides such as Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) var. kurstaki (Btk) to minimise damage caused by P. xylostella on their crop. Bacillus thuringiensis formulations are widely adopted based on them not having a direct effect on parasitoids, which then assumes that they complement each other in pest management. We investigated parasitism of P. xylostella by C. vestalis in cabbage fields treated with Btk and assessed the implications on cabbage yield. Populations of P. xylostella and C. vestalis were monitored for 12 weeks in each of the four growing seasons in Btk-treated and control plots at Alice, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Plutella xylostella densities and levels of parasitism were lower in the Btk-treated plots. Consistent with low infestation, damage in Btk-treated cabbage was significantly lower than in the control.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Influence of canopy density and height on Tortricidae moths affecting
           macadamia in South Africa
    • Authors: P.S. Schoeman
      Abstract: Despite various environmentally-sensitive control techniques for the tortricid complex, many macadamia growers still prefer to use contact insecticides. For maximum efficacy, these chemicals have to be applied against eggs and neonate larval instars. Timing and spray target selection are therefore two very important factors to consider when a contact insecticide is used against this pest complex. Current results indicate higher incidence of the total number of tortricid eggs in the basal section of the tree but no statistically significant differences in the abundances of larval stages as well as number of infested nuts at the various heights were evident. More eggs were recorded in the denser inner parts of the trees than in the parts of the trees facing towards the working rows. While this phenomenon could possibly be related to the shielding of pesticides by dense lower side branches, a similar trend was also visible in sparsely-foliaged orchards where negligible shielding could have occurred. Findings from the density survey indicated that this pest complex has a propensity for denser orchards and it is postulated that tree density rather than tree height is the overriding factor affecting tortricid dispersal in South African macadamia orchards. It was speculated that higher oviposition rates in denser parts of macadamia orchards could be related to predator/parasitoid avoidance.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Delayed toxic effects of spinosad on G1 progeny of an invasive
           species,Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)
    • Authors: S. Benchaabane; N. Aribi, S. Kilani-Morakchi M. Chaabane
      Abstract: Tuta absoluta Meyrick is an invasive insect pest native to South America. Because of its exceptional rapid spread and resistance to conventional insecticides, an effective control is needed. Spinosad, a natural pesticide, seems to be an alternative but few studies were done to understand the induction of the resistance process. Moreover, the delayed effects of spinosad are still unknown and must be highlighted. In this study, spinosad was tested by topical application on the last instar larvae of T. absoluta and its biological impact evaluated in two successive generations (G0 and G1) using traditionnal biomarkers of toxicity and reprotoxicity. Initially, toxicity tests were used to determine the inhibition doses (ID) of pupal moult (ID50 243.50 ng). Biochemical assays reveal a detoxification process, an oxidative stress and an inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in G0 and G1. In addition, our data show a decrease in vitellogenins and vitellins content in the two generations, which may affect negatively the fertility and fecundity of the adults. For all considered parameters, we prove that spinosad acts with delayed effects on G1.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Characteristics of larval breeding sites and insecticide resistance in the
           Anopheles gambiae complex in Mpumalanga, South Africa
    • Authors: C. Davies; M. Coetzee C.L. Lyons
      Abstract: The larval breeding sites of anopheline mosquitoes in eastern Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, were investigated. Using abiotic parameter data collected in the field, environmental conditions that correlate with larval community composition and productivity are reported. Twelve anopheline species were identified, with the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) ranking as the second most abundant. There was a significant difference in the mean abundance of each species of anopheline from each of the geographically separate breeding sites (Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, P
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • A new species of Orphinus Motschulsky, 1858 (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) from
           Tanzania
    • Authors: M. Kadej; J. Hava
      Abstract: Orphinus (s. str.) tanzanicus sp. n. from Tanzania is described, illustrated and compared with related species; a differential diagnosis is provided.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Male annihilation technique using methyl eugenol for field suppression
           ofBactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on mango in Kenya
    • Authors: S. Ndlela; S. Mohamed, S. Ekesi, S. Ndlela, P.N. Ndegwa G.O. Ongamo
