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Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2272-4001
Published by Revues.org [399 journals]
- Lawrence, Education and Corporal Punishment
Authors: Juliette Feyel
Abstract: We are presently witnessing an ongoing controversy over the banning of physical punishment in the family in order to extend its current ban in European schools. D.H. Lawrence offers a developmental theory, based on the rejection of a premature soliciting of mental aptitudes. As a result, he is brought to denounce the brutality of institutional corporal punishments that were allowed in his time, while at the same time praising their infliction by parents on their children.
- Daughters in Love: Reflections on a Woman’s Education in The Rainbow
Authors: Brigitte Macadré-Nguyên
Abstract: The destructive relationships between mothers and children, or even more so between mothers and sons, have been addressed time and again. However I have always found the relationships between Tom and Anna Brangwen, then between Will and Ursula Brangwen, to be more interesting. I shall therefore explore the father-and-daughter formative/destructive relationships in The Rainbow and then focus on the character of Ursula as the perpetual wanderer/wonderer in the world of man, in the different stages of her ritual journey and coming of age, by the end of the novel. Finally it will consider Ursula’s experience as an example of the eternal double bind which has been tearing apart generations of women, caught between the will to fulfill themselves as human beings and the desire to conform and submit to the masculine models of femininity. To start with, let me quote from Freud, whose postulate about civilized humanity is in terms of “the unending struggle between Eros and the destructive driv...
- Knowledge and salvation in Schopenhauer and D.H. Lawrence
Authors: Jacqueline Gouirand
Abstract: “I am not the man of my time […] if this century does not understand me, many others will follow. Tempo è gallant nomo!” wrote Schopenhauer. He belonged to the tradition of those who were both philosophers and writers (Rousseau, Nietzsche). In fact it was the writers, more than philosophers, who were impressed by him and by the beauty of his language, since he managed to achieve his philosophical work as an artist. Thomas Mann read Schopenhauer “as one reads only once in a lifetime." Borges learnt German in order to be able to read him in the original text. From the middle of the 19th century and subsequently, writers were concerned with the status of the subject, in other terms, with the whole of man and not only with his reason, with the result that those writers who explored all aspects of man’s situation and his relation to the world by means of experiences different in their nature ─ metaphysical, poetical or mystical ─ were particularly impressed by Schopenhauer’s first versio...
- Lawrence and His History Books: From Reader to Writer.
Authors: Jonathan Long
Abstract: "No scruples of style or scholarship stood in his way" was how a New Statesman and Nation reviewer described Lawrence’s approach in Sketches of Etruscan Places (1932). This paper will examine Lawrence’s involvement with the study of history, starting with his own formal education, and then exploring what he read during his writing career. It will look at how he came to write Movements in European History (1921), the project to publish the book in its various forms and how the book related to his philosophy at that time. It will consider Sketches of Etruscan Places (1932), generally considered to be just a travel book, but described by Lawrence as "only half travel book." What is the other half? It will compare Sketches of Etruscan Places with Movements in European History in various ways, in particular whether there is an historical element in the former, when there was so little factual source material available to Lawrence. A.L Rowse in his widely read 1948 study, The Use of Histor...
- Did Lawrence Like or Hate the Germans?: Wartime Discourse on War and Peace
in Movements in European History
Authors: Gaku IWAI
Abstract: Movements in European History is a history textbook for adolescents written by D. H. Lawrence during, and just after, the First World War. Despite the fact that the book was written during a period of political upheaval in Europe, Lawrence’s simple prose appears to be free from wartime fervour. He selected historical events and episodes from sources such as The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon, but they were reorganized in the textbook through the Lawrencian dichotomy. The main thesis of Lawrence’s text is that history has been constructed through the eternal conflict between two opposites, an idea that he had developed elsewhere, for instance in his essay “The Crown” or his short story “The Prussian Officer.” In Movements, he presented the ancient Romans and the Germanic race as opposites in terms of both physical and mental characteristics: “The great Teutonic race seemed the indomitable opposite of the Romans. These short, energetic, dark-eyed men [the Romans...
- Books between the Covers – The Rainbow, Women in Love and Lady
Authors: Elise Brault-Dreux
Abstract: In “The Bad Side of Books” (1924) D.H. Lawrence declares: “What do I care for first or last editions? I have never read one of my published works. To me, no book has a date, no book has a binding” (IR 75). This annoyance is also revealed in the analysis of the characters’ relation to books in his three novels, The Rainbow, Women in Love and Lady Chatterley’s Lover. The purpose of this essay is to draw attention to the representation of published books in these texts which are in the process of becoming published books. Throughout, the word “book” will refer to the secularized book in an age of democratized reading and increasing literacy "which was the resultant of many forces, most of which – political, religious, economic, technological” (Altick 3). Forster’s Education Act in 1870, the introduction of English literature in elementary schools in 1876 and many other such educational advances tremendously boosted the literacy level in the country at the turn of the century. The histo...
- Children of Adam and Eve: Parental Education in D. H. Lawrence's Novels.
Authors: Shirley Bricout
Abstract: Introduction In his essay devoted to Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Scarlet Letter, Lawrence comments on relating sex to sin, asking bluntly: “Do you imagine Adam had never had intercourse with Eve before that apple episode? Many a time. As a wild animal with his mate. It didn't become ‘sin’ till the Knowledge-poison entered. That apple of Sodom” (SCAL 82). And he further argues that when Adam went and took Eve, after the apple, he didn't do any more than he had done many a time before, in act. But in consciousness he did something very different. So did Eve. Each of them kept an eye on what they were doing, they watched what was happening to them. They wanted to KNOW. And that was the birth of sin. (SCAL 82, emphasis in the original) The dogma of original sin can therefore be understood as a metaphor to express how overpowering mental consciousness brought about an unbalance of the primeval being, a split in primal wholeness, severing the mind from the body. In this light, mental consciousnes...
- Goethe and Lawrence: Bildung and Wholeness.
Authors: Michael Bell
Abstract: Those concentration camp officers who are said to have appreciated Mozart and Beethoven are often invoked as a knock-down argument against claims for the humanising function of high culture: claims which, in their modern form, stem from the European Enlightenment as, for example, in Friedrich Schiller. But what should be at stake here is not so much knowledge of high culture as the manner in which it is possessed. The contrasting conceptions of culture associated with Goethe and Lawrence, which I have elsewhere compared at some length, have a bearing on this question. But whereas on the previous occasion I emphasised the mutual opposition of these writers in their conceptions of culture, I now wish to stress their less obvious commonality by following the stages of their historical connection. Goethe was an extraordinary self-creation: with his range of artistic and scientific achievement, all arising from a coherent personal centre, he was perhaps the last plausible example in the ...
- Self and Sequence: Lawrence’s “The Schoolmaster”
Authors: Keith Cushman
Abstract: Lawrence’s early poetry sequence, “The Schoolmaster,” is situated at a crucial juncture of his life. He completed the sequence near the end of his three years as an assistant teacher at the Davidson Road School in Croydon. The serious case of pneumonia he succumbed to at the end of 1911 was instrumental in his departure from school teaching. John Worthen has observed that the pneumonia “succeeded in changing everything,” leading to a “rite of passage away from school” (although Lawrence “did not actually submit his resignation from Davidson Road until 28 February ” (Worthen 324-25). The seven poems of “The Schoolmaster,” a souvenir of his time at the Davidson Road School, were not published as a sequence. Instead they appeared in four consecutive numbers of the Saturday Westminster Gazette between 11 May and 1 June 1912. By the time the first two poems in the sequence had been published, Lawrence had already left for Europe to embark on a new life with Frieda von Richthofen We...
- Encountering Foreignness: a Transformation of Self
Authors: Fiona Fleming
Abstract: The introduction to The Englishman Abroad – an anthology of travel letters – makes the following statement: “The truth is that, far from loving foreign travel, the English have a curious love-hate towards it. The born traveller – the man who is without prejudices, who sets out wanting to learn rather than to criticize, who is stimulated by oddity, who recognizes that every man is his brother, however strange and ludicrous he may be in dress and appearance – has always been comparatively rare." Most readers of Lawrence will agree that he was a rare specimen of writer and traveller, who fitted all the aspects of the previous definition while diverging from them at the same time. He was a creative artist first and foremost, and, unlike an explorer or scientist, his travel writing did not focus on recording observations about the land or people he encountered, so much as his experience of travel and his characters’ responses to foreignness. In this aspect, he followed the approach of mod...