      Abstract: The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is one of the most devastating tephritid fruit flies of horticulture worldwide. Field trials were carried out for two seasons on mango (Mangifera indica L.) to evaluate the use of male annihilation technique (MAT) using methyl eugenol laced with deltamethrin instead of the commonly used malathion for the suppression of the pest on mango in coastal Kenya. Prior to application of the MAT, mean total numbers of B. dorsalis flies per trap per day (FTD) in pre-suppression monitoring data were comparable in orchards assigned to MAT treatment (FTD = 3.5) and those assigned to the control (FTD=3.5) in season 1 and 12.4 and 10.5 FTD, respectively, in season 2. Following the application ofMAT systems, total FTD were significantly lower inMAT-treated orchards (0.1 and 2.7 FTD, for seasons 1 and 2, respectively) compared to that in the control (18.6 and 21.5 FTD, for seasons 1 and 2, respectively) at 49 days after deployment of the control measures. This represented a reduction in the B. dorsalis population of 99.5% in both seasons, resulting in a significant reduction of fruit infestation in the MAT-treated orchards compared to the control. The percentage of infested fruit was 25 and 18 times lower in MAT-treated orchards compared to the control for the first and second season, respectively. The number of puparia/kg of mango fruit was 17 and 24 fold lower in MAT-treated orchards compared to the control for the two consecutive seasons. These findings demonstrate the suppression of B. dorsalis using the MAT, and subsequent reduction in fruit damage by the pest. It is therefore recommended that MAT be adopted within a holistic Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approach in the mango agro-system, preferably covering large areas.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Evaluation of local entomopathogenic nematodes for the control of false
           codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick, 1913), in a citrus
           orchard in South Africa
    • Authors: A.P. Malan; S.D. Moore
      Abstract: False codling moth (FCM), Thaumatotibia leucotreta, is one of the most important insect pests of citrus in South Africa. No treatment is currently directed towards the soil stages of FCM,with entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) having the potential to fill the niche. Laboratory bioassays in orchard soil, using Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, showed the LD50 to be 3 and the LD90 to be 58 infective juveniles (IJs) per FCM larva. In a field trial, after application of three concentrations (20, 40 and 80 IJs/cm2) of H. bacteriophora, mortalities of >90% were obtained for FCM larvae, with significant difference between the lower concentrations, but not with higher concentrations. Twenty-one days after application, there was no further FCM control.With the field application of H. zealandica after 6 days, no significant differences were found in FCM mortality of >80 % between three nematode concentrations (5, 10 and 20 IJs/cm2). After 21 and 35 days no significantly different FCM mortality was found for all three treatments compared to the untreated trees. In a field trial using three nematode species, treatment with H. zealandica resulted in significant control for each evaluation day, up to day 49. Results from field trials showed local EPN species to have great potential for control of the soil stages of FCM, with the added possibility of good persistence.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • The status of Ischnura senegalensis (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) in Cape
           Verde
    • Authors: Loureiro N. De Santos; S. Martins
      Abstract: The first record of a zygopteran breeding population in the Cape Verde archipelago is presented. A small population of Ischnura senegalensis (Rambur, 1842) was found living in the lagoon 'Lagoinha', Santiago island, where the species was observed in all seven surveys conducted between May 2014 and June 2015. Reproductive behaviour was repeatedly observed and exuviae were found and collected.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Methoxyfenozide, an ecdysteroid agonist insecticide, alters oocyte growth
           during metamorphosis of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller
    • Authors: D. Bakli; L. Kirane-Amrani, N. Soltani-Mazouni N. Soltani
      Abstract: Methoxyfenozide is a lepidopteran-specific insecticide belonging to non-steroidal ecdysteroid agonists. Its effects were evaluated under laboratory conditions on themorphometry and histology of ovaries in the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Treatment at LD50 (0.01 µg/pupa) and LD90 (0.37 µg/pupa) was made by topical applications on newly ecdysed female pupae. The compound was found to increase the size of the ovaries and to reduce the thickness of the follicular epithelium compared to controls. Moreover, the histological study of ovaries showed alterations including vacuolation, the absence of nurse cells, and shrinkage, leaving a space around the oocyte tissue.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Predatory mites of the family Parasitidae Oudemans (Acari: Mesostigmata)
           from Egypt: redescriptions, new record and a key to species
    • Authors: M.W. Negm
      Abstract: The present work aims to study the taxonomy of parasitid mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) from Egypt. The identification of newly collected specimens as well as the examination of some previously described species is presented. Cornigamasus ocliferius Skorupski & Witalinski, 1997, extracted from cow dung, is recorded for the first time from this country. Adults and deutonymphs of Parasitus consanguineus Oudemans & Voigts, 1904 and P. fimetorum (Berlese, 1904), worldwide cosmopolitan species, were found in animal dung and soil. Three genera with seven species are known from Egypt to date. Redescriptions of adults and deutonymphs are provided for the known species. Also, a taxonomic key to the Egyptian parasitids is presented.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Fitness of Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae) following
           bacterial infection under influence of two different diet regimes and host
           heterogeneity
    • Authors: S.H. Elkayal; W.S. Meshrif, M.A. Soliman A.I. Seif
      Abstract: Following bacterial infection spreads in a population, individuals show fitness variation or plasticity based on their genotypes, the environmental stress and the interaction of both factors. Drosophila melanogaster-bacterial pathogen system was used to unravel how fitness divergent isofemale (homogeneous) lines and experimental population (heterogeneous) react to infection under standard and restricted diets. Life-history traits and fecundity ofD. melanogaster were assessed under healthy and disease conditions. Marked differences were observed between half of the Drosophila lines and the heterogeneous population. Diet change failed to induce significant differences of survival percentage and development time in all lines, indicating lack of phenotypic plasticity under healthy conditions. However, following bacterial infection, the significant differences among the Drosophila life-historytraits due to lines and bacterial strains demonstrated phenotypic plasticity and genotypeby- environment interaction on standard diet. By combining the two environmental factors (diet regime and treatment) together with the lines, D. melanogaster showed significant difference of the survival percentage due to Pectobacterium carotovorum infection. Interestingly, Drosophila fecundity was affected by genotype, diet and treatment. The fecundity showed a general reduction following infection or diet restriction exposure. The results of reaction norms of Drosophila survival percentage, development time and fecundity demonstrated that the isofemale lines were more plastic than the heterogeneous population under the range of environments tested. The obtained results give evidence that the fitness plasticity is considered an important mechanism to help the homogeneous populations to survive the harsh environmental circumstances, whereas the phenotypic variation of the heterogeneous populations is considered the major one.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Effects of farnesol on the ultrastructure of brain and corpora allata, sex
           hormones and on some oxidative stress parameters in Locusta migratoria
           (Orthoptera: Acridiidae)
    • Authors: H.H. Awad; N.A. Ghazawy
      Abstract: Farnesol, at 0.06 x 104 ppm concentration was tested against the fifth nymphal instar of Locusta migratoria induced antifeedant activity by 33.6% and 45% to males and females, respectively. Ultrastructural studies, using transmission electron microscopy, revealed marked pathological changes in the neurosecretory cells in brain and corpora allata (CA) cells of treated nymphs. The brain neurosecretion was held inside the neurosecretory cells whose axons did not liberate normally, leading to the accumulation of neurosecretory granules inside. These cells appeared ruptured and irregular. Corpora allata cells had hypertrophied nuclei, numerous lysosomes, malformed mitochondria, Golgi bodies and some other intracellular organelles in the gland cells. Multivesicular bodies were scattered and intercellular spaces appeared within the cell matrix. The haemolymph testosterone and progesterone levels were significantly decreased in the fifth nymphal instar treated with farnesol. Moreover, haemolymph and brain superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were significantly decreased in brains of treated males and females. On the other hand, haemolymph malondialdehyde (MAD) only declined. By contrast, the brain MDA level was significantly increased in farnesol-treated fifth nymphal instars of both sexes. The ultrastructural and biochemical changes reflect the sensitivity of L. migratoria to farnesol as aneurotoxin bioinsecticide. It appears that the changes in the biochemical macromolecules reflect the ultrastructural alterations obtained. Thus, farnesol can be used as a promising biocide against the migratory locusts as it could be mixed in bait traps in the integrated pest management programme (IPM).
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Detection of Thaumatotibia (Cryptophlebia) leucotreta granulovirus DNA in
           water samples in an insect rearing facility
    • Authors: M. Tobin; S. Khan, M. Saayman N. Boersma
      Abstract: A novel technique for the detection of baculovirus from insect cadavers, water and environmental samples in a Thaumatotibia (Cryptophlebia) leucotreta (false codling moth) mass rearing facility has been developed. Diseased insect larvae, water samples and sampling swabs from various sites in the facility were subjected to virus concentration using mixed-ester filters and/or directly subjected to DNA extraction using the QIAamp Ultrasens Virus kit (Qiagen). The use of non-charged mixed ester filters under vacuum allows for the rapid processing of large volumes of water. Extracted DNA was utilised directly in PCR to amplify the baculovirus core gene polh/granulin. Sequence analysis confirmed the presence of Cryptophlebia leucotreta granulovirus. Employing this technique, Cryptophlebia leucotreta granulovirus (CrleGV) was detected in 15.4% of the water samples; 75% of the environmental swabs and 42.9% of the larvae despite measures to control baculovirus contamination in the facility. No baculovirus contamination was detected in food samples. This rapid and reproducible technique will facilitate rapid diagnosis of baculovirus infection in mass-rearing facilities and other water samples.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Cytochrome c oxidase I and cytochrome b gene sequences indicate low
           genetic diversity in South African Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
           from maize : short communications
    • Authors: B. Peterson; C.C. Bezuidenhout J. Van den Berg
      Abstract: The African maize stem borer, Busseola fusca, feeds on a limited number of host plant species (Calatayud et al. 2014), which include crops such as maize, pearl millet and sorghum. This pest occurs throughout sub-Saharan Africa where it causes economic damage to maize and sorghum crops (Kfir et al. 2002). In an attempt to combat lepidopteran stem borers, genetically modified Bt maize that express insecticidal Cry toxins were developed to kill larvae that feed on these plants (George et al. 2011). Bt maize was introduced into South Africa during 1998 and within the first decade after release, field-evolved resistance of B. fusca to Bt maize was reported (Van Rensburg 2007). Since this first report, resistant populations have been reported from several parts of the maize-production region of South Africa (Kruger et al. 2011; Van den Berg et al. 2013). Explanations provided for this rapid resistance development were confined to agronomical reasons (VanRensburg 2007; Kruger et al. 2009, 2011),non-compliance to refuge requirements (Kruger etal. 2009) and non-recessive inheritance of resistance (Campagne et al. 2013). Notmuchis however understood about the molecular genetics of B.fusca. Previously, Sezonlin et al. (2006b) noted that limited population genetic and phylogeography data are available for B. fusca.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z
       
 
 
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